0,20€ Cashback auf Mineralwasser Still, medium oder prickelnd bei Reebate (Gewinn möglich)   
Autor: 0alex0

@Hans99: Bei mir ging's reibungslos, gegen 17 Uhr vom Einkauf zurück, Rechnung aktualisiert und wenige Sekunden später war die Gutschrift drauf.

          Alholva semillas - 2,90 €    
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Las semillas de alholva se extraen de una planta que crece en Asia y que también es conocida con el nombre de fenogreco. Las semillas de fenogreco o alholva son ricas en vitaminas y minerales, de ahí que tengan múltiples beneficios para la piel y el cabello. El fenogreco tiene propiedades hidratantes, estimulantes y antiinflamatorias. Con estas semillas de alholva podrás hacer infusiones y extractos naturales para enriquecer tus cosméticos caseros. Hacer extracto de alholva es muy sencillo y podrás agregarlo a cremas, mascarillas, champús, aceites de masaje…

Uso tópico.


          MBLM Announces Healthy & Beauty Industry Ranks Third for Brand Intimacy   

Brand Intimacy Agency’s Report Finds Chanel, Clinique and bareMinerals are Top Three Most Intimate Health & Beauty Brands

(PRWeb March 17, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/03/prweb13268582.htm


          OLEJ MANNOL - ATF-A AUTOMATIC FLUID 1L - 15,93 zł    
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Olej przekładniowy, wielofunkcyjny, mineralny


          Monoinvest - Monoinvest.com   
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          MELOGRANO e melagrana : fonte di vitamine e sali minerali   

Il Punica granatum, più comunemente conosciuto con il nome di melograno, è una pianta appartenente alla famiglia delle Punicaceae. Si tratta di una pianta tipica delle zone mediterranee che dà origine a un frutto molto saporito, la granata, o melagrana. La pianta di melograno presenta foglie strette e lunghe. Essa fiorisce in primavera, in particolare […]

L'articolo MELOGRANO e melagrana : fonte di vitamine e sali minerali sembra essere il primo su ANALISI DEL SANGUE - CAPIRE GLI ESAMI DEL SANGUE.


          Bone Glues Market in Europe Will Grow at a CAGR of 1.39 Percent over the Period 2013-2018   

Bone Glues Market in Europe 2014-2018, report published by Reports and Intelligence

Portland, OR -- (ReleaseWire) -- 09/16/2014 -- Bone glues are a form of collagen. They are obtained from animal sources such as bovine and piscine bones. The most commonly used production process for making bone glues involves the procurement of animal bones from slaughterhouses, tanneries, and meat packing companies and their subjection to washing, boiling under pressure, de-mineralization and extraction of collagen, and drying. Bone glues are largely used in applications such as woodworking, book publishing, and match head production.

Get full details of report
http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/bone-glues-in-europe-2014-2018-market

Bone Glues market in Europe will grow at a CAGR of 1.39 percent over the period 2013-2018.

Report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Bone Glues market in Europe for the period 2014-2018. To arrive at a ranking for the leading vendors of the market, and to calculate the market size, the report considers the production capacity of vendors of bone glues. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top five vendors in the Bone Glues market in Europe. The report also provides data on the different segments of the Bone Glues market in Europe based on the following segmentation criteria: key leading country and application.

See similar report: Spirit Markets in the Top 5 European Countries to 2018 - Market Size, Trends, and Forecasts
http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/spirit-in-the-top-5-european-countries-to-2018-size-trends-and-forecasts-market

Table of Content:
01. Executive Summary
02. List of Abbreviations
03. Scope of the Report
04. Market Research Methodology
05. Introduction
06. Market Landscape
07. Key Leading Countries
08. Market Segmentation by Application
09. Buying Criteria
10. Market Growth Drivers
11. Drivers and their Impact
12. Market Challenges
13. Impact of Drivers and Challenges
14. Market Trends

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http://www.reportsandintelligence.com/bone-glues-in-europe-2014-2018-market/table-of-contents

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          10 Classic New Jersey Attractions You Should Revisit   
What comes to mind when you think of classic New Jersey attractions? Chances are, the places in your memory are still in existence today. New Jersey is filled with classic attractions that families and visitors have enjoyed for decades. Why not make some plans to revisit them this year?


1. Land of Make Believe - Hope, NJ

I asked a few friends on Facebook if I could borrow their photos from Land of Make Believe (lovingly referred to as LoMB) and so many people came forward with pictures of their fun times that I had trouble choosing which shots to use! This classic New Jersey attraction, located in Hope, New Jersey, has been in business for over 60 years. Featuring rides, roller coasters, a water park, picnic area and more. Families have loved this place for generations. Cleanliness, location, family-friendly activities and good value are just some of the reasons why LoMB has been a classic staple in New Jersey family travels for so many years!

Photo cred thanks to L. Soos, S. Ho-Tai, S. Wright, H. Sherwin and J. Augustine

2. Space Farms Zoo & Museum - Sussex, NJ

Ask most New Jersey residents if they have been to Space Farms Zoo and Museum, and they usually answer with a smile. Space Farms had its humble beginnings in 1927, and the Space family has maintained it ever since. I can still vividly remember our first class field trip there in the mid-1980's, when Goliath the bear was still alive. Visitors will find it largely unchanged since the past, featuring acres of animals, picnic areas, a museum, classic cars and so much more. Check out their website or read my blog post review about this unforgettable New Jersey location.


3. Turtle Back Zoo - West Orange, NJ

Turtle Back Zoo opened in 1963, and it was also a favorite field trip location for many children back in the 1970's and 80's (and still, today!). The zoo has come a long way since its early days, with expansions, aquariums, additions and play areas included for children. You can still find giant turtles in their midst, as well as their famous wandering peacocks (but leave them alone, please!). You also can't forget family favorites like the train ride, pony rides, and the beautiful carousel. Turtle Back Zoo is open year round, and in my opinion, is one of the best classic New Jersey attractions out there. Read my blog post all about the zoo, or visit their website to find out more information.


4. Wild West City - Stanhope, NJ

What I remember most about Wild West City is the TV commercial (or radio commercial) that played over and over again during the late 1970's and early 80's. It featured the voice and piano playing of New Jersey's own Uncle Floyd, if you remember him. They still use this song on Wild West City's website, if you feel the need for a flashback! Like most New Jersey classic attractions, it hasn't changed much since you last visited! It has been family owned and operated on and off since 1956, and features live-action shows, stagecoach rides, pony rides, train rides, panning for gold, mini golf, and a whole lot more. Guests should know that they still reenact legendary western gunfights in a safe manner (you can read all about their gun policy here). One of the best things about Wild West City is that there really isn't anything else like it in New Jersey, so catch it while you can.

photo cred J. Caramucci

5. Lucy the Elephant, Margate, NJ

There are classic lighthouses and monuments in New Jersey, but Lucy the Elephant takes the cake. Built in the 1800's, you can purchase a guided tour to see what's inside this cheeky elephant. If you prefer to walk around outside of her and take photos, you can do that for free (there is also a gift shop, which I hear has some adorable memorabilia), but I recommend the tour as you get to see some great views from Lucy's height! It's right by the ocean and there is a little snack shop and outdoor seating, too. Check their website for operating hours and ticket info.

Photo cred S. Wright

Photo cred S. Wright

6. Storybook Land - Egg Harbor Township, NJ

Storybook Land has been operational since 1955. That's over 60 years of entertainment in The Garden State! Visitors fondly recall its whimsical statues of fairytale friends, and get a kick out of posing their children next to familiar sites from their own childhood. Everything at Storybook Land seems to have a cute, retro feel to it, from snack shops shaped like a watering can to colorful trains picking up passengers. They are open Fall and Winter, too, with wonderful displays at Christmastime. At Storybook Land, you pay one admission price for unlimited rides, and their location nestled in the trees keeps you cool in the summertime, too.

photo cred R. Levitan

7. Christmas Ice Caverns - Fairfield, NJ

The Christmas Ice Caverns in Fairfield are near and dear to my heart. This adorable, animated Christmas display has been entertaining visitors since 1972. Generations of families return every season to see the new additions and to throw their pennies into its magical wishing waters. Guests walk through an indoor 'cavern' (a path, basically) to view all of the displays, and can even meet Santa at the end of the journey. Admission cost is ridiculously low, and kids of all ages seem to enjoy what it offers. Read all about this classic Christmas display in my blog post, or visit the Ice Caverns website for more information about their operating hours.


8. Sterling Hill Mining Museum - Ogdensburg

Let's face it, rocks are cool. Mines are even cooler. Rocks, minerals, and mines in our own state with a rich history are the coolest of all. The history of Sterling Hill Mining Museum is so long and complex that I would fail to do it justice here. So I urge you to read all about its history on their website and then plan your own visit here. There's so much to do and see, including a tour of the mine, a museum, an observatory, memorials, fossils, collections and more. There's a snack bar and panning, as well as a cool museum store and fluorescent rocks.

photo cred. L. Schwartz

9. Waterloo Village - Stanhope, NJ 

Waterloo Village in Stanhope is open to the public for walking, hiking and exploring. If you've visited before, you might remember this little restored village, featuring a 400-year old Lenape establishment and a little port along the Morris Canal. There's a blacksmith shop, general store, sawmills, gristmills and even historic houses. It's still a popular site for field trips, and they hold many educational workshops and events throughout the year. Check their Facebook page for more information!

photo by Chuck Walsh, Wikimedia Commons

10. Bowcraft Amusement Park - Scotch Plains

Bowcraft Amusement Park may be small, but it's a fun place to spend your day. The history of the park dates back to 1946, and even included a miniature golf course in the 1980's (that was later removed to add more parking). Classic, fun rides and a convenient location to the highway make this a favorite spot for kids and families. Bowcraft is a great location for birthday parties and events, and they even hold special seasonal activities like Easter egg hunts and a Sukkos spectacular for Jewish guests.

photo cred M. Augustine

One last thing to note is that the New Jersey shore is filled with classic attractions. When I asked friends and family about their favorite vintage New Jersey sites, many of them mentioned shore arcades, rides, piers and boardwalks. There were so many, I figured they deserve a post of their own. So stay tuned for classic New Jersey Shore attractions, coming soon!
          Total: Pflichtpraktikum Marketing- Handels- und Verbrauchergeschäft (B2C/B2B)   
Competitive: Total: Job Description Sie würden bei TOTAL Mineralöl GmbH eingestellt, die in Deutschland für den Vertrieb von Heizöl und Kraftstoffen an private und gewerbliche Kunden verantwortlich ist.Über unsere regionalen Kundenzentren werden Privathaushalte, Industr Berlin, Allemagne
          GypsumWorks Studio (no replies)   
I have known about mindat.org for many years but recently joined to better participate. I am a retired physicist with a strong background in the fields of solid state, crystallography, piezoelectricity, and materials science. I was elected a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America in 2000 for my contributions to the field of transducers. I know quite a bit about sound generation, propagation, and detection in various media including solids.

One of my daughters is a geologist and when both daughters were living at home, we spent many years rockhounding around our province of Nova Scotia, Canada as a family. I still go on field trips and have set up a small research lab area plus a rock and mineral studio. I live near some of the best gypsum sites in Nova Scotia and have begun working with gypsum as an art material. I refer to my studio as GypsumWorks Studio and hope to post some gallery photos on this site once I become more familiar with uploading photos and creating galleries. I uploaded one photo successfully so it's a start.

Plan to write a few articles and get to know other users. I used to write HTML code so that will come back to me quickly.
Cheers, Dennis
          Need Explaination From Management (2 replies)   
Over the past few days, I have uploaded numerous "on site locality photos" from the Herkimer, New York area. A total of 5 different Herkimer "diamond" collecting sites are involved. Unfortunately 99.99% of those photos were placed in the "User Only Gallery". After a quick check of currently displayed photos, including mineral and site photos, already listed in the MinDat library per each of the 5 sites in question, very few if any of my contributions are shown.

If possible could someone please explain.

Thank you

Frank
          Mar Mineral no Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência (no replies)   
[attachment 71038 marmineral.jpg]

14 de Julho de 2017

Estaremos dispostos a viver sem telemóvel, computador, pomadas anti-virais ou boa parte dos tratamentos anti-cancerigenos? E até turbinas eólicas outras energias verdes? Se não, então a curto prazo o mundo terá de iniciar uma nova exploração oceânica, mas desta vez ocorrerá nos fundos marinhos. As riquezas a explorar serão minerais, mas o seu valor é diferente daquele que conferimos ao ouro ou à prata, já que os recursos minerais que encontramos nos oceanos, como hidratos de gás, cobalto, e terras raras e ítrio, são essenciais no desenvolvimento de tecnologias que estão presentes no nosso dia-a-dia e sem as quais já não sabemos viver. A Europa está agora a avançar no desenvolvimento de tecnologia que permita explorar os fundos do mar através de uma mineração responsável e ambientalmente sustentável e Portugal pode, novamente, ter um papel importante na exploração oceânica. Prepare-se para descer ao fundo do mar com o MUHNAC na exposição Mar Mineral – Ciência e Recursos Naturais no Fundo do Mar.

Inauguração dia 13 de julho, às 17h30
A inauguração da exposição “Mar Mineral – Ciência e Recursos Naturais no Fundo do Mar” terá lugar no dia 13 de Julho de 2017, no Átrio Principal do Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Rua da Escola Politécnica, 56, 1250-102 Lisboa, com início pelas 18:30. Será antecedida, às 17h30, por uma apresentação pelo Prof. Andy Wheeler, do University College de Cork, Irlanda, acerca da descoberta do campo hidrotermal Moytirra, na região da Extensão da Plataforma Continental a Norte dos Açores.
Mar Mineral será dedicada a Mário Ruivo, insigne oceanógrafo.


Esta exposição, de longa duração, abrirá ao público no dia 14 de Julho.
          Structure refinements of kamchatkite and alumoklyuchevskite (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Siidra, O.I., Nazarchuk, E.V., Zaitsev, A.N., Lukina, E.A., Avdontseva, E.Y., Vergasova, L.P., Vlasenko, N.S., Filatov, S.K., Turner, R., Karpov, G.A. (2017): Copper oxosulphates from fumaroles of Tolbachik Vulcano: puninite, Na2Cu3O(SO4)3 - a new mineral species and structure refinements of kamchatkite and alumoklyuchevskite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 499-510.

Abstract:
Typical characteristics of many anhydrous sulphates of exhalative origin at fumaroles at the Second scoria cone of the Northern Breakthrough of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, are the presence of additional oxygen atoms (Oa) in the composition. Recent field works on the fumaroles of the Second scoria cone in 2014 and 2015 resulted in discovery of a new mineral species, puninite, and collection of fresh alumoklyuchevskite and kamchatkite samples which allowed the re-refinement of crystal structures. The crystal structure of kamchatkite, KCu3O(SO4)2Cl, was solved and refined in Pnma space group (a = 9.755(2), b = 7.0152(15), c = 12.886(3) Å, V = 881.8(3)Å3, R1 = 0.021), whereas alumoklyuchevskite, K3Cu3AlO2(SO4)4, is triclinic, P-1; (a = 4.952(3), b = 11.978(6), c = 14.626(12) Å, α = 87.119(9), β = 80.251(9), γ = 78.070(9)°, V = 836.3 (9)Å3, R1 = 0.049) in contrast to previously reported data.
The new mineral puninite, ideally Na2Cu3O(SO4)3, was found in sublimates of Glavnaya Tenoritovaya fumarole. The mineral is named in honor of the Russian crystallographer Yurii Olegovich Punin (1941–2014). Puninite is closely associated with lammerite-β, tenorite, hematite and anhydrite. Puninite is emerald-green in colour. It is biaxial, optically positive, α = 1.587(2), β = 1.611(2), γ = 1.649(2), 2Vcalc=60°. The mineral is soluble in water. The empirical formula of puninite based on 13 O atoms is (Na1.76K0.08)Σ1.84(Cu2.97Zn0.04)Σ3.01(SO4)3.02O0.92. Puninite is the first Na-dominant copper oxosulfate mineral observed on Second scoria cone. It is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 17.41(1), b = 9.39(1), c = 14.40(1) Å, β = 112.04(7)°, V = 2183(2)Å3, Z = 8. The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are (I-d-hkl): 100-8.058-200, 18.88-6.675- 00&2macr;, 28.47-6.466- 20&2macr;, 14.1-4.398-202, 17.37-4.247- 11&3macr;, 33.89-3.839- 02&2macr;, 29.15-2.854- 22&4macr;, 14.95-2.724- 02&4macr;. Puninite is structurally related to euchlorine, NaKCu3O(SO4)3 and to fedotovite, K2Cu3O(SO4)3. The unit-cell a parameter value is very sensitive to the K-Na ratio in “euchlorine group” minerals. The crystal structure of puninite (R1 = 0.035) is based on oxocentred [O2Cu6]8+ dimers. Four sulphate tetrahedra are ‘face-to-face’ attached to the dimers, whereas the other sulphate tetrahedral groups provide their linkage in two dimensions. The structural architecture of all the copper-oxosulphate exhalative minerals described in this paper can be described as being organized via a “host–guest” principle.
          IMA 2015-012 = puninite and structure refinements of kamchatkite and alumoklyuchevskite (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Siidra, O.I., Nazarchuk, E.V., Zaitsev, A.N., Lukina, E.A., Avdontseva, E.Y., Vergasova, L.P., Vlasenko, N.S., Filatov, S.K., Turner, R., Karpov, G.A. (2017): Copper oxosulphates from fumaroles of Tolbachik Vulcano: puninite, Na2Cu3O(SO4)3 - a new mineral species and structure refinements of kamchatkite and alumoklyuchevskite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 499-510.

