Spiritual Moments at the Shinbinthalyaung reclining Buddha (Bagan, Myanmar 2013) by Alex Stoen   


Spiritual Moments at the Shinbinthalyaung reclining Buddha (Bagan, Myanmar 2013) by Alex Stoen


Burma is a land full of mystical places, legends and myths that have been shaping the culture for hundreds of years. In the dusty plain of Bagan, home to thousands of pagodas built over the last thousand years, I came across this scene of two novice monks meditating at reclining Buddha of Shinbinthalyaung. It was a truly captivating moment, full of peace and tranquillity, free of worries or burden. I was really amazed how long that feeling stuck with me, even after I returned to my daily office routine. I can hardly wait to return to the enchanted land of Myanmar, hopefully in the next few years. Have you had a similar experience somewhere special?


Alex Stoen: Photos


          CIRELLI Joseph 1916-2010 Youngstown, Ohio   
YOUNGSTOWN – Joseph Cirelli, 94, of the city’s north side, passed away early Sunday morning, Oct. 10, 2010, at his daughter’s home in Liberty Township, Ohio surrounded by his loving family.

Joseph was born Jan. 5, 1916, in Youngstown, Ohio (Mahoning County) a son of the late Frank and Angeline Jeswald Cirelli, and was a lifelong area resident.

He attended The Rayen School, Youngstown, Ohio and served in the U.S. Army during World War II, where he was stationed in China and in Burma.
Joe worked for Youngstown Foundry/Wean United for 45 years, retiring in 1980.

Mr. Cirelli was a member of St. Casimir Church in Youngstown. He was also a member of the St. Casimir St. Casey Senior Citizens and Men’s Club, and was a member of the Moulder’s Union Local No. 196, where he was financial secretary for 20 years.

Joe was an avid bowler and golfer, and most importantly, cherished the time he spent with his family.
He leaves his beloved wife, Ann Kerchak Cirelli, whom he married Feb. 23, 1946; his son, Frank (Roberta) Cirelli of Crofton, Md.; his daughter, Karen (Richard) Kolenich of Liberty Township. Ohio; four grandchildren, Lori and Jason Kolenich, Cynthia Natoli, and Vicki Cirelli; five great-grandchildren, Brooklyn Ciminero, Alexis and Aidan Kolenich, Nicholas and Anthony Natoli; a brother, Albert (Dorothy) Cirelli of Columbus, Ohio; and three sisters, Catherine Nastasi of Niles, Constance Franks of Austintown, and Martha (Alfred) Lethoa of Youngstown.

Mr. Cirelli was preceded in death by two brothers, Patsy and John Cirelli, and two sisters, Mary Cozadd and Philomena Cirelli.

Family and friends may call from 4 to 7 p.m. on Wednesday, Oct., 13, 2010 at Kinnick Funeral Home, 477 N. Meridian Road, Youngstown.

Funeral services will begin on Thursday at 10:30 a.m. at the funeral home, and continue at 11 a.m. at St. Casimir Church.

Interment with military honors will follow at Belmont Park Cemetery.

Mr. Cirelli’s family would like to thank Celtic Hospice for the care given and kindness shown to Joe during the latter stages of his illness.

Please visit kinnickfuneralhome.com to view this obituary and to send condolences online to Joe’s family.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
YOUNGSTOWN, Ohio - Ann Cirelli, 95, formerly of the city’s north side, passed away early Thursday morning, July 24, 2014, at her daughter’s home in Liberty Township, surrounded by her loving family.
Ann was born Jan. 5, 1919, in Musselshell, Montana, a daughter of the late Frank and Anna Malenich Kerchak, and came to the Mahoning Valley, this area in 1929 with her family as a child.

Ann was a homemaker who dedicated her adult life to raising and caring for her family.
Mrs. Cirelli was a member of the former St. Casimir Church in Youngstown, and was a member of St. Columba Cathedral. At St. Casimir, the choir, the St. Casey Senior Citizens, and was a current member of the St. Casimir Society.
She was also a member of the Polish Legion of American Veterans, Ladies’ Auxiliary Post No. 87, and of the organization’s ladies bowling league, which bowled at Kay Lanes on Friday nights. Her beloved husband, Joseph Cirelli, whom she married Feb. 23, 1946, passed away Oct. 10, 2010.

Ann leaves her son, Frank (Roberta) Cirelli of Odenton, Md.; her daughter, Karen (Richard) Kolenich of Liberty Township; four grandchildren, Lori and Jason Kolenich, Cynthia Natoli, and Vicki Cirelli; and six great-grandchildren, Brooklyn Ciminero, Alexis and Aidan Kolenich, Peighton Wittway, and Nicholas and Anthony Natoli.
Ann will be truly missed by all who knew and loved her.
Besides her husband, Mrs. Cirelli was preceded in death by three brothers, George, John, and Michael Kerchak; two sisters, Mary Poljak and Ann Kerchak; and a great-granddaughter, Lea Bella Wittway.

Family and friends may call from 4 to 7 p.m. on Sunday, July, 27, at Kinnick Funeral Home, 477 N. Meridian Road, Youngstown, OH.

Funeral services will begin on Monday at 9:15 a.m. at the funeral home, and continue at 10 a.m. at St. Columba Cathedral in downtown Youngstown. Interment will follow at Belmont Park Cemetery, where Ann will be laid to rest next to her husband.
Mrs. Cirelli’s family thanks the staff of Senior Independence Hospice for the care given and kindness shown to Ann during her illness.
Visit kinnickfuneralhome.com to view this obituary and to send condolences online to Ann’s family. -

See more at: http://www.vindy.com/news/tributes/#sthash.x2v7LXKM.dpuf


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          The Future of English in the World of Communication   
English – History

Britain’s colonial expansion established the pre-conditions for the global use of English, taking the language from its island birthplace to settlements around the world. The English language has grown up in contact with many others, making it a hybrid language which can rapidly evolve to meet new cultural and communicative needs.

English in the 20th century

The story of English has been closely linked to the rise of the US as a superpower that has spread the English language alongside its economic, technological and cultural influence. In the same period, the international importance of other European languages, especially French, has declined.

Who speaks English?

There are three kinds of English speaker:

- Those who speak it as a first language

- Those for whom it is a second or additional language

- Those who learn it as a foreign language.


English is remarkable for its diversity, its propensity to change and be changed. This has resulted in both a variety of forms of English, but also a diversity of cultural contexts within which English is used in daily life.

The main areas of development in the use and form of English will undoubtedly come from non-native speakers.

Major International domains of English

  1. Working language of international organizations and conferences
  2. Scientific publications
  3. International banking, economic affairs and trade
  4. Advertising for global brands
  5. Audio-visual cultural products (e.g. film, TV, popular music)
  6. International tourism
  7. Tertiary education
  8. International safety (e.g. ‘airspeak’, ‘seaspeak’)
  9. International law
  10. As a ‘ready language’ in interpretation and translation
  11. Technology transfer
  12. International communication.

English is the most widespread language on the earth, and it is second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has five official languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese.

In the era of communication, English is gaining a strong position.

English -The most widespread language on the earth - How?


- When an Indonesian businessman meets a customer from Finland, they converse in English.

- Airline pilots flying international routes communicate with their controllers in English.

- 76% of the content of the Internet is in English. (The runners-up are, in order: Japanese, French, German, and Chinese.)

- Out of 193 countries of the world, 43 are English speaking [http://www.aneki.com/english.html]

- English is the second most spoken language in the world

- There are 57 million blogs on the Internet. English and Japanese remain the two most popular languages in the blogosphere. [http://technorati.com/weblog/2006/11/161.html]

- Most people use English language to communicate using SMS.

ENGLISH – COMPUTER LANGUAGES

English and computers have seemed, for decades to go together. Computers and the programs which make them useful were largely the invention of English speaking countries. The hardware and software reflect the needs of English language.

English will continue to be spread via software products and digitized intellectual property.

ENGLISH – THE WORLD

  • English and the International Economy


The shifting patterns of trade and new working practices are affecting the use of English language in complex ways. At present there is a considerable increase in the numbers of people learning and using English.

  • English and global culture

As the number of people using English grows, so second-language speakers are drawn towards the ‘inner circle’ of first-language speakers to the ‘outer circle’ of second-language speakers.

  • English as a leading-edge phenomenon

English is closely associated with the leading edge of global scientific, technological, economic and cultural developments, where it has been unrivalled in its influence in the late 20th century.

In four key sectors, the present dominance of English can be expected to give way to a wider mix of languages:

- The global audio-visual market, especially satellite TV

- The Internet and computer-based communication including language-related and document handling software

- Technology transfer and associated processes in economic globalization

- Foreign-language learning, especially in developing countries where growing regional trade may make other languages of increasing economic importance.

  • A bilingual future

There is a growing belief among language professionals that the further will be a bilingual one, in which an increasing proportion of the world’s population will be fluent speakers of more than one language.

  • Social value shifts

The spread of English has been made more rapid in recent years as a consequence of decisions and actions taken by governments, institutions and individuals.

The economic argument for English also may be challenged as developing countries make more careful evaluations of the costs and benefits of mass educational programmes in the English language.

Language shift

In many parts of the world there are ongoing shifts in the status of English.

In the countries listed below, the use of English for International communication is largely increasing:

- Argentina

- Belgium

- Costa Rica

- Denmark

- Ethiopia

- Honduras

- Lebanon

- Burma

- Nepal

- The Netherlands

- Nicaragua

- Norway

- Panama

- Somalia

- Sudan

- Surinam

- Sweden

- Switzerland

- United Arab Emirates.


DISCLAIMER: I have taken some information and print screens from an eBook at http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-elt-future.pdf.

          Comment on How To Build An Online Store With Shopify In 2017 by newportucc.org   
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          Pihak-Pihak Yang Terlibat Perang Dunia II   
Blok Poros (AXIS)

  1. Nazi Jerman : Adolf Hitler
  2. Italia : Benito Mussolini
  3. Jepang : Hideki Tojo


Militer tewas: 8.000.000
Sipil tewas: 4.000.000
Total tewas: 12.000.000

Negara-negara Poros (AXIS) adalah negara-negara yang menentang pihak Sekutu selama Perang Dunia II.
Ada 3 negara utama dalam kekuatan poros yaitu; Nazi Jerman, Italia dan Kekaisaran Jepang. Pada puncak kejayaan mereka, Kekuatan Poros menguasai dominasi daerah yang sangat luas di Eropa, Asia, Afrika dan Oseania/Pasifik. Tetapi Perang Dunia II berakhir dengan kekalahan mereka. Seperti pihak Sekutu, keanggotaan Negara-negara Poros tidak tetap, dan beberapa negara bergabung dan kemudian meninggalkan Negara-negara Poros selama perang berlangsung.

Anggota Negara-negara Poros minoritas:

  1. Bulgaria, Hongaria, Yugoslavia, Finlandia, Thailand, Rumania
  2. Negara Boneka Jepang:
    Manchukuo, Mengjiang (bagian wilayah di Mongolia], Nanking (bagian wilayah di Tiongkok), Burma, Filipina, dan India
  3. Negara boneka Italia:
    Albania dan Ethiopia
  4. Negara boneka Jerman
    Serbia
  5. Negara lainnya yang berkoalisi
    Spanyol dan Denmark
  6. Bekas anggota
    Uni Soviet, Berdiri sendiri/memihak Sekutu pada 1941.


Negara Sekutu:

  1. Britania Raya : Winston Churchill
  2. Uni Soviet : Joseph Stalin
  3. Amerika Serikat : Franklin Roosevelt
  4. Republik China : Chiang Kai-Shek

Militer tewas: 17.000.000
Sipil tewas: 33.000.000
Total tewas: 50.000.000

Blok Sekutu pada Perang Dunia II adalah negara-negara yang berperang bersama melawan Blok Poros (Jerman, Italia, dan Jepang) dari 1939 sampai 1945.

Anggota Sekutu

  1. Setelah penyerangan Jerman ke Polandia (1939)
    Polandia, Britania Raya (termasuk Kerajaan India & Negara Koloni), Perancis, Australia, Selandia Baru, Nepal, Afrika Selatan, Kanada
  2. Setelah berakhirnya perang Poni (1940)
    Norwegia, Belgia, Luksemburg, Belanda, Yunani, Kerajaan Yugoslavia, Uni Soviet, Tannu Tuva
  3. Setelah pengeboman Pearl Harbor (1941)
    Panama, Kosta Rika, Republik Dominika, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras,
    Nikaragua, Amerika Serikat, China, Guatemala, Kuba, Cekoslowakia
  4. Setelah pembentukan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (1942)
    Meksiko, Brasil, Ethiopia, Irak, Bolivia, Iran, Italia, Kolombia, Liberia
  5. Setelah D-Day (1944)
    Romania, Bulgaria, San Marino, Albania, Hungaria, Bahawalpur, Ekuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Turki, Arab Saudi, Argentina, Chile
  6. Setelah pengeboman Hiroshima (1945)
    Mongolia

          Historian and public intellectual Tony Judt, 1948 - 2010   
Considered by many to be a giant in the intellectual world, Tony Judt died last month following a two-year fight with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Judt was in "the great tradition of the spectateur engagé, the politically engaged but independent and critical intellectual" (Timothy Garton Ash - ) "A historian of the very first order,a public intellectual of an old-fashioned kind and — in more ways than one — a very brave man" (Michael Elliott - TIME Magazine). We quote Tony Judt from two recent interviews:

Tony Judt on courage among today’s politicians:

Courage is always missing in politicians. It is like saying basketball players aren’t normally short. It isn’t a useful attribute. To be morally courageous is to say something different, which reduces your chances of winning an election. Courage is in a funny way more common in an old-fashioned sort of enlightened dictatorship than it is in a democracy. However, there is another factor. My generation has been catastrophic. I was born in 1948 so I am more or less the same age as George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Gerhard Schröder, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown – a pretty crappy generation, when you come to think of it, and many names could be added. It is a generation that grew up in the 1960s in Western Europe or in America, in a world of no hard choices, neither economic nor political. There were no wars they had to fight. They did not have to fight in the Vietnam War. They grew up believing that no matter what choice they made, there would be no disastrous consequences. The result is that whatever the differences of appearance, style and personality, these are people for whom making an unpopular choice is very hard.

Someone once said: ‘But Blair’s choice to go to war in Iraq was unpopular with the majority of the population.’ I agree. But what Blair was doing was going for a different kind of popularity – he wanted to show his strength. To do this he had to do something unpopular, yet something that cost him nothing. Doing something unpopular that may cost you your job is much harder. The last generation in America with such courage was probably the generation of Lyndon Johnson. In a funny kind of way Thatcher, whom I certainly do not like, had courage. However, she fits the description of naive and idealistic; I don’t like her ideals, her naivety was a disaster, but it’s still a fair description. Today it is a criticism to describe a politician as idealistic. This is in a way a new phenomenon and it too is born from the fact that Europe has not been involved in wars that would demand the mobilisation of the whole population for over 60 years now. The last time there was such a sustained period of peace was probably the early Middle Ages. Traditionally leaders rose to power through wars or conquest. We have had six, seven generations of leaders who came to power exclusively by political manoeuvring, which is historically very unusual. It’s like inbreeding: there are no external inputs, no new kinds of people, only the political class breeding itself. This isn’t an argument in favour of war, just a historical fact.

Tony Judt on what Europe can do to exert pressure on Israel:

Israel wants two things more than anything else in the world. The first is American aid. This it has. As long as it continues to get American aid without conditions it can do stupid things for a very long time, damaging Palestinians and damaging Israel without running any risk. However, the second thing Israel wants is an economic relationship with Europe as a way to escape from the Middle East. The joke is that Jews spent a hundred years desperately trying to have a state in the Middle East. Now they spend all their time trying to get out of the Middle East. They don’t want to be there economically, culturally or politically – they don’t feel part of it and don’t want to be part of it. They want to be part of Europe and therefore it is here that the EU has enormous leverage. If the EU said: ‘So long as you break international laws, you can’t have the privileges of partial economic membership, you can’t have internal trading rights, you can’t be part of the EU market,’ this would be a huge issue in Israel, second only to losing American military aid. We don’t even have to talk about Gaza, just the Occupied Territories. Why do Europeans not do it? Here, the problem of blackmail is significant. And it is not even active blackmail but self-blackmail. When I talk about these things in Holland or in Germany, people say to me: ‘We couldn’t do that. Don’t forget, we are in Europe. Think of what we did to the Jews. We can’t use economic leverage against Israel. We can’t be a critic of Israel, we can’t use our strength as a huge economic actor to pressure the Jewish state. Why? Because of Auschwitz.’ I understand this argument very well. Many of my family were killed in Auschwitz. However, this is ridiculous. Europe can’t live indefinitely on the credit of someone else’s crimes to justify a state that creates and commits its own crimes. If Zionism is to succeed as a representation of the original ideas of the Zionist founders, Israel has to become a normal state. That was the idea. Israel should not be special because it is Jewish. Jews are to have a state just like everyone else has a state. It should have no more rights than Slovenia and no fewer. Therefore, it also has to behave like a state. It has to declare its frontiers, recognise international law, sign international treaties and agreements. Furthermore, other countries have to behave towards it the way they would towards any other state that broke those laws. Otherwise it is treated as special and Zionism as a project has failed. People will say: ‘Why are we picking on Israel? What about Libya? Yemen? Burma? China? All of which are much worse.’ Fine. But we are missing two things: first, Israel describes itself as a democracy and so it should be compared with democracies not with dictatorships; second, if Burma came to the EU and said, ‘It would be a huge advantage for us if we could have privileged trading rights with you,’ Europe would say: ‘First you have to release political prisoners, hold elections, open up your borders.’ We have to say the same things to Israel. Otherwise we are acknowledging that a Jewish state is an unusual thing – a weird, different thing that is not to be treated like every other state. It is the European bad conscience that is part of the problem. - two excerpts from The Way Things Are and How They Might Be, an interview with Kristina Božic from March 2010 published in the London Review of Books.

Tony Judt on Democracy Democracy has always been a problem. The truly attractive features of the Western tradition that we accidentally—and it really is accidentally—get the benefit of are the rule of law, liberalism and tolerance, all of which are virtues inherited from predemocratic societies, whether they were based in eighteenth-century Anglo-American aristocratic individualism or nineteenth-century European forms of a type of developed postfeudal legal state. Democracy comes last. Democracy is simply a system of selection of people to rule over you. And it's not accidental that everyone is now a democrat. The Chinese are for democracy. George Bush was for democracy. The Burmese believe in it; they just call it something slightly different. South African whites believed in democracy; they just thought it should be arranged differently for blacks. Democracy is a dangerously empty term, and to the extent that it has substance, and the substance consists of allowing people to select freely how they live, the chance that they will choose to live badly is very high. The question is, What do we do now, in a world where, in the absence of liberal aristocracies, in the absence of social democratic elites whose authority people accept, you have people who genuinely believe, in the majority, that their interest consists of maximizing self-interest at someone else's expense? The answer is, Either you re-educate them in some form of public conversation or we will move toward what the ancient Greeks understood very well, which is that the closest system to democracy is popular authoritarianism. And that's the risk we run. Not a risk of a sort of ultra-individualism in a disaggregated society but of a kind of de facto authoritarianism. - from Talking With Tony Judt, an interview with Christine Smallwood from May 2010 published in The Nation.
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The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ is an card Games for Android. Download latest version of The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0 Apk + Mod Full for android from APKEra.com

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ is a new strategy card game based on the world and lore of the award-winning Elder Scrolls series. Play for hours or minutes across many game modes that are easy to learn but challenging to master.

PLAY ON YOUR OWN
Story mode provides hours of solo gameplay in which you’ll earn new Legends cards, decks, and packs. Or draft a deck from scratch and battle a series of computer opponents.

PLAY AGAINST OTHERS
Test your decks against friends, challenge online opponents in ranked play, or draft a deck from scratch and battle other players who have done the same.

PICK YOUR BATTLES
Legends gameplay features a divided battlefield with “lanes” that deepen your strategy options.

LEVEL UP!
You can upgrade certain cards in Legends by winning games with decks that contain them. Level up your cards to improve your decks, give you more flexibility, and tailor them to your play style.

Pre-Registration Reward
Valid for 1 copy of 1 Pre-Registration Reward from eligible titles on Google Play. Open to participants who Pre-Register for Elder Scrolls: Legends from Bethesda on the Google Play store. Offer ends when the Pre-Registration campaign period ends. Redeem by launch. Limit 1 reward per user. Valid in participating countries only. Offer not available in Italy, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Age restrictions apply. See Content Promotion Terms, and Google Play Terms for more information. Promoter: Bethesda, 1370 Piccard Drive, Suite 120, Rockville, MD 20850

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0

The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™ v1.65.0


-: Game Info :-
Name : The Elder Scrolls®: Legends™
Category : card
Size : 1 GB
Version : 1.65.0
File Format : Apk+Obb
On/Off : Online/Offline
Requires Android : 4.0 & Up

How to Install?
- Download Apk and Data.
- Install Apk Dont Run.
- Extract Data to /Android/obb/here.
- Now open Apk and Enjoy the Game.

Download Links

          RUBE GAFFE OBUNGLER!   


On his trip to Cambodia, a country he claimed didn't deserve a visit due to its strongman government, first lady Bun Rany greeted Obama with a traditional "sampeah" pressed-hands greeting reserved for servants, a little dig that was probably lost on him but not to Asians.


In his tour of Burma, billed as an historic first visit since Burma's 2007 move to democracy, it was clear he was in way over his head, even on small things. Obama repeatedly referred to the country's Nobel Peace Prize-winning leader Aung San Suu Kyi as Aung Yan Suu Kyi, an astonishing error given her global fame.

Read More At IBD: http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials/112012-634213-obama-southeast-asian-trip-more-style-than-substance.htm#ixzz2DBP03RQt
          JAVID JABS   

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The sophisticated underground rocket launcher system in Gaza has been exposed by the terrorist organization in a video it released Saturday.






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In Burma, he called the country by what the generals used to call it, he badly mauled and miss-pronounced the name of leader of their democracy movement. Add to that, he kissed this single woman, which in their culture is an insult.....He gave credit to himself for the democracy movement there (the credit should go to the Bush administration and Laura Bush in particular ) and some are praising him, and fawning over this trip ! Oh , please...






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See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.
Like a Diamond in the Sky
Image Credit & Copyright: Alex Cherney (Terrastro, TWAN)
Explanation: A dark Sun hung over Queensland, Australia on Wednesday morning during a much anticipated total solar eclipse. Storm clouds threatened to spoil the view along the northern coast, but minutes before totality the clouds parted. Streaming past the Moon's edge, the last direct rays of sunlight produced a gorgeous diamond ring effect in this scene from Ellis Beach between Cairns and Port Douglas. Winking out in a moment, the diamond didn't last forever though. The area was plunged into darkness for nearly 2 minutes as the Moon's shadow swept off shore toward Australia's Great Barrier Reef and out into the southern Pacific. Ranging from 1/4000 to 1/15 seconds long, five separate exposures were blended in the image to create a presentation similar to the breathtaking visual experience of the eclipse.
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Amateurish Hamas Propaganda Uses Easily Disproven Photo of 'IDF Soldier' w Boot On Palestinian Child
Reaganite Republican ^ | 18 November 2012 | Reaganite Republican

How dumb do they think you are?

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A picture you will never see…


Found on the IDF Twitter feed, the video below depicts life in southern Israel under fire of the rockets that have rained down from Gaza: “Over the past 12 years, the residents of southern Israel have suffered over 12,000 rockets fired at them from the Gaza Strip. This is what their life has looked like over the years.” I think it’s safe to say you won’t be seeing this brief video compilation on the BCC or CNN either.
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Iran must be President Obama’s immediate priority

By Henry A. Kissinger, Published: November 16

Henry A. Kissinger was secretary of state from 1973 to 1977.
In the aftermath of an exhausting reelection campaign, the most urgent decision facing the president is how to stop Iran from pursuing a military nuclear program. Presidents of both parties have long declared that “no option is off the table” in securing this goal. In the third presidential debate, the candidates agreed that this was a matter of the American national interest, even as they described the objective alternately as preventing an Iranian “nuclear weapon” or “breakout capacity” (President Obama), or a “nuclear-capable Iran” (Mitt Romney). As Iran continues to elaborate its enrichment capacity and move it underground, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has announced a spring deadline for counteraction. In this fraught environment, what operational meaning should be given to America’s declared objectives?

The United States and Iran are apparently conducting bilateral negotiations through official or semiofficial emissaries — a departure from the previous procedure of multilateral talks. Negotiations over Iran’s nuclear program do not have an encouraging record. For more than a decade, Iran has stalled, first with the “EU-3” (France, Germany and Britain) and then with the “P5+1” (the members of the U.N. Security Council plus Germany). It has alternated hints of flexibility with periods of intransigence, all while expanding, concealing and dispersing its nuclear facilities. If no limit is placed on this process, Iran’s tech­no­logical progress will dominate events. But at what stage, and in what manner, should Iran be deprived of a military nuclear capability? This has been the essence of the argument over “red lines.”