Abstract:
Typical characteristics of many anhydrous sulphates of exhalative origin at fumaroles at the Second scoria cone of the Northern Breakthrough of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, are the presence of additional oxygen atoms (Oa) in the composition. Recent field works on the fumaroles of the Second scoria cone in 2014 and 2015 resulted in discovery of a new mineral species, puninite, and collection of fresh alumoklyuchevskite and kamchatkite samples which allowed the re-refinement of crystal structures. The crystal structure of kamchatkite, KCu3O(SO4)2Cl, was solved and refined in Pnma space group (a = 9.755(2), b = 7.0152(15), c = 12.886(3) Å, V = 881.8(3)Å3, R1 = 0.021), whereas alumoklyuchevskite, K3Cu3AlO2(SO4)4, is triclinic, P-1; (a = 4.952(3), b = 11.978(6), c = 14.626(12) Å, α = 87.119(9), β = 80.251(9), γ = 78.070(9)°, V = 836.3 (9)Å3, R1 = 0.049) in contrast to previously reported data.
The new mineral puninite, ideally Na2Cu3O(SO4)3, was found in sublimates of Glavnaya Tenoritovaya fumarole. The mineral is named in honor of the Russian crystallographer Yurii Olegovich Punin (1941–2014). Puninite is closely associated with lammerite-β, tenorite, hematite and anhydrite. Puninite is emerald-green in colour. It is biaxial, optically positive, α = 1.587(2), β = 1.611(2), γ = 1.649(2), 2Vcalc=60°. The mineral is soluble in water. The empirical formula of puninite based on 13 O atoms is (Na1.76K0.08)Σ1.84(Cu2.97Zn0.04)Σ3.01(SO4)3.02O0.92. Puninite is the first Na-dominant copper oxosulfate mineral observed on Second scoria cone. It is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 17.41(1), b = 9.39(1), c = 14.40(1) Å, β = 112.04(7)°, V = 2183(2)Å3, Z = 8. The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are (I-d-hkl): 100-8.058-200, 18.88-6.675- 00&2macr;, 28.47-6.466- 20&2macr;, 14.1-4.398-202, 17.37-4.247- 11&3macr;, 33.89-3.839- 02&2macr;, 29.15-2.854- 22&4macr;, 14.95-2.724- 02&4macr;. Puninite is structurally related to euchlorine, NaKCu3O(SO4)3 and to fedotovite, K2Cu3O(SO4)3. The unit-cell a parameter value is very sensitive to the K-Na ratio in “euchlorine group” minerals. The crystal structure of puninite (R1 = 0.035) is based on oxocentred [O2Cu6]8+ dimers. Four sulphate tetrahedra are ‘face-to-face’ attached to the dimers, whereas the other sulphate tetrahedral groups provide their linkage in two dimensions. The structural architecture of all the copper-oxosulphate exhalative minerals described in this paper can be described as being organized via a “host–guest” principle.
          IMA 2015-061 = wampenite (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Mills, S.J., Kampf, A.R., Nestola, F., Williams, P.A., Leverett, P., Hejazi, L., Hibbs, D.E., Mrorsko, M., Alvaro, M., Kasatkin, A.V. (2017): Wampenite, C18H16, a new organic mineral from the fossil conifer locality at Wampen, Bavaria, Germany. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 511-515.

Abstract:
Wampenite, C18H16, is a new organic mineral from the fossil wood (conifer) locality at Wampen, Fichtelgebirge, Bavaria, Germany. It is monoclinic, space group P21/a, with a = 6.7331(19), b = 8.689(3), c = 23.709(7) Å, β = 90.118(6)°, V = 1387.0(7)Å3 and Z = 4. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the molecular structure comprises an aromatic phenanthrene moiety with an axial methyl group at one end and a disordered propen-2-yl (methylvinyl) terminal group at the other. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) confirmed the molecular formula C18H16 and the IR spectrum is consistent with the molecular structure found.
          IMA 2016-056 = hydroxykenoelsmoreite (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Kampf, A.R., Birch, W.D., Kasatkin, A. (2017): Hydroxykenoelsmoreite, the first new mineral from the Republic of Burundi. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 491-497.

Abstract:
We report the new mineral hydroxykenoelsmoreite, which has been approved by the IMA as IMA2016-056. The mineral occurs at the Masaka gold mine, Burundi, as rosettes up to 150μm across of platy crystals up to 20μm wide but < 2μm thick, associated with goethite and galena. Crystals are canary yellow, transparent with a vitreous lustre, and have a pale yellow streak. Hydroxykenoelsmoreite is uniaxial (-)and non-pleochroic. The refractive indices were too high to measure, but the Gladstone-Dale compatibility index predicts nave = 2.065. Crystals are brittle with an irregular fracture, but have perfect cleavage on {0 0 1}. The Mohs hardness is ∼ 3 by analogy with hydrokenoelsmoreite. The mineral is a member of the elsmoreite group of the pyrochlore supergroup, but deviates from the ideal cubic symmetry due mainly to ordering of Fe3+ onto one of twoWsites. Its structure is trigonal, space group R-3, with unit-cell parameters a = 7.313(2), c = 17.863(7) Å, V = 827(1)Å3 and Z = 6. The empirical formula (based on 7 (O + OH) per formula unit (pfu)) is: (□1.668Pb0.315Ca0.009Na0.005K0.003Ba0.001)Σ2(W6+>1.487Fe3+0.357Al0.156)Σ2(O4.119(OH)1.881)Σ6(OH); Raman spectroscopy and bond–valence sums showed that molecular H2O was absent or nearly so. The calculated density is 5.806 g cm-3.
          Crystal chemistry of Al–V–Cr oxy-tourmalines from Sludyanka complex, Lake Baikal, Russia (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Bosi, F., Reznitskii, L., Halenius, U., Skogby, H. (2017): Crystal chemistry of Al–V–Cr oxy-tourmalines from Sludyanka complex, Lake Baikal, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 457-472.

Abstract:
Twelve Al–V–Cr oxy-tourmalines from the Sludyanka crystalline complex (Russia) were structurally and chemically characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Three samples were also optically characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy and refractive index measurements. The data obtained and those of fourteen earlier studied oxy-tourmalines from the same locality show a complete substitution series due to the replacement of Al ↔ V3+ ↔ Cr3+. The cation site distribution results show that Mg has a strong preference for the Z site, whereas the trivalent cations have a preference for Y and Z controlled by their size: YV3+ > YCr >> YAl and ZAl >> ZCr > ZV3+.
In accordance with the bond-valence theory, the observed increase of F content with increasing Cr content may be interpreted by the occurrence of the local arrangements O1(F)–Y(CrCrCr) and Z[Cr(Cr,Mg)]–O3(O2−)–Y(Cr), while the incorporation of V3+ into the oxy-tourmaline structure is controlled by the local arrangement O1(O2−)–Y(VVV).
The unit-cell parameters (a and c) are strictly correlated to each other and can be expressed by a quadratic relation dependent on the mean-bond distances 〈Z–O〉 and 〈X–O〉. A strong positive correlation between (V + Cr) content and mean refractive index is proposed as a reliable guide to derive the composition of Al–V–Cr oxy-tourmalines from refractive-index measurements.
          Modularity of crystal structures: a unifying model for the biopyribole–palysepiole series (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Nespolo, M. & Bouznari, K. (2017): Modularity of crystal structures: a unifying model for the biopyribole–palysepiole series. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 369-383.

Abstract:
Biopyriboles and palysepioles are two polysomatic series traditionally described as built by the juxtaposition of modules taken, respectively, from phyllosilicates and pyroxenes and from palygorskite and sepiolite. We show that all the minerals in these two series can be described in the framework of the tropochemical cell-twinning model as built by modules of variable width taken from phyllosilicates, stacked by different structure-building operations. We present a quantitative comparison of the modules occurring in the different minerals and show their structure is so closely similar that one can use the module taken from one mineral to model the structure of the other minerals with only minimal deformations.
          A new uranyl phosphate sheet in the crystal structure of furongite (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Dal Bo, F., Hatert, F., Philippo, S. (2017): A new uranyl phosphate sheet in the crystal structure of furongite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 517-527.

Abstract:
The crystal structure of furongite, Al4[(UO2)4(PO4)6](OH)2(H2O)19.5, from the Kobokobo pegmatite, Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, was solved for the first time. Furongite is triclinic, the space group P-1;, Z=2, a = 12.1685(8), b = 14.1579(6), c = 17.7884(6) , α = 79.822(3), β = 77.637(4), γ = 67.293(2)°, and V = 2746.2(2)3. The crystal structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to R1 = 0.0733 for 7716 unique observed reflections, and to wR2 = 0.2081 for all 12,538 unique reflections. The structure of furongite contains infinite uranyl phosphate sheets of composition [(UO2)4(PO4)6]10- which are parallel to (1 0 1). The sheets are constituted by UrO5 pentagonal bipyramids and PO4 tetrahedra which share edges and vertices, and adjacent sheets are linked by a dense network of hydrogen bonds. Running through the sheets and connected mainly to the free apical oxygen atom of PO4 tetrahedra are Al octahedra connected together to form remarkable Al2O5(OH)(H2O)5 and Al4O8(OH)2(H2O)10 clusters. These Al clusters are only bonded to one sheet, and do not connect two adjacent sheets together. The topology of the uranyl phosphate sheets is related to the uranophane anion topology, and can be described as a new geometrical isomer of the uranophane group. Furongite is the first uranyl phosphate reported in nature with a U:P ratio of 2:3.
          Crystal-chemical relations and classification problems belonging to the oxy-schorl – oxy-dravite – bosiite – povondraite series (no replies)   
Reference:
▪ Bosi, F., Cámara, F., Ciriotti, M.E., Hålenius, U., Reznitskii, L., Stagno, V. (2017): Crystal-chemical relations and classification problems in tourmalines belonging to the oxy-schorl – oxy-dravite – bosiite – povondraite series. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 445-455.

Abstract:
Two oxy-tourmalines showing intermediate compositions between the oxy-schorl and oxy-dravite series (sample from Sludyanka crystalline complex, Baikal, Russia) and the oxy-dravite and bosiite series (sample from the Valletta mine, Piedmont, Italy) were structurally and chemically characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, optical absorption and Synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy. A comparative analysis of the results, along with data from literature on additional samples corresponding to the species oxy-schorl, oxy-dravite, bosiite and povondraite, show that the main structural variations within the Fe-bearing, Na-dominant oxy-tourmalines are related to variations in the content of Fe, which is incorporated into the structure via substitution mechanisms that involves Al. The results also show the occurrence of a complete substitution series from oxy-schorl via oxy-dravite and bosiite to povondraite, but no (or a limited) direct substitution series between oxy-schorl and bosiite (or povondraite). The substitution of Al by larger cations causes changes in ⟨Y–O⟩ and ⟨Z–O⟩ distances as well as in the unit-cell parameters. The effect of ⟨Y–O⟩ on the a-parameter is evident in the oxy-schorl–oxy-dravite series, but it is of marginal significance in the oxy-dravite–bosiite–povondraite series. On the other hand, a good correlation exists between ⟨Z–O⟩ and the a-parameter only in the oxy-dravite–bosiite–povondraite series. The c-parameter is strongly correlated with ⟨Z–O⟩ along the entire substitution series.
Classification problems related to the naming of Fe-bearing, Na-dominant oxy-tourmalines are discussed. Application of the nomenclature rules in force resulted in ambiguous naming of the studied samples. This makes, for example, direct comparisons of physical and chemical properties of tourmalines originating from different deposits difficult.
          POTD 30 June 2017 (2 replies)   
What a delight to read good, relevant, mineralogical and geological information on an interesting sample! I wish other POTDs had this sort of information instead of a lot of photographic data, which has its place - but this in Mindat not Photodat...

Thank you for taking the time to tell us a good story of the occurrence.

Cheers

Tim
          Any micromounters want to trade completed micromounts at the September Denver mineral show? (no replies)   
Hello,

I will be at the Denver Gem and Mineral Show this September. If there are any micromounters who will be going to the show, I would enjoy seeing other people's micromounts and or trading.

Also, if anyone knows a good micro-mineral collecting locality within a few hours drive of Denver, I'm all ears.

Thanks!
Mark
          Any micromount specific events happening around the September Denver mineral show? (2 replies)   
Howdy Everyone,

I am planning my first trip to the big Denver mineral show this September. I believe the show runs from September 9th to the 17th.

I have looked around and I can't find any listings for micromount specific events surrounding the show. But I wanted to ask to make sure.

Also, if there are any micromounters who will be going to the show, I would enjoy meeting up and saying hello.

Finally, if anyone knows a good micro-mineral collecting locality within a few hours drive of Denver, I'm all ears.

Thanks!
Mark
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          Meet Aisha Formanski, Education Team at Beaducation   

Aisha Formanski, Education Team
Joined Beaducation: 2010
Meet Aisha Formanski, Education Team
Got jewelry tools? Aisha certainly does! As a self-proclaimed addict, she admits wanting to have them all. Having worked in the bead and DIY jewelry industry for over half her life, this native Minnesotan has collected so many tools she lost count on how many she has. Not only is Aisha an accomplished jewelry designer with six months of courses at Revere Academy under her belt, she can also spin her own yarn and knit with it. Pretty talented, eh? You betcha!

From Aisha
I had been working in the DIY industry for quite a while, and was VERY fond of all that Beaducation was doing. I moved to the Bay Area is the fall of 2010, looking to focus on my jewelry. That year when I traveled to Tucson to attend the Gem and Mineral show where I met Kate Richbourg. Kate was the Education Director for Beaducation at the time, and her and I hit it off immediately. I explained that I had just moved to the Bay Area, and she expressed that they were looking for a new hire to assist with the Education Department. I was hired a month later!

The supportive and creative team are my favorite part of working with Beaducation. Lisa Niven Kelly is the most supportive, creative, funny, boss you could ever have.

In the last five years the way people are learning online has changed dramatically. When I came on board we were selling our online classes. A couple of years later we decided to turn them all free. People were turning to Youtube for their online tutorials, and we felt like it was time for us to go free.

Since then it's been fun to get great feedback from our viewers about the quality of our classes, and support them in their creative endeavors. We continue to add classes to our website every year. It's been fun to see what people are interested in learning. It went from PMC, to felting, to seed beading, to wirework, to metalwork, but always come back around to the backbone of Beaducation, metal stamping :) The fact that metal stamping continues to grow is AMAZING!

Five years from now I hope that we continue to support makers all over the world with education and cool products! Also, as Lisa Niven Kelly said at my interview in 2010 when I asked her this very question, "Kickin' ass, and heathy snacks".

FUN FACTS ABOUT THE AISHA WE KNOW & LOVE
Aisha has her own studio to create super cool things and has written her own book, New Directions in Punched Metal Jewelry by Aisha Formanski! She has her very own jewelry line and is really talented. This super healthy, Midwest girl grew up on a commune (that's right!), is a perfectionist, loves turquoise, Cabochons, gem shows, craft shows, metalsmithing, woodworking and yarn.  She often gives a fake name at Starbucks because they rarely pronounce hers correctly. She once sported a pixie hair cut. It was very cute.
          Sirius Minerals Plc (SRUXF: OTC Pink Current) | Venue Change   
Fri, Jun 30, 2017 12:00 - Sirius Minerals Plc (SRUXF: OTC Link) - Venue Change - The symbol, SRUXF, no longer trades on Grey Market. As of Fri, Jun 30, 2017, SRUXF trades on OTC Link. You may find a complete list of venue changes at otcmarkets.com.
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Thank you for sharing this useful post. These are the really helpful guidance of healing crystals for beginners. Because not everyone knows how to use healing crystals properly so above given guidelines are very helpful to use them without any side effects.
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Mengawali tahun 2017, masyarakat Indonesia mendapat kado dari PT PLN. Kado ini berupa penarikan subsidi bagi pelanggan listrik berdaya 900 VA atau 900 Watt secara perlahan. Mulai tanggal 1 Januari 2017 lalu, pemerintah melalui Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) melakukan penambahan satu golongan tarif baru, yaitu rumah tangga mampu dengan daya 900 VA […]
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          Cs pregunta al Gobierno sobre las concesiones de explotación de hidrocarburos vigentes en el Mediterráneo   

Los diputados de Ciudadanos (Cs) en el Congreso de Diputados Antonio Cantó, García del Moral y Fernando Navarro han presentado una pila de preguntas para respuesta escrita sobre las concesiones de explotación de hidrocarburos y otras sustancias minerales vigentes en la actualidad en el mar Mediterráneo.


          4 Hidden Dangers of Pork   
Pork is the most commonly consumed meat in the world, but may also be one of the most dangerous.