Three stages are involved in the evolution of a military nuclear capability: a delivery system, a capacity to enrich uranium and the production of nuclear warheads. Iran has been augmenting the range and number of its missile systems since at least 2006. Its enrichment capacity — long underreported to the International Atomic Energy Agency — has been expanded to thousands of centrifuges (the instruments that enrich uranium to bomb-grade material). The level exceeds any reasonable definition of peaceful uses authorized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The inevitable culmination is a nuclear weapon.

To draw the line at proscribing an Iranian nuclear weapon — as some argue — would prove unmanageable. Once the requisite amount of fissile material has been produced, constructing and equipping a warhead is a relatively short and technologically straightforward process, almost certainly impossible to detect in a timely fashion.

If so ineffectual a red line were to emerge from a decade of diplomacy by the permanent members of the Security Council, the result would be an essentially uncontrollable military nuclear proliferation throughout a region roiled by revolution and sectarian blood-feuds. Iran would thereby achieve the status of North Korea, with a military nuclear program at the very edge of going operational. Each nation that has a nuclear option would compete to minimize the time to its own full military nuclear capability. 

Meanwhile, countries within the reach of Iran’s military but lacking a nuclear option would be driven to reorient their political alignment toward Tehran. The reformist tendencies in the Arab Spring — already under severe pressure — would be submerged by this process. The president’s vision of progress toward a global reduction of nuclear weapons would suffer a blow, perhaps a fatal one.
Some have argued that even in the worst-case scenario, a nuclear Iran could be deterred. Yet this ignores the immensely costly, complex and tension-ridden realities of Cold War-era deterrence, the apocalyptic strain in the Iranian theocracy and the near-certainty that several regional powers will go nuclear if Iran does. Once nuclear balances are forged in conditions where tensions are no longer purely bilateral, as in the Cold War, and in still-developing countries whose technology to prevent accidents is rudimentary, the likelihood of some nuclear exchange will mount dramatically.

This is why the United States has insisted on limits on Iranian enrichment — that is, curtailing access to a weapon’s precursor elements. Abandoning the original demand to ban all enrichment, the P5+1 has explored what levels of production of fissile material are compatible with the peaceful uses authorized by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The higher the level of enrichment, the shorter the time needed to bring about militarily applicable results. Conventional wisdom holds that the highest practically enforceable limit is 5 percent enrichment, and then only if all fissile material beyond an agreed amount is safeguarded outside Iran.

The time available for a diplomatic outcome shrinks in direct proportion as the Iranian enrichment capacity grows and a military nuclear capacity approaches. The diplomatic process must therefore be brought to a point of decision. The P5+1 or the United States unilaterally must put forward a precise program to curtail Iranian enrichment with specific time limits.

This does not imply a red line authorizing any country to go to war. However respectfully the views of friends are considered, the ultimate decision over peace or war must remain in the hands of the president. Why negotiate with a country of such demonstrated hostility and evasiveness? Precisely because the situation is so fraught. Diplomacy may reach an acceptable agreed outcome. Or its failure will mobilize the American people and the world. It will clarify either the causes of an escalating crisis, up to the level of military pressure, or ultimate acquiescence in an Iranian nuclear program. Either outcome will require a willingness to see it through to its ultimate implications. We cannot afford another strategic disaster.

To the extent that Iran shows willingness to conduct itself as a nation-state, rather than a revolutionary religious cause, and accepts enforceable verification, elements of Iranian security concerns should be taken seriously, including gradual easing of sanctions as strict limits on enrichment are implemented and enforced. But time will be urgent. Tehran must be made to understand that the alternative to an agreement is not simply a further period of negotiation and that using negotiations to gain time will have grave consequences. A creative diplomacy, allied to a determined strategy, may still be able to prevent a crisis provided the United States plays a decisive role in defining permissible outcomes.

2012 Tribune Media Services

More on this topic: A video interview with Henry Kissinger Henry A. Kissinger: Meshing realism and idealism in the Middle East David Ignatius: An interview with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Charles Krauthammer: Collapse of the Cairo Doctrine




American media yawns, and some of our own friends fawn over him about his insulting kiss.....







Insult: A photograph in June 2011 shows Broadwell watching as Petraeus and his wife Holly arrive for a Senate Select Intelligence Committee hearing on Petraeus' nomination to be director of the CIA




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60 Second Refutation of Socialism, While Sitting at the Beach

Last week, there were several comments in Carnival of the Capitalists that people would like to see more articles highlighting the benefits of capitalism. This got me thinking about a conversation I had years ago at the beach:
Hanging out at the beach one day with a distant family member, we got into a discussion about capitalism and socialism. In particular, we were arguing about whether brute labor, as socialism teaches, is the source of all wealth (which, socialism further argues, is in turn stolen by the capitalist masters). The young woman, as were most people her age, was taught mainly by the socialists who dominate college academia nowadays. I was trying to find a way to connect with her, to get her to question her assumptions, but was struggling because she really had not been taught many of the fundamental building blocks of either philosophy or economics, but rather a mish-mash of politically correct points of view that seem to substitute nowadays for both.
One of the reasons I took up writing a blog is that I have never been as snappy or witty in real-time discussions as I would like to be, and I generally think of the perfect comeback or argument minutes or hours too late. I have always done better with writing, where I have time to think. However, on this day, I had inspiration from a half-remembered story I had heard before. I am sure I stole the following argument from someone, but to this day I still can't remember from whom.
I picked up a handful of sand, and said "this is almost pure silicon, virtually identical to what powers a computer. Take as much labor as you want, and build me a computer with it -- the only limitation is you can only have true manual laborers - no engineers or managers or other capitalist lackeys".
Yeah, I know what you're thinking - beach sand is not pure silicon - it is actually silicon dioxide, SiO2, but if she didn't take any economics she certainly didn't take any chemistry or geology.
She replied that my request was BS, that it took a lot of money to build an electronics plant, and her group of laborers didn't have any and bankers would never lend them any.
All too many defenders of capitalism would have stopped here, and said aha! So you admit you need more than labor - you need capital too. But Marx would not have disagreed - he would have said it was the separation of labor and capital that was bad - only when laborers owned the capital, rather than being slaves to the ruling class that now controls the capital, would the world reach nirvana. So I offered her just that:
I told her - assume for our discussion that I have tons of money, and I will give you and your laborers as much as you need. The only restriction I put on it is that you may only buy raw materials - steel, land, silicon - in their crudest forms. It is up to you to assemble these raw materials, with your laborers, to build the factory and make me my computer.
She thought for a few seconds, and responded "but I can't - I don't know how. I need someone to tell me how to do it"
And that is the heart of socialism's failure. For the true source of wealth is not brute labor, or even what you might call brute capital, but the mind. The mind creates new technologies, new products, new business models, new productivity enhancements, in short, everything that creates wealth. Labor or capital without a mind behind it is useless.


Since 1700, the GDP per capita in places like the US has risen, in real terms, over 40 fold. This is a real increase in total wealth - it is not money stolen or looted or exploited. Wealthy nations like the US didn't "take" the wealth from somewhere else - it never even existed before. It was created by the minds of human beings.
How? What changed? Historians who really study this stuff would probably point to a jillion things, but in my mind two are important:
  1. There was a philosophical and intellectual change where questioning established beliefs and social patterns went from being heresy and unthinkable to being acceptable, and even in vogue. In other words, men, at first just the elite but soon everyone, were urged to use their mind rather than just relying on established beliefs
  2. There were social and political changes that greatly increased the number of people capable of entrepreneurship. Before this time, the vast vast majority of people were locked into social positions that allowed them no flexibility to act on a good idea, even if they had one. By starting to create a large and free middle class, first in the Netherlands and England and then in the US, more people had the ability to use their mind to create new wealth. Whereas before, perhaps 1% or less of any population really had the freedom to truly act on their ideas, after 1700 many more people began to have this freedom.
So today's wealth, and everything that goes with it (from shorter work hours to longer life spans) is the result of more people using their minds more freely.
Look around the world - for any country, ask yourself if the average person in that country has the open intellectual climate that encourages people to think for themselves, and the open political and economic climate that allows people to act on the insights their minds provide and to keep the fruits of their effort. Where you can answer yes to both, you will find wealth and growth. Where you answer no to both, you will find poverty and misery.
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It says it in the Bible:
It all makes sense now. Gay marriage and marijuana being legalized on the same day!

Leviticus 20:13 - "if a man lays with another man, he should be stoned."

We've just been interpreting it wrong all these years!!!

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Ugly uniform of the Steelers ! WASPS?
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Ross Mirkarimi Dresses Like General Eisenhower



rsz_sheriffs_in_uniform_by_luke_thomas.jpg
Luke Thomas
A sharp-dressed man...
Sheriff Ross Mirkarimi and District Attorney George Gascón aren't exactly seeing eye to eye these days. But if a common bond could be forged, perhaps the first step to take would be uniting the warring city officials over their shared sartorial senses.

As police chief, Gascón was far more likely than not to wander into police headquarters dressed like a lawyer. Gascón is a lawyer, and Mirkarimi is not -- but, in the limited amount of time the sheriff has been permitted to do the job he was elected to do, he's often outfitted like one.

So, it was a bit jarring to see Mirkarimi clothed in full sheriff's dress regalia during the weekend's Veteran's Day March. Decked out in a forest green uniform complete with gold-starred epaulets and gold bands on an Eisenhower jacket, the progressive sheriff looks like he ought to be leaping off a Jeep and warning us about the perils of the Military-Industrial Complex.

Yet while this uniform might be a head-turner, it's actually something of a California template.

Sheriff's department spokeswoman Susan Fahey said the "Class A uniform" -- worn to inaugurations, funerals, and other high-level events -- is essentially "standardized" throughout the state.

Even the longest-serving sheriffs couldn't remember wearing anything much different, other than a sea change in 1999 or 2000 when the department pulled the trigger and made the shift from British green to forest green. Those were heady times.

Calls to the California State Sheriffs' Association querying why sheriffs' duds look like a cross between military officers and park rangers have not yet been answered.

A quick glance at the association's board of directors, however, reveals that Fahey is right -- there is a fairly standard template of sheriff's dress uniforms.

More when we know more about this most pressing situation.
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Puke !!!

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Another Puke ! ! !
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          Bears of Denmark and Dachshunds of Siam   


A good picture postcard is multidimensional.
Its image gives shape to a faraway place,
 drawing lines of light and shade,
height and distance.
Colors convey warmth,
gray tones cool.
 

The strange activities of lively native folk
add sensations of smell, touch, even sound.
It's a window looking onto a foreign scene,
inviting us to share a moment with a traveler. 

This postcard has those qualities.
A military band stands in a circle
playing their instruments.
 

We marvel at their impressive bearskin hats.
We admire the impressive stately buildings in the background.
We feel the contrast of sun and shade on the cobblestone plaza.
 
We can almost hear them.



The postcard caption reads:

København
Gardens Musikkorps
(paa Amalienborgplads)





But to be a really good postcard,
worthy of preservation
in a shoe box of memories,
there must be
a clear postmark date
and
a personal message on the back.


This postcard was sent
from Copenhagen to the United States
on 3 July 1907 to E. Kaiteryn Fell(?)
care of Richard Willits(?) – Esq.
of Westbury Station, New York.
The author leaves no name.






July 3rd
This is a beautiful
city, with its fine
buildings and harbor.
The picture repre-
sents the present
homes of the King and
S
ons
. He is in his
country home now
entertaining the King
of Siam.  Reg(?) has been tra-
velling with us for some
time. It is so cold and
rainy here, one can not
realize you will be cele-
brating the 4th to-morrow.



And to be a great postcard,
there has to be an element of curiosity.
In this writer's cursive style
it's hidden in the letter S.





The Guardian
7 January 1907

The capital S posed a challenge to decipher two words. The first was King and Sons.  What did that mean? After checking the history of the plaza where the band performs it made sense. The bearskin bandsmen are on the octagonal courtyard of  Amalienborg, the residences of the Danish Royal Family, which consists of 4 palaces facing the plaza center where stands an equestrian statue of Amalienborg's founder, King Frederick V (1723-1766). In 1907 the Danish King was Frederick VIII (1843-1912) who had taken the Danish throne only the year before in 1906. At various times he lived in one palace, his father in another, and his sons in another.

The second S word was more confusing. Entertaining the King of Siam? In Denmark? Was that right?  In fact during the summer of 1907, the King of Siam embarked on an informal tour of Europe. Reportedly His Majesty King Chulalongkorn of Siam was traveling in strict incognito. He would begin his holiday in Sam Remo, Italy, progressing then to Paris, then London, Berlin, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. His entourage was considered a small group, with just the King, three Royal Princes, and nine state officials. It was said that King Chulalongkorn was an enthusiastic motorist. Perhaps they would use a bus.



* * *


Ruling Monarchs of the World
circa 1908
Source: Wikipedia

In 1907 most nations of the world were monarchies. Looking a bit like a royal athletic team, this postcard shows the portraits of 19 monarchs from 1908 with emperors, kings, and one queen. The King of Siam is at top left and the King of Denmark, is second row from the bottom, second from right. King Edward VII of Great Britain occupies the prime center position, with his nephews Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany on either side. 


King Chulalongkorn (1853 – 1910),  or more properly Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) was the monarch of Siam, now known as Thailand. Also called King Rama V, he became King of Siam in 1868 under a regency at the young age of 15. He  assumed full powers in 1873. During his long reign of 42 years, King Chulalongkorn produced many great reforms in Siamese society. He reorganized his country's internal boundaries and local governments, established land surveys, modernized the army, and abolished slavery and forced labor. 

In 1907 he decided leave Bangkok to make a lengthy but ostensibly social tour of Europe. It was his second visit to Europe after an earlier one taken in 1897. Newspapers in America caught some of the excitement and thought they might lure him to visit the United States if they published his picture with a story of the trip.


Pittsburgh Press
7 April 1907

The King's tour had a not-so-subtle political purpose as he wanted improve his country's relations with Britain and France, and also gain support from other European leaders. Bordered by French Indochina, British Burma and Malaysia, and the Dutch East Indies, Siam had lost much of its original land to these powers and yet still remained an independent nation under King Chulalongkorn. The illustration comes from a large article on the King and his tour that was published in 1907 by the Pittsburgh Press. The king is described as both progressive and liberal, attributes that were likely to gain favor with American interests.

At the time the US had just stepped onto the global stage a few years before, when in 1898 it acquired Spain's possessions after the Spanish American War. American imperialism began with the ready-made Spanish colonies in the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico with Cuba, which became a U.S. protectorate. In 1904 the US began construction of the Panama Canal which would not be finished until 1914. King Chulalongkorn made his way to Europe via the Suez Canal.


Pittsburgh Press
7 April 1907

After he arrived in Britain in June 1907
the Manchester Guardian newspaper
published a more regal photograph
of King Chulalongkorn of Siam .
The Guardian
21 June 1907

Again the very best  postcards
have good dates
that add a special context
to the message.

On July 3rd, 1907, the Kingdom of Denmark
took the measure of the King of Siam.

The Most Astounding Discovery
that the king of Siam
is exactly the same height
as the emperor of Russia

was considered newsworthy
in Little Rock, Arkansas.



Little Rock, AK Democrat
3 July 1907

The Roskilde Domkirke is on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. It is a Lutheran church and since the 15th century it has been the traditional burial site of Danish monarchs.   


Roskilde Domkirke, Denmark
Source: Wikipedia

One section of the Roskilde Catherdral is named the Chapel of the Magi. It has two floors and the upper floor is supported by a granite column called the Kings Pillar, where for centuries the height of Danish and visiting foreign monarchs has been recorded. The tallest sovereign was supposedly King Christian I of Denmark (1426-1481), but it seems likely he was wearing lifts in his slippers then. Russia's Peter the Great stood against the pillar and measured a lofty 207cm or 81½ inches (6'_7½").  Nearly the shortest in stature, King Chulalongkorn stood 164cm or 64½ inches (5'_4"), only a centimeter taller than Denmark's Christian VII.


King's Pillar, Chapel of the Magi
Roskilde Domkirke, Denmark
Source: The Internets

Despite the Pittsburgh Press's enthusiasm for King Chulalongkorn's liberal views, he and Tsar Nicholas II shared more than just meeting eye to eye. They were both absolute monarchs with nearly unlimited power over both their subjects and their nation's government. Both men were also noted for an extravagant lifestyle where cost was never an issue.



King Chulalongkorn of Siam
and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
in 1897
Source: Wikipedia




Rochester NY Democrat and Chronicle
9 August 1907










By August King Chulalongkorn's grand tour was coming to an end. Even in an era used to displays of royal opulence his spending on diamond, gold, and silverware was thought excessive. It was claimed he purchased $650,000 worth of jewelry in London, $500,000 in Frankfurt, $400,000 in Baden Baden where he took a cure at the spa. The reported value of his expenditure on luxury items was $3,000,000. So much for traveling incognito.  

* * *


Warren MN Sheaf
12 September 1907






 


Before he left Denmark, the King of Siam was presented with a huge wheel of local cheese made near Frijsenborg, a grand estate in Jutland. He took it on board the ship on his trip to Norway, and he became so fond of it he ordered a quantity of the same brand to be sent to his court in Bangkok.



* * *






Newspapers reported on King Chulalongkorn's exotic retinue, which did include a Queen, his  principal one, as well as some brothers, sons, and other officials. Despite his westernized tastes it was recognized that he was sovereign to a Buddhist nation. In American reports the descriptions of  his home country added titillating accounts of his 150 queens and immense harem that supposedly numbered in the thousands.

However the reports did not elaborate on the biggest difference between this royal family of Southeast Asia and the noble families of Europe. King Frederick VIII was surely proud of his eight children. But the diminutive King Chulalongkorn was father to 77 children — 33 sons and 44 daughters distributed among 4 Queens and 32 other consorts and concubines (116 in total).

As the King of Siam took leave of Germany, he expressed an interest in acquiring two dogs just like Kaiser Wilhelm's pet Dachshunds. Upon learning of this and also that the King would soon celebrate a birthday, the German Kaiser arranged to have seven pairs of dachshunds sent to the King so he could choose two favorites. Somehow that intention was lost in translation, as King Chulalongkorn accepted all 14 Dachshunds and took them back to Siam. The Kaiser took the extra expense of his gift in good humor.



Akron OH Beacon Journal
14 September 1907

We are left to imagine
how 14 Dachhunds traveled to Siam,
along with diamonds and Danish cheese,
where presumably it was all somehow divided
among the the King's numerous progeny.   

But  I can show you
how Kaiser Wihelm II
looked after his Weiner dogs,
three in number,
on board his Imperial yacht.



Der Kaiser mit seinen Hunden.
Kaiser Wilhelm II,  circa 1908
Source: The Internets



Let us return once more to the plaza of Amalienborg,
where the band of the Danish Royal Life Guards
continue to delight tourists of all kinds
from around the world.

In this more recent postcard
the bandsmen wear the dress uniform
of the Royal Life Guard
with red tunics, sky-blue trousers
and tall bearskin hats.






This card has no postmark, no message,
and no hidden connection to kings or dachshunds.
Just Danish bears,
so it only merits 4 points

And as a bonus for readers
who have stayed with my story to the end,
here is a YouTube postcard,
taken within the past year,
of the Changing of the Guard
at the Amalienborg place plaza
in Copenhagen.



* * *


* * *

If the music seems familiar but out of place
that is because it is not a Danish melody
but the march of the United States Navy,
Anchors Aweigh.





This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
where Danish pigeons always get the best treats.

http://sepiasaturday.blogspot.com/2017/02/sepia-saturday-355-18th-february-2017.html






          Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings - The Star Online   

THE BUSINESS TIMES

Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings
The Star Online
Yangon: A local employee with an international aid group in Myanmar's conflict-torn Rakhine State was stabbed to death by “terrorists”, the government said, the latest in a spate of grisly killings blamed on Rohingya militants. Northern Rakhine has ...
Myanmar aid worker murdered in latest Rakhine killingThe Sun Daily
Myanmar to refuse entry to UN investigators probing Rohingya abusesMalay Mail Online
Myanmar needs to get serious about peaceAljazeera.com
Washington Post -Paste Magazine -Radio Free Asia -Ahlul Bayt News Agency: Providing Shia News (press release)
all 50 news articles »

          Designer Solid Sterling Silver Peridot Eye's Eagle Ring, Unique Viking Eagle Head Bird Men's Ring, August Birthstone Designer Ring, by silverstudio2014   

80.96 USD

Designer Solid Sterling Silver Peridot Eye's Eagle Ring, Unique Viking Eagle Head Bird Men's Ring, August Birthstone Designer Ring,

Item Code : AGR-31663-04-3

Weight (Approx) : 19.18 Grams

Size/Dimension (Approx) : USA 7

Gemstone : Peridot

Stone Shape : Marq.

Stone Color : Green

********************************************************************************************************
Peridot is a magnesium iron silicate mineral with a hardness of 7. Its crystal system is orthorhombic and it generally forms in short, compact prisms which are vertically striated.
Color: Its olive to lime green color is caused by iron.
Meaning: The name Peridot is of Greek origin and the meaning is not known.
Source: Important sources of Peridot are in Pakistan, Burma, Australia, Brazil, South Africa and the United States.
Myth: Peridot was viewed as a symbol of the Sun and royalty and is still believed to be a stone of prosperity and abundance.


********************************************************************************************************

I strive to create the most innovative and striking jewelry for my customers, with an original and fabulous fit that will make you feel beautiful and unique!

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Our USA Parcel Sent Through USPS Its Take Time 7-10 Days and Our International parcel sent Through Register Mail Indiapost and Its Take Time 10-15 days.
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          Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, AAA moonstone, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant by silverstudio2014   

29.51 USD

Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, Amethyst Pandant, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant

Item Code : AGPA-31368-02

Weight (Approx) : 5.51 Grams

Metal : Solid 925 Sterling Silver

Gemstone : Blue Rainbow Moonstone

Stone Shape : Mix

Stone Size (Approx) : Free

Stone Color : Blue

Pandant Size: 50 x 17
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Rainbow Moonstone Gemstone :-

Moonstone is a very personal stone. It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is. This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is". Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it. This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Healing properties of Moonstone
Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature's rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman's stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Sources of moonstone
There are two moonstones. Adularia moonstone is an almost transparent pale gray or silvery white or blue shimmer. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Burma, India and Madagascar. Albie moonstone is in the feldspar group. It is semitransparent with a pale, shimmering reflection. It may be a little dull. It comes mainly from Canada.
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I strive to create the most innovative and striking jewelry for my customers, with an original and fabulous fit that will make you feel beautiful and unique!

Shipping Policy

Our USA Parcel Sent Through USPS Its Take Time 7-10 Days and Our International parcel sent Through Register Mail Indiapost and Its Take Time 10-15 days.
Please write us if you have any other query.


We Appreciated Your Positive Response.

Thanks for looking Our Store!


          Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, AAA moonstone, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant by silverstudio2014   

27.51 USD

Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, Amethyst Pandant, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant

Item Code : AGPA-30991-03

Weight (Approx) : 5.80 Grams

Metal : Solid 925 Sterling Silver

Gemstone : Blue Rainbow Moonstone

Stone Shape : Round

Stone Size (Approx) : 15 x 15mm

Stone Color : Blue

******************************************************************************************************
Rainbow Moonstone Gemstone :-

Moonstone is a very personal stone. It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is. This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is". Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it. This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Healing properties of Moonstone
Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature's rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman's stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Sources of moonstone
There are two moonstones. Adularia moonstone is an almost transparent pale gray or silvery white or blue shimmer. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Burma, India and Madagascar. Albie moonstone is in the feldspar group. It is semitransparent with a pale, shimmering reflection. It may be a little dull. It comes mainly from Canada.
************************************************************************************

I strive to create the most innovative and striking jewelry for my customers, with an original and fabulous fit that will make you feel beautiful and unique!

Shipping Policy

Our USA Parcel Sent Through USPS Its Take Time 7-10 Days and Our International parcel sent Through Register Mail Indiapost and Its Take Time 10-15 days.
Please write us if you have any other query.


We Appreciated Your Positive Response.

Thanks for looking Our Store!


          Phoebe Smith   
UK-based Wanderlust Magazine editor Phoebe Smith knows exactly how to mix business and pleasure. She explores various corners of the globe in search of the perfect story, immersing herself in cultures and experiences with an insatiable appetite for adventure. Her walking, wandering and writing have led her to author several books, including Extreme Sleeps: Adventures of a Wild Camper, and end up on this year’s shortlist for the Visit England Award for Excellence in Travel Writing. Just back from her most recent excursion to Canada, Phoebe talked to us about her travel essentials, the hottest new destinations and how to make the most of your vacation snapshots.

How did you get your start in travel?


I had specialized in journalism in university, so I naturally wanted to work in magazines. While I was backpacking my way around the world after finishing school, a staff writer job came up at a backpacker magazine in Sydney, Australia, and I went for it and got it. I haven’t looked back since.

What do you love most about your work?


The variety. My first passion is writing, and I get to do a fair bit of that on my favorite subject: travel. Aside from actually exploring new places, I do genuinely love the art of magazine craft, too. I can’t tell you how satisfying it is to organize and put a magazine together; and then to see people respond to it, it’s very rewarding.