Among foods that inspire a cult-like following, pork often leads the pack, as evidenced by the 65% of Americans eager to name bacon the country’s national food.

Unfortunately, that popularity comes at a cost. Along with being the most commonly consumed meat in the world, pork may also be one of the most dangerous, carrying some important and under-discussed risks that any consumer should be aware of (1).

1. Hepatitis E

Thanks to the revival of nose-to-tail eating, offal has redeemed itself among health enthusiasts, especially liver, which is prized for its vitamin A content and massive mineral lineup.

But when it comes to pork, liver might be risky business.

In developed nations, pork liver is the top food-based transmitter of hepatitis E, a virus that infects 20 million people each year and can lead to acute illness (fever, fatigue, jaundice, vomiting, joint pain and stomach pain), enlarged liver and sometimes liver failure and death (23).

Most hepatitis E cases are stealthily symptom-free, but pregnant women can experience violent reactions to the virus, including fulminant hepatitis (rapid-onset liver failure) and a high risk of both maternal and fetal mortality (4). In fact, mothers who get infected during their third trimester face a death rate of up to 25% (5).

In rare cases, hepatitis E infection can lead to myocarditis (an inflammatory heart disease), acute pancreatitis (painful inflammation of the pancreas), neurological problems (including Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuralgic amyotrophy), blood disorders and musculoskeletal problems, such as elevated creatine phosphokinase, indicating muscle damage, and multi-joint pain (in the form of polyarthralgia) (678).

People with compromised immune systems, including organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy and people with HIV, are more likely to suffer from these severe hepatitis E complications (9).

So, just how alarming are pork’s contamination stats? In America, about 1 out of every 10 store-bought pig livers tests positive for hepatitis E, which is slightly higher than the 1 in 15 rate in the Netherlands and 1 in 20 rate in the Czech Republic (1011). One study in Germany found that about 1 in 5 pork sausages were contaminated (12).

France’s traditional figatellu, a pig liver sausage that’s often consumed raw, is a confirmed hepatitis E carrier (13). In fact, in regions of France where raw or rare pork is a common delicacy, over half the local population shows evidence of hepatitis E infection (14).

Japan, too, is facing rising hepatitis E concerns as pork gains popularity (15). And in the UK? Hepatitis E shows up in pork sausages, in pork liver and at pork slaughterhouses, indicating the potential for widespread exposure among pork consumers (16).

It might be tempting to blame the hepatitis E epidemic on commercial farming practices, but in the case of the pig, wilder doesn’t mean safer. Hunted boars, too, are frequent hepatitis E carriers, capable of passing on the virus to game-eating humans (1718).

Apart from total pork abstinence, the best way to slash hepatitis E risk is in the kitchen. This stubborn virus can survive the temperatures of rare-cooked meat, making high heat the best weapon against infection (19). For virus deactivation, cooking pork products for at least 20 minutes to an internal temperature of 71°C (160°F) seems to do the trick (20).

However, fat can protect hepatitis viruses from heat destruction, so fattier cuts of pork might need extra time or toastier temperatures (21).

Summary: Pork products, particularly liver, frequently carry hepatitis E, which can cause severe complications and even death in vulnerable populations. Thorough cooking is necessary to deactivate the virus.

2. Multiple Sclerosis

One of the most surprising risks associated with pork — one that’s received remarkably little airtime — is multiple sclerosis (MS), a devastating autoimmune condition involving the central nervous system.

The robust link between pork and MS has been known at least since the 1980s, when researchers analyzed the relationship between per capita pork consumption and MS across dozens of countries (22).

While pork-averse nations like Israel and India were nearly spared from MS’s degenerative grips, more liberal consumers, such as West Germany and Denmark, faced sky-high rates.

In fact, when all countries were considered, pork intake and MS showed a whopping correlation of 0.87 (p<0.001), which is much higher and more significant than the relationship between MS and fat intake (0.63, p<0.01), MS and total meat intake (0.61, p<0.01) and MS and beef consumption (no significant relationship).

For perspective, a similar study of diabetes and per capita sugar intake found a correlation of just under 0.60 (p<0.001) when analyzing 165 countries (23).

As with all epidemiological findings, the correlation between pork consumption and MS can’t prove that one causes the other (or even that, within MS-stricken countries, the most enthusiastic pork consumers were the most diseased). But as it turns out, the evidence vault goes much deeper.

Earlier, a study of inhabitants of the Orkney and Shetland Islands of Scotland, a region teeming with unusual delicacies, including seabird eggs, raw milk and undercooked meat, found only one dietary association with MS — consumption of “potted head,” a dish made from boiled pig’s brain (24).

Among Shetland residents, a significantly higher proportion of MS patients had consumed potted head in their youth, compared to healthy, age and sex-matched controls (25).

This is particularly relevant because — per other research — MS that strikes in adulthood might stem from environmental exposures during adolescence (26).

The potential for pig brain to trigger nerve-related autoimmunity isn’t just an observational hunch, either. Between 2007 and 2009, a cluster of 24 pork plant workers mysteriously fell ill with progressive inflammatory neuropathy, which is characterized by MS-like symptoms such as fatigue, numbness, tingling and pain (2728).

The source of the outbreak? So-called “pig brain mist” — tiny particles of brain tissue blasted into the air during carcass processing (29).

When workers inhaled these tissue particles, their immune systems, per standard protocol, formed antibodies against the foreign porcine antigens.

But those antigens happened to bear an uncanny resemblance to certain neural proteins in humans. And the result was a biological calamity: confused about who to fight, the workers’ immune systems launched a guns-blazing attack on their own nerve tissue (3031).

Although the resulting autoimmunity wasn’t identical to multiple sclerosis, that same process of molecular mimicry, where foreign antigens and self-antigens are similar enough to trigger an autoimmune response, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS (3233).

Of course, unlike pig brain mist, hot dogs and ham aren’t literally inhaled (teenage boys notwithstanding). Could pork still transmit problematic substances through ingestion?

The answer is a speculative yes. For one, certain bacteria, particularly Acinetobacter, are involved in molecular mimicry with myelin, the nerve-sheathing substance that becomes damaged in MS (3435).

Although the role of pigs as Acinetobacter carriers hasn’t been exhaustively studied, the bacteria has been found in pig feces, on pig farms and in bacon, pork salami and ham, where it serves as a spoilage organism (36373839). If pork acts as a vehicle for Acinetobacter transmission (or in any way increases the risk of human infection), a link with MS would make sense.

Two, pigs may be silent and under-studied carriers of prions, misfolded proteins that drive neurodegenerative disorders like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (the human version of mad cow) and Kuru (found among cannibal societies) (40).

Some researchers suggest MS itself could be a prion disease, one that targets oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce myelin (41). And since prions — and their associated diseases— are transmitted by consuming infected nerve tissue, it’s possible that prion-harboring pork products could be one link in the MS chain (42).

Summary: A causative role of pork in MS is far from a closed case, but the unusually strong epidemiological patterns, biological plausibility and documented experiences make further research imperative.

3. Liver Cancer and Cirrhosis

Liver problems tend to trail closely on the heels of some predictable risk factors, namely hepatitis B and C infection, exposure to aflatoxin (a carcinogen produced by mold) and excessive alcohol intake (434445).

But buried in the scientific literature is another potential scourge of liver health — pork.

For decades, pork consumption has faithfully echoed liver cancer and cirrhosis rates around the world. In multi-country analyses, the correlation between pork and cirrhosis mortality clocked in at 0.40 (p<0.05) using 1965 data, 0.89 (p<0.01) using mid-1970s data, 0.68 (p=0.003) using 1996 data and 0.83 (p=0.000) using 2003 data (4647).

In those same analyses, among the 10 Canadian provinces, pork bore a correlation of 0.60 (p<0.01) with death from liver cirrhosis, while alcohol, perhaps due to an overall low intake, showed no significant link.

And in statistical models incorporating known perils for the liver (alcohol consumption, hepatitis B infection and hepatitis C infection), pork remained independently associated with liver disease, suggesting the association isn’t just due to pork piggybacking, as the case may be, on a different causative agent (48).

Beef, by contrast, remained liver-neutral or protective in these studies.

Liver cancer, too, tends to follow in the hoof steps of the pig. A 1985 analysis showed that pork intake correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma deaths as strongly as alcohol did (0.40, p<0.05 for both) (49). (Considering liver cirrhosis is often a prelude to cancer, this connection shouldn’t be surprising (50).)

So, what’s behind these eerie associations?

At first glance, the most likely explanations don’t pan out. Although pork-transmitted hepatitis E can lead to liver cirrhosis, this happens almost exclusively in immunosuppressed people, a subset of the population that’s too small to account for the global correlation (51).

Relative to other meat, pork tends to be high in omega-6 fatty acids, including linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, which may play a role in liver disease (525354). But vegetable oils, whose polyunsaturated fatty acid content blows pork out of the water, don’t dance the same liver disease tango that pork does, calling into question whether fat is really to blame (5556).

Heterocyclic amines, a class of carcinogens formed by cooking meat (including pork) at high temperatures, contribute to liver cancer in a variety of animals (57). But these compounds are also readily formed in beef, according to the same studies that indicated pork has no positive relationship with liver disease (5859).

With all that in mind, it’d be easy to dismiss the pork-liver disease link as an epidemiological fluke. However, some plausible mechanisms do exist.

The most likely contender involves nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds created when nitrites and nitrates react with certain amines (from protein), particularly in high heat (60). These compounds have been linked to damage and cancer in a variety of organs, including the liver (61).

One of the biggest dietary sources of nitrosamines is processed pork, which, along with being a frequent visitor to the frying pan, typically contains nitrites and nitrates as curing agents. (Vegetables are also rich in naturally occurring nitrates, but their antioxidant content and dearth of protein help thwart the process of N-nitrosation, preventing them from becoming cancer-causing agents (62).)

Significant levels of nitrosamines have been found in pork liver pâté, bacon, sausage, ham and other cured meats (636465). The fatty portion of pork products, in particular, tends to accumulate much higher levels of nitrosamines than the lean bits, making bacon a particularly abundant source (66).

The presence of fat can also turn vitamin C into a nitrosamine promoter instead of a nitrosamine inhibitor, so pairing pork with veggies might not confer much protection (67).

Although much of the nitrosamine-liver cancer research has focused on rodents, where certain nitrosamines produce liver injury with remarkable ease, the effect appears in humans as well (6869). In fact, some researchers suggest humans may be even more sensitive to nitrosamines than mice and rats (70).

In Thailand, for instance, nitrosamines have been strongly linked to liver cancer in areas where other risk factors are low (71). A 2010 analysis of the NIH-AARP cohort found red meat (including pork), processed meat (including processed pork), nitrates and nitrites to be positively associated with chronic liver disease. Rubber workers, occupationally exposed to nitrosamines, have faced extremely high rates of non-alcohol-related liver disease and cancer (72).

Do nitrosamines prove a chain of causation between pork, liver-harming compounds and liver disease? The evidence is currently too patchy to make that claim, but the risk is plausible enough to justify limiting nitrosamine-containing (or nitrosamine-producing) pork products, including bacon, ham, hot dogs and sausages made with sodium nitrite or potassium nitrate.

Summary: Strong epidemiological links exist between pork consumption and liver disease. If these links reflect cause and effect, one culprit might be N-nitroso compounds, which are found abundantly in processed pork products cooked at high temperatures.

4. Yersinia

For years, pork’s precautionary motto was “well-done or bust,” a consequence of fears about trichinosis, a type of roundworm infection that ravaged pork consumers throughout much of the 20th century (73).

Thanks to changes in feeding practices, farm hygiene and quality control, pig-borne trichinosis has dropped off the radar, inviting pink pork back onto the menu.

But pork’s relaxed heat rules may have opened the doors for a different type of infection — yersiniosis, which is caused by Yersinia bacteria. In the US alone, Yersiniacauses 35 deaths and almost 117,000 cases of food poisoning each year (74). Its chief entry route for humans? Undercooked pork.

Yersiniosis’s acute symptoms are rough enough — fever, pain, bloody diarrhea — but its long-term consequences are what should really ring alarm bells. Victims of Yersiniapoisoning face a 47-times higher risk of reactive arthritis, a type of inflammatory joint disease triggered by infection (75).

Even children become post-Yersinia arthritis targets, sometimes requiring chemical synovectomy (the injection of osmic acid into a troubled joint) to relieve persistent pain (7677).

And in the less-common instances where Yersinia doesn’t bring the typical feverish, diarrheic unpleasantries? Reactive arthritis can develop even when the original infection was asymptomatic, leaving some victims unaware that their arthritis is a consequence of food-borne illness (78).

Although reactive arthritis usually subsides on its own over time, Yersinia victims remain at higher risk of chronic joint problems, including ankylosing spondylitis, sacroiliitis, tenosynovitis and rheumatoid arthritis, for years on end (798081).

Some evidence suggests that Yersinia can lead to neurological complications (82). Infected individuals with iron overload may be at higher risk of multiple liver abscesses, potentially leading to death (838485). And among people who are genetically susceptible, anterior uveitis, inflammation of the eye’s iris, is also more likely following a bout of Yersinia (8687).

Lastly, via molecular mimicry, Yersinia infection could also raise the risk of Graves’ disease, an autoimmune condition characterized by excessive thyroid hormone production (8889).

The solution? Bring on the heat. The majority of pork products (69% of tested samples, according to a Consumer Reports analysis) are contaminated with Yersiniabacteria, and the only way to safeguard against infection is through proper cooking. An internal temperature of at least 145°F for whole pork and 160°F for ground pork is necessary to decimate any lingering pathogen.

Summary: Undercooked pork can transmit Yersinia bacteria, causing short-term illness and raising the risk of reactive arthritis, chronic joint conditions, Graves’ disease and other complications.

In Conclusion

So, should health-savvy omnivores scrap pork from the menu?

The jury’s still out. For two of pork’s problems — hepatitis E and Yersinia — aggressive cooking and safe handling are enough to minimize the risk. And due to a shortage of controlled, pork-centric research capable of establishing causation, pork’s other red flags spring from epidemiology — a field rife with confounders and unjustified confidence.

Worse, many diet-and-disease studies lump pork together with other types of red meat, diluting whatever associations might exist with pork alone.

These issues make it hard to isolate the health effects of pig-derived products and determine the safety of their consumption.

That being said, caution is probably warranted. The sheer magnitude, consistency and mechanistic plausibility of pork’s connection with several serious diseases make the chances of a true risk more likely.

Until further research is available, you might want to think twice about going hog-wild on pork.

This article was originally published by Authority Nutrition.

 

 

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Starting at: $2.50


          Cropped drawstrings trousers or nadal    
A unique shape of classic enlightened pearls is always in style. The Autumn/Winter property period is at its best. Each year, on whim runways from New York to Paris, Milan, and Toyko, greatest grey is "new again" as designers decipher it in new and galvanising way.Now non-celebrities may acquisition the pin in superior shiny pin to exhibit some their serious-mindedness to order and their style connotation. Think of Fall - Winter trend trends as the darker, comfortable performance of time of year and summer trends: mineral turns to teal, gauze bandage becomes wool, camisoles become idealist blouses. Accessorize to proceedings your panache and you are all set no situation what the craze trends are.In charge to preserve up with the current trends in fashion, evaluate structure your article of furniture nigh on staple items that are sure to be in approach careless of the period of time. Sleeveless superior are the latest trend in sports fad. Look about yourself and you will discern that most of the top athletes look-alike Rafael Nadal and Carlos Moya love them. Cloth purses are extremely insouciant trend items, so changeable fabrics and arbitrary patterns are the strongest direction.Post ads:2007 Topps New York Yankees LIMITED EDITION Team Edition / 2010 Topps Platinum Football Card 122 Rob Gronkowski / Steve Smith Carolina Panthers Signed Autographed Mini / Ninja Turtles 1 - 8x10 Photograph - Limited Edition / Jared Allen Signed Jersey - White Size Xl W - JSA / Ray Lewis Baltimore Ravens Signed Autographed Logo / Demaryius Thomas Signed Jersey - Blue - Autographed NFL / Baltimore Ravens "Fan Memories" Desktop Photo Mint / 2012 Topps Chrome Football Rookie Reprint 216 Joe Montana / 11x14 Framed & Matted Wrigley Field Chicago Cubs Opening / Carlos Ruiz Philadelphia Phillies - MLB Framed and Matted / PAULEY PERRETTE - NCIS AUTOGRAPH Signed 8x10 Photo B / Davey Johnson Autographed/Hand Signed Official MLB / Adrian Peterson Minnesota Vikings 2 Card Collector Plaque / 2002 Topps Tribute 6 Jim Palmer / 2002 Topps Tribute 42 Jim Bottomley / COTE DE PABLO - NCIS's Ziva David AUTOGRAPH Signed 8x10 / Babe Ruth New York Yankees at Locker B&W 8x10 Photo / Nick Castellanos Autographed/Hand Signed Official MLBTote heaps are the most imperturbable manner adjunct of all, and perfectible for the beach, for picnics, or for a minute buying. With one coup d'oeil done a mode magazine, the stress of glasses as a summer mode complement becomes fundamentally obvious. Bridget Allen has worked for umteen age in the style industry, at a senior level, and she has scrawled an amazing, utterly atrip fashionista minicourse that will thrill, entertain, and most significantly instruct you astir what you absolutely requirement to cognize nearly style.
          Set up my Coin $tike this morning (1 reply)   
Special thanks to Michael NY for PMing me on setting this bad boy up with some good settings.