Do you recommend doing a lot of planning before embarking on a trip?


I think by far the most important thing you can take with you when you travel is an open mind. Planning beforehand is great—and, in my job, rather important—but then you always have to be prepared to deal with last-minute problems or changes and learn to enjoy it anyway. Remember that the best travel stories are when things didn’t go as planned; those are the tales people want to hear about.

What are the hot new travel destinations for this fall?


Burma has to be one of the hottest destinations right now (the best time to go is November to February). In the last few years, the country has opened its doors to tourism, and people are eager to check it out for themselves—even more since Barack Obama visited in 2012. It won Top Country in our Wanderlust Reader Travel Awards and is constantly one of the most searched for destinations on our website. People go there for cultural tours, to learn about the people and to see the landscapes that they’ve read about but never visited before. Aside from Burma, I’d say there’s a lot of interest in Vietnam and Sri Lanka, also for cultural experiences, and a lot of people are looking to book trips to Iceland, Norway and Sweden for the Northern Lights, which are supposed to be spectacular this year.

What tips would you give to someone trying to plan a last-minute summer vacation?


Don't delay any longer! Book as soon as possible; otherwise, the time will slip away and the prices will get higher. Check out our Trip Finder, which can can search for trips by activity, destination, dates and region.

What are your travel essentials?


I never go anywhere without my notebook and pen. It might be old school, but unlike electronic devices, you don’t need to worry about charging it, getting a signal or having it stolen. Also, my pashmina that I picked up in Nepal—it’s great to use as a blanket if it gets cold on the plane, perfect to keep you cool from the sun when waiting for buses/trains, can double as an emergency towel and is ideal for covering up if visiting mosques…and it looks good, too!

Where’s your favorite place to travel?


It’s really hard to pick just one place! I travel all over the world for work but when I get a chance I love being a tourist in my own backyard and discovering the wilder corners of the UK…I even wrote a book about it (Extreme Sleeps: Adventures of a Wild Camper). My particular favorites are Snowdonia, the Lake District and the far north of Scotland. Go in the fall when the crowds and midges have gone but the colors of the landscape are changing. I’d suggest walking and camping/glamping for something different.

Is there anywhere you’re dying to go/stay/eat/play?


South America. I haven’t had time to do much there at all. I’d love to gaze up at the mountains, watch the stars from the Atacama Desert and maybe hop on a boat at Ushuaia, Antarctica-bound.

As summer and early fall weddings hit their peak, what are some of the best/most popular honeymoon destinations?


I think these days less and less people are looking to just fly and flop on a beach; they want an experience that they can remember. This time of year, people tend to look to New England, where they can enjoy the scenery and famous fall colors by day and cozy up in a romantic inn at night; South Africa for wildlife—game-viewing is at its best in September and October; and, for the more energetic, Nepal in October, when the Himalayas are in their prime for walking. You can check out our Unique Honeymoons website for inspiration.

People tend to get a little camera-crazy on vacations. What tips could you give for taking better travel photos?


Digital cameras and smart phones have made it far too easy for us to fire off loads of snaps without thinking about it. My advice: Be selective. Think about the photo you’re taking. Ask yourself what elements you want to include in it and take a minute to think about the composition. But, above all, remember that perfect shots are available on the postcards; make sure you put the camera down every now and again to actually experience where you are and what you’re seeing. You don’t want all your memories to be through a lens! For more tips, click here.
          Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings - The Star Online   

THE BUSINESS TIMES

Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings
The Star Online
Yangon: A local employee with an international aid group in Myanmar's conflict-torn Rakhine State was stabbed to death by “terrorists”, the government said, the latest in a spate of grisly killings blamed on Rohingya militants. Northern Rakhine has ...
Myanmar aid worker murdered in latest Rakhine killingThe Sun Daily
Myanmar to refuse entry to UN investigators probing Rohingya abusesMalay Mail Online
Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claimsThe Independent
Aljazeera.com -Washington Post -Paste Magazine -Ahlul Bayt News Agency: Providing Shia News (press release)
all 50 news articles »

          Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings - The Star Online   

THE BUSINESS TIMES

Myanmar aid worker is latest victim in Rakhine state killings
The Star Online
Yangon: A local employee with an international aid group in Myanmar's conflict-torn Rakhine State was stabbed to death by “terrorists”, the government said, the latest in a spate of grisly killings blamed on Rohingya militants. Northern Rakhine has ...
Myanmar aid worker murdered in latest Rakhine killingMalay Mail Online
Burma says it will not let outside world investigate Rohingya 'genocide' claimsThe Independent
Myanmar Says It Will Refuse Entry to UN Investigators Probing Rohingya AbusesU.S. News & World Report
Washington Post -Paste Magazine -Ahlul Bayt News Agency: Providing Shia News (press release)
all 50 news articles »

          We Don’t Want Political Soldiers; Nana Declares At Burma Camp   
President Akufo-Addo has raised serious concerns about a issue that most Ghanaians, especially politicians, seem to be shying away from the politicization of the various security agencies. This time round his focus was on the officers and men of the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF). It has often been said that most officers and men of the various s ...
          07.11.2015 Om: Juksebiler, Burma, omsorg og flukt   
HVORDAN GÅR DET MED JUKSEMAKERNE I VOLKSWAGEN? Slutter folk å kjøpe bilene deres? STERKE BUDDHISTISKE KREFTER STØTTER GENERALENES PARTI I MYANMAR. Det kan hindre reell demokratisering. OMSORGSORGANISASJONER VEDLIKEHOLDER LIDELSE MENER FORFATTER, som ønsker større innsats for å bringe folk tilbake til samfunnet. «VELKOMMEN TIL NORGE, ALLE 10 000» Har vi opplevd en stemningsbølge som er til hinder for en «klok flyktningepolitikk»?
          Sylvester Stallone (RAMBO) - CGBCOMS   
Interview de Sylvester Stallone pour le film RAMBO, dont l'action se passe à Burma (Myanmar) (par Claude Budin-Juteau a Los Angeles)

Voir les derniers fichiers de CGBCOMS

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          Lockheed Martin ကနေ ရောင်းချနေတဲ့ F-35 တိုက်လေယာဉ်သစ်တွေ အကြောင်း   

အဆိုပါ F-35 ဝယ်ယူတဲ့ နိုင်ငံတွေထဲမှာ အမေရိကန်အပြင် သြစတြေးလျ၊ ဒိန်းမတ်၊ အစ္စရေး၊ အီတလီ၊ ဂျပန်၊ နယ်သာလန်၊ နော်ဝေ၊ တူရကီ၊ တောင်ကိုရီးယားနဲ့ အင်္ဂလန်တွေ ပါဝင်တယ်လို့ သိရပါတယ်။

The post Lockheed Martin ကနေ ရောင်းချနေတဲ့ F-35 တိုက်လေယာဉ်သစ်တွေ အကြောင်း appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ကမ္ဘာလှည့်ဖျော်ဖြေတာတွေ ရပ်နားတော့မယ်လို့ အဒဲလ် ကြေညာ   

ကမ္ဘာလှည့်ဖျော်ဖြေပွဲတွေနဲ့ပတ်သက်ပြီး ကျမနဲ့သဟဇာတမဖြစ်ဘဲ တမျိုးကြီးဖြစ်နေလို့ပါ။ နောက်ပြီး ကျမ အိမ်မှာနေပြီး အိမ်မှုကိစ္စတွေ လုပ်ရတာကို ပိုကြိုက်လို့ပါ။

The post ကမ္ဘာလှည့်ဖျော်ဖြေတာတွေ ရပ်နားတော့မယ်လို့ အဒဲလ် ကြေညာ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ရှော့တိုက်ငါးဖမ်းခြင်းနှင့် ဧရာဝတီလင်းပိုင်တို့အနာဂတ် (၁)   

ကမ္ဘာပေါ်တွင် ဧရာဝတီ ရေချိုလင်းပိုင်များနေထိုင်ရာ မြစ် ၃ ခုသာရှိပြီး ၎င်းတို့ထဲမှ တခုမှာ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံမှ ဧရာ ဝတီမြစ် ဖြစ်သည်။

The post ရှော့တိုက်ငါးဖမ်းခြင်းနှင့် ဧရာဝတီလင်းပိုင်တို့အနာဂတ် (၁) appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          အုန်းဆီဟာ ကျန်းမာရေးအတွက် မသင့်တော် ဟုဆို   

အမေရိကန် နှလုံးဆိုင်ရာ အဖွဲ့အစည်းကနေ လေ့လာချက်တွေအရ အုန်းဆီဟာ ကိုလက်စထရောဓာတ် မြင့် မားစေပြီး ကျန်းမာရေးအတွက် မသင့်လျော်ဘူးလို့သိလာရတာပါ။

The post အုန်းဆီဟာ ကျန်းမာရေးအတွက် မသင့်တော် ဟုဆို appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          BEDC နဲ့ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်အောင်ကြီး အကြောင်း   

ဗမာ့စီးပွားရေးတိုးတက်ရေး ကော်ပိုရေးရှင်း (BEDC)ဟာ ၁၉၅၀ နှောင်းပိုင်းမှာ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ၏အကြီးဆုံး စီးပွား ရေးလုပ်ငန်း ဖြစ်ခဲ့ပါတယ်။

The post BEDC နဲ့ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်အောင်ကြီး အကြောင်း appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော် ရခိုင်ပြည်သူတွေ အပေါ် တာဝန်ကျေဖို့ လိုပြီ   

ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော်ဟာ ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် အစိုးရအဖွဲ့ကို အပြန်အလှန် ထိန်းကျောင်းနိုင်ဖို့ ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော်က အပြည့်အ၀ တာဝန်ရှိ သလို၊ အဲဒီတာဝန်တွေကို ကျေပွန်စွာ ဆောင်ရွက်ဖို့ လိုအပ်ကြောင်း

The post ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် လွှတ်တော် ရခိုင်ပြည်သူတွေ အပေါ် တာဝန်ကျေဖို့ လိုပြီ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          Business and Private Diplomacy: A Potential Catalyst for Sustainable Peace   

30 Jun 2017

By Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov for Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP)

The UN has frequently acknowledged that the private sector can function as a powerful agent of change. However, the world body’s preferred partners to resolve conflicts and build peace remain civil society and armed actors. Additionally, the leaders of UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business communities or use their influence to build peace. Well, these practices have to change, argues Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov, both at the multinational and micro-national levels.

This article was originally published by the Geneva Centre for Security Policy in June 2017.

Introduction

A general overview of what the term “private sector” entails will help define the scope of this paper. The private sector can be defined as the part of the economy that is not run by a state, but by individuals and companies for profit. It comprises a large diversity of organisations such as publicly or privately owned companies, including multinational companies (MNCs); organisations owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit such as cooperatives; or organisations that raise funds to operate and are financed by government or intergovernmental organisations or through hybrid business models, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), but excluding non-profit organisations (NPOs).1 When referring to the private sector, this paper will include publicly or privately owned companies, including MNCs, but exclude private military companies. All private sector organisations’ main driving forces can be summed up as a quest for profits, security and reputation.

Because it is multidimensional, the private sector can be classified in many ways. In addition to a classification by sector, businesses can be ranked by size, number of employees, geographical presence, if they are a local business or the subsidiary of an MNC, or are tailored to serve domestic needs or export markets (or both). In a violence-or conflict-affected context each category of business will evolve differently, reinvent itself or disappear.

Key Points

Small businesses/micro-companies serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process because they often constitute the only form of economic activity in a conflict zone.MNCs have a range of options to respond to conflict, but cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding initiatives, and rarely become involved officially. Track Two diplomacy is their more likely area of involvement.The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, the UN still engages only two players in conflict resolution and peacebuilding: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or use its influence to build peace.Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would produce a more formidable force for peace. World affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into a new UN system of governance; new routes are possible for a truly inclusive approach, recognising the business sector’s positive contribution to sustainable peace through informal mediation and collaborative engagement.

A converging definition and shared approach

Size is the most convenient and easily available criterion of classification for private sector companies. In emerging market economies affected by violence or conflict there would be five main categories of private businesses: formal businesses (big companies that are registered with local authorities and pay taxes); semi-formal medium-sized companies (which pay taxes, but are not systematically registered with authorities); small companies (which represent the vast majority of businesses, operate in a dedicated area or office, and are registered with local authorities); micro-companies (which operate from a variety of places such as markets or in the street and pay some form of tax on the temporary location from which they conduct business, such as a market place or handcart); and home workshops (which are mainly to be found in larger cities). Small companies operating from a dedicated or informal area provide more than half of the world’s formal jobs. They are key drivers of economic growth and development, as well as the backbone of a local economy. Among the medium-sized or small private companies mentioned above, government employees might run such small businesses in some countries in order to diversify sources of income or risk, and allow close or even remote family members to make a living.

As violence increases or conflict breaks out, micro-companies and MNCs will be impacted, but never in the same ways or at the same pace. Generally, the private sector will shift from traded to non-traded goods (i.e. goods provided by donors), cut investment, and shift its capital to foreign currency assets and away from its production tools. Commerce and tourism will be the first sectors to contract, followed by manufacturing and construction. This shift will create conditions for an informal economy (which employs 80% of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo/DRC2) as households’ incomes deteriorate and inflation affects official and parallel markets alike. Falls in employment will create falls in domestic savings and greater reliance on external aid. In such environments, agriculture and public administration will often remain the only source of official employment and income. Violence and conflict also change the prosperity equilibrium as individual roles evolve. When men die in conflict, women become responsible for ensuring the community’s survival by starting informal businesses or taking up farming.3

Small players, such as micro-companies, become important: in chaotic times grassroots, local entrepreneurs provide the only goods, services and jobs available in a given conflict zone. They can also make an important contribution to conflict transformation because they maintain their economic influence and local political contacts during the conflict, and thus serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process. So do business associations, because they often also have close links to governments and represent all sides of the conflict.

The Guatemalan experience illustrates the role of business associations. The 36-year civil war in that country was caused by interlinked social, economic and political factors, “specifically ideological differences embedded in the global political struggle of the Cold War”.Initially, the Guatemalan private sector was not a fervent supporter of the peace negotiations. The overall intensity of the war was low and geographically contained in mountainous areas, and the sectors that were most affected by the conflict were limited to tourism and the coffee industry. Negotiations with all stakeholders, including business, started on a very positive note. However, because of tensions between factions within the association representing the private sector, Comité Coordinador de Asociaciones Agricolas, Comerciales, Industriales y Financieras (CACIF), it refused to meet rebel groups, demanding instead an immediate ceasefire. Interestingly, the coffee industry did not embrace peace talks, because the peace process was associated with economic reform, while the tourism sector, too weak to lobby, was absent from the process. This tends to support the idea that different groups within the business sector are more or less willing or able to support mediation or a peace process.

At the other end of the size spectrum lie MNCs. They account for two-thirds of world trade and can be defined as large corporations incorporated in one country, implementing a consistent multinational response among their various subsidiaries. Their global number is estimated at 80,000, with 840,000 subsidiaries across the world, representing 75,000,000 employees. During the 1950s and 1960s host governments rarely intervened in the affairs of MNCs. Nowadays, these large companies are more flexible and more responsive to their host governments’ demands. But not all MNCs follow the same strategy, and some will sacrifice market participation to preserve strategic autonomy. “There can be no growth in an environment where there is no peace”, says Unilever boss Paul Polman, insisting that business “can and must be a force for good5”. The “corporate coalition” backing Peace One Day – including Skype, McKinsey, Ocado, Innocent, Coca-Cola and Burger King – is a start, but certainly not what corporations do best.6 Instead, they could engage in discussions on good governance and obstacles to peace.

An MNC subsidiary faces complex governance challenges in the wake of violence or conflict. It is controlled by its parent company, which is often based outside the region or country; this company bears the ultimate responsibility for the group’s worldwide strategic direction. The affiliate or subsidiary is expected to support the overall objectives of its group, contributing to its brand and matters of corporate priority such as Western-led concepts like corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is a first possible gap between the subsidiary of a MNC and its host country. Understanding often diminishes and misunderstandings widen as violence increases in the country hosting the subsidiary, due to the distance between the centre of power (company headquarters) and the local affiliate.

Going Beyond CSR; or, the limitations of policies

Recent literature7 has explored how MNCs are expected to contribute to peace and security in the absence of public or government capacity to fulfil this role. Most of those who participated in this research (through individual phone interviews or plenary sessions) were communications directors, CSR managers, and line and business managers from MNCs’ subsidiaries. Many respondents seemed to ignore the role their employer could or did play in peace and security. This might be because CSR involves voluntary self-commitments focusing mainly on the environment, health care, education or security. The role of business in conflict is rarely addressed in this context, either because the CSR agenda needs to be broadened or because businesses are indeed active in issues related to the conflict, but it is not considered part of CSR. This constitutes a second gap in the corporate governance of MNCs: local CSR is part of a more global CSR strategy and is often managed as an extension of local public affairs, public relations or marketing efforts. In order to offer any sense of how MNCs’ subsidiaries can have an impact on peace and security, further research is needed from the business point of view involving risk managers, chief financial officers, and members of the executive board in charge of audit and control committees.

Research by swisspeace focused on Swiss MNCs and how they engage in peace efforts.8 The paper in question is based on interviews with CSR managers from the MNCs’ head offices and focuses on their knowledge of their companies’ contribution to peacebuilding. The data covers eight to ten Swiss companies from various sectors. Most CSR managers appear to be unaware of the ways in which they could engage in peace processes or what role they could play. As the authors suggest, this might be because peacemaking or conflict transformation “is not linked to the business case”.9 Other explanations also come to mind. Firstly, involvement in a political process can only result from an informal individual initiative, not as part of a formal representation of the company, and strictly on a confidential basis, which means no public relations communications – in fact, no communication whatsoever. Secondly, the lack of institutional trust between civil society or advocacy NGOs and the private sector is so heightened that such high-level strategic information will be considered only on a need-to-know basis. The CSR manager will deal with philanthropic initiatives to improve the environment or help local communities, as well as manage advocacy NGOs or research foundations. CSR or security managers might not be involved in all formal or informal contacts between a local business manager and strategic stakeholders.

The review of existing grey research covering CSR managers in MNC subsidiaries and MNC headquarters demonstrates that there is an obvious need for more research in the area of violence and conflict resolution in terms of risk management. As a result, the issue of the relationship between business and peace might be more one of board policy or operational strategy, and therefore falls beyond CSR.

Take a positive peace perspective

When an MNC considers suspending its activities due to violence or conflict, the result is an important depletion of local knowledge – and an increase in risk for the local population and local business alike, because of outsourced goods and services. The immediate consequence of an MNC’s withdrawal or shutdown is undesirable from a local employment perspective: selling a subsidiary to a competitor might appear more desirable, but not if the new owner recognises fewer rights for employees and local communities (human rights, labour rights, development rights, social and economic rights).

Acting truly locally is a strategic challenge for global MNCs. Some are able to act like local businesses.10They employ local people, thus contributing to social mixing, and support those who wish to start their own businesses. This strategy maintains a certain level of economic normality in times of violence or conflict – and prepares for future peace. This can also be achieved by an MNC subsidiary maintaining local infrastructure such as transport, or temporarily covering basic health and social services. In all these examples the private sector can compensate for temporary state shortcomings or the total collapse of state-supplied services.

But in the absence of a mandate to participate in peace settlements, the private sector might resolve to consider its bottom line rather than its humanitarian impact, and shut down or sell its operations, despite adverse local consequences. In Nepal, for instance, the economic stagnation that marked the period following the end of civil war in 2006 was caused by the withdrawal of Indian MNCs that supported the Nepalese economy, and clearly hindered political and social stability.

It might be of interest to consider what strategies the private sector – MNCs and local businesses alike – can chose in a context of violence or conflict. Firstly, it can decide to take advantage of the economics of war and grow its business. Secondly, it can conduct business as usual, under local regulation or the absence of it, either because it cannot withdraw (e.g. a local business), or because violence is not affecting its operations. Thirdly, it can withdraw from the conflict zone and disengage. Fourthly, it can decide to engage proactively and contribute to public security.

From a positive peace perspective, business can foster economic development, support an emerging or existing legal system, and nourish a sense of community. It does not, however, consider the provision of assistance to local communities as a political act, but as tangible ways of reducing its operational costs. In matters of general strategy or corporate policy, CSR is considered as part of operations, while supporting peace or conflict resolution is the exclusive prerogative of the local or international political domain. In practice, the difference between CSR and working for peace and stability follows a very fine line, and is more of a corporate philosophy than an entrenched position. Businesses are committed to avoiding conflict as best they can. But as outsiders in a host country they must remain neutral: actively negotiating between warring parties cannot be part of their licence to operate. Business therefore cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding activities.

Because of the reputational and security risks involved in participating in peace mediation processes, companies rarely become involved officially, and if they do, it is with the utmost confidentiality and discretion. If the private sector contributes to conflict transformation efforts – for instance, through good offices or by supporting higher national interests – it is often on condition that its non-core contribution remains secret. If its contribution is publicised, its licence to operate and the safety of its staff, operations or infrastructure on the ground might be at risk. This need for discretion – for security or competitive advantage – is certainly one of the reasons why business’s engagement in peacebuilding or conflict mediation as a facilitator or information intermediary is rarely properly investigated or publicised. Short-term political ambitions only contribute to business’s caution when publicising any involvement in conflict prevention or resolution.

In terms of ‘economic’ peacebuilding, the private sector is encouraged to use its direct economic influence to promote peace. In terms of so-called ‘political’ peacebuilding, the private sector participates in initiatives such as ‘policy dialogues’ with local stakeholders. According to International Alert,11 this more political form of engagement includes participating in truth and reconciliation commissions; supporting weapons hand-ins; providing capacity-building support for local government, including judicial and police forces; supporting initiatives to attract foreign investment; and helping the local private sector build capacity and governance systems.

In a number of cases the private sector has decided to act as an agent of prevention in order to mitigate violence. One example is the campaign led by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and its 100,000 members following the 2008 electoral violence in that country. This violence caused major disruptions to the Kenyan tourism, tea and flower industries: exports fell by up to 40% in some areas of the country, while tourist inflows decreased by more than a third and job losses increased dramatically. The private sector decided to embark on a five-year corporate campaign to prevent possible violence ahead of the 2013 elections. Many initiatives were conducted, including a communication and training campaign in cooperation with civil society organisations, interfaith groups, developmental partners and the media. KEPSA is also reported to have supported legislative advocacy to tackle the causes of poverty in Kenyan society, lobbied key politicians to commit to peaceful elections, and pressured members of the media to avoid inflammatory content in their publications. Mobile operators also took steps to prevent their networks from being used to disseminate political hate speech. This local perspective on conflict transformation remains an important avenue for further research.

Business’s motivations to remain in violence- or conflict-affected zones

Assuming it has the possibility to leave a violent or conflict area, a company might still decide to remain in an unstable environment for four main reasons. Firstly, it might still be able to make a profit: costs related to the conflict do not outweigh the income the business can generate. While ensuring income for both the company and its local staff, the company thus contributes to preserving some kind of economic normality for local communities. Heineken, the Dutch brewer founded in 1864, imported its first beer into Africa in 1900. It is now present in 23 African countries. The current CEO, Jean-François van Boxmeer, worked in Rwanda in the early 1990s. He then moved to the DRC, where he helped to deal with the refugee crisis that followed the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

Among the refugees were many of Heineken’s Rwandan employees and their families. As general manager of Bralima, Heineken’s DRC subsidiary, Van Boxmeer decided the company would help his former Rwandan employees, offering shelter and basic income. This meant that the company’s resources would go to humanitarian aid rather than running the company. But it was the only possible decision, Van Boxmeer says: “The larger the company, the larger the stakes. But you have a social contract. It’s one of the crucial elements for a leader to remember and live by.”12

Secondly, if the company represents the interests of a foreign state, it might need to balance the evolution of the relationship between its home country and its host government with regard to the conflict; this relationship will have an impact on its dealings with local authorities and its host government. It might not be in a position to balance the risk/opportunity equation, but the company will remain in the country for the purposes of its home government’s national interest. Total is one of the major world oil companies, and the French government has a 15% stake in it (down from 34% in 1992). Active in Burma/Myanmar since 1992, the company’s investments in the country are guaranteed by the French government through Coface (Compagnie française d’assurance pour le commerce extérieur). Over time, Total expanded its direct investments to become the largest foreign investor in Burma after all the major MNCs left the country following boycotts. In 2002 a case was filed against Total in Brussels by four Myanmar refugees for alleged complicity in violations of human rights in the course of the construction and operation of the Yadana Gas Pipeline. Belgian authorities dropped the case in 2008.13

Thirdly, the business might simply ‘hold the market’ and secure future resources or interests, as part of a long-term business strategy in the sector or region, and as mandated by its shareholders. And, finally, the company might decide to keep its operation active in a conflict zone to gain critical learning experience and ultimately improve the way in which it operates. When he sent the French army into Mali in 2013 to deal with an insurrection in the north of the country, President Hollande recommended that French citizens should leave the country, but hardly any left. In 2010, 60 French-owned subsidiaries and companies were in Mali, mainly in Bamako. These companies were active in mining (Vinci and Bouygues via subsidiaries), banks (BNP Paribas), telecoms (Alcatel-Lucent), transport (Air France), etc. Most of them considered that if security measures were put in place early, it was possible to continue working in near-normality; for instance, to limit travel and risk, employees could move into and live in the work site. Security procedures were submitted to the local French embassy for its future evacuation plans.