Now I just have to take it out over the holiday and dig me up some cool stuff.

Question: Is it better to have manual ground balance or . Auto Tracking on?
I guess Auto tracking is for a place where the minerals in the ground are constantly changing?

Also, I'm not really sure about the notch system.
To the left of FOIL, NICKEL, TAB, ZINK there is a black square. Do those black squares tell you those items are disced out or do you have to
go to, say, Foil and clear that black square so that there is no square showing for it to be disced out?
          Opus Ocean   
  • Optagelighed 90%
  • Fedtindhold 18%
  • Protein 38%
  • Metaboliseret energi 4040 Kcal

 

Kornfri sammensætning

  • Opus Ocean indeholder ingen korn og er også velegnet til hunde med sensitivt fordøjelsessystem.
  • Højoptageligt foder med nøje udvalgte råvarer baseret på laks og kartoffel. Kartoffel er en letfordøjelig og meget velsmagende energikilde for hunde, og er også en glutenfri ingrediens.
  • Laks & kartoffel-opskriften er fri for kunstige farve- og smagsstoffer, og bevares naturligt med en kombination af naturlige tokoferoler. 

 

Højt indhold af protein & fedt, og lavt indhold af kulhydrater

  • Inspireret af ulvens naturlige kost: høje protein- og fedtværdier, og lavt indhold af kulhydrater.
  • Højt proteinindhold støtter muskelmassen.
  • Diæter med et lavt indhold kulhydrater er letfordøjelige og fremmer sundheden grundet deres lave glykæmiske indeks.

 

Et monoprotein foder som støtter den sunde fordøjelse

  • Opus Ocean er sammensat med laks som eneste animalske proteinkilde; protein fra laks aktiverer meget få allergier.
  • Korn- og glutenfri opskrift; kartoffel som nr. 1 kilde til kulhydrat.
  • Indeholder frugto-oligosakkarider som favoriserer de 'gode' bakterier i fordøjelsessystemet.
  • sammensalt med lecithin for at øge optageligheden af fedtstoffer.
  • Med vegetabilske fibre som fremmer intestinal sundhed.

 

Giver en sund, skinnende pels

  • Rig på fedtsyrerne Omega 3 og Omega 6.
  • Rig på laks som naturlig kilde til Omega 3 fedtsyrer.
  • Beriget med kobber som stimulerer, de enzymer der støtter pelsens naturlige farve.

 

Rig på mineraler som støtter stærke knogler & tænder

  • Sammensat med kalcium og fosfor som støtte til sunde knogler og tænder.
  • Beriget med D-vitamin for at støtte optimal optagelse af fosfor mineraler.

 

Price: 479,20 kr Special Price: 479,20 kr


          The Waste of E-Waste   

We wanted to make people a bit more aware of what is in their tech. In the info graphic you can see the minerals used in your devices, the metals produced from them and what are they used for. The info graphic has an informative character. Pointing some light on the “Waste of E-Waste” and influencing proper waste management. The goal ,of course, is to spread the message! We have to do our best to minimise our impact on the environment. The ugly truth is that if those materials end up in the dump, they would never be reused for the making of new devices. And on top of that they are harmful to the environment. Making ourselves more informed and aware of our global problems is the key moment, making us take a step in the right direction.

The post The Waste of E-Waste appeared first on Top Infographic.


          Electrician Consultant - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Rubicon Minerals Corporation fosters a work environment in which all individuals are treated with respect and....
From Rubicon Minerals - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 17:06:53 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          Underground Mine Supervisor Consultant (6-month contract) - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Rubicon Minerals Corporation fosters a work environment in which all individuals are treated with respect and....
From Rubicon Minerals - Mon, 05 Jun 2017 19:52:35 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          Senior Mining Engineer Consultant - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Rubicon Minerals Corporation fosters a work environment in which all individuals are treated with respect and....
From Rubicon Minerals - Wed, 10 May 2017 13:33:51 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          US-Erdgas: Lagerbestandsaufbau unter den Erwartungen   
Weitere News zum ThemaUS-Erdgas: Lagerbestandsaufbau unter den ErwartungenAVZ Minerals – Weltklassepotenzial des Lithiumprojekts Manono bestätigt!Trump will mit fossiler Energie den Weltmarkt dominierenAktuelle Wertpapier-Neuvorstellung aus dem Lithiumbereich startet gerade mit voller Wucht durchÖlpreise weiter gestiegen Die US-Erdgaslagerbestände sind in der Woche bis zum 23. Juni 2017 um weitere 46 Milliarden Kubikfuß gestiegen.
          AVZ Minerals – Weltklassepotenzial des Lithiumprojekts Manono bestätigt!   
Weitere News zum ThemaUS-Erdgas: Lagerbestandsaufbau unter den ErwartungenAVZ Minerals – Weltklassepotenzial des Lithiumprojekts Manono bestätigt!Trump will mit fossiler Energie den Weltmarkt dominierenAktuelle Wertpapier-Neuvorstellung aus dem Lithiumbereich startet gerade mit voller Wucht durchÖlpreise weiter gestiegen Spektakuläre Entwicklungen meldet heute die australische AVZ Minerals (WKN A0MXC7 / ASX AVZ) von ihrem Lithiumprojekt Manono. Denn es zeigt sich, [...]
          Trump will mit fossiler Energie den Weltmarkt dominieren   
Weitere News zum ThemaUS-Erdgas: Lagerbestandsaufbau unter den ErwartungenAVZ Minerals – Weltklassepotenzial des Lithiumprojekts Manono bestätigt!Trump will mit fossiler Energie den Weltmarkt dominierenAktuelle Wertpapier-Neuvorstellung aus dem Lithiumbereich startet gerade mit voller Wucht durchÖlpreise weiter gestiegen S-Präsident Donald Trump will den Weltmarkt für Energie dominieren und setzt dafür auf Atomkraft, Kohle, Öl und Gas. “Wir haben für [...]
          Aktuelle Wertpapier-Neuvorstellung aus dem Lithiumbereich startet gerade mit voller Wucht durch   
Weitere News zum ThemaUS-Erdgas: Lagerbestandsaufbau unter den ErwartungenAVZ Minerals – Weltklassepotenzial des Lithiumprojekts Manono bestätigt!Trump will mit fossiler Energie den Weltmarkt dominierenAktuelle Wertpapier-Neuvorstellung aus dem Lithiumbereich startet gerade mit voller Wucht durchÖlpreise weiter gestiegen Dieser Titel ist der breiten Masse noch unbekannt, das wird sich in den nächsten Tagen aber definitiv und spektakulär ändern!
          Highland Copper Announces Extension of White Pine Acquisition Closing   

LONGUEUIL, QUEBEC--(Marketwired - June 30, 2017) - Highland Copper Company Inc. (TSX VENTURE:HI) (the "Company") announces that Copper Range Company ("CRC"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of First Quantum Minerals Ltd., and the Company have agreed to extend the period to complete the acquisition of the White Pine project to September 30, 2017. The final closing of the acquisition is subject to releasing CRC from certain environmental obligations associated with the remediation and closure plan of the historical White Pine mine site in a manner that is acceptable to all parties involved, including applicable governmental authorities, and replacing the related environmental bond posted by CRC.

          Darum lieben die Deutschen das falsche Wasser   
Die Deutschen trinken so viel Mineralwasser wie nie, obwohl Tests immer wieder belegen, dass es oft an der versprochenen Qualität mangelt. Die viel günstigere Alternative ist offenbar auch sauberer.
          Piso en Venta en Madrid Capital   
275000
Piso renta libre, 2 amplios dormitorios, 2 baños uno en suite de mármol y ambos recién reformados( con griferías termostato Grohe y platos de ducha antideslizantes de mineral). Gran salón, buena orientación, dobles ventanas en toda la vivienda....
2 habitaciones 2 baños 94 m² 2.925 €/m² cocina ducha piscina trastero
Sat, 01 Jul 2017 01:16:46 +0200
          Inilah “Akibatnya” Apabila Sering Makan Kaki Ayam, Anda Pasti Tak Sangka!   

Kalau pergi ke pasar memang kaki ayam ni ada dijual lambak dengan harga yang murah. Paling sedap kalau masak kari ataupun sup kaki ayam. Tak payah nak makan dengan nasi makan sup kaki ayam macam tu je pun sedap. Tapi, dalam kesedapan kaki ayam tu pernah tak terfikir “akibat” dan kesan makan kaki ayam ni?

Jangan panik! Disini kami kongsikan sebenarnya kaki ayam ni banyak khasiatnya tau. Jom baca:

1. Kaki Ayam Kaya Kolagen

Dalam sebuah kajian yang dilakukan oleh Fakulti Sains Haiwan Universiti Chung-Hsing di Taiwan, terungkap bahawa kaki ayam mengandungi kolagen yang sangat tinggi. Walaupun kadar kolagen alami pada kaki ayam hampir sama dengan kolagen yang banyak dijumpai pada sayuran hijau dan buah-buahan yang banyak mengandung vitamin C. Kolagen adalah salah satu bahan khas yang diperlukan kulit tubuh untuk mengekalkan keanjalan kulit. Manfaat kolagen yang terdapat dalam kaki ayam sangat banyak, antara lain adalah:

i. Kolagen memelihara kesihatan kulit dan membentuk kulit yang anjal kerana menyokong pergantian sel-sel kulit mati dengan sel kulit baru yang lebih cepat.

ii. Kolagen membantu tubuh dalam menyerap kalsium dan protein sehingga membuat tubuh menjadi lebih sihat.

iii. Kolagen dapat meningkatkan pengeluaran sel darah merah kerana bekerja dengan menguatkan struktur pembuluh darah.

iv. Kolagen membantu tubuh dalam menurunkan berat badan kerana boleh meningkatkan metabolisme tubuh terhadap lemak.

v. Kolagen boleh membuat struktur tulang menjadi lebih kuat dan mencegah penyakit kerapuhan tulang.

2. Memelihara Sendi dan Mengurangkan Risiko Tulang Rapuh

Penyakit sakit sendi dan tulang rapuh biasanya banyak terjadi pada orang lanjut usia. Penyebabnya adalah tubuh tidak boleh mendapatkan kalsium dan tulang sudah tidak boleh menyerap kalsium dengan baik. Tapi dengan pengambilan kaki ayam sejak masih muda maka akan memberikan kesan yang berbeza. Bahagian kaki ayam memang hanya terdiri dari kulit, tendon dan tulang. Kandungan kaki ayam yang kaya dengan protein, kalsium, tulang rawan dan kolagen boleh mudah diserap oleh tubuh. Nutrisi ini sangat penting untuk mengukuhkan struktur tulang dan boleh mencegah kerapuhan tulang apabila sudah lanjut usia.

3. Menyembuhkan Cedera

Nutrisi yang dijumpai dalam kaki ayam adalah seperti protein dan kalsium. Kedua-dua nutrisi ini sangat penting untuk membantu menjana semula saraf, otot dan tulang manusia. Kajian yang sudah dilakukan oleh seorang penyelidik di Amerika mendedahkan bahawa potensi nutrisi tersebut boleh membantu menyembuhkan kecederaan. Walaupun keadaan kecederaan tulang belakang dipercayai boleh cepat sembuh dengan memakai makanan yang mengandungi kaki ayam.

4. Menyihatkan Saluran Pencernaan

Kaki ayam boleh dibuat menjadi kuah atau sup yang menyegarkan. Bahagian kaki ayam yang banyak mengandungi jaringan ikat dan tulang rawan yang sangat lazat. Bahkan semua nutrisi seperti protein, kolagen, kondroitin dan Glucosamine juga akan larut apabila dimasak menjadi sup. Khasiat dari pelbagai nutrisi ini juga sangat baik untuk membuat pencernaan menjadi lebih sihat. Kesan dari nutrisi ini juga sangat penting untuk membuat usus menjadi lebih lembut sehingga membuat saluran pencernaan anda menjadi lebih sihat.

5. Menjaga Kesihatan Kuku

Kaki ayam yang sudah dimasak akan mengeluarkan beberapa nutrisi yang sangat penting untuk tubuh. Pati atau beberapa jenis masakan lain dari kaki ayam boleh menghasilkan asid amino, kolagen, glisin, hidroksipolin, dan prolin yang boleh membantu menjaga kesihatan kuku. Kaki ayam yang dimasak biasanya akan mengeluarkan cecair atau gel khas yang banyak mengandungi gelatin. Nutrisi ini membantu tubuh dalam mengolah kalsium dan diserap oleh kuku.

6. Menyihatkan Gusi

Gusi adalah rangkaian kuat yang digunakan untuk menyokong gigi. Beberapa jenis penyakit gusi banyak disebabkan oleh masalah kesihatan gigi yang buruk. Namun boleh juga masalah ini ditimbulkan dari dalam tubuh. Kekurangan vitamin dan beberapa nutrisi lain juga akan membuat masalah pada gusi. Kaki ayam adalah makanan yang banyak mengandung nutrisi dalam jumlah yang sangat banyak. Ada jaringan ikat dan tulang rawan yang boleh berubah menjadi gel kerana mengandungi kolagen, asid amino, dan beberapa zat pembentuk gelatin. Kerana itulah semua zat ini akan memperbaiki keadaan kesihatan gusi.

7. Meningkatkan Sistem Kekebalan Tubuh

Kaki ayam memang terkenal dengan semua nutrisinya yang sangat penting seperti kolagen atau zat pembentuk gelatin. Selain itu ternyata kaki ayam juga mengandungi pelbagai jenis mineral seperti zink, tembaga, magnesium, kalsium dan fosforus. Semua mineral ini diperlukan oleh organ tubuh untuk membina kesihatan dan mengatasi pelbagai jenis penyakit. Dengan pengambilan kaki ayam maka juga boleh meningkatkan sistem kekebalan tubuh.

8. Membentuk Probiotik Semulajadi

Kaki ayam yang banyak mengandungi kolagen dan pelbagai jenis mineral lain ternyata juga boleh membentuk probiotik semula jadi. Agen gelatin yang banyak didapati pada cecair dari rebusan kaki ayam sangat baik dalam membentuk probiotik semula jadi. Probiotik akan membuat tubuh mampu membentuk imuniti semula jadi, menyihatkan usus dan mengatasi masalah saluran pencernaan.

9. Menyeimbangkan Hormon Tubuh

Kaki ayam juga menghasilkan beberapa jenis asid amino yang sangat baik untuk tubuh. Salah satu jenis asid amino yang dilepaskan dari kaki adalah arginin. Ini adalah jenis asid amino yang bermanfaat untuk tubuh. Salah satunya adalah membantu tubuh dalam melepaskan hormon yang menyebabkan perasaan tertekan dan stress. Bahkan arginina juga penting untuk menghasilkan hormon pembiakan baik untuk lelaki dan wanita.

10. Mencegah Kerosakan Rangkaian Tubuh

Manfaat kaki ayam yang terakhir adalah untuk menjaga kerosakan jaringan tubuh. Mempunyai rangkaian tubuh yang kuat memang sangat penting untuk kesihatan. Rangkaian ikat diperlukan untuk otot, tulang dan pelbagai jenis organ badan seperti hati, hempedu dan organ lain. Kaki ayam yang sudah dimasak akan mengeluarkan asid amino kumpulan glisin. Glisin mempunyai fungsi penting untuk mengukuhkan jaringan ikat tubuh, menjaga kesihatan organ tubuh, membantu tubuh dalam mengeluarkan racun-racun tubuh dan juga meningkatkan kualiti saraf sehingga dapat meningkatkan rasa selesa semasa tidur.

Tips Memasak Kaki Ayam

Kaki ayam memang terbukti mengandungi pelbagai nutrisi penting yang bermanfaat untuk membina kesihatan tubuh. Kaki ayam juga boleh membantu memulihkan stamina kerana keletihan, masa pemulihan selepas sakit atau operasi, memulihkan keadaan usus yang bermasalah dan mengatasi alergi terhadap beberapa makanan.

Namun memasak kaki ayam tidak boleh dilakukan secara sembarangan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa tips untuk memasak kaki ayam dan menghilangkan semua potensi bakteria.

Ambil bahagian kaki ayam. Potong paras paha bawah sehingga yang tertinggal benar-benar kaki.

Cuci dengan air bersih yang mengalir sehingga semua kotoran boleh keluar. Jika beli kaki ayam dari peniaga maka jangan terus memasaknya tapi cuci semula.

Potong semua bahagian kuku kaki ayam untuk menghilangkan bahagian kaki yang kelihatan kotor dan menjijikkan.

Rebus kaki ayam dengan air panas selama beberapa minit.

Longkang dan hilangkan lapisan kulit keras pada kaki ayam. Lapisan kulit berwarna kuning harus dihilangkan untuk mengurangkan potensi bakteria dan kotoran yang memang tertinggal dalam kaki ayam.

Rebus lagi bahagian kaki ayam dan masak sesuai dengan selera anda.

Selalu gunakan kaki ayam yang masih segar dan baru dipotong dan jangan memasak kaki ayam yang sudah disimpan lebih dari 48 jam di dalam peti sejuk.

Manfaat kaki ayam memang cukup banyak, namun pastikan anda memasaknya dengan cara yang benar. Kerana kaki ayam harus di cuci dengan bersih agar tidak menimbulkan bakteria yang berbahaya bagi kesihatan.

          Franke Baby-Waschplatz und Wickeltisch in einem ANMW700 aus Miranit in Alpinweiß   
4.512,00 EUR
Franke Baby Wasch- und Wickel-Platz ANMW700:Baby-Waschplatz bestehend aus: Waschtisch mit Wickelbereich, dreiseitiger Aufkantung und fugenlos integrierter, links angeordneter Waschmulde, aus kunstharzgebundenem Mineralwerkstoff MIRANIT mit porenfreier, glatter Oberfl?che (temperaturbest?ndig bis 80?C). Farbton Alpinwei?. Muldenform rechteckig mit gro?en Radien, mit ?berlauf.Hahnbank mit Ablagefunktion und Armaturenbohrung. Ab- und ?berlaufgarnitur G 1 1/2 B, ?berlaufsieb mit 4 mm Bohrungen, Ablaufventil mit verchromter Platte 70 mm, ?ber Bowdenzug und verchromten Drehgriff bedienbar.Unterschrank aus hochwertigen, wasserfesten M?belplatten, Schrankkorpus wei?, Frontfl?chen hochglanzwei?, seitlich abgerundet, bestehend aus:Element rechts 70 cm breit mit drei Schubladen inklusive variablen F?chern f?r Fertigwindeln, Element links 80 cm breit mit Gro?raumauszug f?r Abfallsammler.Schubladen mit griffloser ?ffnungsfunktion durch Druckmechanik. Inklusive Sockelelement und Befestigungsmaterial.Lieferumfang:1 x Franke Baby-Waschplatz + Sockelelement und BefestigungsmaterialDaten:Bruttogewicht: 205,00 kgKlappbar: NeinMaterial: Mineral MaterialMaterialtyp: MiranitNettogewicht: 170,00 kgTiefe: 800,00 mmH?he: 940,00 mmBreite: 1.500,00 mmMontage: Keine MontageSAP Nummer: 2000101072Katalog:?Datenblatt:Montageanleitung INT:

          The Economy Hub: Do regions get a fair share of tax?   
Are the regions getting a fair share of the tax take?New Zealand First leader Winston Peters this week proposed diverting 25 per cent of the government's royalties from water, oil and mineral extraction - and the GST paid by tourists...
          TEILLIER RECORDANDO A DE ROKHA   
En un día como hoy pero de 1968, murió Pablo de Rokha. En este mes, donde mañana se conmemoran los 40 años del tan mentado quiebre de la democracia, lo recuerdo a través de una experiencia lautarina relatada por otro poeta significativo: Jorge Teillier.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Era el tiempo de las vacaciones y solíamos caminar con mi padre y mi hermano Iván hasta el puente Cautín y luego cumplir el rito de jugar brisca y tomar unas cervezas en el Club Conservador o donde el Pavo Arévalo.
Ahora bien, en medio del paseo siento un brusco rechinar de frenos e inesperadamente surge de un auto Pablo de Rokha, diciéndome: "Amigo Teillier, vengo desde Los Ángeles con unas ganas horribles de comerme unas patitas de vaca". Hechas las presentaciones del caso, mi padre me llamó aparte: "donde doña Margarita llegaron patitas, pero no creo que sea un lugar para llevar a un poeta”. “Para él no hay otro mejor –respondí–. Ya verás”. Y partimos.
Doña Margarita era dueña de una frutería en Cuyanquén, barrio de la bronca lautarina, al lado de la línea férrea y era famosa por su buena mano. Mientras sus hijos vendían frutas y verduras, ella atendía en la trastienda a los gourmands del pueblo, desde el gobernador al alcalde y al sargento de Carabineros encargado de controlar el expendio clandestino de comidas y bebidas.
Doña Margarita siempre nos acogía con una gentileza que se acrecentó cuando le informamos que estaba en presencia de una de las glorias de las letras chilenas y de su yerno, gran pintor argentino. No sólo nos ofreció patitas, sino también pancoras y –en secreto– un salmón recién pescado (estábamos en época de veda), y chicha fuerte de manzana de don Nicolás Van de Moler, la mejor de la región.
“Se ve en el horizonte”, exclamó con su mejor vozarrón don Pablo, y pidió, a modo de aperitivo, una damajuana de chicha junto a una pichanga “para preparar el ingreso a conversar”. La pichanga (a la cual llamaba también “causeo criaturero”) contó con su aprobación. Traía toda clase de cecinas de un cerdo “sureño y oceánico” preparado en casa, queso de cabra, aceitunas de Azapa, cebollas escabechadas en vinagre y ají cacho de cabra. La dueña de casa nos sirvió una fuente para seis personas, pero don Pablo, con su servilleta anudada al cuello a la manera de los viejos demócratas, se expropió para él solo la fuente. Doña Margarita, sin decir palabra, nos trajo la misma cantidad a cada uno. En la tácita competencia me di por vencido tras comer enormes cantidades de pancoras, sin poder llegar hasta el salmón al horno. Todo esto era acompañado por un pipeño que corría “más ligero que un alguacil”, al decir del Arcipreste. Recuerdo que el poeta lautarino Gabriel Barra recitó unos versos del tabernario Serguei Esenín con gran alegría de don Pablo que, asimismo, acompañó con tamboreo y huifa unas cuecas chilota cantadas por el profesor Mancilla, bailadas por doña Margarita con el notario del pueblo León Ocqueteaux, hasta que el paso del tren de las cuatro nos indicó que era hora de terminar la reunión…


En la mañana siguiente acompañé a don Pablo a vender su libro Idioma del mundo por la localidad. Lo vi practicar el trueque. Por un volumen autografiado recibía un quintal de harina, un saco de papas o enormes ristras de ajo que embarcaba a la capital, a su familia.
El poeta estaba invitado a almorzar a casa de mis padres. Ante el espanto de mi madre, decreté que debía haber un almuerzo de acuerdo a los cánones rokhianos. El aperitivo consistió en una chupilca con harina tostada recién hecha, la cual el vate acompañó –por cuenta propia– con dos cebollas crudas de nuestra huerta que devoró como pomelos. Vino después un plato de pancutras fiambres preparadas la noche anterior (“componedoras de cuerpo”) y un ganso con ajo y arvejitas nuevas. De postre, una tajada de sandía para cada comensal, y una entera para don Pablo. La comida había sido preparada en la cocina económica, y con fragante leña de ulmo, lo que contó con la entusiasta aprobación del poeta.
Luego, pidió permiso para dormir siesta, bajo la vieja parra de la casa, eso sí, en un sillón. Nos explicó que uno de los secretos de su buena salud era el de dormir sentado.
Y ahora escribo sobre una visita a De Rokha en su casa de calle Valladolid. Me entregó su poema “La hoja caída”, el último que apareció en su vida, para una revista universitaria. Mientras me incitaba a seguir comiendo prietas y a tomar vino áspero de Cauquenes, Maule, él tomaba agua mineral y probaba apenas un caldo de verduras. Estaba herido de muerte. Y recordé uno de sus versos: “retorne solo a la provincia despavorida y funeral / cómase un caldillo de papas, que es lo más triste que existe”. Poco tiempo después recurría, como Joaquín Edwards Bello, al último remedio: un tiro de Smith & Wesson, tras cumplir, entre otras grandes tareas, la de haberse comido y bebido a Chile entero.


          Las Cortes piden a la Junta que acople las vacaciones escolares a la Semana Santa   
«Atendiendo a la demanda social existente», el propio Partido Popular intenta apagar el fuego desatado por la Junta de Castilla y León -cuyo gobierno sustenta- a cuenta del calendario escolar del próximo curso (2018-2019), en el que las vacaciones del final del segundo trimestre no coincidirán enteramente con la Semana Santa, sino que se extenderán desde el Miércoles Santo a la siguiente semana, por criterios técnicos para el equilibrio entre periodos lectivos, según el departamentos que dirige Fernando Rey. Una decisión que ha puesto sobre todo en pie de guerra a las cofradías de las localidades donde la Pasión tiene más arraigo. No quieren que la polémica se repita. Así, las Cortes aprobaron ayer sin votos en contra (con el apoyo del PP y Ciudadanos y la abstención de PSOE, Podemos, IU y UPL) instar a la Junta a que en la elaboración de los «próximos» calendarios escolares «se tenga en cuenta, desde el máximo consenso y diálogo» con la comunidad educativa, las familias, las instituciones locales y los agentes económicos, sobre todo del sector servicios, que este periodo vacacional «coincida con los días de celebración de Semana Santa». Una demanda con la que, según expuso el popular Ángel Ibáñez, se atiende a la «demanda social existente», así como la conciliación de la vida familiar y la creación de empleo vinculado a esta celebración, «teniendo en cuenta el potencial cultural, patrimonial y turístico que supone para nuestra Comunidad». De cara al próximo curso -el de la polémica y con el cuadrante lectivo ya aprobado- la propuesta que salió adelante durante el Debate sobre el Estado de la Comunidad sólo insta a la Junta a la aplicación de la normativa vigente «con la mayor flexibilidad posible». Ésta fue una de las 64 iniciativas presentadas por los grupos que salió adelante en la última jornada del Debate de Política General. En ella, de nuevo el carbón volvió a concitar también el apoyo de toda la Cámara, aunque no por igual en las diferentes iniciativas de los grupos presentadas. La que más éxito logró fue la del leonesista Luis Mariano Santos, en la que se pide a la Junta «ampliar» la inversión en el Plan de Dinamización Económica de los Municipios Mineros así como exigir al Gobierno que también aporte, así como «defender» que el mineral autóctono tenga su hueco en el mix energético y las centrales térmicas como una «garantía de empleo». También con apoyo de las seis fuerzas sentadas en la Cámara prosperó la iniciativa de Podemos para elaborar un plan de investigación que permita dar un uso «no energético» al carbón. Y también se aprobó, aunque con la abstención de Cs «urgir» al Gobierno central a establecer una «compensación por servicio público, mediante la que se establezca un procedimiento de entrada preferente en el mercado para las centrales térmicas que utilicen carbón nacional». Un procedimiento «ligado» a contratos «estables» de compraventa de mineral «a precios internacionales» entre compañías eléctricas y mineras. La propuesta también señala que la autorización de esa compensación «tendrá consideración de ayuda de Estado» y «deberá ser inmediatamente tramitada ante la Comisión Europea». Reforma electoral, no Menos suerte corrió una iniciativa más controvertida, como la reforma de la Ley Electoral. Tanto Ciudadanos como IU pedían su impulso en sendas propuestas de resolución, aunque con diferentes matices, pero el voto en contra del PP las tumbó. Las otras propuestas aprobadas Cláusulas suelo: Instar al Gobierno central y al Consejo General del Poder Judicial para que reconsideren el acuerdo sobre el número de juzgados sobre cláusulas suelo. Propuesta del PP. Ciberdelincuencia: Poner en marcha progra-mas de sensibilización y prevención, sobre todo para jóvenes, contra la ciberdelincuencia de género, para evitar los riesgos por el mal uso de las nuevas tecnologías. Financiación: Iniciar los contactos con otras comunidades con intereses comunes para alcanzar el máximo acuerdo que posibilite la revisión del sistema de financiación autonómica que se está abordando. Radioterapia: Reforzar y renovar las Unidades de Referencia de Radioterapia y crear unidades satélite que determine un plan. Mejorar el transporte y alojamiento de los pacientes. Seguros agrarios: Que la Junta lidere, junto con las entidades aseguradoras, el análisis, mejora y renovación del sistema de seguros agrarios para conseguir una mayor implantación. No a las ayudas directas.
          FLASHBACK: Chelyabinsk meteorite may have had previous collision or near-miss with other parts of solar system   
The meteor that starred in a thousand and one tweets as it shot across the Siberian sky last February apparently had a rough history. The Chelyabinsk meteor, estimated to have been 55-65 feet in diameter before breaking up, may have had previous fiery encounters — either colliding into another body in the solar system or traveling too close to the Sun — before its spectacular crash to Earth, according to analysis of fragments from its crust and interior. Hints of Heat Presenting the new findings at a geochemical conference today in Florence, Italy, Victor Sharygin of Novosibirsk's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy said a detailed mineral analysis of fragments of the meteorite revealed some anomalies suggesting the rock had previously been melted. Dividing the pieces into different gradations of color and structure, the team identified a concentration of dark fragments composed of fine-grained material formed by extremely intense melting. The dark fragments were distinct from the meteorite's fusion crust, a thin layer that melts and then solidifies as the rock travels through Earth's atmosphere. The dark fragments' structure included what the team described as "spherical bubbles," either encrusted with oxide, silicate and metal or filled with metal and sulfide.
          Hundred Islands   

Some of the Islands see at Quezon Island

_________________________________________


We've been to Pangasinan a few times exploring hidden beaches but we never did go to the famous landmark "The Hundred Islands" in Alaminos. Since it is a popular tourist destination, we expect it to be crowded and we all hate that. We go off almost every weekend to relax after a long week of work. A really quiet and peaceful place does the work. We so miss the sea that Elmer plan to go and check out the Hundred Islands in Alaminos, Pangasinan. Actually, we were running out of places to spend our weekend that is close to Manila. 

Eventhough it's already rainy season, we still push through this event. After all the weather forecast in Pangasinan is partly cloudy and occasional rains only. No heavy downpour. Eman, Elli and Elmer left ahead of me since I'll be working till 6am (eeerrr.. night shift). So while I was on my way, they will buy supplies for our overnight stay. After 5-hour bus ride, I made it to Alaminos at 1:30pm and meet-up with them.


_________________________________________

Expenses for 2-day trip:

Php      15.00  MRT Magallanes to Cubao
Php    394.00  a/c bus Cubao to Alaminos (Victory Liner)
Php      30.00  Tricycle to Lucap Port
Php    550.00  Overnight boat rental (incl. tour of the islands)
Php      80.00  Entrance fee includes all the islands (overnight)
Php    100.00  Tent pitching (Quezon Island)
Php      40.00  Trike to Victory Liner terminal (Alaminos)
Php    350.00  Contribution for food and supplies
Php    393.00  a/c bus Alaminos to Cubao (Victory Liner)
Php      65.00  Cubao to San Pedro
PHP 2017.00 TOTAL EXPENSES

_________________________________________

After we have a short tour on some of the islands, we then head to the coral garden where we could go snorkeling (much awaited part of the trip). I must say, there are a lot of fishes and corals. We saw clown fishes, batfish, damsel fish, trigger fish, parrot fish, butterfly fish and angel fishes. We spent our night at Quezon Island. Pitching tents starts at 5:00pm.


The island offers cottages and tents for rent. Toilets are also available but the water they use is still seawater. That means no shower before going to bed (wet wipes will do). They sell both mineral and Nawasa water for Php 150.00 per 5 gallons (blue container).


The image above are the boats for rent. The right one is ours. The original plan is to rent a smaller boat that can accommodate 5-10 persons only for Php 2200. But the boatman suggests to use bigger boat since the waves are pretty strong. Bigger boats can fit 10-15 persons and costs Php 2800. On our part, we haggle down the price since it was our first deal anyway.


Image above was taken at the view deck. From there, you can see all the surrounding islands and it's beaches. Sorry for this bad image. There are a few groups at the Governor's Island view deck that's why we have to take turns and hurry up in taking photos.

Table Cottages and the camping grounds
Kayaks for rent

Floating Cottage. Be sure to swim with lifevest on.

The next day we head to the spot were the giant clams are. You can swim from the back of the island (careful! there are deep parts) if in case the tour guide hadn't brought you there yet. (It should be part of the  tour). It was our first time to see giant clams and it was really amazing. I think, there are hundreds of them.

Spot where the giant clams are.
Giant Clams are one of the highlights of this trip
photo by Elmer
NEMOOO!!!
photo by Elmer
Moorish Idol a.k.a. Gill
photo by Elmer
TRIGGER FISH... BEWARE! It is known to be territorial. It attacks those who are trespassers.
photo by Elmer


To sum it all up, our experience in Hundred Islands is not so bad at all. The people started coming in on Sunday morning just in time for us to go back to Manila. Just some few things to remember:

  • If you are camping at Quezon Island, bring wet wipes. There are comfort rooms but you will still use seawater.
  • Bring mosquito repellants. I tell you, they are everywhere!
  • Don't leave your things unattended. We lost 1 of 3 6 liters bottled water we didn't even notice.
  • They sell both mineral and NAWASA water. But much advisable to bring your own drinking water.
  • There are other islands you can set camp. The Governor's Island and the Childrens Island.
  • There are also rooms available if you want.
  • You can rinse off at Lucap for Php 30.00/head (Negotiate with your boatman to where you can take a bath before going back to Manila).