Some businesses are considered better peacebuilders than others, partly because of their exit options or the amount of capital invested. Extractive industries have few options in conflict-affected areas and require high investments over decades, but they also have powerful incentives to contribute to peace. Despite this economic stimulus, the extractive industry is often criticised for continuing to work in conflict-affected areas, while industries like tourism or telecoms are regarded as better suited to peacebuilding activities.

Engaging Business in Private Diplomacy

Would world affairs benefit from integrating the private sector into a clear UN mandate or as part of a new system of governance engaging traditional and new parties to multilateral diplomacy? First and foremost, business needs to recognise that conflicts provoke many emotions, “which in turn play a crucial role in the evolution of conflict”.14 If greed and grievance are the main sources of conflict, then government and business might very well share responsibility for a conflict. Poverty, social inequality, unemployment or divided identity politics fuel conflict, particularly when accompanied by illegal behaviour on the part of governments – through corruption or illegitimate private wealth accumulation, or when divisive political leaders plant the seeds of ethnic conflict. But this can also be the case when companies indulge in illegal or irresponsible behaviour.

Governments’ interests have always gone beyond their national borders, leading to foreign conquests and in many cases causing massacres and atrocities. These conquests were mostly conducted through either direct or indirect engagement. The private sector also contributed to these conquests, with the blessing of states, for better or worse, working with governments to export alleged liberalisation and democratisation. An example of direct military engagement is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A more recent example of indirect engagement is when Nasdaq-listed companies were sent as emissaries to Iran in 201315.

Because of the perceived shortcomings of governments and their political agendas, as well as business’s considered failure to act responsibly, new actors have entered conflict-resolution or mediation efforts: the Crisis Management Initiative, the Carter Center’s Conflict Resolution Programme, the United States Institute of Peace and the Geneva-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. These private organisations actively participate on behalf of governments in Track Two diplomacy (as part of unofficial government diplomacy), but also increasingly in Track One (official government) diplomacy initiatives, exploring new channels or contacts when the official lines of communication and negotiation have broken down. Their lack of a political mandate is recognised by all parties to mediation processes and is a welcome development in a peace market that has suffered from the presence of actors who promote peace, democracy and human rights, but do not strictly abide by the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence. Mediators themselves mention the relevance of business actors in the two diplomacy tracks and the increasing importance of business actors as economic actors and facilitators in fragile states: “local business actors may have more leverage within track 2 processes than as part of a large internationally peace mediation process.”16 From the mediator’s point of view, “it is of little relevance whether (the business) becomes engaged in a peace process for personal business interests or for more altruistic interests in peace”.17

The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, in real life the UN still considers two actors to be relevant in conflict resolution and peacebuilding processes: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. Peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or to help regulate their impact on peace, including in countries where the UN Security Council (UNSC) has imposed trade sanctions. This (voluntary?) decision by the UN and UNSC not to work with pro-peace businesses indicates a wider institutional pattern: “It is irresponsible of UN practice to ... overlook the way in which these actors might help – or hinder – near and long-term conflict transformation.”18 Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would probably produce a more formidable force for peace.

The only reference to business being consulted can be found in the December 2005 founding mandate of the UN Peace Building Commission (PBC); since then, neither the PBC annual session reports nor working papers for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 mention encouraging the possibility of engaging with business in any peace process – with the exception of local business, which is merely reminded of its duty to pay taxes ...! One might consider that this is because business is publicity shy on topics it considers to be of political relevance. Or it might be because business has simply not wished to be actively involved in any PBC activities. The truth lies certainly somewhere between the PBC not knowing how to engage business and business not wishing to be seen as active in what it perceives to be part of the political arena. However, since perceptions effectively constitute reality, the PBC seems to be missing out on the engagement of an important stakeholder, while business is guilty of not supporting the peace efforts of intergovernmental organisations.

The feeling is that economic transformation might exclusively be the responsibility of policymakers. The absence of the private sector in the so-called inclusive approach to peacebuilding and the absence of engagement with businesses to generate improvements represent at best an omission and at worse ignorance on what important stakeholders can potentially contribute to building peace. As things stand today, except in communication and fund-raising events, the private sector is not considered as a sound partner in peace processes. There is hardly any formal record either in UNSC mandates or UN peace operations (MONUSCO, UNOCI, UNMISS, etc.) of consulting with commercial entities such as trade professionals, purchasers, suppliers or commercial agents. UN entities only address regulatory issues through civil society monitoring. The UNSC engages states to take the necessary measures to deal with natural resources-related conflicts and invites international financial institutions to contribute to establishing regulatory governance: it does not consult on, engage with or regulate this process, and does not deal with the issue directly.

Should the UNSC adopt a wider mandate, no doubt responsible companies active in natural resources would support conflict transformation efforts in post-conflict areas, but without an “exceptional transitional business regulatory role”.19 Business could also proactively initiate networks and engage actors or trade associations in the post-conflict business sector to adopt responsible peace-related business self-regulation.

Responsible leadership

A case can be made for a new kind of responsible leadership to support integrated and comprehensive peace processes through mediation. Through a collective, cooperative approach, the underlying causes of conflict could be addressed; such an approach would include companies, NGOs, labour organisations, and local and national governments. This approach might take time to set up and implement, but it would bring hope to and positive developments for all parties involved:

It will be argued that the factors affecting the issue are not within the control of companies – it is a matter for government. Or it will be claimed that the issue is not as widespread as suggested and that things are not really so bad. Or that it would require industry-wide effort to have an impact. Companies, like NGOs, are human organisations and they suffer from the natural conservatism of all human organisations – they like to carry on doing what they have been doing successfully for years and tend to resist any change to a smoothly running system.20

Understanding possible informal engagements among political actors, mediators and business, as well as the role of each industry within the economy, must be explored in order to influence the overall process. One of the most successful ways in which business can support peace has been through trade associations, including businesspeople from both sides of the conflict. Mediators praise their direct or indirect, pragmatic, economics-focused, bridge-builder approach21 and consider that it is relevant to include business actors, depending on the context or the stage of the mediation process: early in the process as part of formal Track One initiatives or on their own initiative in a Track Two or Track Three process; during the negotiation phase, using their knowledge of economic development, trade or employment; and/or during the implementation phase, for instance by providing suitable jobs to former combatants, thus providing them with gainful options other than armed violence, or hiring people from all sides of the conflict, thus contributing to breaking down stereotypes and biases.22

Facilitating informal, off-the-record talks between mediators and businesses is also a route that needs to be systematically explored. The inspiration for these informal/briefing talks between business and mediators is as much about rebuilding trust as building knowledge and understanding on both sides. For instance, the private sector was successfully involved at the Track One level in the recent successful negotiation process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), playing an important informal role throughout these negotiations. Some businesspeople were even members of the negotiation team. The government, the FARC and the business sector themselves welcomed the private sector’s engagement: “Business leaders held off-the-record meetings of multi-sectorial groups in order to generate space for developing personal relationships.”23 Members of the business sector sponsored and were involved in public demonstrations and activities to protest against the conflict and lobbied on numerous public occasions for a peaceful settlement. Business representatives also established contact with an imprisoned leader of the other main Colombian armed opposition group, the National Liberation Army, “leading to the signing of a goodwill accord pledging the parties to seek a solution to the Colombian crisis”.24

The first major work on business-based conflict transformation is less than 20 years old.25 The World Bank has found that the first thing that must be dealt with after the restoration of peace and the examination of various fundamental social issues is the question of establishing a framework for restoring business.26 The past decade has seen an increase in initiatives to address a possible multi-stakeholder approach to conflict transformation, including MNCs and local businesses.27 On the basis of these principles, further initiatives have been launched such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles on MNCs and the International Bill of Human Rights of the International Finance Corporation, which is the World Bank’s lending arm.

But the debate is still largely dominated by policy built on examples of businesses sustaining and fuelling violent conflict – largely reported by civil society and raised as banners to condemn all businesses indiscriminately. Corporate-bashing (or brand-bashing) - as NGO-bashing - are probably not the most promising strategies to achieve inclusive dialogue. A new type of engagement is needed to avoid the institutionalisation of business models such as Greenpeace’s28, which replicate bipolar models of good versus evil. The misinterpretation of how companies perceive a peace process has, for instance, led to the publication of some negatively oriented guidance for corporate engagement in conflict transformation, i.e. “good corporate practice is about negative peace and what companies should not do”.29 There is nevertheless a growing interest in constructive ways of including companies in conflict management and peace support, recognising what business has achieved as well as understanding business’s perspectives on the potential and limits of corporate engagement.

In “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Process”,30 swisspeace identifies 14 case studies where private sector efforts complemented those of the public and civil society sectors. These were in Colombia, Cyprus, the DRC, El Salvador, Guatemala, Aceh/Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, Northern Ireland, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Sudan. There is an obvious need for more research from the business perspective, and particularly on the governance of MNCs and the role that MNCs’ local subsidiaries can play in violence prevention and conflict resolution.

Conclusion

This paper has focused on cases where the private sector supported private and/or multilateral diplomacy. Such cases indicate that building trust and engaging both traditional and new parties to peace talks might allow a better understanding of a conflict resolution and peacebuilding process and improve cooperation. The paper also explored ways in which world affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into peacebuilding and suggested routes for a truly inclusive approach to advance peace processes.

A successful peace agreement often brings peace dividends. Liberia’s economy grew at an annual rate of 11% after peace was achieved, South Africa is still one of Africa’s most advanced economies, Aceh has become a source of economic and political innovation for its region, Mozambique has experienced an average growth of 7% (except for 2013 and 2014), and Northern Ireland experienced economic growth of 3.2% in 2005, almost twice as much as the United Kingdom as a whole. But the international community has also engaged in a number of unsuccessful attempts to build sustainable peace in war-stricken areas/ countries such as Bougainville (2001), Liberia (2003), and Sudan and South Sudan (2005). Despite comprehensive peace agreements and going through the same path of security building, governance building and transitional justice as successful peacemaking efforts, all these areas/ countries experienced outbreaks of instability and violence, in particular during elections.

Less than half of the peace agreements referred to above included an economic dimension in their settlement:31 there was no mention of reinvigorating post-war economies, no ways of supporting the reconstruction of a local private sector, no plans to revive a war-torn society, and no reference to economic reforms. If state‐building must rightly remain an internally driven process, economic recovery remains a turning point between success and failure in peacebuilding, because failure retards development and holds back foreign investment. Surely it is time for comprehensive peace agreements to become truly comprehensive and include the private sector as one of the most important sources of the widespread economic empowerment that is needed to mitigate the effects of conflict and violence?

Notes

1 An NGO, also known as a civil society organisation, is a non-governmental organisation even though its funding might be provided by a government. An NPO uses its extra funds for the purposes of the organisation, rather than dividing it among the shareholders and owners of the organisation. Examples of NPOs are universities, trade unions or charitable organisations. However, an NPO might operate in conjunction with a government.  

2 TDRP (Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program), “5 Democratic Republic of Congo”, in Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies, December 2011, p.31, http://www.tdrp.net/ PDFs/Informal_Economies_Dec2011-5.pdf

3 C. Samba-Panza, interim president of the Central African Republic, “The Central African Republic: ‘Land of Wealth and Opportunity’”, transcript of her speech during the handover ceremony to President-elect Faustin-Archange Touadéra, 30 March 2016, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/ speech/2016/03/30/the-central-african-republic-is-a-land-of-wealth-and-opportunity

4 E. Jonas, “The Role of the Private Business Sector in Peace Negotiations: Lessons from Guatemala”, Sicherheit und Frieden/ Security and Peace, Vol.4, 2007.  

5 O. Balch, “Businesses have a role promoting peace in conflict zones”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www. theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/sep/22/businesses-role-promoting-peace-conflict-zones-drc-palestine  

6 J. Hatcher, “Goma Peace Concert Criticised for Overshadowing DR Congo’s Grim Reality”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/sep/23/goma-peace-concert-dr-congo-jude-law  

7 See D. Jamali, R, Mirshak, “Business-Conflict Linkages: Revisiting MNCs, CSR, and Conflict”, Journal of Business Ethics (2010) 93:443–464; A. Graf & A. Iff, “Conflict-Sensitive Business; Review of Instruments and Guidelines”, swisspeace, January 2013  

8 A. Iff, R. Alluri and S. Hellmüller, “The Positive Contributions of Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace”, swisspeace Working Paper 2/2012, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/ user_upload/Media/Publications/WP2_2012.pdf

9 Ibid., p.15, quoting L. Zandvliet, “Conflict Transformation and the Corporate Agenda – Opportunities for Synergy”, in B. Austin, M. Fischer and H.J. Giessmann (eds), Advancing Conflict Transformation. The Berghof Handbook II, Opladen/Framington Hills, Barbara Budrich, p.360.  

10 What managers can do strategically depends on where they are located. National influences limit corporate behaviour in important ways.  

11 J. Banfield, C. Gündüz and N. Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace: The Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector, London, International Alert, 2006.

12 P. Vanham, “How Heineken’s CEO Went from Congo to the Company’s Top Spot”, LinkedIn, 22 July 2015, https://www. linkedin.com/pulse/how-did-heinekens-ceo-go-from-congo-global-peter-vanham

13 Business and Human Rights Resource Center, “Total Lawsuit in Belgium (re Myanmar)”, 2014, https://business-humanrights. org/en/total-lawsuit-in-belgium-re-myanmar  

14 G. Carbonnier, Humanitarian Economics: War, Disaster and the Global Aid Market, London, Hirst, pp.30-32.

15 General Motors traveled to Iran on this occasion, drafting contracts for the resumption of GM’s activities In Iran. To ensure US success, President Obama signed the Executive Order Act 13645 on 3 June. This presidential decree sanctioned any foreign entity that sold or supplied parts or services to the Iranian automobile sector but did not prohibit the supply of vehicles. Renault being the main foreign operator with 90,000 cars produced in 2012, the US decree clearly targeted France. Furthermore, United Against Nuclear Iran summoned Carlos Ghosn, the boss of Renault, to withdraw from Iran under penalty of American sanctions (G. Malbrunot, “En Iran, l’offensive discrète des entreprises américaines”, Le Figaro, 4 October 2013)  

16 A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.24, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/ Media/Publications/WP2_2010.pdf

17 swisspeace/CS ETH Zurich, “Peace Mediation Essentials: Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, December 2010, p. 2, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Topics/ Mediation/Resources/Peace_Mediation_Essentials_Business_ Actors.pdf  

18 J. Ford, Regulating Business for Peace: The United Nations, the Private Sector, and Post-conflict Recovery, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.  

20 M. Moody-Stuart, Responsible Leadership: Lessons from the Front Line of Sustainability and Ethics, Oxford, Greenleaf, 2014, p.36.

21 swisspeace/CS ETH, Peace Mediation Essentials, p.8.

22 Ibid., p.12.  

23 A. Rettberg, “Local Business’ Role in Formal Peace Negotiations”, in Banfield, Gündüz and Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace, p.51.

24 A. Rettberg, 2007, p. 486 in A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.16, http://www. swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Publications/ WP2_2010.pdf

25 J. Nelson, The Business of Peace: The Private Sector as a Partner in Conflict Prevention and Resolution, London, Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, International Alert and Council on Economic Priorities, 2000.

26 J.-D. Wolfensohn, Statement during a special session on the role of business in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, UN Security Council, 15 April 2004, http://siteresources.worldbank. org/INTCPR/214578-1112884026494/20482671/Role+of+WB+in+Conflict+and+Development.pdf

27 J. Ruggie and T. Nelson, Human Rights and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: Normative Innovations and Implementation Challenges, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 66, May 2015, p.5. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/ index.php/content/download/76202/1711396/version/1/file/ workingpaper66.pdf

28 See the Greenpeace campaign against Timberland in J. Swartz, “Standing up to 65,000 Angry Activists”, Harvard Business Review, September 2010; and W.M. Hoffman, R.E. Frederick and M. Schwartz (eds), Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality, Chichester, John Wiley, 2014).

29 A. Iff, “What Guides Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace?” in A. Pigrau and M. Prandi (eds), Companies in Conflict Situations, Barcelona, International Catalan Institute for Peace, pp.153-78.

30 Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers?”, pp.16-19.  

31 UN Development Programme and Crisis Management Initiative, “Peace Processes and Statebuilding”, in J.-K. Westendorf (ed.), Why Peace Processes Fail: Negotiating Insecurity after Civil War, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 2015, p.17.  

About the Author

Misha Nagelmackers-Voïnov is a member of Woodz Public Affairs and an Executive-Fellow-in-Residence with Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP


          သတင္းသမားေတြကို ဓာတ္ပုံရိုက္လို႔ အမွုဖြင့္    


အမွု႐ုံးခ်ိန္းမွာ သတင္းသြားယူတဲ့ သတင္းသမားေတြ ကို ဓာတ္ပုံမွတ္တမ္း ယူ
The Voice အယ္ဒီတာခ်ဳပ္ အမွု႐ုံးခ်ိန္းမွာ သတင္းသြား ယူခဲ့တဲ့ သတင္းသမားေတြ ကို ဓာတ္ပုံမွတ္တမ္း ယူခဲ့တဲ့ ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္က ဆိုသူ တဦးကို ျမန္မာသတင္းသမား မ်ား ကာကြယ္ေရး ေကာ္မတီ က ေသာၾကာေန႔က ဗဟန္းရဲစခန္းမွာ အမွုဖြင့္လိုက္ပါတယ္။

တပ္မေတာ္ကို ေျပာင္ေလွာင္တဲ့ သေရာ္စာ ေဖာ္ျပမွုအတြက္ ပုဒ္မ ၆၆(ဃ)နဲ႔ အဖမ္းခံထားရတဲ့ ဦးေက်ာ္မင္းေဆြရဲ့ အမွု႐ုံးခ်ိန္းကို သတင္း မီဒီယာေတြက သြားသတင္း ယူခဲ့ၾကတာပါ။

ဒီလိုသတင္းယူ ေနတုန္း ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းစစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္က တပ္ၾကပ္ စိုးျမင့္ေအာင္က တဦးခ်င္း လိုက္လံ ဓာတ္ပုံရိုက္တာေၾကာင့္ သတင္းသမားကာကြယ္ေကာ္မတီ (PCMJ) က အမွုဖြင့္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။

တရား႐ုံးေရွ႕မွာ ဦးေက်ာ္မင္းေဆြရဲ့ ေရွ႕ေန ဦးခင္ေမာင္ျမင့္ကို အင္တာဗ်ဴးေနတုန္း သတင္းသမား တဦးခ်င္းစီကို ရွုေထာင့္ေပါင္းစုံ ကေန ဓာတ္ပုံေတြ ရိုက္ပါတယ္။

ဒီလို ေဆာင္ရြက္တာဟာ အထက္ကခိုင္းတာေၾကာင့္လို႔ ဆိုပါတယ္။

ဒီလိုလုပ္တာဟာ သတင္းသမားေတြရဲ့လုံျခဳံမွုနဲ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ကို ထိခိုက္တယ္ ဆိုၿပီး ျမန္မာ သတင္းသမားမ်ား ကာကြယ္ေရး ေကာ္မတီ ကိုယ္စား ကိုရဲလင္းထြန္းက တရားလို လုပ္ၿပီး အမွုဖြင့္ လိုက္တာပါ။

တပ္မေတာ္ဘက္က တရားစြဲဆို ထားတဲ့ အေပၚ အမွုရင္ဆိုင္ေနရတဲ့ The Voice အယ္ဒီတာခ်ဳပ္ ရဲ့႐ုံးခ်ိန္းမွာ ရန္ကုန္တိုင္း စစ္ဌာနခ်ဳပ္က အခုလိုလုပ္တာဟာ သတင္းသမားေတြ အေပၚ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေနတယ္ ဆိုတာ သိသာထင္ရွားေစတယ္ လို႔လည္း သတင္းေထာက္ တဦးျဖစ္သူ ကိုမိုးျမင့္က ေျပာပါတယ္။

PCMJ အေနနဲ႔ ၂ဝ၁၇ ခုႏွစ္ နိုင္ငံသားမ်ား၏ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ဆိုင္ရာ လြတ္လပ္မွုႏွင့္ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ဆိုင္ရာ လုံျခဳံမွုကို ကာကြယ္ေပးေရး ဥပေဒအရ အမွုဖြင့္လိုက္တာျဖစ္ၿပီး ဗဟန္းရဲစခန္းက ဒါကို ကနဦးတိုင္ခ်က္ အေန နဲ႔လက္ခံထားၿပီး တရားစြဲဆိုနိုင္ျခင္းရွိမရွိ ကိုေတာ့ ရက္ ၃၀ အတြင္း အေၾကာင္းျပန္သြားမယ္လို႔သိရ ပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
http://www.bbc.com/burmese
          Stay on message! Trade imbalance with South Korea, missionaries in Uganda, Syria, Iraq, and Burma   
Laura admits that media like MSNBC and CNN have been obsessed with ridiculing Trump since the day after he was elected, but she begs Trump not to give them oxygen. Joe and Mika are desperately trying to get attention. They lied to their viewers about their relationship, all the while having an affair cheating on their spouses.

Anyway, the media branding machine has been seeking to Get Trump since the day after he was elected. Trump's team should thwart their efforts by staying on message. Focus on what you are doing for the American people.

Laura notes that words matter, actions don't. By that she is referring to the behavior of the impeached Bill Clinton, who took action against many women. Trump uses words to tear down Mika, and the press goes berserk! What did the press and Democrats do with Bill Clinton's sexual escapades?

Trump has the South Korean president in DC today, and he is telling him that the trade imbalance has got to end.

Laura ends the program with interviews with a former special ops guy who is now a missionary to the people of Burma, Iraq, and Syria.

Her final guests are Christians working in Uganda, which has taken in hundreds of thousands of refugees. Uganda is 86% Christian.


              
Burma 2002 #fabriziojelminiphotography #fabriziojelmini #burma #people #travel #travelphotography #portrait #analogic #analogico#reportage #bn #bnw #bnw_life #streetphotography #kodak #kodaktmy #kodakfilm #35mm #contactsheet #35mmstreetphotography #leica #leicam #leicacamera #leicacraft #leicaworld #leicalens #leica🔴 #leicam4p #leica35mm #leicafilm
          In Brief: ROAD TO MANDALAY (2017) New York Asian FIlm Festival 2017   

Midi Z's gorgeous to look at downbeat drama, is like his other films a punch in the face and the heart.

The film follows two people who escape from Burma into Thailand hoping for a better life. However their in ability to get the necessary permits to work cause all sorts of tension and it ultimately fractures the relationship.

A solid art film it is deliberately paced and it sucks you in and drags you along. It also gives you much to think about concerning people trying to move to a better place for a better life.

Recommended.

JB's review can be found here
          05/26/15 Alan Bishop   

Guests Alan Bishop  (Koes Barat, Sublime Frequencies, Sun City Girls) with Don Irwin from Punk Life Zine

Playlist:

JFA - Preppy (AZ, USA)
Dara Puspita - Pesta Pak Lurah (Indo)
Koes Bersaudara - Hari Ini (Indo)
Koes Plus - Djangan Selalu Marah (Indo)
Philosophy Gang (Harry Roesli) - Peacock Dog (Indo)
Titim Fatimah - Cikapundung (Indo)
Samsimar - Indang Pariaman (Indo)
Syamsudin - Bunga Rampai (Indo)
Yi Yi Thant & Aung Heina - Good Time (Burma)
Saing Saing Maw    - Lah Ley Cham (Burma)
Rhoma Irama - Sama Saja (Indo)
Group Doueh - Eid For Dakhla (Western Sahara)
Omar Khorshid - Guitar El Chark (Egypt)
Bellemou & Benfissa - Li Maandouche L'Auto (Algeria)
Sea-Ders (Cedars-Lebanon) - Thanks A Lot
4 M (Egypt) - Ya Sarya
Koes Barat - Pent Juri Hati (WA, USA


          4-10-12 Geoff Turner / Gray Matter   

Guest DJ: Geoff Turner (Gray Matter, 3, Senator Flux, Outsiders, Common Cause, Fungus of Terror, New Wet Kojak) |

Playlist:
...
The Cramps - Human Fly |
Siouxsie and the Banshees - Love in a Void |
Buzzcocks - Harmony in My Head |
999 - No Pity |
UK Subs - Party in Paris |
Outsiders - Teenage Burnout |
Black Market Baby - Youth Crimes |
Minor Threat - Screaming at a Wall |
Bad Brains - Don't Bother Me |
Untouchables - Nic Fit |
Government Issue - Rock 'n Roll Bullshit |
Black Flag - Nervous Breakdown |
The Damned - Fan Club |
Gang of Four - (Love Like) Anthrax |
Gray Matter - Walk the Line |
Gray Matter - 4 A.M. |
3 - Swann Street |
Senator Flux - Grey Eyed Athena |
Mission of Burma - That's How I Escaped My Certain Fate |
Lida Husik - Fly Stereophonic |
Hoover - Pretender |
Helium - Superball |


          4-7-09 Birds and Wires   
Guest DJ: Brian Lombardozzi (1905, Birds and Wires, Amor y Lucha Records)  |

Playlist:
...
1905 - Lingua Franca |
Birds and Wires - Construct / The Sun Also Rises |
Universal Order of Armageddon - Switch Is Down |
Born Against - Half Mast |
Amebix - Chain Reaction |
Crass - White Punks on Hope |
Poison Girls - Price of Grain |
Au Pairs - Armagh |
Omega Tribe - Profiteer |
The Mob - Our Lives, Our World |
Firing Squad - Firing Squad |
The Wipers - Pushing the Extreme |
Fugazi - Merchandise |
Q and not U - Then Thousand Animal Calls |
Black Eyes - Some Boys |
Illuminati - Los Ultimos Dias de la Dulzura |
Big Boys - We're Not in It to Lose |
Mission of Burma - That's How I Escaped My Certain Fate |

          10-9-07 Problems   
Guest DJs: Katy Otto (Problems, Del Cielo, Bald Rapunzel, Exotic Fever Records) and Todd McDonald (Problems, Routineers, Jury Rig, Say No More) |

Playlist:
...