          Comment les cours de l’or ou du diamant « stimulent » les guerres africaines   
« La probabilité d’un conflit par zone et par an est d’environ 6 %, mais dans les zones où des mines sont actives, elle s’élève à 14 % » (Photo: diamant de 17 carats, mine de Petra Diamonds, Cullinan, en Afrique du Sud).
Le rôle des ressources minières dans les conflits militaires sur le continent africain a provoqué
beaucoup de spéculation scientifique, politique et médiatique. Il a même fourni un sujet pour le film Blood Diamond (2006, avec Leonardo DiCaprio).
Mais si le lien entre ressources minérales et conflits peut paraître évident, il ne suffit pas de constater que certaines régions du monde sont à la fois dotées de ressources et déchirées par des conflits. Ces régions pourraient avoir d’autres caractéristiques qui les rendent perméables à la violence. Et si l’idée que les « diamants de guerre » sont un moteur de violence est également séduisante, nous sommes loin de comprendre pourquoi l’envie de diamants est davantage capable d’induire des conflits armés que la convoitise de voitures de sport ou de villas sur la Côte d’Azur.
Une étude, qui vient d’être publiée par trois chercheurs français et un chercheur suisse dans la prestigieuse American Economic Review, nous permet de comprendre bien mieux comment les ressources peuvent stimuler le conflit (« This Mine is Mine ! How Minerals Fuel Conflicts in Africa », Nicolas Berman, Mathieu Couttenier, Dominic Roehner et Mathias Thoenig, American Economic Review, 2017, n107/6).
L’influence des fluctuations de prix Les auteurs ont construit une base de données qui apparie l’historique détaillée de conflits géolocalisés dans une grille de carrés de 55 kilomètres sur le continent africain entre 1997 et 2010, à des informations sur la localisation de mines qui produisent un total de quatorze ressources minérales différentes. La probabilité d’un conflit par zone et par an est d’environ 6 %, mais dans les zones où des mines sont actives, elle s’élève à 14 %.
Cette corrélation entre l’activité minière et les conflits est frappante, mais elle n’est pas concluante : elle pourrait être le résultat d’autres facteurs non observables, ou d’une causalité...
Source: lemonde.fr



          You Probably Have Low Potassium — Start Eating These 12 Foods   

Original Article By DrAxe.com Potassium is an important electrolyte and the third most abundant mineral in the body. Potassium is the main compound that interacts...

The post You Probably Have Low Potassium — Start Eating These 12 Foods appeared first on The Science Of Eating.


           Geology 101 Lab   
When you have several sections of
horny college Freshman licking
the same minerals day after day,
you're just begging for a mono outbreak.




           The influence of chemical additives on surface charge and hardness of hematite    
Pitchai, N and Nayak, UB and Lahiri, AK (1991) The influence of chemical additives on surface charge and hardness of hematite. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 31 (1-2). pp. 139-144.
           Environmental effects on grinding    
Narayanan, S and Raghunathan, N and Nayak, UB and Lahiri, AK (1983) Environmental effects on grinding. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 10 (4). pp. 309-317.
          KAOLIN sebagai Katalis   
NAMA :SRIWIJAVA KUSUMA WIJAYA
NOMOR :23
KELAS :XI IPS 1

KAOLIN SEBAGAI SUMBER SiO2 UNTUK PEMBUATAN
KATALIS Ni/SiO2: KARAKTERISASI DAN UJI KATALIS PADA HIDROGENASI BENZENA MENJADI SIKLOHEKSANA
Abstrak
Mineral clay jenis kaolin telah digunakan sebagai sumber SiO2 dan menghasilkan campuran SiO2 jenis quartz dan quartz alpha sekitar 60 % dari jumlah kaolin yang digunakan. Produk SiO2 berhasil diubah menjadi silika gel dan digunakan sebagai penunjang katalis Ni/SiO2 melalui impregnasi larutan Ni(NO3)2, menghasilkan katalis Ka dan Kb dengan luas permukaan lebih kecil dibanding silika gel. Ukuran pori dan volume pori Ka lebih besar dibanding Kb. Uji katalitik pada hidrogenasi benzena menggunakan katalis Ka menghasilkan sikloheksana lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan menggunakan katalis Kb.
Abstract
Kaolin as a SiO2 Source for Ni/SiO2 Catalyst Syntheses: Characterization and Application of Catalyst for Hydrogenation Benzene to Cyclohexane. Kaolin one of clay minerals has been employed as a SiO2 source and produced a mixture of two type SiO2, quartz and quartz alpha, with the amount of 60 % of kaolin used. The SiO2 produced had been diverted to silica gel and used as supporting agent for Ni/SiO2 catalyst through impregnation of Ni(NO3)2 solution to form Ka and Kb catalysts, that having surface area smaller than the silica gel. The pore size and volume of Ka catalyst is bigger than Kb catalyst. Catalytic properties of Ni/SiO2 catalysts have been investigated for benzene hydrogenation and resulting Ka catalyst had produced more cyclohexane than Kb catalyst.
Keywords: kaolin, silica gel, Ni/SiO2 catalyst, benzene hydrogenation, cyclohexane

1. Pendahuluan
Kaolin atau “Kaolinite” termasuk jenis mineral clay dengan formula Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O. Nama kaolin berasal dari bahasa Cina “Kau-Ling” yaitu suatu daerah di Cina yang banyak mengandung mineral ini. Kaolin mengandung SiO2 sekitar 50 %, oleh karena itu kaolin dapat digunakan sebagai sumber SiO2 untuk pembuatan silika gel. Silika gel berupa padatan amorf dan berpori yang terbentuk dari proses polimerisasi asam silikat dan mempunyai sifat inert, netral, luas permukaannya besar, dan memiliki daya adsorpsi besar. Oleh karena itu silika gel banyak digunakan sebagai adsorben anorganik, penyerap air, dan sebagai fasa diam pada kromatografi lapisan tipis dan kromatografi gas [1-4].
Pada umumnya hampir semua logam transisi dapat digunakan untuk katalis, karena logam transisi kaya akan elektron, telah mengisi orbital 3d dan memiliki elektron tidak berpasangan sehingga mudah berikatan dengan atom lain. Salah satunya adalah logam Ni yang mempunyai konfigurasi elektron [Ar] 3d84s2 yang banyak digunakan sebagai katalis hidrogenasi alkena [5-9]. Katalis logam nikel mempunyai aktivitas dan selektivitas yang baik dalam suatu reaksi, namun fasa aktif katalis nikel sendiri tidak memiliki permukaan yang luas, sehingga reaksi menjadi tidak efektif dan efisien karena tidak seluruh pusat aktifnya dapat mengadakan kontak dengan reaktan. Oleh karena itu logam nikel perlu didistribusikan pada suatu permukaan padatan penyangga yang memiliki luas permukaan besar, dan pada penelitian ini telah berhasil dibuat katalis Ni/SiO2, dengan cara impregnasi logam Ni pada matriks silika gel yang disintesa dari kaolin [1-2, 6-12]. Katalis Ni/SiO2 yang dihasilkan juga telah dikarakterisasi dengan XRD, IR, BET dan
37 MAKARA, SAINS, VOLUME 12, NO. 1, APRIL 2008: 37-43 38

keasamannya, serta diuji coba pada reaksi hidrogenasi benzena menjadi siklo heksana.
2. Metode Penelitian
Pada penelitian ini, tahap pertama yang dilakukan adalah membuat silika gel dari kaolin yang banyak mengandung unsur silika. Kemudian silika gel yang dihasilkan diimpregnasi dengan logam Ni dan katalis Ni/SiO2 yang dihasilkan dicoba pada hidrogenasi benzena menjadi siklo heksana.
Isolasi SiO2 dari Kaolin
Kaolin (100 gram ) dipanaskan 800 oC dalam tanur selama 6 jam untuk menghasilkan kaolin metastabil. Kemudian ke dalam 40,0 gram kaolin metastabil ditambahkan 15 mL air, 280 mL HCl pekat dan 94 mL HNO3 pekat (aqua regia), lalu direfluk pada 100 oC selama 4 jam dengan pengadukan merata. Setelah dingin, ke dalam campuran ditambahkan lagi 90 mL HCl pekat dan 30 mL HNO3 pekat untuk dilakukan refluks kembali. Hasil refluks disaring dan endapan SiO2 dicuci dengan aquademin hingga bebas asam kemudian dikeringkan dalam oven pada suhu 110 oC.
Penentuan Kadar SiO2
SiO2 hasil isolasi (1,0 gram) dikeringkan hingga didapat berat yang konstan (berat 1). Kemudian 1,0 gram SiO2 yang sama dilarutkan dengan menambahkan 1,0 mL air, 5,0 mL HF dan 2-3 tetes H2SO4 pekat di dalam krusibel platina. Kemudian larutan tersebut dipanaskan (tidak mendidih) hingga HF menguap (sekitar 1 jam), lalu dipanaskan kembali pada suhu 1.050 oC dalam tanur selama 15 menit. Residu didinginkan dalam desikator dan ditimbang hingga konstan (berat 2). Selisih berat 1 dan berat 2 adalah berat SiO2 murni.
Pembuatan Silika Gel
SiO2 yang dihasilkan dari kaolin dicampur dengan Na2CO3 (natrium karbonat) dengan perbandingan mol 1 :1 (6,0 gr SiO2 + 6,0 gr Na2CO3) kemudian digerus hingga halus dan homogen. Campuran dilebur dalam tanur 800 oC selama 3 jam, dan Na2SiO3 yang dihasilkan didiamkan selama semalam, kemudian direndam dalam aquademin selama 12 jam. Endapan yang tersisa dipisahkan dari filtratnya dengan penyaringan, dan endapan dicuci dengan aquademin. Air cucian dan filtrat dicampur dan ditambahkan larutan 6,0 M HNO3 setetes demi setetes dengan pengadukan hingga terbentuk silika hidrosol, kemudian didiamkan selama 2 malam, agar polimerisasi asam silikat berlangsung sempurna membentuk silika hidrogel. Gel SiO2 yang terbentuk disaring dan dicuci hingga bening, kemudian dikeringkan hingga beratnya konstan dalam oven pada suhu 110 oC.
Pembuatan Katalis Ni/SiO2
Pembuatan katalis Ni/SiO2 dilakukan dengan dua cara, yaitu;
a. Ke dalam empat wadah yang masing-masingnya berisi 25 mL larutan Ni(NO3)2 dengan konsentrasi 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; dan 2,0 M ditambahkan 5,0 gr silika gel, diaduk selama 2 jam dan dibiarkan selama 24 jam. Campuran disaring dan endapan dikeringkan selama 2 jam dalam oven dengan suhu 110 oC, kemudian dikalsinasi pada suhu 500 oC selama 2 jam. Selanjutnya katalis ini disebut katalis a (Ka), dan empat katalis a ini dinamakan Ka-1 untuk penambahan larutan Ni(NO3)2 dengan konsentrasi 0,5 M; Ka-2 (1,0 M); Ka-3 (1,5 M) dan Ka-4 (2,0 M).
b. Dibuat sejumlah hidrosol seperti prosedur 2.3., kemudian dibagi 4 bagian dan ke dalam masing-masing bagian ditambahkan 25 mL larutan Ni(NO3)2 dengan konsentrasi 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; dan 2,0 M sambil diaduk merata. Ke dalam campuran ditambahkan HNO3 6,0 M setetes demi setetes hingga terbentuk gel. Kemudian gel disaring dan dicuci hingga bening, dikeringkan dalam oven (110 oC; 2 jam) dan dikalsinasi pada suhu 500 oC selama 2 jam. Selanjutnya katalis ini disebut katalis b (Kb), dan empat katalis jenis b ini dinamakan Kb-1 untuk penambahan larutan Ni(NO3)2 dengan konsentrasi 0,5 M; Kb-2 (1,0 M); Kb-3 (1,5 M) dan Kb-4 (2,0 M).

Uji Katalis Ni/SiO2
Penentuan Jumlah Ni yang Terdapat dalam Katalis. Katalis Ni/SiO2 (0,5 g) dilarutkan dengan cara menambahkan tetes demi tetes HF di dalam wadah plastik dan diencerkan dengan aquademin hingga 50,0 mL. Larutan ini kemudian diencerkan kembali hingga 100 kalinya, lalu dianalisa dengan menggunakan alat AAS.
Uji Keasaman Katalis. Uji keasaman katalis dilakukan pada reaktor unggun tetap (fixed bed reactor). Katalis dibentuk menjadi pelet kemudian dihaluskan dan di ayak hingga homogen dengan ukuran 0,125 – 0,5 mm. Seberat 0,5 gram katalis dimasukkan ke dalam tempat sampel dan direduksi dengan mengalirkan gas H2 (40 mL/menit; bypass) pada suhu 500 oC selama 2 jam. Setelah selesai suhu reaktor diturunkan menjadi 200 oC, tempat sample (bubler) diisi larutan amonia kemudian dialiri gas N2 untuk membawa uap amonia kepada katalis, agar terjadi adsorbsi amonia oleh katalis. Kemudian katalis dikeluarkan dari reaktor dan dinalisa dengan FTIR untuk mengetahui gugus asam Bronsted dan asam Lewis.
Uji Sifat Katalitik. Uji katalitik dari katalis Ni/SiO2 dilakukan pada reaksi hidrogenasi benzena menjadi siklo heksana dalam reaktor unggun tetap (fixed bed reactor). Reduksi katalis dan uji sifat katalitik dilakukan pada kondisi yang sama yaitu, laju alir H2 dan benzena MAKARA, SAINS, VOLUME 12, NO. 1, APRIL 2008: 37-43 39

40 mL/menit, suhu reaktor 200 oC. Hasil reaksi ditampung dalam suatu trapper yang dingin kemudian dianalisa dengan alat GC-FID (laju alir N2 50 mL/menit; Tinjeksi 100 oC ; Tkolom 50 oC ; Tdetektor 200 oC dan kolom yang digunakan squalen).
3. Hasil dan Pembahasan
Sebelum sampel kaolin digunakan, terlebih dahulu dilakukan uji dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) [11-17]. Hasil analisa XRD sampel kaolin memperlihatkan nilai d yang serupa dengan nilai d kaolin standar (Tabel 1), hal ini menunjukkan bahwa sampel yang digunakan adalah kaolin.
Setelah itu, sampel kaolin tersebut digunakan untuk pembuatan silika gel, yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk pembuatan katalis Ni/SiO2.
Pembuatan Silika Gel. Untuk menghasilkan SiO2 sampel kaolin dipanaskan pada suhu 800 oC selama 6 jam untuk diubah menjadi kaolin metastabil. Suhu 800 oC dipilih berdasarkan data TGA/DTA perubahan kaolin seperti terlihat pada Gambar 1 [18], karena pada suhu tersebut ikatan Si-O-Al menjadi lemah. Jika digunakan suhu lebih rendah dari 800 oC (misal suhu 450-700 oC), maka hanya menghasilkan peristiwa dehidroksilasi (pelepasan air) dari kristal seperti persamaan ;
Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O → Al2O3.2SiO2 + H2O (1)
Setelah ikatan Si-O-Al lemah, dengan penambahan asam kuat diharapkan Si dapat terpisah dari Al, untuk itu kaolin metastabil direfluks dengan aqua regia (campuran HNO3 pekat dan HCl pekat). Hasil refluks diperoleh endapan SiO2 dan larutan berwarna kuning kehijauan yang mengandung senyawa dari logam-logam pengotor seperti Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, P, Ca dan K yang terdapat dalam kaolin. SiO2 yang dihasilkan di analisa dengan cara melarutkannya dengan HF dan H2SO4 pekat. Silika akan berubah menjadi SiF4 dan me nguap, sedangkan pengotor lain yang tersisa, seperti Al2O3 dan Fe2O3 berubah menjadi bentuk floridanya yang kemudian berubah kembali menjadi bentuk oksida setelah bereaksi dengan H2SO4 pada suhu 1.050-1.100 oC seperti persamaan reaksi 2-6. Selisih antara berat awal SiO2 dengan berat senyawa oksida pengotor dihasilkan berat SiO2 murni, yaitu sekitar 60 % dari berat awal kaolin yang digunakan.
SiO2 + 6 HF → H2(SiF6) + 2 H2O (2)
H2(SiF6) → SiF4 + 2 HF (3)
Al2O3 + 6 HF → 2 AlF3 + 3 H2O (4)
2 AlF3 + 3 H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 6 HF (5)
Al2(SO4)3 → Al2O3 + SO3 (6)
Data XRD produk SiO2 (Tabel 2 dan 3) menunjukkan bahwa produk merupakan suatu campuran yang terdiri dari 2 jenis SiO2 yaitu SiO2 quartz dan SiO2 quartz alpha.
Reaksi SiO2 yang dihasilkan dari kaolin dengan Na2CO3 (1:1) menghasilkan Na2SiO3 (waterglass) yang mudah larut dalam air.
SiO2 + Na2CO3 → Na2SiO3 + CO2 (7)
Tabel 1. Data XRD kaolin d standar (Å) d sampel (Å)
7,14 7,2093
3,57 3,5892
2,34 2,3462
          PENCEMARAN AIR   
Nama :M Dwi Kurniyarto
No :15
Kelas :XI ips 4-2012