Mission of Burma - Peking Spring |
Big Business - Just as the Day Was Dawning |
The Drags - No Matter What Shape Your Head Is In |
Pete the Pirate Squid - Drinking Song |
The Saints - Know Your Product |
Avec - Deceptive Cadence |
The Wipers - Telepathic Love |
Meneguar - Hands Off |
Hot Snakes - Automatic Midnight |
Your Majesty - The Swinger |
Scream - Came Without Warning |
Akarso - Leave Quietly |
Come - William |
Pash - The Best Gun |
Meters - Punjee |
Discount - Broken to Blue |
Pixies - Gouge Away |
Forget Cassettes - Like Tiny Swords |
Lost Sounds - I Get Nervous |
Free Verse - No Crime No Gain |
Monorchid - Southern Fried Wonton |
Brakes - Hi, How Are You? |
Big Boys - No Love |

          6-12-07 Mark Andersen   
Guest DJ: Mark Andersen (Positive Force, We Are Family; author, Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital and All the Power: Revolution without Illusion) |

Playlist:
...
Vic Godard & the Subway Sect - Nobody's Scared |
Red Noise - Revolt into Style |
Penetration - Silent Community / Don't Dictate |
Madhouse - Respect |
Wayne County & the Electric Chairs - Are You Man Enough to Be a Woman |
Woody Guthrie - Jesus Christ |
Robert Johnson - Hellhound on My Trail |
Beefeater - Live the Life |
The Clash - Sex Mad Roar |
Patty Griffin - Top of the World |
Robin Lane & the Chartbusters - Imitation Life |
Redskins - Lean on Me |
Gil Scott-Heron - Washington D.C. |
Burma Jam - Still Standing |
Scream - Walkin' by Myself |
Urban Verbs - The Angry Young Men |
Women of Destruction - P.V.I. Is a Lie |
The Avengers - I Believe in Me |
Johnny Cash - These Hands |
New Model Army - Fireworks Night |
          PENGERTIAN DASAR BUDHA DHARMA DAN KEYAKINANNYA   

Bab 1
PENDAHULUAN
Secara historis agama buddha mempunyai kaitan erat dengan agama yang mendahuluinya, tapi walaupun demikian agama buddha mempunyai perbedaan dengan agama yang mendahuluinya dan yang datang sesudahnya,  Salah satunya agama hindu. Sebagai agama, ajaran buddha tidak bertitik tolak dari tuhan dan hubungannya dengan alam semesta dan seluruh isinya, termasuk manusia. Tetapi dari keadaan yang dihadapi manusia dalam kehidupannya sehari-hari, khususnya tentang tata susila yang dihadapi dan dijalani manusia agar terbebas dari lingkaran dukka yang selalu mengiringi hidupnya. Dan dalam jangka waktu yang lama ini, masalah ketuhanan itupun belum mendapatkan perhatian yang semestinya.
Dalam alur sejarah agama di india, zaman agama buddha dimulai semenjak tahun 500 SM hingga tahun 300 M.[1] Berangkat dari titik tolak ajaran yang dikembangkan tersebut, banyak para peminat ilmu agama mempertanyakan apakah agama buddha dipandang sebagai agama, atau hanya salah satu aliran filsafat saja. Sejalan dengan itu edwarad conze menyatakan bahwa buddhisme dapat dianggap sebagai agama dan suatu aliran filsafat. Sebagai agama, buddhisme merupakan suatu bentuk organisasi dari cita-cita yang bersifat spiritual yang menolak adanya unsur kekuasaan duniawi, yang ajarannya mampu memberikan sukses dalam mengatasi dunia dan dalam mencapai keabadian ataupun kehidupan setelah mati. Sebagai suaatu aliran filsafat, kata conze, buddhisme bersifat dialektis pragmatis yang bercorak kejiwaan.

LATAR BELAKANG
Dalam bab agama Hindu kita mencoba menggambarkan dua gerakan yang patut dicatat – para rishi Upanishad dan Sri Krishna – yang bangkit di India melawan politeisme Brahmana dan ritualisme. Betapa pun mereka akhirnya terserap dalam agama Hindu dan ciri mereka yang khas lenyap karena kompromi dengan sistem yang ditentang oleh mereka. Agama Buddha adalah revolusi yang lain lagi terhadap agama Brahmana, dan gerakan besar ini tidak dapat bercampur lagi dengan agama Hindu. Buddha bukanlah suatu agama yang berbeda, melainkan suatu sistem yang positif. Namun demikian, setelah suatu masa sukses dan popularitas yang luas, agama ini terasing dari tanah kelahirannya oleh agama Hindu yang dibangkitkan lagi. Tetapi sebelum hal itu terjadi, agama Buddha telah tersebar ke berbagai negeri di luar India dan menjadi satu dari agama dunia yang besar.
India dalam abad ke enam sebelum masehi bukanlah suatu kerajaan yang luar biasa atau kekaisaran. Negeri itu mempunyai sejumlah raja dari suku-suku serta marga tertentu yang memerintah daerah-daerah kecil. Beberapa logat dipergunakan meskipun Sansekerta adalah bahasa yang suci. Kitab Weda telah mendapat gelar yang misterius sebagai kitab wahyu. Pengorbanan dan upacara menurut faham Brahmana telah dijalankan secara luas dengan penuh keyakinan, bahwa melalui upacara itu maka manusia yang melakukannya akan memperoleh apa yang diinginkannya di dunia ini maupun di akhirat. Para pendeta Brahmana dihormati dan ditakuti sebagai setengah dewa. Masyarakat dibagi dalam empat kasta secara ketat dengan kaum Brahmana yang memperoleh kedudukan penuh fasilitas, di pihak lain kaum Sudra dan Paria menjalani hidup dalam keadaan yang lebih buruk dari binatang piaraan. Kitab hukum agama Hindu menyatakan : ‘Telinga seorang Sudra yang mendengarkan penuh perhatian ketika Kitab Weda dibacakan harus disumpal dengan logam cair, lidahnya harus dipotong bila membacanya, badannya harus dibelah bila hafal dalam ingatannya”.[2] Bila seorang Sudra berbuat demikian besar, misalnya memberikan sekelumit nasehat kepada seorang Brahmana, minyak panas harus dituangkan ke telinganya.
Orang Hindu telah mengembangkan kegemaran untuk berfilsafat secara hitam putih, yang tiada lain kecuali mencari kebenaran atau menyalib orang. Ini adalah abad kekacauan yang penuh untung-untungan dengan ilmu agama yang tidak tentu dan pertengkaran yang membingungkan. Kehidupan akhlak sangat menderita karena banyak permasalahan metafisik, dan perselisihan keagamaan yang menyerang habis daya serta tenaga rakyat. Dalam hutan dan gua-gua hiduplah banyak resi dan pertapa yang menjalankan penyiksaan diri dan menolak kesenangan bagi diri mereka untuk masa yang panjang dan percaya bahwa ini adalah jalan untuk mencapai ketinggian rohani.
Rakyat menyembah segala macam, mulai dari matahari hingga batu biasa, dewa yang tinggi hingga setan, dedemit yang menakutkan. “Di benua yang luas India”, tulis Dr. Radhakrishnan, “kapasitas yang luar biasa untuk menciptakan dewa-dewa, maka dengan kejahilan bertuhan memberi ruang lingkup yang luar biasa. Tuhan dan hantu dengan daya melukai atau mengganggunya, sebagaimana halnya perlu dipuji dan dipuja karena menguasai
kehidupan rakyat. Di sisi lain secara kontras, Weda penuh aturanaturan dan upacara-upacara ritual dan seremonialnya saja”.[3]
Di dunia inilah, Siddharta yang mempunyai nama keluarga Gautama dan dibelakang hari menjadi Buddha dilahirkan.


RIWAYAT KEHIDUPAN BUDDHA
Fakta sejarah mengenai kehidupan pendiri agama Buddha telah tenggelam dalam banjir dongeng yang muncul sejak awal sejarah agama tersebut. Dari seluruh catatan yang telah ditulis tentang beliau, hanya ada sebagian kecil yang dapat dianggap sebagai kebenaran sejarah, sampai-sampai seorang yang ulama pun seperti Ananda Coomaraswamy percaya bahwa Buddha bukanlah seorang manusia melainkan suatu mitos Dewa Matahari.
“Pertimbangan-pertimbangan ini”, tulisnya, “membangkitkan pertanyaan apakah ‘kehidupan’ dan ‘penakluk kematian’ dan ‘Guru dari dewa dan manusia’ yang menyatakan bahwa ia dilahirkan dan diturunkan di dunia-Brahma, dan yang turun dari langit serta masuk dalam rahim dan lahir dari Maha Maya dapat dianggap sebagai fakta sejarah ataukah sekedar suatu mitologi di mana sifat dan tindakan dewa Weda yakni Dewa Agni serta Dewa Indra yang kurang lebihnya telah bercampur dengan jelas di dalamnya”.[4]
Keraguan yang sama diungkapkan dalam sejarah Yesus Kristus dan Lao Tzu. Jika mereka menggarisbawahi kesulitan tugas cendekiawan yang ingin mengungkapkan fakta sejarah tentang Buddha, Lao Tzu, dan Yesus karena kumpulan cerita dongeng yang ada di sekelilingnya, namun untuk menganggap hal itu sepenuhnya sebagai dongeng adalah sikap yang berlebihan diambil oleh cendikiawan.
Siddharta Gautama yang kelak menjadi Buddha dilahirkan pada tahun 563 sM di tanah Lumbini dekat Kapilavastu. Ayahnya Suddhodana adalah seorang raja dari marga Sakya yang negerinya terletak di sudut Selatan Nepal dengan Kapilavastu sebagai ibu kotanya.[5]
Ibunya Maya meninggal dunia ketika dia berumur tujuh hari dan anak itu dibesarkan oleh saudara perempuan ibunya, yakni Pajapati. Dalam Sutta Nipata, kita temukan juru ramal Asista yang datang ke istana Suddhodana yang haus akan Dharma yang sejati. Kita membaca tentang betapa dia mengenal tanda-tanda pribadi pada dirinya sebagai Buddha dan meramalkan kebesaran anak itu di masa datang. Dia menangis karena berfikir bahwa dia sendiri sudah tidak ada lagi sampai saat yang akan tiba itu dan mendengarkan Kitab ajaran yang baru.
Ayahnya cemas, sehingga dia harus tidak tahu tentang gejolak dunia. Dia dikelilingi dengan segala macam kecantikan dan kemewahan. Namun Siddharta tidaklah seperti anak-anak muda yang lain. Dia tidak ingin bebas riang gembira atau menyukai olah raga berkelahi dan wanita. Ayahnya telah mengawani dengan sepupunya yang cantik, yakni Yasodhara , Siddharta mencintai istrinya tetapi dia pun tak sanggup mengobati kegelisahan hatinya.[6]
Dia merasa sebagai seorang tawanan dalam istana serta tamantaman kemewahan yang didirikan ayahnya. Dia meneguhkan niatnya untuk mengadakan perjalanan guna melihat dunia nyata. Kita baca dalam kitab-kitab suci bahwa bagaimana dia pergi dengan Channa, sais keretanya, dan melihat berturut-turut seorang tua renta seorang yang sakit dan meninggal dunia. Ia merasa sangat tergoncang melihat penderitaan dan kematian manusia. Kemudian dia melihat seorang pertapa berkepala gundul dengan jubah kuning sudah tua dan pemandangan atas orang itu mengilhami keinginan untuk mencari kedamaian hidup keagamaan, dan ketentraman serta penyembuhan atas penderitaan kemanusian. Di malam yang larut dia mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepada isterinya yang sedang tidur dengan bayinya dan meninggalkan istananya. Di tepi hutan dia mengenakan jubah pendeta dan memulai karirnya sebagai seorang pencari kebenaran. Ini adalah penolakkan keduniawan yang besar.
Dia mengembara di hutan dari satu guru ke lain guru, mempelajari segala hal yang diajarkan kepadanya, tetapi tidak menemukan kepuasan. Berikutnya dia mulai berpuasa berturut-turut, dengan keras menjalankan latihan meditasi dan membebani dirinya dengan cobaan-cobaan yang dahsyat, dengan harapan bahwa dengan cara ini dia akan menemukan kebenaran. Ini usaha yang besar, meskipun seringkali dia di ambang maut, tetapi tidak menemukan sekalipun dari gelombang kehidupan ini. Karena itu, dia berkesimpulan bahwa hidup bertapa bukanlah jalan ke arah penerangan. Dia memutuskan untuk makan minum lagi, sehingga lima pertapa yang mengikuti dirinya, akhirnya pun meninggalkannya. Akhirnya dia duduk bersila dengan gaya yang disebut bunga teratai di bawah pohon yang yang suci dengan penuh harapan memperoleh penerangan. Cerita mengisahkan kepada kita bahwa pada saat krisis Siddharta diganggu oleh Mara, penggoda yang mencoba dengan sia-sia dengan segala bentuk tema dan godaan yang menggoncangkan. Dia teguh dalam meditasi dan akhirnya pintu hijab pun terangkat di mata beliau, dan cahaya yang membahagiakan meliputi beliau. Ini adalah penerangan yang besar, dan Siddharta Gautama telah mencapai bodhi atau pemancar cahaya dan menjadi Buddha atau seorang yang diterangi.[7]
Selama tujuh hari atau lebih beliau tinggal di sana, Mara si setan mencobanya lagi. Cobaan ini agar dia menerima sekaligus menggenapkan atas pembebasan dirinya sendiri ketika itu juga dengan kematiannya untuk langsung ke Nirwana. Ini cobaan yang paling rumit. Fikiran bahwa dia mengumumkan ajarannya, maka manusia tidak akan menerimanya, dan dia hanya akan kehilangan ketentraman dirinya ini juga menakutkannya dan agar berbalik lagi. Tetapi kasih sayang dalam kalbu Buddha membangunkannya demi kebutuhan manusia yang abadi, dia merasa bahwa perasaaan pribadinya yang mendalam untuk mengasihi dan menyayangi serta menyuruh dia untuk mengabdi kepada sesama umatNya. Karena itu, Sang Buddha memutuskan untuk terjun ke masyarakat dan mengumumkan kepada dunia jalan ke arah kedamaian dan hidup abadi.
Orang-orang pertama yang kepada siapa dia memutuskan untuk menyam-paikan risalahnya, adalah lima pertapa yang dulu telah meninggalkannya saat dia menghentikan hidup bertapa. Beliau menemukan mereka di Varanasi (Banares), dan di sana di Taman Menjangan, beliau mengajarkan khotbah pertama mengenai ‘Meletak-kan Diri dalam Gerak Roda Kebenaran’. Beliau mengajarkan mereka Jalan Tengah, Empat Kebenaran Mulia, dan Delapan Segi Jalan ke Arah Keselamatan. Mereka menjadi murid-muridnya yang pertama dan Arahant (Wali yang sempurna).[8]
 Jumlah pengikutnya bertambah dengan cepat, dan beliau mengutus mereka ke dunia dengan penuh kasih sayang kepada sesama manusia untuk mengumum-kan Dharma (atau Dhamma bahasa Pali), yakni Keimanan Sejati atau Hukum demi keselamatan banyak orang. Buddha sendiri pergi Uruvella. Di perjalanan beliau menemukan sekelompok orang-orang muda yang sedang berdarmawisata dengan isteri mereka . Salah seorang dari mereka membawa selirnya dan ternyata wanita simpanannya minggat bersama harta miliknya. Si orang muda itu bertanya kepada Sang Buddha kalau-kalau beliau melihat wanita itu. “Coba kau fikirkan wahai anak muda” tanya Sang Buddha, “manakah yang lebih baik bagi dirimu, mengejar seorang wanita atau mencintai Dirimu sendiri?”. Dalam perjalanan ini, beliau dapat merebut hati orangorang muda tersebut dari nafsu rendah ke jalan keagamaan dan kemuliaan. Di Uruvela, Sang Buddha bertemu dengan sekolom-pok penyembah api, dan beliau mengajarkan kepada mereka khotbah apinya yang termasyur. Mereka juga bertobat dan menjadi murid-muridnya.
Di Rajagraha, Sang Buddha menyadarkan Raja Humsara dan menerima dari raja itu taman yang dikenal sebagai Celah Bambu untuk digunakan jemaahnya sebagai tempat semedhi yang tetap. Kemudian, beliau pergi ke Kapilavastu dan menjumpai ayah, isteri, dan anaknya. Puteranya, Rahula, dan Ibunya, Prajapati, bergabung dalam jemaah . Sang Buddha kurang senang menerima wanita dalam jamaahnya, namun dibujuk untuk berbuat demikian oleh saudara sepupu yang juga muridnya, Ananda Buddhacarita. Riwayat hidup awal dari Buddha ditulis oleh Asvaghosa, berisi banyak peristiwa mujizat yang dilakukan Buddha dan juga perjalanan ke langit untuk mengajarkan Dharma kepada roh-roh dari mereka yang sudah tiada.
Demikianlah Sang Buddha selama empat puluh tahun melanjutkan kelana-nya dari satu tempat ke tempat lain untuk mengajarkan Dharma dan Jalan kedamaian abadi dan hidup kekal. Akhirnya, datanglah saat bagi beliau untuk meninggalkan badan jasmaninya. Salah satu cerita tentang hari-hari terakhir Sang Buddha diriwayatkan dalam Mahaparinibhana Sutta dari Digha Nikaya. Beliau mengatakan kepada para pengikutnya untuk membuat “Diri sendiri sebagai tempat mengungsi, dan pengungsian Hukum Abadi mereka”. Kata-kata terakhir-nya, “Dapat rusaklah segala perkara yang berpasangan; bekerjalah dalam kesung-guhan demi tujuan Anda”. Gambaran yang utuh dari Buddha telah menyinarkan cahayanya ke jutaan ummat manusia selama duapuluhenam abad dan telah memenangkan penghormatan dan kekaguman tidak hanya bagi para penganut agama Buddha, melainkan juga manusia yang tidak melihat bagaimana caranya untuk bergabung dalam kepercayaan itu.


AJARAN SANG BUDDHA
Sang Buddha sendirι tidak menulis apa-apa. Tak sedikit pun dari ajarannya yang tertulis setidaknya selama empat ratus tahun sesudah wafatnya. Yang lebih buruk lagi, praktik-praktik para pengikutnya dalam menerangkan agama Buddha telah menyisipkan kata-kata dan komentar sendiri dari ucapan Guru Besar itu. Karena itu mustahil memisahkan kata-kata asli dari Buddha dengan segolongan besar kata-kata dan ceramah-ceramah yang tersiar yang telah dinisbahkan kepadanya dalam kitab-kitab suci agama Buddha. Cendikiawan Buddha terkenal, Chirstmas Humpreys menulis:
“Karena itu tidaklah kita mengetahui apa yang diajarkan Buddha lebih dari apa yang diajarkan Yesus, dan saat ini sedikitnya ada empat aliran dan masing-masing ada pembagian lagi yang menyatakan bahwa pandangan mereka sendiri-lah yang mencerminkan apakah agama Buddha”.[9]
Nyonya Rhys Davids mengakui bahwa kitab suci agama Buddha yang pertama adalah sesuatu seperti “kritisisme lebih tinggi” dan berdasarkan penemuannya, suatu usaha akan kita paparkan di sini untuk menyajikan risalah asli dari Sang Buddha.
 Sang Buddha adalah Buddha, sebab dia Buddha Yang Sadar, Yang Diterangi, Yang Waspada” Kebenaran yang tertinggi telah diwahyukan kepadanya. Siddharta Gautama bukanlah Buddha yang pertama. Beliau sendiri berkata telah banyak Buddha atau Guru Kebenaran yang mendapat penerangan penuh sebelum beliau, dan banyak sekali yang akan datang sesudah beliau.
Intisari ajaran Buddha adalah cinta kasih yang terdapat dalam khotbahnya “Meletakkan diri dalam Gerak Roda Kebenaran”. Beliau mengajarkan bahwa mereka yang ingin memasuki hidup keagaman harus mencegah dua ekstrimitas yang mengumbar nafsu pribadi, hidup menyiksa diri, dan mengikuti jalan tengah. Beliau mengungkapkan Empat Kebenaran Mulia: (1) kebenaran pertama, yakni tentang adanya penderitaan dan kesusahan di dunia ini, (2) kebenaran kedua menyatakan bahwa sebab dari penderitaan dan kesusahan itu adalah nafsu pribadi, (3) kebenaran ketiga menjamin bahwa nafsu pribadi dan kesusahan dapat dibinasakan, (4) kebenaran keempat menunjukkan jalan yang menuntut ke arah menghilangkan kesusahan dan ketidakbahagian. Sang Buddha memberikan gambaran yang mengagumkan dari Jalan Bersegi Delapan yang mendorong ke arah akan diakhirnya penderitaaan, dan ketidakbahagian. Yaitu pandangan yang benar, gagasan yang yang benar, bicara yang benar, tindakan yang benar, hidup yang benar, usaha yang benar, dan renungan yang benar. Pandangan yang benar berarti pengetahuan atau empat kebenaran mulia. Tetapi sepanjang kebenaran itu hanya dikenal oleh akal fikiran saja, maka kebenaran itu tidak punya daya kehidupan. Karena itu harus diketemukan dan dibuktikan oleh setiap orang dikedalaman hati nuraninya sendiri. Karena itu, langkah pertama adalah menimbulkan kesadaran suatu panggilan untuk meninggalkan cara di mana kita telah kehilangan kebenaran dan nasib kita. Aspirasi yang benar adalah menolak hawa nafsu rendah, tidak boleh membenci atau menyakiti sesama makhluk. Bicara yang benar, menyuruh kita agar menghentikan dusta, fitnah, caci maki, katakata kasar, dan omong kosong. Tindakan yang benar, berarti menghindari pencabutan jiwa atau mengambil apa yang tidak diberikan atau dari akibat-akibat nafsu sex. Hidup yang benar, berarti menghentikan setiap cara hidup yang terlarang, misalnya menjadi pedagang senjata, penjual budak, mencari nama atau penjual racun. Usaha yang benar, terdiri dari menahan timbulnya nafsu jahat ,membinasakan nafsu rendah yang timbul dalam mendorong nafsu baik dan menyempurnakannya bagi mereka yang telah bisa mewujudkannya. Fikiran yang benar, adalah mencapai penguasaan diri dengan sarana-sarana ilmu pengetahuan, pribadi. Renungan yang benar mengambil bentuk dalam empat macam semedi atau meditasi. Ini adalah akhir dan mahkota dari jalan bersegi delapan. Ini adalah bagian penting dari kehidupan tertinggi disaat nafsu kejahilan dan egoisme menghilang, dan pencerahan serta kesucian menggantikannya. Ini adalah renu-ngan penuh kedamaian dan kebahagian yang mendalam, menyertai bersatunya pribadi sendiri dengan Pribadi Universal.[10]
Metode pengajaran agama Buddha dengan baik sekali dilukiskan oleh ‘Perumpamaan Biji Mustard’. Kisah Gotami, seorang wanita tua miskin, telah kehilangan putra tunggalnya. Penuh kedukaan yang tak terhingga dia datang kepada Sang Buddha dan memohon kepadanya agar menghidupkan puteranya kembali. Buddha setuju untuk berbuat demikian, asal wanita itu mau mengambil beberapa biji mustard dari satu rumah yang belum mengalami kematian. Wanita itu pergi dari rumah ke rumah, tetapi kemana pun dia pergi selalu diberitahukan bahwa tak ada sebuah rumah pun yang tidak pernah mengalami kematian. Dengan cara ini, dia memperoleh pengertian secara simpatik. Wanita itu kembali kepada Sang Buddha, dan tidak lagi meminta agar puteranya dihidupkan kembali, melainkan agar dia diberikan kedamaian dan ketentraman.
Kisah yang mengharukan ini mengajarkan dua hal dari ajaran Buddha yang paling penting. Pertama, segala sesuatu yang ada dalam fenomena dunia selama-nya akan berubah dan sementara. Apa pun yang ada akan berlalu, siapa pun yang dilahirkan akan mati. Setiap makhluk hidup adalah suatu gabungan elemen-elemen, cepat atau lambat akan bercerai berai. Karena itu, suatu penerimaan yang wajar atas kematian adalah bagian yang penting dalam penyesuaian yang sejati kepada kenyataan. Kedua dari ajaran ini adalah menerima secara realistik terhadap kematian, dan pelaksanaan kasih sayang yang tercurah kepada sesama makhluk yang seperti kita sendiri yang akan menjadi sasaran dan kesakitan, serta penderitaan semacam itu.[11]
 Sang Buddha mengajarkan kasih sayang dan simpati yang universal:
“Tidak pernah di dunia ini kebencian dapat diluluhkan dengan kebencian, hal itu hanya dapat diluluhkan dengan kasih sayang – inilah hukum yang abadi” (Dharmmapala 1:5).
“Hendaklah manusia menundukkan kemarahannyα dengan kasih-sayang, hendaklah dia tundukkan kejahatan dengan kebaikan, hendaklah keserakahan dengan kedermawanan, kebohongan dengan kebenaran.”[12]
Hanya sedikit tentang apa yang kita sebut dogmα dalam ajaran agama Buddha. Dengan keluasan pandangan yang jarang pada masa itu, dan tidak jamak pula di zaman kita, dia menolak kritik yang ngotot. Sifat tidak toleran dianggap sebagai musuh agama. Suatu peristiwa beliau masuk dalam balai pertemuan di Ambalatthika dan mendapatkan beberapa muridnya sedang marahmarah kepada seorang Brahman yang telah menuduh Buddha sebagai seorang yang tidak jujur dan menemukan cacat dalam jemaat yang didirikannya. “Saudara-saudara”, kata Buddha, “bila orang lain berbicara menentang saya atau ajaran agama saya, atau melawan jemaat saya, tidak ada alasan kalian untuk marah atau tidak senang kepada mereka. Jika Anda berbuat demikian, tidak saja Anda tidak akan mampu menimbang lagi apakah yang dikatakannya itu benar ataukah tidak tepat”. Beliau melarang kritik yang tidak jujur terhadap kepercayaan lain. Tidak ada satu peristiwa pun di mana Buddha itu terbit amarahnya, tidak ada satu peristiwa pun di mana kata yang tidak lemah lembut meluncur dari lisannya. Beliau memiliki toleransi yang sangat luas terhadap sesama manusia.
Sang Buddha tidak diragukan lagi adalah pembaharu masyarakat yang terbesar di India. Hasil yang paling dapat dicatat adalah penghapusan sistem kasta. Dia mengatakan bahwa seseorang Brahmana tidak karena dilahirkan oleh orang tua Brahmana sebagaimana diajarkan oleh agama Hindu, tidak pula karena dia menjalankan upacara-upacara dan melakukan bentuk-bentuk luar dari kasta Brahmana, tetapi dia adalah seorang Brahmana karena akhlak dan pengabdiannya kepada kebenaran serta kehidupan.
“Seorang bukanlah Brahmana karena rambutnya yang dicukur ataupun keturunan atau kastanya, dalam pribadi yang terdapat Kebenaran dan Hukum dia adalah suci, dia adalah seorang Brahmana”. (Dharmmapada 29:33).
 Buddha tidak percaya kepada apa yang disebut juru selamat dan penebusan dosa. Beliau mengajarkan bahwa manusia itu secara pribadi harus bertanggung jawab atas tindak tanduknya sendiri. Kebahagiaan atau kesusahannya, dosa atau kesuciannya adalah sebagai akibat tingkah lakunya sendiri. Tak seorang pun dapat menyelamatkan diri dari dosanya.
“Kejahatan itu hanya dilakukan oleh dirinya sendiri, dengan dirinya sendiri seorang itu ternoda, karena dirinya sendiri sajalah kejahatan itu diperbuat manusia, dengan diri sendiri sajalah seseorang itu disucikan. Kesucian atau pun kekotoran tergantung kepada pribadinya sendiri. Tak seorang pun dapat mensucikan orang lain’. (Dharmmapada 12:165).
 Pendeknya kita menuai apa yang kita tanam, baik di dunia ini maupun di alam nanti. Orang baik akan ke sorga dan si jahat ke neraka: “Para pahlawan yang tidak mengenal kekerasan dan selalu mengendalikan dirinya untuk menuju Kediaman Abadi, di mana di tempat itu seseorang bebas dari kedukaan.” (Dharmmapada 17:225).
 ‘‘Bagaikan satu kota berbenteng yang terletak di tanah perbatasan dan terjaga baik di dalam mau pun di luarnya, hendaklah seseorang itu mengendalikan dirinya sungguh-sungguh dan jangan dia lewatkan sedikit pun tak terjaga, karena bagi mereka yang terlewat sedetik saja akan jatuh ke dalam kesusahan, seolah-olah mereka ditetapkan ke neraka.” (Dharmmapada 22:313).
 Buddha menolak terlibat dalam pertentangan metafisik yang meresahkan dan tidak terarah. Banyak ajaran yang sekarang dianggap bagian penting agama Buddha, tidaklah merupakan bagian ajaran yang asli dari Buddha. Nyonya Rhys Dacids, H.J. Jennings dan Ananda Coosmaraswamy sepakat bahwa ajaran reinkarnasi dari agama Hindu,
“penolakkan diri” (Anatta) dan kependetaan itu bukanlah termasuk asli agama Buddha. Tidak diragukan lagi tentang kepercayaan Buddha terhadap keabdian jiwa. Waktu beliau berbicara tentang penghancuran “diri sendiri”, itu berarti penghancuran nafsu rendah. Nafsu rendah inilah yang dinyatakan oleh Buddha sebagai tidak permanen dan tidak nyata. Beliau yakin atas kenyataan dan keabadian dari nafsu yang lebih tinggi.
“Jika seseorang mengetahui bahwa pribadinya itu berharga, dia harus selalu menjaga dan mengawasinya dengan baik-baik.” (Dharmmapada 12:157).
“Melalui diri sendiri seseorang harus mengajar Pribadi, seseorang harus mengendalikan diri dengan Pribadi; jadi menjadi Bhikku itu dijaga oleh Pribadi dan bukan fikiran, inilah yang akan berjalan ke arah kebahagian.” (Dharmmapada 25:379)
Tidak satu pun yang lebih disalahfahami selain sikap Buddha kepada Tuhan. Seringkali dikatakan bahwa Buddha itu tinggal diam bilamana dia ditanya tentang Tuhan, diamnya itu ditafsirkan sebagai penolakkan atas adanya Tuhan. Namun Ny. Rhys Davids dan Sir Francis Younghusband, kedua-duanya menunjukkan bahwa Buddha itu membawakan ajaran Upanishad. Dia tidak asing lagi dengan fikiran-fikiran dan istilah-istilah keagamaan. Ketika Upanishad menggunakan kata-kata “Pribadi” seringkali digunakan dalam pengertian Pribadi Semesta atau Tuhan, prinsip metafisik dari kehadiran – inilah Brahman, Pribadi yang tersembunyi dalam-dalam di segala makhluk.” Sang Buddha jelas-jelas menggunakan kata Pribadi dengan pengertian yang sama ketika beliau berkata: “Aku berlindung kepada Sang Pribadi” (Digya Nikaya 2:120), dan dalam kata-kata berikut:
“Pribadi adalah Tuhan itu sendiri, apakah ada Tuhan yang lebih tinggi dari itu? Bila seseorang menguasai baik-baik diri pribadinya, maka dia akan menemukan Satu Tuhan yang sukar didapat.” (Dharmmapada, 12: 159)
“Pribadi adalah Tuhan diri pribadi, Pribadi adalah tujuan diri pribadi; karena itu kendalikan dirimu bagaikan seorang pedagang yang mengendalikan seekor keturunan yang baik”. (ibid, 25:380)
Buddha seringkali menunjukkan Dharma (Dhamma dalam bahasa Pali), keimanan yang sejati sebagai Brahmacariyam atau jalan menuju Brahman, kehendak Tuhan yang kekal. Dalam suatu peristiwa, beliau menunjukkan bahwa bila seseorang itu mengikuti hidup yang mulia dan suci, “dengan kalbu penuh kasih sayang, luas pandangan, bertumbuh menjadi besar dan selalu terukur”, orang semacam itu mendekati persatuan dengan Brahman dan bahwa “dia sesudah kematiannya dan ketika tubuh jasmaninya bercerai berai akan menjadi satu dengan Brahman yang senantiasa sama” (Tevijja Sutta). Brahman tentulah nama yang diberikan dalam Upanishad untuk Satu Tuhan yang Sejati. Ananda Coomaraswamy menulis:
“Hukum atau Dhamma selalu menjadi suatu nomen Dei, dan dalam agama Buddha itu sinonim dengan Brahman.”[13]
Dan ini pula yang ditulis Sir Francis Younghusband tentang masalah tersebut: “Walaupun demikian, sikapnya tentang menuju ke idea Tuhan seringkali disalahtafsirkan. Karena itu ia berusaha memperhalus dan mempertajam pengertian Tuhan … ia meletakkan seorang ateis dan Buddhis sebagai dentingan halus suatu renungan yang tidak penting. Tetapi hal ini mungkin disebabkan Buddha terlalu besar, tidak terlalu kecil, idea tentang Tuhan diperhalus untuk menekankan pada diri sendiri agar memperoleh ketajaman pengertian tentang kedewataan. Adalah sesuatu yang terlalu besar untuk dinyatakan dalam kata-kata. Siapa, misalnya, yang dapat mendefinisikan cinta? Buddha tidak memperkirakan untuk mendefinisikan Tuhan, tetapi baik beliau dan muridnya telah jenuh dengan konsep Kekuatan dibalik mata yang melihat, dan telingga yang mendengar, dan semua kejadian di alam.”[14]
Jadi tujuan agama Buddha itu seperti semua agama lainnya adalah Nirwana (bahasa Pali, Nibbhana), yang dalam risalah asli dari Sang Buddha berarti kembalinya roh ke haribaan Tuhan.


SEJARAH AGAMΑ BUDDHA
Sungguh disayangkan bahwa kepemimpinan dan tafsir popular agama Buddha itu jatuh ke tangan seorang yang bernama Sariputra. Dia sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh Edward Conze cenderung sebagai seorang yang skeptis. Dia sungguh-sungguh boleh disebut Santo Paulusnya agama Buddha. Dia mencap risalah-risalah Sang Buddha sebagai bikinannya sendiri dan menafsirkannya sekehendak hatinya. Dia mengabaikan banyak perkara dan melebih-lebihi perkara lain dalam ajaran Buddha. Dengan mengutip kata-kata Edward Conze:
“Tarikan Sariputra ke dalam ajaran agama Buddha tidak saja dalam melatih kependetaan untuk jangka waktu yang panjang, melainkan juga menentukan aspek-aspek mana dari ajaran Buddha yang harus ditekankan dan mana yang harus disingkirkan ke bawah tanah.”[15]
Hikmah lama atau aliran Hinayana dalam agama Buddha memakai penafsiran Sariputra dan juga skeptisismenya. Sudah umum dipercaya bahwa segera setelah wafatnya Buddha, suatu konsili Buddha telah diadakan di Rajagaha untuk menetapkan isi dari isi Tripitaka atau Tiga Keranjang Hukum. Konsili kedua, dikatakan telah dilangsungkan di Vasali sekitar seratus tahun kemudian untuk membereskan perbedaan-perbedaan tertentu yang telah timbul dalam jemaat tersebut. Namun kebanyakan cendekiawan meragukan riwayat dari konsili ini.
Sekitar dua ratus tahun setelah wafatnya Sang Buddha, timbullah perpecahan yang pertama di antara ummat Buddha. Para pengikut apa yang disebut aliran Hikmah Lama pecah dalam dua sekte, Theravadi dan Sarvastivadin. Kaum Theravadi mendapat dukungan di wilayah Timur India dan sekarang mereka menguasai Ceylon, Burma, dan Thailand. Kitab suci mereka Tripitaka adalah dalam bahasa Pali.[16] Sarvastivadin berkembang di Barat dengan Mathura, Gandhara (Lembah Peshawar) sebagai pusatnya. Sekte ini menjadi padam sekitar 1100, namun kitab sucinya tetap dapat diperoleh dalam bahasa Sanskrit.[17]
Sekitar tahun 240 SM, kita saksikan bangkitnya Mahayana Buddha, sebagai reaksi terhadap Theravada yang direndahkan oleh kaum Mahayana dengan nama Hinayana.
Konsili ketiga dari agama Buddha diadakan di Pataliputra dalam abad ketiga sebelum masehi. Ini adalah konferensi sefihak dari golongan Hinayana dan tujuannya adalah mengutuk gejalagejala ‘murtad’ sekte Mahayana. Dinyatakan bahwa konsili ini diadakan oleh Asoka, salah satu raja mulia yang banyak jasanya kepada agama Buddha.
Peristiwa penting selanjutnya dalam sejarah kaum Buddha adalah masuknya Menander (Milinda), seorang raja keturunan dinasti Bactria asal Yunani. Suatu buku kanonik yang penting dari Buddha Hinayana berjudul Milinda Panha (Pertanyaan–pertanyaan Raja Milinda) ditulis oleh filsuf Buddha terkemuka Nagasena sebagai tanggapan atas pertanyaan-pertanyaan tertentu yang diajukan oleh Raja Menander. Kitab ini merupakan pembelaan aliran Hinayana yang disusun untuk menenangkan fikiran yang bergejolak saat itu dari elemen-elemen baru yang merusak serta menyusup ke dalam agama Buddha.
Dengan bangkitnya Saka dalam tampuk kekuasaan di India, maka timbul kesenjangan dalam pengetahuan kita tentang sejarah Buddha. Namun dalam abad pertama, Saka ditaklukkan oleh suku bangsa lain yang berasal dari Asia Tengah, Yueh-Chi atau Kushans. Raja terbesar dari dinasti ini, Kaniksha (memerintah 120-162 ) menjadi Buddha, dan sebagaimana halnya dengan Asoka serta Menander, dia memberi dukungan yang kuat kepada agamanya yang baru. Di sekitar waktu inilah agama Buddha mengalami suatu rangkaian perubahan yang membuatnya sangat berbeda dengan ajaran asli Sang Buddha. Agama ini jatuh di bawah bermacammacam pengaruh, seperti Hellenisme, Paganisme dari Asia Tengah dan agama Brahma. Sang Buddha dipertuhankan dan patungnya menjadi obyek sembahyang keagamaan. Beberapa waktu sebelum ini, patung Buddha yang pertama telah dibuat orang sebagai dukungan raja Kaniksha, seorang seniman besar dari aliran Gandhara. Di antara para penulis besar periode ini, dapat disebutkan Asvaghosa pengarang Buddacarita dan Mayayana Sradhopada (Kebangkitan Iman). Masa ini juga memperlihatkan bangkitnya dua Universitas Buddha yang terkenal, yakni Universitas Taxila dan Universitas Nalanda di Magadha (Bihar).
Seorang filsuf besar, Nagarjuna, pendiri aliran Madhyamika dalam agama Buddha dan pengarang Mahaprajna Paramita Shastra tergolong dari Universitas Nalanda. Tamu-tamu terkemuka dari Tiongkok, Hiuen-Tsian dan I-Tsing belajar bertahun-tahun di univeristas ini dan menyatakan kekagumannya melalui tulisan mereka.
Kanishka meniru cara Ashoka dengan memanggil Konsili Buddha berikutnya, yakni keempat. Konsili ini tidak hanya memunculkan Sarvastivadin, tetapi dimaksudkan pula untuk menempatkan keharmonisan dengan tumbuhnya pengajaran dari dua pendidikan utama tersebut.
Agama Buddha selanjutnya tumbuh dan mempunyai peran besar dalam perkembangan intelektual dan moral pada masa kejayaan Gupta. Pahatan dan lukisan terkenal di gua Ajanta dan Ellora terdapat pada abad ini. Dengan kedatangan Huns dan Gujars di India pada abad keenam, biara dan tempat belajar mengalami kerusakan yang menyedihkan. Tetapi agama Buddha tumbuh kembali dan berjaya pada kekuasaan raja Harsha dan abad Palas. Namun setelah itu, agama Buddha mulai menunjukkan kemunduran. Kemunduran agama Buddha berkaitan dengan bangkitnya militan Hindu, suatu awal kejadian dimulai dengan menebang pohon suci di Gaya dan membakar habis biara Buddha oleh gerombolan dari Bengal dan Bihar. Pengajaran agama Hindu oleh filsuf besar Shankara dari Vedanta dan juga pemikiran besar lainnya telah menjatuhkan agama Buddha. Sekitar abad ketujuh, seluruh agama Buddha telah tiada di tanah kelahirannya.
            Jauh sebelum kejatuhannya di India, agama Buddha telah berkembang dan mengakar di banyak negara di luar India. Ia telah tersebar di Ceylon pada masa Ashoka. Pada masa itu Ceylon (Sri Lanka), menjadi pusat agama Buddha Theravada. Agama Buddha mencapai Burma pada abad kelima dan Thailand abad kedelapan, dan di kedua negeri ini sampai sekarang tetap setia pada keimanannya. Agama Buddha mencapai China melalui Asia Tengah (sekitar 50 ) dan dari China kemudian tersebar ke Korea (372 ) dan Jepang (552 ). Agama Buddha yang masuk ke Chi
          ကျေးဇူးပြုပြီး သူ့ကိုလွှတ်ပေးပါ   

ကျမကတော့ သူ လွတ်မြောက်လာတာကို စောင့်နေမယ်။ ကျမ ဘဝမှာ အဖေပြီးရင် အလေးစားရဆုံးက သူပါ၊ အချစ်ရဆုံးနဲ့ ယုံကြည်ရဆုံးလည်း ဖြစ်ပါတယ်

The post ကျေးဇူးပြုပြီး သူ့ကိုလွှတ်ပေးပါ appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          meme: BIRMANIA LIBERA   


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          Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, AAA moonstone, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant by silverstudio2014   

31.51 USD

Blue Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Bezel set in Fine Silver, Semi Precious Gemstone Jewelry, Amethyst Pandant, AAA Blue Flash Moonstone Pendant

Item Code : AGPA-31744-02

Weight (Approx) : 4.87 Grams

Metal : Solid 925 Sterling Silver

Gemstone : Blue Rainbow Moonstone

Stone Shape : Mix

Stone Size (Approx) : Free

Stone Color : Blue

Pandant Size: 50 x 16
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Rainbow Moonstone Gemstone :-

Moonstone is a very personal stone. It is a reflection of the person who owns it. It does not add or detract, only shows how it is. This is why the moonstone is said to perceive that which "is". Moonstone is an excellent stone to use in meditation to understand oneself. Placing it in the moonlight of a moon reaching its fullness, not a full or waning moon, can revitalize it. This is a particularly good gemstone for women. It is a good stone for young women or teenagers.

Healing properties of Moonstone
Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature's rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman's stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Sources of moonstone
There are two moonstones. Adularia moonstone is an almost transparent pale gray or silvery white or blue shimmer. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Burma, India and Madagascar. Albie moonstone is in the feldspar group. It is semitransparent with a pale, shimmering reflection. It may be a little dull. It comes mainly from Canada.
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          A day in Burma   
We were still two hours from the Burmese border when our bus got stopped by the first police road block. Two armed policemen boarded our bus and did a random check of the locals’ IDs. One man and all of his … Continue reading
          R.D.Burman Film Festival Organized; My Stamp on The Festival Launched   
Video: R.D.Burman Film Festival Organized Conceptualized by Amit Kumar Fan Club, R.D. Burman’s 79th birthday was celebrated with the announcement of The R. D. Burman Film Festival. The three day festival showed some of the finest movies in which R. D. Burman has composed music. A press meet was organized to announce this film festival. […]
          Kamyonet ile motosiklet çarpıştı: 2 ölü   
Antalya’nın Serik ilçesinde kamyonet ile motosikletin çarpışması sonucu meydana gelen kazada 2 kişi hayatını kaybetti.Edinilen bilgiye göre, Burmahancı Mahallesi’nde Fatih Yaşar Y. idaresindeki 07 AEC 50 plakalı kamyonet ile Oğuz Ceylan...
          Samedi 19 juin, Fêtez avec l'Alliance des Femmes pour la Démocratie le 65ème anniversaire d'Aung San Suu Kyi ! (publiée par Antoinette Fouque aux éditions Des femmes)   
birmanie.jpgAlliance des Femmes pour la Démocratie
Présidente : Antoinette Fouque
 
Célébration du 65ème anniversaire d'Aung San Suu Kyi
 
A l'appel de la communauté birmane de France et des associations Info Birmanie, Alliance des Femmes pour la Démocratie, Femmes solidaires, Reporters sans frontières, FIDH, retrouvons-nous
 
samedi 19 juin à partir de 18 heures
 
pour réaffirmer notre solidarité avec Aung San Suu Kyi, leader démocrate birmane, privée de liberté depuis quatorze ans.
 
12, rue Guy de la Brosse 75005 PARIS
M°Jussieu
 
Programme
18 h : danses traditionnelles birmanes
18 h 45 : buffet birman
20 h : projection du documentaire Burma VJ
21 h 30 : débat avec la participation de Jane Birkin, et des associations
 

          UNFC’S FUTURE: Waning political clout or revamping the organization’s image?   
Concerned Burma watchers and people involved in the country’s peace process eyes are trained on the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) two-phase meeting, one explicitly for the UNFC members and the other, that was programmed to host other Ethnic Armed Organizations (EAOs) that are operating within the country, ethnic political parties and civil society groups. […]
          La Entomología Médica. Una mirada al pasado.2   

Una mirada al pasado

Historia de la Entomología Médica

C.E. Machado-Allison

La historia de la entomología médica puede ser relatada de modos muy distintos. El enfoque clásico ha sido el seguimiento formal de las referencias, directas o indirectas, de las observaciones y descubrimientos sobre el papel de los insectos y otros artrópodos en la transmisión de enfermedades, o en la generación de molestias físicas al hombre. Así, Herms (1934) en su clásico "Medical Entomology" cuya primera edición apareció en 1915, ubica en el Antiguo Testamento, versión King James, la primera referencia escrita sobre los insectos como un factor de perturbación para los seres humanos. Sin embargo, casi que con certeza, podemos asegurar que existe una historia no escrita, transmitida en forma oral, en muchas culturas. Obviamente nuestra visión no puede ser otra que la derivada de la tradición judeo-cristiana y la llamada cultura occidental.

En el "Papiro Ebers", unos 1500 años antes de Cristo, existe una descripción razonable de algo que parece ser paludismo y luego Hipócrates, aproximadamente 400 a.C. describe con lujo de detalles esta enfermedad. Entonces las fuentes son duales, por una parte los artrópodos per se, por la otra el conocimiento de las enfermedades cuya transmisión por parte de los insectos sería demostrada siglos después. Una evidencia de ese conocimiento, usualmente no registrado, fue consignado por el famoso explorador inglés Livingstone (1813-1873) quien relató que el Jefe Sebituane de los Makololo le señaló:

"Tu ganado ha sido picado por la mosca tsé-tsé y seguramente morirá".

Obviamente este jefe era poseedor de un conocimiento tradicional que apuntaba a la existencia de un elemento causal, no mágico, de la enfermedad del sueño y además que las moscas del género Glossina jugaban un importante papel en la misma. Es posible especular, en este y otros casos, que el conocimiento tradicional orientó las pesquisas posteriores.

En ese mismo contexto no son raras las referencias al uso de repelentes y otras formas de evitar la agresión de insectos hematófagos, mosquitos en particular. Por ejemplo Gumilla (1791) relata que hacia 1716 encuentra que los indígenas de las riberas del Orinoco utilizaban una pasta elaborada a partir de Bixa orellana (ajiote, onoto) como forma de protección, así como los indígenas de América del Norte empleaban el aceite de pescado como repelente y muy probablemente las vestimentas blancas y largas de los árabes hayan jugado un papel similar al de los mosquiteros en los oasis donde pululaban hordas de mosquitos (Machado-Allison, 1987).

Gumilla describe, quizás con exageración, la relación de los indígenas con los insectos vulnerantes:

"Lo mismo es dexar el golfo y entrar por el Orinoco, ó por cualquier otro rio de tierra caliente, para entrar en una fiera batalla con varias clases ó especies de mosquitos, que todos tiran a chupar la sangre, y algunos mucho mas. Durante el día, pueblan el ayre y se llena la cara, las manos y quanto hay al descubierto, de mosquitos grandes que llaman zancudos…a mas de estos, persiguen al hombre otros exercitos de mosquitos llamados jejenes…otros del tamaño de granos de pólvora fina, que llaman rodadores. Estas tres especies de mosquitos, a mas de la sangre que hurtan, dexan una comezón rabiosa. Pero la cuarta plaga…"

y sigue Gumilla describiendo un pequeño infierno tropical donde a los mosquitos, suma tábanos, niguas, garrapatas, moscas responsables por miasis o gusaneras e incluso describe a los "pitos" o chipos como son conocidos los triatominos en Venezuela.