PENCEMARAN AIR :
SUMBER, DAMPAK DAN PENANGGULANGANNYA


PENGERTIAN PENCEMARAN AIR

1. Apa yang disebut Pencemaran Air ?
Istilah pencemaran air atau polusi air dapat dipersepsikan berbeda oleh satu orang dengan orang lainnya mengingat banyak pustaka acuan yang merumuskan definisi istilah tersebut, baik dalam kamus atau buku teks ilmiah. Pengertian pencemaran air juga didefinisikan dalam Peraturan Pemerintah, sebagai turunan dari pengertian pencemaran lingkungan hidup yang didefinisikan dalam undang-undang. Dalam praktek operasionalnya, pencemaran lingkungan hidup tidak pernah ditunjukkan secara utuh, melainkan sebagai pencemaraan dari komponen-komponen lingkungan hidup, seperti pencemaran air, pencemaran air laut, pencemaran air tanah dan pencemaran udara. Dengan demikian, definisi pencemaran air mengacu pada definisi lingkungan hidup yang ditetapkan dalam UU tentang lingkungan hidup yaitu UU No. 23/1997.
Dalam PP No. 20/1990 tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Air, pencemaran air didefinisikan sebagai : “pencemaran air adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya mahluk hidup, zat, energi dan atau komponen lain ke dalam air oleh kegiaan manusia sehingga kualitas air turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan air tidak berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya” (Pasal 1, angka 2). Definisi pencemaran air tersebut dapat diuraikan sesuai makna pokoknya menjadi 3 (tga) aspek, yaitu aspek kejadian, aspek penyebab atau pelaku dan aspek akibat (Setiawan, 2001).
Berdasarkan definisi pencemaran air, penyebab terjadinya pencemaran dapat berupa masuknya mahluk hidup, zat, energi atau komponen lain ke dalam air sehingga menyebabkan kualitas air tercemar. Masukan tersebut sering disebut dengan istilah unsur pencemar, yang pada prakteknya masukan tersebut berupa buangan yang bersifat rutin, misalnya buangan limbah cair. Aspek pelaku/penyebab dapat yang disebabkan oleh alam, atau oleh manusia. Pencemaran yang disebabkan oleh alam tidak dapat berimplikasi hukum, tetapi Pemerintah tetap harus menanggulangi pencemaran tersebut. Sedangkan aspek akibat dapat dilihat berdasarkan penurunan kualitas air sampai ke tingkat tertentu. Pengertian tingkat tertentu dalam definisi tersebut adalah tingkat kualitas air yang menjadi batas antara tingkat tak-cemar (tingkat kualitas air belum sampai batas) dan tingkat cemar (kualitas air yang telah sampai ke batas atau melewati batas). Ada standar baku mutu tertentu untuk peruntukan air. Sebagai contoh adalah pada UU Kesehatan No. 23 tahun 1992 ayat 3 terkandung makna bahwa air minum yang dikonsumsi masyarakat, harus memenuhi persyaratan kualitas maupun kuantitas, yang persyaratan kualitas tettuang dalam Peraturan Mentri Kesehatan No. 146 tahun 1990 tentang syarat-syarat dan pengawasan kualitas air. Sedangkan parameter kualitas air minum/air bersih yang terdiri dari parameter kimiawi, fisik, radioaktif dan mikrobiologi, ditetapkan dalam PERMENKES 416/1990 (Achmadi, 2001).

2.2. Indikator Pencemaran Air
Indikator atau tanda bahwa air lingkungan telah tercemar adalah adanya perubahan atau tanda yang dapat diamati yang dapat digolongkan menjadi :
- Pengamatan secara fisis, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan tingkat kejernihan air (kekeruhan), perubahan suhu, warna dan adanya perubahan warna, bau dan rasa
- Pengamatan secara kimiawi, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan zat kimia yang terlarut, perubahan pH
- Pengamatan secara biologis, yaitu pengamatan pencemaran air berdasarkan mikroorganisme yang ada dalam air, terutama ada tidaknya bakteri pathogen.
Indikator yang umum diketahui pada pemeriksaan pencemaran air adalah pH atau konsentrasi ion hydrogen, oksigen terlarut (Dissolved Oxygen, DO), kebutuhan oksigen biokimia (Biochemiycal Oxygen Demand, BOD) serta kebutuhan oksigen kimiawi (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD).
Oksigen terlarut (DO)
Tanpa adanya oksegen terlarut, banyak mikroorganisme dalam air tidak dapat hidup karena oksigen terlarut digunakan untuk proses degradasi senyawa organic dalam air. Oksigen dapat dihasilkan dari atmosfir atau dari reaksi fotosintesa algae. Oksigen yang dihasilkan dari reaksi fotosintesa algae tidak efisien, karena oksigen yang terbentuk akan digunakan kembali oleh algae untuk proses metabolisme pada saat tidak ada cahaya. Kelarutan oksigen dalam air tergantung pada temperature dan tekanan atmosfir. Berdasarkan data-data temperature dan tekanan, maka kalarutan oksigen jenuh dalam air pada 25o C dan tekanan 1 atmosfir adalah 8,32 mg/L (Warlina, 1985).
Kadar oksigen terlarut yang tinggi tidak menimbulkan pengaruh fisiologis bagi manusia. Ikan dan organisme akuatik lain membutuhkan oksigen terlarut dengan jumlah cukup banyak. Kebutuhan oksigen ini bervariasi antar organisme. Keberadaan logam berta yang berlebihan di perairan akan mempengaruhi system respirasi organisme akuatik, sehingga pada saat kadar oksigen terlarut rendah dan terdapat logam berat dengan konsentrasi tinggi, organisme akuatik menjadi lebih menderita (Tebbut, 1992 dalam Effendi, 2003).
Pada siang hari, ketika matahari bersinar terang, pelepasan oksigen oleh proses fotosintesa yang berlangsung intensif pada lapisan eufotik lebih besar daripada oksigen yang dikonsumsi oleh proses respirasi. Kadar oksigen terlarut dapat melebihi kadar oksigen jenuh, sehingga perairan mengalami supersaturasi. Sedangkan pada malam hari, tidak ada fotosintesa, tetapi respirasi terus berlangsung. Pola perubahan kadar oksigen ini mengakibatkan terjadinya fluktuasi harian oksigen pada lapisan eufotik perairan. Kadar oksigen maksimum terjadi pada sore hari dan minimum pada pagi hari.
Kebutuhan Oksigen Biokimia (BOD)
Dekomposisi bahan organic terdiri atas 2 tahap, yaitu terurainya bahan organic menjadi anorganik dan bahan anorganik yang tidak stabil berubah menjadi bahan anorganik yang stabil, misalnya ammonia mengalami oksidasi menjadi nitrit atau nitrat (nitrifikasi). Pada penentuan nilai BOD, hanya dekomposisi tahap pertama ynag berperan, sedangkan oksidasi bahan anorganik (nitrifikasi) dianggap sebagai zat pengganggu.
Dengan demikian, BOD adalah banyaknya oksigen yang dibutuhkan oleh mikroorganisme dalam lingkungan air untuk memecah (mendegradasi) bahan buangan organic yang ada dalam air menjadi karbondioksida dan air. Pada dasarnya, proses oksidasi bahan organic berlangsung cukup lama. Menurut Sawyer dan McCarty, 1978 (Effendi, 2003) proses penguraian bahan buangan organic melalui proses oksidasi oleh mikroorganisme atau oleh bakteri aerobic adalah :
CnHaObNc + (n + a/4 – b/2 – 3c/4) O2 → n CO2 + (a/2 – 3c/2) H2O + c NH3
Bahan organic oksigen bakteri aerob

Untuk kepentingan praktis, proses oksidasi dianggap lengkap selama 20 hari, tetapi penentuan BOD selama 20 hari dianggap masih cukup lama. Penentuan BOD ditetapkan selam 5 hari inkubasi, maka biasa disebut BOD5. Selain memperpendek waktu yang diperlukan, hal ini juga dimaksudkan untuk meminimumkan pengaruh oksidasi ammonia yang menggunakan oksigen juga. Selama 5 hari masa inkubasi, diperkirakan 70% - 80% bahan organic telah mengalami oksidasi. (Effendi, 2003).
Jumlah mikroorganisme dalam air lingkungan tergantung pada tingkat kebersihan air. Air yang bersih relative mengandung mikroorganisme lebih sedikit dibandingkan yang tercemar. Air yang telah tercemar oleh bahan buangan yang bersifat antiseptic atau bersifat racun, seperti fenol, kreolin, detergen, asam cianida, insektisida dan sebagainya, jumlah mikroorganismenya juga relative sedikit. Sehingga makin besar kadar BOD nya, maka merupakan indikasi bahwa perairan tersebut telah tercemar, sebagai contoh adalah kadar maksimum BOD5 yang diperkenankan untuk kepentingan air minum dan menopang kehidupan organisme akuatik adalah 3,0 – 6,0 mg/L berdasarkan UNESCO/WHO/UNEP, 1992. Sedangkan berdasarkan Kep.51/MENKLH/10/1995 nilai BOD5 untuk baku mutu limbah cair bagi kegiatan industri golongan I adalah 50 mg/L dan golongan II adalah 150 mg/L.

Kebutuhan Oksigen Kimiawi (COD)
COD adalah jumlah oksigen yang diperlukan agar bahan buangan yang ada dalam air dapat teroksidasi melalui reaksi kimia baik yang dapat didegradasi secara biologis maupun yang sukar didegradasi. Bahan buangan organic tersebut akan dioksidasi oleh kalium bichromat yang digunakan sebagai sumber oksigen (oxidizing agent) menjadi gas CO2 dan gas H2O serta sejumlah ion chrom. Reaksinya sebagai berikut :
HaHbOc + Cr2O7 2- + H + → CO2 + H2O + Cr 3+
Jika pada perairan terdapat bahan organic yang resisten terhadap degradasi biologis, misalnya tannin, fenol, polisacharida dansebagainya, maka lebih cocok dilakukan pengukuran COD daripada BOD. Kenyataannya hampir semua zat organic dapat dioksidasi oleh oksidator kuat seperti kalium permanganat dalam suasana asam, diperkirakan 95% - 100% bahan organic dapat dioksidasi.
Seperti pada BOD, perairan dengan nilai COD tinggi tidak diinginkan bagi kepentingan perikanan dan pertanian. Nilai COD pada perairan yang tidak tercemar biasanya kurang dari 20 mg/L, sedangkan pada perairan tercemar dapat lebih dari 200 mg/L dan pada limbah industri dapat mencapai 60.000 mg/L (UNESCO,WHO/UNEP, 1992).

III. SUMBER PENCEMARAN AIR

Banyak penyebab sumber pencemaran air, tetapi secara umum dapat dikategorikan menjadi 2 (dua) yaitu sumber kontaminan langsung dan tidak langsung. Sumber langsung meliputi efluen yang keluar dari industri, TPA sampah, rumah tangga dan sebagainya. Sumber tak langsung adalah kontaminan yang memasuki badan air dari tanah, air tanah atau atmosfir berupa hujan (Pencemaran Ling. Online, 2003). Pada dasarnya sumber pencemaran air berasal dari industri, rumah tangga dan pertanian. Tanah dan air tanah mengandung sisa dari aktivitas pertanian misalnya pupuk dan pestisida. Kontaminan dari atmosfir juga berasal dari aktifitas manusia yaitu pencemaran udara yang menghasilkan hujan asam.
Pengaruh bahan pencemar yang berupa gas, bahan terlarut, dan partikulat terhadap lingkungan perairan dan kesehatan manusia dapat ditunjukkan secara skematik sebagai berikut :

Gambar : Bagan Pengaruh Beberapa Jenis Bahan Pencemar terhadap
Lingkungan Perairan


3.1. Komponen Pencemaran Air
Saat ini hampir 10 juta zat kimia telah dikenal manusia, dan hampir 100.000 zat kimia telah digunakan secara komersial. Kebanyakan sisa zat kimia tersebut dibuang ke badan air atau air tanah. Sebagai contoh adalah pestisida yang biasa digunakan di pertanian, industri atau rumah tangga, detergen yang biasa digunakan di rumah tangga atau PCBs yang biasa digunakan pada alat-alat elektronik.
Erat kaitannya dengan masalah indikator pencemaran air, ternyata komponen pencemaran air turut menentukan bagaimana indikator tersebut terjadi. Menurut Wardhana (1995), komponen pencemaran air dapat dikelompokkan sebagai bahan buangan:
1. padat
2. organic dan olahan bahan makanan
3. anorganik
4. cairan berminyak
5. berupa panas
6. zat kimia.

3.1.1. Bahan buangan padat
Yang dimaksud bahan buangan padat adalah adalah bahan buangan yang berbentuk padat, baik yang kasar atau yang halus, misalnya sampah. Buangan tersebut bila dibuang ke air menjadi pencemaran dan akan menimbulkan pelarutan, pengendapan ataupun pembentukan koloidal.
Apabila bahan buangan padat tersebut menimbulkan pelarutan, maka kepekatan atau berat jenis air akan naik. Kadang-kadang pelarutan ini disertai pula dengan perubahan warna air. Air yang mengandung larutan pekat dan berwarna gelap akan mengurangi penetrasi sinar matahari ke dalam air. Sehingga proses fotosintesa tanaman dalam air akan terganggu. Jumlah oksigen terlarut dalam air menjadi berkurang, kehidupan organisme dalam air juga terganggu.
Terjadinya endapan di dasar perairan akan sangat mengganggu kehidupan organisme dalam air, karena endapan akan menutup permukaan dasar air yang mungkin mengandung telur ikan sehingga tidak dapat menetas. Selain itu, endapan juga dapat menghalangi sumber makanan ikan dalam air serta menghalangi datangnya sinar matahari.
Pembentukan koloidal terjadi bila buangan tersebut berbentuk halus, sehingga sebagian ada yang larut dan sebagian lagi ada yang melayang-layang sehingga air menjadi keruh. Kekeruhan ini juga menghalangi penetrasi sinar matahari, sehingga menghambat fotosintesa dan berkurangnya kadar oksigen dalam air.

3.1.2. Bahan buangan organic dan olahan bahan makanan
Bahan buangan organic umumnya berupa limbah yang dapat membusuk atau terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme, sehingga bila dibuang ke perairan akan menaikkan populasi mikroorganisme. Kadar BOD dalam hal ini akan naik. Tidak tertutup kemungkinan dengan berambahnya mikroorganisme dapat berkembang pula bakteri pathogen yang berbahaya bagi manusia. Demikian pula untuk buangan olahan bahan makanan yang sebenarnya adalah juga bahan buangan organic yang baunya lebih menyengat. Umumnya buangan olahan makanan mengandung protein dan gugus amin, maka bila didegradasi akan terurai menjadi senyawa yang mudah menguap dan berbau busuk (misal. NH3).

3.1.3. Bahan buangan anorganik
Bahan buangan anorganik sukar didegradasi oleh mikroorganisme, umumnya adalah logam. Apabila masuk ke perairan, maka akan terjadi peningkatan jumlah ion logam dalam air. Bahan buangan anorganik ini biasanya berasal dari limbah industri yag melibatkan penggunaan unsure-unsur logam seperti timbal (Pb), Arsen (As), Cadmium (Cd), air raksa atau merkuri (Hg), Nikel (Ni), Calsium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) dll.
Kandungan ion Mg dan Ca dalam air akan menyebabkan air bersifat sadah. Kesadahan air yang tinggi dapat merugikan karena dapat merusak peralatan yang terbuat dari besi melalui proses pengkaratan (korosi). Juga dapat menimbulkan endapan atau kerak pada peralatan.
Apabila ion-ion logam berasal dari logam berat maupun yang bersifat racun seperti Pb, Cd ataupun Hg, maka air yang mengandung ion-ion logam tersebut sangat berbahaya bagi tubuh manusia, air tersebut tidak layak minum.

3.1.4. Bahan buangan cairan berminyak
Bahan buangan berminyak yang dibuang ke air lingkungan akan mengapung menutupi permukaan air. Jika bahan buangan minyak mengandung senyawa yang volatile, maka akan terjadi penguapan dan luas permukaan minyak yang menutupi permukaan air akan menyusut. Penyusutan minyak ini tergantung pada jenis minyak dan waktu. Lapisan minyak pada permukaan air dapat terdegradasi oleh mikroorganisme tertentu, tetapi membutuhkan waktu yang lama.
Lapisan minyak di permukaan akan mengganggu mikroorganisme dalam air. Ini disebabkan lapisan tersebut akan menghalangi diffusi oksigen dari udara ke dalam air, sehingga oksigen terlarut akan berkurang. Juga lapisan tersebut akan menghalangi masuknya sinar matahari ke dalam air, sehingga fotosintesapun terganggu. Selain itu, burungpun ikut terganggu, karena bulunya jadi lengket, tidak dapat mengembang lagi akibat kena minyak.

3.1.5. Bahan buangan berupa panas (polusi thermal)
Perubahan kecil pada temperatur air lingkungan bukan saja dapat menghalau ikan atau spesies lainnya, namun juga akan mempercepat proses biologis pada tumbuhan dan hewan bahkan akan menurunkan tingkat oksigen dalam air. Akibatnya akan terjadi kematian pada ikan atau akan terjadi kerusakan ekosistem. Untuk itu, polusi thermal inipun harus dihindari. Sebaiknya industri-industri jika akan membuang air buangan ke perairan harus memperhatikan hal ini.