Casi en el terreno de lo anecdótico tenemos algunas referencias adicionales sobre los insectos, enfermedades y molestias causadas. Núñéz de Cáceres en 1823 se refiere a las pulgas de Caracas entre otras situaciones desagradables de la ciudad. Humboldt en su famoso viaje a Venezuela (1799) toma muestras de pulgas y niguas que serán luego descritas en Europa. Una interesante recopilación de este período fue realizada por Tello (1968).

Existe otro enfoque, menos explorado, y el mismo se refiere al impacto que estas enfermedades han tenido sobre la historia universal. En un trabajo previo (Machado-Allison, 1987) recopilamos algunos eventos importantes, tanto que cambiaron el curso de la historia y donde los mosquitos jugaron un papel protagónico. Entre ellos vale la pena recordar la muerte de Alejandro Magno a causa del paludismo y la desintegración de su breve imperio, las consecuencias de la muerte de Cromwell en 1658 en plena revolución inglesa. No menos interesante es el proceso de independencia de Haití donde frente a la sublevación de los esclavos, Inglaterra decide aprovechar la situación y aumentar su presencia en el Caribe enviando a Whitloke con una tropa de aproximadamente 80.000 hombres. La fiebre amarilla los derrota y el proceso independentista avanza con Toussant L' Overture y cuando Napoleón decide reconquistar Haití envía al General Leclerc quien es derrotado por los mosquitos y la guerrilla al mando de Dessalines.

Otros ejemplos de la importancia de las enfermedades transmitidas por insectos han sido recogidas en los textos de historia. Apenas como ejemplo Perícles es una de las víctimas de la epidemia de peste de 429 a.C., así como Claudio en la del 269 d.C. La peste recorrió Asia y Europa varias veces determinando cambios históricos importantes. El imperio de Justiniano (527-565 d.C.) casi colapsa por la peste y se supone que Atila, en el año 452 después de conquistar Roma se retira debido a la malaria. San Beda, uno de los cronistas mas interesantes del medioevo, cita epidemias de peste en Inglaterra en los años 664,672, 678 y 683. Las cruzadas nacen después de una feroz epidemia en 1094 acompañada de una profunda desorganización social en Europa y concluyen con la muerte de Luis IX en Túnez debido a la malaria. El Decamerón es escrito durante la epidemia conocida como la "muerte negra" que recorrió Asia y Europa determinando la muerte de un tercio de la población entre 1347 y 1370. Algunos registros británicos indican que en algunas ciudades fallecieron dos de cada tres habitantes.

El tifus, transmitido por los piojos, es probablemente una vieja enfermedad que se hace muy evidente al aumentar la densidad de la población y el contacto físico entre las personas en condiciones de hacinamiento y pobreza. En 1528 el tifus barre con el ejército francés en Nápoles y en la guerra de 30 años, en particular hacia 1648, el tifus causa muchas más víctimas que las batallas. Napoleón es derrotado en Rusia en 1812 por una combinación de piojos, guerrillas y frío. Sus tropas traen de vuelta una epidemia de tifus que afecta buena parte de Europa hasta 1816. El tifus y la fiebre de las trincheras fueron importantes durante la primera guerra mundial (1914-1918) y sin duda la malaria fue un enemigo común de los japoneses y los aliados en Burma, el sudeste asiático, Filipinas y algunas islas del Pacífico durante la segunda (1938-1945).

No menos importante es la historia del Canal de Panamá y el nacimiento de esta nación, así como los resultados de la guerra hispano-americana que marca la independencia de Cuba. En ambos casos la fiebre amarilla y Aedes aegypti constituyen factores importantes en la geopolítica de la época. Lesseps con el apoyo financiero y político de Francia inicia las obras del canal de Panamá en 1880. Tras ocho años de trabajos y miles de muertos por fiebre amarilla, el proyecto es abandonado. Buneau-Varilla le vende la idea a los Estados Unidos. Luego Panamá se separa de Colombia y en 1905 Gorgas logra sanear el área y el proyecto concluye con éxito. El éxito de Gorgas tuvo como antecedente inmediato la secuencia de investigaciones que iniciadas por Carlos Finlay (1833-1915), culminan en la demostración fehaciente del papel de Aedes aegypti en la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla por el equipo formado por Reed, Lazear, Agramonte y Carroll en La Habana. La creación de la "Comisión para el Estudio de la Fiebre Amarilla" y el financiamiento de los Estados Unidos a la misma fue determinada por las epidemias registradas entre 1895 y 1900 que determinaron mas bajas entre los soldados españoles y norteamericanos que las balas (Machado-Allison, 1987).

Las enfermedades transmitidas por artrópodos fueron una de las grandes barreras a la expansión colonial europea en Africa y Asia. El elevado número de víctimas de la malaria, la enfermedad del sueño, filariasis, peste bubónica y otras enfermedades, motivó, particularmente en Inglaterra, el desarrollo de la medicina tropical. Este interés por el trópico se traduce en inversiones tanto en capital humano como en expediciones y estudios efectuados durante el período victoriano, animados a su vez por la revolución industrial. Esto determina que Africa, India y el sur de Asia fueran el escenario de los primeros descubrimientos importantes en el campo de la entomología médica. La revolución industrial llega tarde a la península ibérica donde entre la inquisición y otros factores bien estudiados, el desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología estuvo a la zaga de los restantes países de Europa.

Primero el desarrollo de un servicio de medicina colonial y luego la creación de escuelas de medicina tropical junto al financiamiento de viajes de exploración o comisiones para investigar ciertas enfermedades, fueron acciones políticas explícitas desde mediados del siglo XIX hasta la gradual disolución del Imperio Británico. De allí el importante papel que jugaron los investigadores ingleses, Manson, Ross, Christophers, Bruce, Leishman y otros, que la historia identifica como los padres de la entomología médica.

Es casi inexistente la información en el mundo occidental, entre Hipócrates y Mercurialis, sobre el papel de los insectos en la transmisión de las enfermedades. Entre las ideas mágicas y la teoría miasmática transcurre un prolongado lapso. La teoría miasmática toma cuerpo en los siglos XVII y XIX. La misma estuvo animada por una lógica muy razonable para aquellos tiempos: la incidencia de muchas enfermedades era elevada en sitios considerados como "insalubres", tal como áreas con abundantes descargas de aguas servidas, o zonas de periódica inundación. Se postulaba, en consecuencia, que algo producido en esas "miasmas" era conducido por el aire y de ese modo se adquirían las enfermedades. La teoría mismática es formalmente postulada en Grecia y deriva de las escuelas de Cos y Cnidos, de los cuales Hipócrates y Galeno son los principales exponentes. Al origen miasmático, los griegos sumaron la predisposición individual asociada a los hábitos personales y una tercera causa, que es el contagio (Le Rich & Milner, 1971). Es interesante observar que hasta los experimentos de Pasteur, es decir por más de 2.000 años, estas tres ideas dominaron la historia de la medicina.

El contagio, antigua hipótesis para cierto número de enfermedades, tiene su propia historia. Así como los griegos apuntaron hacia las infestaciones con piojos, la peste y algunas infecciones oculares, luego entre los árabes destaca Rhazes o Ráses (850-923) que incluye la viruela y otras enfermedades eruptivas. Mas elaboradas son las apreciaciones de Gui de Chauliac en Avignon sobre la peste y sus distintas manifestaciones (neumónica y bubónica) y Fracastorio de Verona a comienzos del siglo XVI, quien sostenía que cada enfermedad era causada por un agente distinto, concebido como un elemento químico y además planteaba tres formas de abordar el tratamiento: destrucción de esos factores o "gérmenes" mediante calor o frío; su eliminación del cuerpo humano y su neutralización empleando medicinas.

La obra de Fracastorio de acuerdo a Le Rich y Milner es realmente monumental en la comprensión de las enfermedades y es además un punto de partida muy importante en el desarrollo de la epidemiología. Las contribuciones de Fracastorio son complementadas por Sydenham (1624-1689) que es considerado como el padre de la epidemiología por sus agudas observaciones sobre disentería, gota, malaria, viruela, sarampión, sífilis y tuberculosis. Sin embargo aún con estos avances, siguió dominando la teoría miasmática hasta que Pasteur y los héroes de éste relato, los entomólogos demostraron el papel de diversos microorganismos en muchas enfermedades y sus formas de transmisión.http://www.entomotropica.org/ojs/viewarticle.php?id=18&layout=html


          Kamyonet ile motosiklet çarpıştı: 2 ölü   
Antalya’nın Serik ilçesinde kamyonet ile motosikletin çarpışması sonucu meydana gelen kazada 2 kişi hayatını kaybetti.Edinilen bilgiye göre, Burmahancı Mahallesi’nde Fatih Yaşar Y. idaresindeki 07 AEC 50 plakalı kamyonet ile Oğuz Ceylan...
          Kamyonet ile motosiklet çarpıştı: 2 ölü   
Antalya’nın Serik ilçesinde kamyonet ile motosikletin çarpışması sonucu meydana gelen kazada 2 kişi hayatını kaybetti.Edinilen bilgiye göre, Burmahancı Mahallesi’nde Fatih Yaşar Y. idaresindeki 07 AEC 50 plakalı kamyonet ile Oğuz Ceylan...
          « Nestor Burma » revient…   
Belle surprise : « L’Homme au sang bleu », la onzième adaptation BD de « Nestor Burma », signée d’Emmanuel Moynot, nous arrive tout juste un an après sa précédente enquête (« Nestor Burma contre CQFD »). Et comme il est d’usage, celle-ci nous est d’abord proposée en prépublication sous forme de gazette.
          Kamyonet ile motosiklet çarpıştı: 2 ölü   
Antalya’nın Serik ilçesinde kamyonet ile motosikletin çarpışması sonucu meydana gelen kazada 2 kişi hayatını kaybetti.Edinilen bilgiye göre, Burmahancı Mahallesi’nde Fatih Yaşar Y. idaresindeki 07 AEC 50 plakalı kamyonet ile Oğuz Ceylan...
          Comment on Nobody has plans to Islamise Nigeria, Onaiyekan tells Christians by IBRAHIM DAUDA   
You right. The number of churches in Weather head and Burma road in Sabon Gari Kano is more than 20.
           - Signature campaign launched for release of journalists in Burma   
A signature campaign was launched on 30 June 2017 for the immediate release of all Burmese journalists who were arrested and charged under section 66(d) of the Telecommunications Law.
          Asian ELEPHANT in Don Chedi, Thailand - BLANK 5 X 7 NOTECARD frameable Art Photo with Free Origami Crane by WinsomeWorks   

3.85 USD

My 5X7" (approx.) blank-inside photo greetings come with matching envelopes (A7 Size). This original 4X6" photo reprint is mounted on a CREAM-colored Strathmore Acid-free card. The card has an elegant embossed edge. Photos are printed on "Fujicolor Crystal Archive" paper. (No, watermarks will not appear on your card!) Each card is enclosed in a clear cello packet, and signed on the back. This image is in vertical format. Some of my cards are on black Strathmore stock, as shown. However, this one looks much better on cream. My elephant is also available in an animal variety pack. For savings on a 5-pack of this card or others, go to http://www.etsy.com/view_listing.php?listing_id=8073437 to choose, or for a 10-pack: http://www.etsy.com/view_listing.php?listing_id=15397248 "Your choice" 3-packs are listed here: http://www.etsy.com/view_listing.php?listing_id=8075110 .


I photographed this "Asian ELEPHANT in Don Chedi, Thailand" at a festival with a Minolta X-700. In Don Chedi, elephants are brought in for a re-enactment (show) of an ancient battle with Burma. If you're interested in other images, card packs, or beautiful enlargements, see my other listings. I have many seasonal, floral, Asia, & animal cards, etc. Please VISIT AGAIN soon as my store is new and I'm constantly listing new inventory! Each photo item will come with a small hand-folded origami paper crane, just for fun!

If you can't bear to give this card away, it's frame-able. If you are in any way unsatisfied with your purchase, it has a money-back guarantee. They come from a smoke-free home and will be packed well. On additional purchases, you'll enjoy a shipping and quantity discount. Note: Images are copyrighted! Please contact me with any questions. Thanks for looking.


          Kamyonet ile motosiklet çarpıştı: 2 ölü   
Antalya’nın Serik ilçesinde kamyonet ile motosikletin çarpışması sonucu meydana gelen kazada 2 kişi hayatını kaybetti.Edinilen bilgiye göre, Burmahancı Mahallesi’nde Fatih Yaşar Y. idaresindeki 07 AEC 50 plakalı kamyonet ile Oğuz Ceylan...
          Politika: Dvoje mrtvih na Karaburmi, sumnja se na ubistvo i samoubistvo   
U ulici Patrisa Lubumbe u naselju Karaburma u Beogradu, dve osobe su pronađene mrtve, a najverovatnije je reč o ubistvu i samoubistvu. To je Tanjugu nezvanično saopšteno iz MUP-a, a više informacija se očekuje u narednom periodu. Kako su beogradski mediji prethodno preneli, Hitna pomoć je potvrdila [...]
          ရှော့တိုက်ငါးဖမ်းခြင်းနှင့် ဧရာဝတီလင်းပိုင်တို့အနာဂတ် (နိဂုံး)   

ဧရာဝတီမြစ်အတွင်းမှာ လင်းပိုင်တွေ ရှိတယ်ဆိုတာကိုလည်း မြန်မာနိုင်ငံမှာ လူတိုင်း မသိပါဘူး။ ဒါကြောင့် အစိုးရအနေနဲ့ ပြည်သူတွေကို ပညာပေးတဲ့နေရာမှာ ပိုကောင်းအောင် လုပ်ဖို့လိုတယ်။

The post ရှော့တိုက်ငါးဖမ်းခြင်းနှင့် ဧရာဝတီလင်းပိုင်တို့အနာဂတ် (နိဂုံး) appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          Microsoft ကနေ လုံခြုံရေးစနစ်သစ် ပါရှိတဲ့ Windows 10 Keyboard စနစ်သစ်ကို မိတ်ဆက်   

ပုံမှန် Mouse တွေလို Left နဲ့ Right ခလုတ် ၂ ခု ပါရှိ ပေမယ့် သူတို့ရဲ့ ခလုတ် တည်နေရာက ပုံမှန် လက်ညှိုး၊ လက်ခလယ် နေရာမှာ ဖြစ်ပေမယ့် ခလုတ်ပါရှိမှန်း မြင်ရမှာ မဟုတ်ပါဘူး။

The post Microsoft ကနေ လုံခြုံရေးစနစ်သစ် ပါရှိတဲ့ Windows 10 Keyboard စနစ်သစ်ကို မိတ်ဆက် appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          Убиство и самоубиство на Карабурми   
Тела старијег брачног пара пронађена у стану, у улици Патриса Лумумбе број 7, у београдском насељу Карабурма. Сумња се да је мушкарац прво убио жену па себе. Убиство и самоубиство на Карабурми
          Liberty Group organises fun games   
Accra, July 2, GNA- Staff of Liberty Group at the weekend organised a fun game at the Burma Camp Sports Complex to keep fit and maintain good health among the workers. The games brought together staff and customers of the company in the Greater Accra and Central regions to fraternise. Liberty Group is the mother company of Liberty Capital, Li ...
          Antalya'da kaza: 2 ölü   
Namık Kemal KILINÇ/SERİK (Antalya), () - ANTALYA'nın Serik İlçesi'nde meydana gelen trafik kazasında 2 kişi öldü. Kaza saat 18.00 sıralarında Burmahancı Mahallesi'nde meydana geldi. Fatih Yaşar Yıldırım'ın kullandığı 07 AEC 50 plakalı...
          ချစ်သူအသစ်ရသွားတဲ့ အဆိုတော် ရီဟားနား   

သူမရဲ့ချစ်သူဖြစ်သူ ဂျမီးဟာအသက် ၂၉ နှစ်အရွယ်ရှိပြီဖြစ်ပြီး ဆော်ဒီအာရေးဗီးယားနိုင်ငံသား စီးပွားရေး လုပ်ငန်းရှင် တယောက်ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ သူ့ရဲ့ပိုင်ဆိုင်မှုအရ အမေရိကန်ဒေါ်လာ ၁.၅ သန်း ကြွယ်ဝချမ်းသာ ကြောင်းလည်း သတင်းမှာ ဖော်ပြထားပါတယ်။

The post ချစ်သူအသစ်ရသွားတဲ့ အဆိုတော် ရီဟားနား appeared first on ဧရာဝတီ.


          Kansainvälinen kissatuomari Jarmo Räihä on nukkunut pois.   
  Jarmo oli mukana rotukissatoiminnasta 80-luvulta alkaen. Hän kasvatti aluksi abessiinialaisia ja somaleita, mutta lopulta omaksi roduksi valikoitui burma. Kissarakkaana ihmisenä Jarmo kouluttautui LK-tuomariksi 1988, vaikka näyttelyttäminen itsessään ei häntä niin kiehtonut. Pitkän kissauransa aikana hän toimi mm.Kissaliiton hallituksessa, rotutoimikunnassa ja PIROKin näyttelysihteerinä. Kissaliitto ottaa osaa Jarmo Räihän omaisten ja läheisten suureen suruun.
          A Confederacy of Dunces   
A Confederacy of Dunces
author: John Kennedy Toole
name: Lawyer
average rating: 3.88
book published: 1980
rating: 5
read at: 2012/03/09
date added: 2017/07/02
shelves: 20th-century, boethius, the-consolation-of-philosophy, fortuna, popular-culture, comedy, humor, southern-literature, satire, john-kennedy-toole, new-orleans, 1960s, mothers-and-sons, sexuality, tragedy, tragi-comedy, 2012
review:
A Confederacy of Dunces: John Kennedy Toole's Novel of What it Means to Miss New Orleans

A Confederacy of Dunces was chosen as the first group read of On the Southern Literary Trail in March, 2012. Now, a few months after "The Trail's" FIFTH Anniversary, the readers have chosen this novel as one of it's group reads for July, 2017. Come join us!


"Miniver cursed the commonplace
And eyed a khaki suit with loathing;
He missed the mediæval grace
Of iron clothing.

Miniver scorned the gold he sought,
But sore annoyed was he without it;
Miniver thought, and thought, and thought,
And thought about it.

Miniver Cheevy, born too late,
Scratched his head and kept on thinking;
Miniver coughed, and called it fate,
And kept on drinking."
--Edward Arlington Robinson


After twenty-five years, I've closed my original Evergreen copy of A Confederacy of Dunces. I've reached the last page once more. It appears more battered than when I last read it. It's still good. I hated to see it end again.

Hmmmm...hang on. We've got company.

"Oooooweee. That dude down at the Levy Pant Fact-o-ree an' his wife with them funny blue glasses of hers done got me an A-WARD for doin' the Poleeces a favor cleanin' up this bar down on Bourbon called de Night of Joy. WHOA! An' dat Mrs. Levy done took me on as a projeck an send me back to school. Ooooweee! So I don't work for less than no minimal wage no more. I got air condition and a transistor radio an' I read this poem up there at the top o this page an I wrote it down in one of them tablets the big guy in that green hat like so much."

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"That sound jus like him. WHOA!"--Burma Jones, former porter and janitor, The Night of Joy Bar, Bourbon Street, New Orleans, Louisiana

Whatever happened to Burma Jones and all the other memorable character's ofA Confederacy of Dunces is anybody's guess. John Kennedy Toole committed suicide in 1969, never seeing his novel in print. The story of the publication of the book is as fascinating as the novel itself.

John Kennedy Toole was born in 1937, the son of John and Thelma Toole. Although a Catholic, he was educated in the public schools, as opposed to the parochial schools. Perhaps that's where Toole began to learn the dialect of New Orleans known as "Yat." He graduated high school at the age of sixteen, graduated with honors from Tulane in 1958, and had a Masters from Columbia in New York in 1959. He was working on his doctoral studies when called up for military service in 1961 and was stationed in Puerto Rico. It was there that he began the novel that would win him the Pulitzer Prize posthumously in 1981.

Toole returned from military service to his home city where he taught at St. Mary's Dominican College, Loyola's sister college, finishing his novel there. In 1964, Toole sent his manuscript to Simon and Schuster in New York. Senior Editor Robert Gottlieb worked with Toole through the year, resulting in many revisions. But Gottlieb ultimately told Toole by December the book was about nothing and dropped the project.

Until his death in 1969, Toole spiralled into alcoholism and depression. Towards the end of his life he became paranoid and delusional, believing that others were attempting to steal his book. At the age of 32, Toole committed suicide by sealing himself inside a garage, dying of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Toole's mother, Thelma submitted her son's novel to six publishing houses. All rejected the novel. She dogged Walker Percy's footsteps, literally pushing the manuscript into his hands, asking him to read her son's novel. Percy reluctantly agreed, but upon completing the read recognized that he had read something great. Through his efforts, the novel was published by LSU Press. The rest is history.

What is it that intrigues people about this book? What is it that makes some people despise it? Those readers familiar with New Orleans readily recognize that the city comes to life in Toole's novel. So do the myriad characters. The city districts, streets and stores are readily recognized. The unique accents of New Orleans multi-cultural population sing from the pages of this book. Those who have not been there cannot recognize the city and cannot believe such people exist. But, oh, they do.

Those readers who cannot abide the book inevitably find Ignatius Reilly the source of frustration. He is no hero. He has no ambition. He is content to be provided for by his mother and whatever Fate or Fortune brings. He is slothful, spoiled, and lazy. He rants at the perversion of modern society, but wants its conveniences.

His afternoons find him before the flickering screen of the television as he screams at...

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Each evening he attends the movies, eagerly awaiting his favorite film star's latest feature.

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He is banned from attending further screenings at the Old Prytania Theater after screaming the picture is an ABORTION!

But he returns to a downtown theater to catch her next feature and is HORRIFIED that she may end up in bed with her leading man!

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Ignatius Reilly is a man at odds with the modern world. He is drawn to it, but repelled by it. As was Miniver Cheevy, he was born too late. And he definitely called it fate, or at least the work of the fickle Goddess Fortuna, of whom Boethius, the last classical writer wrote in Ignatius's favorite book, The Consolation of Philosophy. As Walker Percy wrote in his foreword to the novel, Ignatius is an irascible Don Quixote jousting against the windmills of a world of which he would rather not be a part. He seeks to impose his own medieval philosophies on a city that would have it be Mardi Gras all year long. That's not going to happen in New Orleans.

Ignatius is forced into the outside world to get a job to pay off the costs of an automobile accident his mother had after a bit too much to drink in the Night of Joy bar that will figure prominently in the story. So Ignatius will find himself at work in the Levy Pant Factory in charge of filing, accompanied by Office Manager Gomez who doesn't manage much of anything, and Miss Trixie, long past retirement age, who would much rather be retired. Ignatius, a natural saboteur, soon finds himself unemployed. Next, he finds himself a street vendor of Paradise Hot Dogs, waddling along his appointed route, eating more of his ware than selling them.

Behind all the blare and bluster he exhibits, Ignatius is a bundle of insecurities, having left New Orleans only once in a traumatic trip to Baton Rouge where he might have had a teaching position but for his willful refusal to grade his students' papers. This gets him back home to the safety of his room, where he wiles away his time writing his magnum opus on his philosophy of life.

It is not that Ignatius hasn't had his chance at love, Myrna Minkoff, that "little minx" as he calls her, has attempted to bed him on more than one occasion, while they both attended college in New Orleans. However, Ignatius has firmly protected his virginity, taking matters in hand for necessary relief, but leaving himself celibate.

Myrna has gone back to New York and is constantly engaged in social protests of one form or the other. Her relationship with Ignatius continues by correspondence. She is relentless in her argument that he needs to free himself from his cloistered room, his mother to whom is too closely tied and find true freedom through just one cleansing natural orgasm. And his minx constantly hints that she is freed in this manner time and again through the interesting male individuals who attach themselves to her social causes.

Meanwhile, as Ignatius fails to bring home the bacon to pay off her accident costs, Irene, the doting mother is persuaded by her friend Santa Batagglia and her possible suitor Claude Robichaux that Ignatius has become insane. Irene begins to think that the only way to save Ignatius from himself is to have him committed to a hospital for the mentally ill.

Toole rolls to a tumultuous literary climax. All the characters with whom Ignatius has come into contact come together in a night of comedic chaos that may well determine Ignatius' fate. Will it be involuntary commitment to an asylum, or will it be freedom? Toole combines comedy and tragedy in an unforgettable novel that does make a reader laugh out loud and feel true pity for the man for whom Fortuna's wheel spins an unpredictable course.

Oooooweee! I'm all outta Dr. Nut. I got no Paradise Dogs. Just gonna have to pour me a Dr. Pepper and have me a Nathan's Dog. WHOA! All this writin's enough to turn a man into a vagran'.

FIVE FOR FIVE, Still crazy after all these years.

          11 Yangon Safety Tips For First Time Visitors   
It wasn’t long time ago that Myanmar, also known as Burma, has appeared off limits to tourists. But changes did happen, not only in changing its flag, renaming the country
          Antalya'da kaza: 2 ölü   
Namık Kemal KILINÇ/SERİK (Antalya), () - ANTALYA'nın Serik İlçesi'nde meydana gelen trafik kazasında 2 kişi öldü. Kaza saat 18.00 sıralarında Burmahancı Mahallesi'nde meydana geldi. Fatih Yaşar Yıldırım'ın kullandığı 07 AEC 50 plakalı...
          Where to donate for cyclone relief   
It’s all over the news, we’re looking at maybe 100,000 dead and 1.5 million displaced in Burma* thanks to the cyclone (and these are not, in fact, the highest estimates). The Burmese government, demonstrating once again that “military intelligence” is an oxymoron, are blocking international aid efforts. While I wouldn’t object to them being guillotined […]
          Comment on ‘Comfort women’ memorial unveiled in Brookhaven park; may move soon by cklein   
UNITED STATES OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION Psychological Warfare Team Attached to U.S. Army Forces India-Burma Theater APO 689 (Date of Report: October 1, 1944") http://www.exordio.com/1939-1945/codex/Documentos/report-49-USA-orig.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Comfort_women/Archive_2
          Comment on ‘Comfort women’ memorial unveiled in Brookhaven park; may move soon by Mick   
Report No. 49: Japanese Prisoners of War Interrogation on Prostitution http://www.exordio.com/1939-1945/codex/Documentos/report-49-USA-orig.html "While in Burma they amused themselves by participating in sports events with both officers and men, and attended picnics, entertainments, and social dinners. They had a phonograph and in the towns they were allowed to go shopping." Ex-comfort woman Mun Och-ju testimonies https://www.facebook.com/groups/CWnotSS/1681647502060886/ "I thought I had better have a jewel and went and bought a diamond."
          O Mere Dil Ki Chain M R D Burman   
o mere dil ki chain m r d burman
          Burma: Watchdog wants probe into alleged torture, death of civilians in Shan State   

A HUMAN rights watchdog on Monday demanded for an investigation into the alleged torturing of dozens of civilians from a village in Burma's (Myanmar's) northern Shan State last week.

The post Burma: Watchdog wants probe into alleged torture, death of civilians in Shan State appeared first on Asian Correspondent.


          Malaysia mulls action against Burma for blocking UN probe on Rohingya abuses   

MALAYSIA says it will look into taking action against Burma (Myanmar) over the latter's refusal to allow investigators from the United Nations to probe alleged abuse of the persecuted Rohingya Muslim minority group.

The post Malaysia mulls action against Burma for blocking UN probe on Rohingya abuses appeared first on Asian Correspondent.


          For sale - Hand Carved Myanmar Burma Burmese Dancers Teak Wood... - $199   
Wilmington NC, United States
...myself at a marketplace while I was living in Burma (now Myanmar) during the late 1980's!This piece of art measures approximately 18" x 11.5" x 0.75" and was hand carved out of a piece of teak wood!Teak is known for its durability and ability to avoid rot and decay!!!This piece was displayed in my ...
ebay.com

          Thailand backtracks on labour law after migrant workers flee   
AFP

Category: 

Myanmar migrant worker sorting out fish for sale at a seafood market in Samut Sakhon province, Thailand. Photo: Rungroj Yongrit/EPA

Thailand's military government said it will delay enforcing new labour regulations after thousands of migrant workers fled home to neighbouring countries this week fearing arrest and heavy fines under the new decree.

The scramble is the latest chaos triggered by Thailand's efforts to regulate the millions of foreign workers who prop up its economy with jobs in factories, fishing boats and other low-paid work.

The junta has trumpeted a flurry of campaigns aimed at registering migrant workers and cracking down on illegal smuggling routes, but the efforts are often ad-hoc and short-lived.

As a result, much of the migrant work force remains undocumented and vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers and unscrupulous employers.

On Friday the junta said it would suspend parts of a new foreign labour law, which came into effect on June 23, for 120 days after the regulations sparked a panic among migrant workers and their employers.

"(During this window) there will be no arrests or crackdown on illegal workers except for those who violate human trafficking laws," Deputy Prime Minister WissanuKrea-ngam told reporters.

The reprieve comes after thousands of labourers fled home to neighbouring Myanmar and Cambodia fearing arrest and fines of up to $3,000 under the law which punishes migrant workers lacking valid work permits.

Employers can also be fined up to 800,000 baht ($24,000) for each undocumented worker they hire.

In Samut Sakhon, a seafood industry hub known as "Little Burma" for its concentration of Myanmar migrant workers, around 500 labourers have been returning home daily during the past week, said Suthasinee Kaewleklai from the Migrant Worker Rights Network (MWRN).

"These workers don't have any documents and have to return to Myanmar as they fear needing to pay a heavy fine," she told AFP.

The advocacy group also warned that traffickers frequently profit from such mass movements of migrants, with smugglers and border agents exacting fees from undocumented workers looking for a safe passage home.

A police chief in Myanmar's Karen state said around 6,000 migrant workers had returned home from Thailand since Thursday.

Meanwhile on the Cambodian border, the number of migrants streaming home has been increasing daily since the new law came to into effect, said Thai immigration officer Benjapol Robsawad.

Since Wednesday nearly 2,000 workers have crossed back to Cambodia through the Poipet checkpoint, he told AFP.

In 2014 some 250,000 Cambodians fled Thailand after fears that the newly-installed junta government would arrest and deport undocumented workers. They slowly trickled back in the following weeks.

© AFP


          What would a world without barriers to feminist solidarity look like?    

Citizenship is a duty that transcends borders. Jennifer Allsopp reports for 50.50 from the first day of the 2017 Nobel Women's Initiative conference. 

Six Nobel peace laureates meet in Belfast in 2013. Credit: John Murphy Aurora PA. Six Nobel peace laureates meet in Belfast in 2013. Credit: John Murphy Aurora PA.“We want all the barriers down,” declared Nobel peace prize winner Mairead Maguire yesterday, opening the 10th anniversary of the Nobel Women’s Initiative gathering in Dusseldorf, Germany. She was, incidentally, joking, referring to the fact that – due to variations in height and levels of jet leg –  some of the five Nobel peace prize winners at the summit would be standing to deliver their opening address, while others would be sitting. But as the laureates spoke, the room moved from laugher to respectful silence as each laid out her vision for what a world without barriers to feminist solidarity might look like.

The laureates have gathered from across the globe – Guatemala, Ireland, USA, Iran and Yemen – and they have assembled an international team of activists here to plan the future of the global feminist resistance.

Tawakkol Karman, who won the peace prize in 2011 for her work fighting for democracy in Yemen, explains why they have chosen Germany as the site for this year’s meeting. “Germany is ruled by a strong woman. She has a lot of commitment and promise for refugees. We wanted to go to Germany to give support for her policies on supporting and hosting refugees.” Yet disappointingly, as Karman goes on to explain, in a Europe of closing borders, the culture of welcome the Nobel laureates sought to celebrate has not been extended to its own delegation.

All four other participants to the conference from Yemen have been denied visas, as were three other participants from Palestine, Syria and Lebanon. ”Why?” Tawakkol asked. “There is no good reason.”

All of those denied visas are high profile human rights activists in their home countries. Among them is Aswan Mohammed from Women Journalists Without Chains and Misk Al-Junai, a TV producer who works with Karman’s own foundation. “Perhaps”, Karman opined, “Europe is imposing its own unwritten travel ban? Perhaps Trump just announced it, and other countries didn’t?”

Iranian Nobel peace prize laureate and human rights lawyer Shirin Ebadi was similarly indignant: “there are countries that are in crisis and at war, and the people are suffering in these countries, their lives are at risk and they are hungry. Some Western countries, instead of helping these people are making limitations for them. It’s time for Europe, and for us who are gathered here, to help these people in war-torn areas; not to build walls and to not even permit them to participate in a simple peace seminar. This is not good behaviour with countries that are at war. And we protest this.”

The true cost of erecting such barriers at borders – and the fundamental need to protest them – is also stressed by American Nobel peace prize laureate Jody Williams. She speaks of the work of Northern Americans assisting Muslim families to reunite following the fallout from Trump’s ‘Muslim ban’ earlier this year. “In such resistance,” she stresses, “we’re rediscovering what citizenship is.” For the fifty plus activist women in the room here in Germany, it’s clear that citizenship is a duty – and it’s one that transcends barriers and borders.

Citizenship without borders

It is her citizen duty, Shirin explains to me, that leads her to approach Majed Sharbajy, a Syrian activist in exile who is currently working in Lebanon near the Syrian border. Breaching the rules of the ‘ice breaker exercise’ carefully crafted by the conference organisers, Shirin makes Majed’s acquaintance by looking her directly in the eyes with a piercing sincerity, and saying the words “I’m sorry.”

Majed has just recounted to a small group of us how she was detained by the Assad regime for seven months. Her husband was also detained, and murdered. She has been temporarily separated from her children – aged 4, 11 and 3 –  who have sought sanctuary in Sweden with their grandmother. Her work is simply too dangerous and puts them at risk. But her work is also too important to leave.

In prison, Majed educated other women detainees. Now in exile in Lebanon, the activists have four training centres for Syrian women to give them skills to enter the labour market and participate in society. In her experience, 60% of women Syrian refugees have lost their male partners and must support themselves.

“The Syrian regime is the biggest dictatorship of all the regimes,” Majed explains to a small group of us who are leaning in intently, to listen. “They don’t just torture people, really, they take pleasure in it.”

It’s at this point that Shirin apologises.

“As an Iranian, I’m sorry,” she says. “My government has trained Syrians how to torture people.”

A respectful silence momentarily reigns while each of us takes in these words and crafts our own apologies, weighing the responsibility. Letting it sink in. Then the discussion continues. Time is short and information must be gathered and shared.

Syria is strategically important to Iran: “they need it to get arms to Hezbollah” explains Ebadi – arms, it has been pointed out several times already, that travel more easily across borders than people.

Women from Guatemala, Germany, UK and Lebanon hastily scribble on notepads, desperate to listen, and to record every word so that they might take it back to their communities, like smuggled goods. Because the international community has been clear – we are not meant to be here, meeting like this.

Majed has given us a huge duty, to ‘be our voice’. For, she explains, “the media is mediating everything. Everyone is focusing on ISIS, eyes are off the regime.” Children are drowning, they are choking to death on the fumes of illegal weapons. No one is stopping this. Treaties must be redrafted and implemented.

“We cannot fall into negative history where history repeats itself,” Tawakkol reminded us in her opening speech. “Behind every great revolution there are bold women, courageous women. We need to be leaders of change. We need development, rule of law, democracy. We need to fight extremism, corruption, hatred, racism and war."

Taking down barriers means taking back power from the states that claim to represent us. “Turkey, Iran and Russia are meeting for peace negotiations on Syria and there isn’t a single person from Syria,” Majed warns us. “The media keep saying that it’s a civil war, but it’s a war between other countries in Syria”. Shirin gives a knowing nod: “a proxy war”.

The beginning of justice?

The act of apologising in itself will not start a revolution but it is, to me, the core of the feminist resistance that this conference seeks to strengthen. It is the beginning of justice. It says: I am a human, and I see you as a human. I see your injustice and your pain and I accept responsibility as a global citizen and I will use my power to try and help you. It is the antithesis to impunity. It is opposite to the Guatemalan courts that, until women seized justice and won, as Nobel peace laureate Rigoberta Menchù Tum explained in her speech, “never gave victims the chance to tell the true story.”

It’s up to us to reclaim citizenship, with barriers down, Shirin reminds us. Because “governments don’t like peace. The arms manufacturers of the UK, Europe and the US have to sell their arms. It’s us, the people, who have to resist our governments. This is my duty as an Iranian, to tell the government of Iran not to help Bashir Al Assad and to stay away from Syria. It’s your duty as European citizens to tell the EU, to protest at the fact they refrain from issuing visas. It’s the duty of people of the UK to tell them to stop selling arms so that they can throw them on innocent people.”

I look around at the women I am with. It’s the first night and the sixth edition of the Nobel Women’s Initiative biennial gatherings and 50.50 has been here from the start. Many of the women have become close friends, ‘sisters’ across borders. As they steal off to bed, tired from their travels (and for some, long interrogations at the border) I notice that some are wearing jewelry, brought in luggage across continents as gifts to one another. Like arms and capital, gifts and words fly across the same continents as the women meet, plot and share information in the global feminist resistance. 

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          Kamyonet ile motosiklet çarpıştı: 2 ölü   
Antalya’nın Serik ilçesinde kamyonet ile motosikletin çarpışması sonucu meydana gelen kazada 2 kişi hayatını kaybetti.Edinilen bilgiye göre, Burmahancı Mahallesi’nde Fatih Yaşar Y. idaresindeki 07 AEC 50 plakalı kamyonet ile Oğuz Ceylan...
          Thailand: Thousands of Burmese migrant workers flee amid new labour rules   

TENS of thousands of workers have fled Thailand, most of them for homes in neighbouring Burma (Myanmar), immigration officials said on Monday, after new labour regulations adopted by the military government sparked fear and panic among the migrant community.

The post Thailand: Thousands of Burmese migrant workers flee amid new labour rules appeared first on Asian Correspondent.


          မြန်မာလေတပ်သို့ JF-17 တိုက်လေယာဉ်များ ပေးပို့တောမည်   

မြန်မာ့ တပ်မတော်(လေ)က ပါကစ္စတန်ထံမှ ဝယ်ယူထားသည့် JF-17/FC-1 အမျိုးအစား ဘက်စုံသုံး တိုက် လေယာဉ် စုစုပေါင်း ၁၆ စီးကို မကြာမီ ပေးပို့တောမှာ ဖြစ်ကြောင်း ပါကစ္စတန် စစ်ဘက် သတင်းများက ဆိုသည်။

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          ဥရောပသမဂ္ဂက မီဒီယာလွတ်လပ်ခွင့်ဆိုင်ရာ ဒေသဆိုင်ရာ ကြေငြာချက်ထုတ်ပြန်   

ပြည်တွင်းရှိ မီဒီယာသမားများ၊ ဂျာနယ်လစ်များ ဖမ်းဆီးခံရခြင်း၊ တရားစွဲဆိုခံရခြင်းနှင့် ပတ်သက်၍ မီဒီယာ လွတ်လပ်ခွင့်ဆိုင်ရာ ဒေသဆိုင်ရာ ကြေငြာချက်ကို ဥရောပ သမဂ္ဂက ထုတ်ပြန်လိုက်ပြီး ထုတ်ပြန်ချက် အပြည့်အစုံမှာ အောက်ပါအတိုင်း ဖြစ်သည်။

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          စံချိန်မမီ၍ ပြန်ဆောက်ပေးရသည့် ဧရာဝတီတိုင်းလွှတ်တော် အုတ်တံတိုင်းများ ထပ်စစ်မည်ဟုဆို   

အရည်အသွေး မပြည့်မီသောအုတ်များ အသုံးပြု တည်ဆောက်ခဲ့သဖြင့် ဖြိုချပြီး ပြန်လည် တည်ဆောက်ခဲ့ရ သည့် ဧရာဝတီတိုင်းဒေသကြီး လွှတ်တော်အဆောက်အအုံ အုတ်တံတိုင်းများကို ထပ်မံ စစ်ဆေးမည်ဖြစ်ကြောင်း

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          အပစ်ရပ် ၈ ဖွဲ့ NCA နှင့်ပတ်သက်၍ စိန်ခေါ်မှုများ ရင်ဆိုင်ကြုံတွေ့နေရ   

တိုင်းရင်းသားလက်နက်ကိုင် အဖွဲ့အစည်းများအနေဖြင့် NCA လမ်းကြောင်းမှတဆင့် ပြည်ထောင်စုသဘောတူညီချက် ရရှိရန် ကြိုးစားပြီး ထိုပြည်ထောင်စု သဘောတူညီချက်မှတဆင့် ၂၀၀၈ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံ ကို ပြင်ဆင်ရန် ရည်မှန်းထားကြသည်။

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          ဒီဇိုင်းဆန်းဆန်း စီးချင်သူတွေ အတွက် Dodge Ram 1500   

ဝန်များများ တင်မယ်၊ ခရီးဝေးသွားမယ် ဆိုတဲ့သူတွေအတွက်၊ တောင်တက်လမ်းတွေမှာ စိတ်ကြိုက် သွားမယ် ဆိုတဲ့သူတွေအတွက်ကတော့ အခု Ram 1500 က အကောင်းဆုံး ဖြစ်လာပါလိမ့်မယ်။

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          သီရိလကၤာမွာ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ျဖစ္ပြားမွု စံခ်ိန္တင္ေန   

သီရိလကၤာနိုင္ငံမွာ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါ ျပန္႔ပြားမွု စံခ်ိန္တင္ ျမင့္တက္ေနတဲ့အတြက္ ေရဆိုးရွိတဲ့ ျခင္ေပါက္ဖြားရာ ေနရာေတြကို ရွင္းလင္းမယ့္ က်န္းမာေရး ဝန္ထမ္းေတြကို အစိုးရတပ္ဖြဲ႕ဝင္ေတြက အကူအညီေပးေနရပါတယ္။

ေလထုစိုထိုင္းဆ ျမင့္မားတဲ့ မုတ္သုံရာသီမွာ ကိုလံဘိုၿမိဳ႕ေတာ္အတြင္းက မစီးဆင္းပဲ တန္႔ေနတဲ့ အမွိုက္သရိုက္ေတြရွိတဲ့ ေရဆိုးေတြေၾကာင့္ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါ ျပန္႔ပြားေစတဲ့ ျခင္ေတြ ေပါက္ဖြားႏွုန္း ျမင့္တက္ေနတာလည္း ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ၿပီးခဲ့တဲ့ လပိုင္းအတြင္းက ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့တဲ့ ၿမိဳ႕ေတာ္အနီးက အမွိုက္ပုံၿပိဳက်မွုရဲ့ သက္ေရာက္မွုေတြေၾကာင့္ အမွိုက္သိမ္းမွု အႀကိမ္ေရ နည္းေနတာကလည္း အေျခအေနေတြကို ပိုဆိုးသြားေစခဲ့တာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ငွက္ဖ်ား ျပန္႔ပြားမွု အဆိုးဆုံးျဖစ္ေနတဲ့ ကိုလံဘိုၿမိဳ႕ထဲနဲ႔ အနီးတဝိုက္က ေနရာေတြအတြက္ တပ္ဖြဲ႕ ၂၅ ဖြဲ႕ ေစလႊတ္ထားတယ္လို႔ သီရိလကၤာ စစ္တပ္က ေျပာပါတယ္။

လက္ရွိ ၂၀၁၇ ခုႏွစ္ရဲ့ ပထမ ေျခာက္လအတြင္း သီရိလကၤာနိုင္ငံရဲ့ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ကူးစက္ခံရမွု အေရအတြက္ဟာ ၇ ေသာင္းေက်ာ္ ရွိခဲ့ၿပီး ၿပီးခဲ့တဲ့ ၂၀၁၆ တႏွစ္လုံးရဲ့ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ကူစက္မွု အေရအတြက္ ၅ ေသာင္းခြဲထက္ မ်ားေနတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ဒီႏွစ္ထဲမွာ သီရိလကၤာနိုင္ငံအတြင္း ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ေၾကာင့္ ေသဆုံးသူ ၂၀ဝ ေက်ာ္ရွိသြားၿပီ ျဖစ္ၿပီး ၿပီးခဲ့တဲ့ႏွစ္က အလားတူ ေသဆုံးသူ ၇၀ ေက်ာ္ထက္ သုံးဆေလာက္ မ်ားေနတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
http://www.bbc.com/burmese

          burmalibrary.org - website info   
burmalibrary.orgen website info,The Online Burma Myanmar Library - Classified and annotated links to more than 40,000 full text documents on Burma-Myanmar
          Comment on Entry without preview image by Home Page   
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          Comment on Airborne Tent: a Parachute and a Tent In One for Disaster Relief by Stephen Russell   
Mass produce this, test with US Armed forces in Mid East, Africa alone, Awesome idea. Must for SAR Units alone & Resupply drops, would have been needed in WW2 in Burma area. Lisc & Produce more worldwide
          Dabur bets big on digital revolution;to target young consumers   
This is going to have a significant impact on consumer behaviour and market structure in future," Dabur Chairman Anand C Burman said in his address to shareholders in the company's Annual Report for 2016-17. Reported by DNA 1 hour ago.
          Burmas politiska aktivister riskerar inte längre allt   
Khin Maung Soe hade ingenting att återvända till när han släpptes ur fängelse 2002. För Phyoe Phyoe Aung fortsatte livet nästan som vanligt när hon kom ut 2016.– Det har blivit lättare att vara aktivist, men folk fängslas fortfarande för politiska brott, säger hon.
          Amar Prem (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) – R. D. Burman   

TITLE TIME PRICE 1 Kuchh to Log Kahenge Kishore Kumar 4:19 $1.29 2 Chingari Koi Bhadke Kishore Kumar 5:36 $1.29 3 Raina Beeti Jaye Lata Mangeshkar 5:36 $1.29 4 Yeh Kya Hua Kishore Kumar 4:33 $1.29 5 Bada Natkhat Hai Yeh Lata Mangeshkar 4:53 $1.29 6 Chingari Koi Bhadke (Revival) Kishore Kumar 5:47 $1.29 7 […]

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          Google Maps - The Amazing Earth   

A series of screenshots with google maps, which you can download for free. The photographs show unusual places in such countries as Russia, Australia, Iceland, Greenland, Myanmar (Burma) and Antarctica. Our planet is beautiful and can inspire us again and again.
          Beyond Skyrim: Bruma öppnar gränsen till Oblivions Cyrodiil   

Ligger inte bredvid Burma.


          Αυτή η εντυπωσιακή πρωτεύουσα είναι τέσσερις φορές μεγαλύτερη από το Λονδίνο. Όμως παραμένει άδεια από κόσμο   
H google μας λέει ότι το Λονδίνο έχει μέγεθος 1.572 τ.χλμ.
Η Naypyidaw, η πρωτεύουσα της Βιρμανίας (ή Μιανμάρ που είναι η νέα της ονομασία), έχει
μέγεθος 7.054 τ.χλμ.
Αυτό σημαίνει ότι η πρωτεύουσα της Βιρμανίας είναι τέσσερις φορές (και κάτι) μεγαλύτερη από την πρωτεύουσα της Βρετανίας. Σύμφωνα με τα επίσημα στοιχεία, το Λονδίνο έχει πληθυσμό περίπου 8,63 εκατομμύρια άτομα και η Naypyidaw μόλις 924.608 άτομο. Που σημαίνει ότι πληθυσμός εννέα φορές λιγότερος από το Λονδίνο, διαμένει σε έκταση τέσσερις φορές μεγαλύτερη.
naypyidaw
Η Naypyidaw (που σημαίνει «ο θρόνος του Βασιλιά») έγινε πρωτεύουσα της Βιρμανίας τον Νοέμβριο του 2005 από το τότε στρατιωτικό καθεστώς. Λέγεται ότι η ανοικοδόμηση της πόλης ανήλθε σε 4 δισ. δολάρια, με την λογική ότι θα επεκταθεί κι άλλο. Οι αυτοκινητόδρομοι με τις 20 λωρίδες και οι μεγάλες πλατείες παραπέμπουν σε μια πόλη που χτίστηκε για το μέλλον. Και αντίθετα με την υπόλοιπη χώρα, υπάρχει «αξιόπιστη» παροχή ηλεκτρικού σε όλη τη χώρα, εστιατόρια και καφέ, καθώς και ελεύθερο wifi. Όμως παραμένει άδεια.
naypyidaw
Ο Guardian, σε ρεπορτάζ του το 2015 στην χαρακτήρισε μια σουρεαλιστική πόλη όπου όλα έχουν τεράστιο μέγεθος: οι δρόμοι, τα κτήρια. Υπάρχει μάλιστα η φήμη ότι αυτοί οι δρόμοι φτιάχτηκαν για να μπορεί να προσγειωθεί ακόμη και αεροπλάνο σε περίπτωση αντικυβερνητικών διαδηλώσεων.
naypyidaw empty
Τα τελευταία χρόνια, η τεράστια και εμβληματική πρωτεύουσα της Βιρμανίας και το γεγονός ότι παραμένει άδεια, έχει κινήσει το ενδιαφέρον πολλών μέσων ενημέρωσης. Οι συντελεστές του Top Gear του BBC έμειναν έκπληκτοι με τους τεράστιους άδειους δρόμους.
Και παρά τους τεράστιους δρόμους που σπάνια χρησιμοποιούνται, σημειώνει ο Guardian, οι οδοκαθαριστές είναι καθημερινά εκεί για ώρες, καθαρίζοντας τους δρόμους που κανείς δεν λερώνει. Όπως επίσης και οι εργάτες, μεταφέροντας συνεχώς τούβλα, αφού η ανοικοδόμηση της πόλης συνεχίζεται.
naypyidaw
naypyidaw empty
naypyidaw empty
naypyidaw empty


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