3.1.6. Bahan buangan zat kimia
Bahan buangan zat kimia banyak ragamnya, tetapi dalam bahan pencemar air ini akan dikelompokkan menjadi :
a. Sabun (deterjen, sampo dan bahan pembersih lainnya),
b. Bahan pemberantas hama (insektisida),
c. Zat warna kimia,
d. Zat radioaktif
a. Sabun
Adanya bahan buangan zat kimia yang berupa sabun (deterjen, sampo dan bahan pembersih lainnya) yang berlebihan di dalam air ditandai dengan timbulnya buih-buih sabun pada permukaan air. Sebenarnya ada perbedaan antara sabun dan deterjen serta bahan pembersih lainnya. Sabun berasal dari asam lemak (stearat, palmitat atau oleat) yang direaksikan dengan basa Na(OH) atau K(OH), berdasarkan reaksi kimia berikut ini :
C17H35COOH + Na(OH) → C17H35COONa + H2O
Asam stearat basa sabun
Sabun natron (sabun keras) adalah garam natrium asam lemak seperti pada contoh reaksi di atas. Sedangkan sabun lunak adalah garam kalium asam lemak yang diperoleh dari reaksi asam lemak dengan basa K(OH). Sabun lemak diberi pewarna yang menarik dan pewangi (parfum) yang enak serta bahan antiseptic seperti pada sabun mandi. Beberapa sifat sabun antara lain adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Larutan sabun mempunyai sifat membersihkan karena dapat mengemulsikan
kotoran yang melekat pada badan atau pakaian
b. Sabun dengan air sadah tidak dapat membentuk busa, tapi akan membentuk
endapan :
2 (C17H35COONa) + CaSO4 → (C17H35COO)2Ca + Na2SO4
endapan
c. Larutan sabun bereaksi basa karena terjadi hidrolisis sebagian.
Sedangkan deterjen adalah juga bahan pembersih sepeti halnya sabun, akan tetapi dibuat dari senyawa petrokimia. Deterjen mempunyai kelebihan dibandingkan dengan sabun, karena dapat bekerja pada air sadah. Bahan deterjen yang umum digunakan adalah dedocylbenzensulfonat. Deterjen dalam air akan mengalami ionisassi membentuk komponen bipolar aktif yang akan mengikat ion Ca dan/atau ion Mg pada air sadah. Komponen bipolar aktif terbentuk pada ujung dodecylbenzen-sulfonat. Untuk dapat membersihkan kotoran dengan baik, deterjen diberi bahan pembentuk yang bersifat alkalis. Contoh bahan pembentuk yang bersifat alkalis adalah natrium tripoliposfat.
Bahan buangan berupa sabun dan deterjen di dalam air lingkungan akan mengganggu karena alasan berikut :
a. Larutan sabun akan menaikkan pH air sehingga dapat menggangg kehidupan
organisme di dalam air. Deterjen yang menggunakan bahan non-Fosfat akan
menaikkan pH air sampai sekitar 10,5-11
b. Bahan antiseptic yang ditambahkan ke dalam sabun/deterjen juga mengganggu
kehidupan mikro organisme di dalam air, bahkan dapat mematikan
c. Ada sebagian bahan sabun atau deterjen yang tidak dapat dipecah (didegradasi)
oleh mikro organisme yang ada di dalam air. Keadaan ini sudah barang tentu
akan merugikan lingkungan. Namun akhir-akhir ini mulai banyak digunakan
bahan sabun/deterjen yang dapat didegradsi oleh mikroorganisme

b. Bahan pemberantas Hama
Pemakaian bahan pemberantas hama (insektisida) pada lahan pertanian seringkali mekiputi daerah yang sangat luas, sehingga sisa insektisida pada daerah pertanian tersebut cukup banyak. Sisa bahan insektisida tersebut dapat sampai ke air lingkungan melalui pengairan sawah, melalui hujan yang jatuh pada daerah pertanian kemudian mengalir ke sungai atau danau di sekitarnya. Seperti halnya pada pencemaran udara, semua jenis bahan insektisida bersifat racun apabila sampai kedalam air lingkungan.
Bahan insektisida dalam air sulit untuk dipecah oleh mikroorganisme, kalaupun biasanya hal itu akan berlangsung dalam waktu yang lama. Waktu degradasi oleh mikroorganisme berselang antara beberapa minggu sampai dengan beberapa tahun. Bahan insektisida seringkali dicampur dengan senyawa minyak bumi sehingga air yang terkena bahan buangan pemberantas hama ini permukaannya akan tertutup lapisan minyak
c. Zat Warna Kimia
Zat warna dipakai hampir pada semua industri. Tanpa memakai zat warna, hasil atau produk industri tidak menarik. Oleh karena itu hampir semua produk memanfaatkannya agar produk itu dapat dipasarkan dengan mudah.
Pada dasarnya semua zat warna adalah racun bagi tubuh manusia. Oleh karena itu pencemaran zat warna ke air lingkungan perlu mendapat perhatian sunggh-sungguh agar tidak sampai masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia melalui air minum. Ada zat warna tertentu yang relatif aman bagi manusia, yaitu zat warna yang digunakan pada industri bahan makanan dan minuman, industri farmasi/obat-obatan.
Zat warna tersusun dari chromogen dan auxochrome. Chromogen merupakan senyawa aromatic yang berisi chromopore, yaitu zat pemberi warna yang berasal dari radikal kimia, misal kelompok nitroso (-NO), kelompok azo (-N=N-), kelompok etilen (>C=C<) dan lain lain. Macam-macam warna dapat diperoleh dari penggabungan radikal kimia tersebut di atas dengan senyawa lain. Sedangkan auxochrome adalah radikal yang memudahkan terjadinya pelarutan, sehingga zat warna dapat mudah meresap dengan baik ke dalam bahan yang akan diberi warna. Contoh auxochrome adalah –COOH atau –SO3H atau kelompok pembentuk garam –NH2 atau –OH.
Zat warna dapat pula diperoleh dari senyawa anorganik dan mineral alam yang disebut dengan pigmen. Ada pula bahan tambahan yang digunakan sesuai dengan fungsinya, misalnya bahan pembentuk lapisan film (misal, bahan vernis, emulsi lateks), bahan pengencer (misal, terpentin, naftalen), bahan pengering (missal, Co, Mn, naftalen), bahan anti mengelupas (missal, polihidroksi fenol) dan bahan pembentuk elastic (misal, minyak).
Berdasarkan bahan susunan zat warna dan bahan-bahan yang ditambahkan, dapat dimengerti bahwa hampir semua zat warna kimia adalah racun. Apabila masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia dapat bersifat cocarcinogenik, yaitu merangsang tumbuhnya kanker. Oleh sebab itu, pembuangan zat kimia ke air lingkungan sangatlah berbahaya. Selain sifatnya racun, zat warna kimia juga akan mempengaruhi kandungan oksigen dalam air mempengaruhi pH air lingkungan, yang menjadikan gangguan bagi mikroorganisme dan hewan air.
d. Zat radioaktif
Tidak tertutup kemungkanan adanya pembuangan sisa zat radioaktif ke air lingkungan secara langsung. Ini dimungkinkan karena aplikasi teknologi nuklir yang menggunakan zat radioaktif pada berbagai bidang sudah banyak dikembangkan, sebagai contoh adalah aplikasi teknologinuklir pada bidang pertanian, kedokteran, farmasi dan lain lain. Adanya zat radioaktif dalam air lingkungan jelas sangat membahayakan bagi lingkungan dan manusia. Zat radioaktif dapat menimbulkan kerusakan biologis baik melalui efek langsung atau efek tertunda.

IV. DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR

Pencemaran air dapat berdampak sangat luas, misalnya dapat meracuni air minum, meracuni makanan hewan, menjadi penyebab ketidak seimbangan ekosistem sungai dan danau, pengrusakan hutan akibat hujan asam dsb.
Di badan air, sungai dan danau, nitrogen dan fosfat dari kegiatan pertanian telah menyebabkan pertumbuhan tanaman air yang di luar kendali yang disebut eutrofikasi (eutrofication). Ledakan pertumbuhan tersebut menyebabkan oksigen yang seharusnya digunakan bersama oleh seluruh hewan/tumbuhan air, menjadi berkurang. Ketika tanaman air tersebut mati, dekomposisinya menyedot lebih banyak oksigen. Akibatnya ikan akan mati dan aktivitas bakteri akan menurun.
Dampak pencemaran air pada umumnya dibagi dalam 4 kategori (KLH, 2004)
- dampak terhadap kehidupan biota air
- dampak terhadap kualitas air tanah
- dampak terhadap kesehatan
- dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan


4.1. Dampak terhadap kehidupan biota air
Banyaknya zat pencemar pada air limbah akan menyebabkan menurunnya kadar oksigen terlarut dalam air tersebut. Sehingga akan mengakibatkan kehidupan dalam air yang membutuhkan oksigen terganggu serta mengurangi perkembangannya. Selain itu kematian dapat pula disebabkan adanya zat beracun yang juga menyebabkan kerusakan pada tanaman dan tumbuhan air.
Akibat matinya bakteri-bakteri, maka proses penjernihan air secara alamiah yang seharusnya terjadi pada air limbah juga terhambat. Dengan air limbah menjadi sulit terurai. Panas dari industri juaga akan membawa dampak bagi kematian organisme, apabila air limbah tidak didinginkan dahulu.
4.2. Dampak terhadap kualitas air tanah
Pencemaran air tanah oleh tinja yang biasa diukur dengan faecal coliform telah terjadi dalam skala yang luas, hal ini telah dibuktikan oleh suatu survey sumur dangkal di Jakarta. Banyak penelitian yang mengindikasikan terjadinya pencemaran tersebut.
4.3. Dampak terhadap kesehatan
Peran air sebagai pembawa penyakit menular bermacam-macam antara lain :
- air sebagai media untuk hidup mikroba pathogen
- air sebagai sarang insekta penyebar penyakit
- jumlah air yang tersedia tak cukup, sehingga manusia bersangkutan tak dapat membersihkan diri
- air sebagai media untuk hidup vector penyakit
Ada beberapa penyakit yang masuk dalam katagori water-borne diseases, atau penyakit-penyakit yang dibawa oleh air, yang masih banyak terdapat di daerah-daerah. Penyakit-penyakit ini dapat menyebar bila mikroba penyebabnya dapat masuk ke dalam sumber air yang dipakai masyarakat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari. Sedangkan jenis mikroba yang dapat menyebar lewat air antara lain, bakteri, protozoa dan metazoa.
4.4. Dampak terhadap estetika lingkungan
Dengan semakin banyaknya zat organic yang dibuang ke lingkungan perairan, maka perairan tersebut akan semakin tercemar yang biasanya ditandai dengan bau yang menyengat disamping tumpukan yang dapat mengurangi estetika lingkungan. Masalah limbah minyak atau lemak juga dapat mengurangi estetika. Selain bau, limbah tersebut juga menyebabkan tempat sekitarnya menjadi licin. Sedangkan limbah detergen atau sabun akan menyebabkan penumpukan busa yang sangat banyak. Inipun dapat mengurangi estetika.

V. PENANGGULANGANGAN PENCEMARAN AIR

Pengendalian/penanggulangan pencemaran air di Indonesia telah diatur melalui Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 82 tahun 2001 tentang Pengelolaan Kualitas dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air. Secara umum hal ini meliputi pencemaran air baik oleh instansi ataupun non-instansi. Salah satu upaya serius yang telah dilakukan Pemerintah dalam pengendalian pencemaran air adalah melalui Program Kali Bersih (PROKASIH). Program ini merupakan upaya untuk menurunkan beban limbah cair khususnya yang berasal dari kegiatan usaha skala menengah dan besar, serta dilakukan secara bwertahap untuk mengendalikan beban pencemaran dari sumber-sumber lainnya. Program ini juga berusaha untuk menata pemukiman di bantaran sungai dengan melibatkan masyarakat setempat (KLH, 2004).
Pada prinsipnya ada 2 (dua) usaha untuk menanggulangi pencemaran, yaitu penanggulangan secara non-teknis dan secara teknis. Penanggulangan secara non-teknis yaitu suatu usaha untuk mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan dengan cara menciptakan peraturan perundangan yang dapat merencanakan, mengatur dan mengawasi segala macam bentuk kegiatan industri dan teknologi sehingga tidak terjadi pencemaran. Peraturan perundangan ini hendaknya dapat memberikan gambaran secara jelas tentang kegiatan industri yang akan dilaksanakan, misalnya meliputi AMDAL, pengaturan dan pengawasan kegiatan dan menanamkan perilaku disiplin. Sedangkan penanggulangan secara teknis bersumber pada perlakuan industri terhadap perlakuan buangannya, misalnya dengan mengubah proses, mengelola limbah atau menambah alat bantu yang dapat mengurangi pencemaran.
Sebenarnya penanggulangan pencemaran air dapat dimulai dari diri kita sendiri. Dalam keseharian, kita dapat mengurangi pencemaran air dengan cara mengurangi produksi sampah (minimize) yang kita hasilkan setiap hari. Selain itu, kita dapat pula mendaur ulang (recycle) dan mendaur pakai (reuse) sampah tersebut.
Kitapun perlu memperhatikan bahan kimia yang kita buang dari rumah kita. Karena saat ini kita telah menjadi masyarakat kimia, yang menggunakan ratusan jenis zat kimia dalam keseharian kita, seperti mencuci, memasak, membersihkan rumah, memupuk tanaman, dan sebagainya. Kita harus bertanggung jawab terhadap berbagai sampah seperti makanan dalam kemasan kaleng, minuman dalam botol dan sebagainya, yang memuat unsur pewarna pada kemasannya dan kemudian terserap oleh air tanah pada tempat pembuangan akhir. Bahkan pilihan kita untuk bermobil atau berjalan kaki, turut menyumbangkan emisi asam atu hidrokarbon ke dalam atmosfir yang akhirnya berdampak pada siklus air alam.
Menjadi konsumen yang bertanggung jawab merupakan tindakan yang bijaksana. Sebagai contoh, kritis terhadap barang yang dikonsumsi, apakah nantinya akan menjadi sumber bencana yang persisten, eksplosif, korosif dan beracun atau degradable (dapat didegradasi alam)? Apakah barang yang kita konsumsi nantinya dapat meracuni manusia, hewan, dan tumbuhan aman bagi makhluk hidup dan lingkungan ?
Teknologi dapat kita gunakan untuk mengatasi pencemaran air. Instalasi pengolahan air bersih, instalasi pengolahan air limbah, yang dioperasikan dan dipelihara baik, mampu menghilangkan substansi beracun dari air yang tercemar. Dari segi kebijakan atau peraturanpun mengenai pencemaran air ini telah ada. Bila kita ingin benar-benar hal tersebut dapat dilaksanakan, maka penegakan hukumnya harus dilaksanakan pula. Pada akhirnya, banyak pilihan baik secara pribadi ataupun social (kolektif) yang harus ditetapkan, secara sadar maupun tidak, yang akan mempengaruhi tingkat pencemaran dimanapun kita berada. Walaupun demikian, langkah pencegahan lebih efektif dan bijaksana.
Melalui penanggulangan pencemaran ini diharapkan bahwa pencemaran akan berkurang dan kualitas hidup manusia akan lebih ditingkatkan, sehingga akan didapat sumber air yang aman, bersih dan sehat.
          UU NO 4 TH 2009   
UNDANG UNDANG No. 4 Tahun 2009
Oleh : Yuli Budiantoro
Kegiatan pertambangan diatur dalam Undang-undang No 4 Tahun 2009 tentang Pertambangan Mineral dan Batubara (UU Minerba). Untuk lebih merinci pelaksanaan dari Undang-undang ini diturunkan kembali dalam bentuk Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) yang salah satunya adalah PP No 23 Tahun 2010 tentang Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Usaha Pertambangan Mineral dan Batubara. Berdasarkan PP ini komoditas pertambangan dikelompokkan dalam 5 golongan yaitu :
1. Mineral radioaktif antara lain: radium, thorium, uranium
2. Mineral logam antara lain: emas, tembaga
3. Mineral bukan logam antara lain: intan, bentonit
4. Batuan antara lain: andesit, tanah liat, tanah urug, kerikil galian dari bukit, kerikil sungai, pasir urug
5. Batubara antara lain: batuan aspal, batubara, gambut
Saat ini kegiatan pertambangan yang lebih dikenal adalah pertambangan untuk komoditas mineral logam antara lain: emas, tembaga, nikel, bauksit dan komoditas batubara. Selain komoditas mineral utama dan batubara ini, komoditas batuan memiliki peran yang sama pentingnya terutama dalam memberikan dukungan material untuk pembangunan infrastruktur antara lain: pendirian sarana infrastruktur jalan, pembangunan perumahan, dan gedung perkantoran. Terminologi bahan galian golongan C yang sebelumnya diatur dalam UU No 11 Tahun 1967 telah diubah berdasarkan UU No 4 Tahun 2009, menjadi batuan, sehingga penggunaan istilah bahan galian golongan C sudah tidak tepat lagi dan diganti menjadi batuan. Untuk memberikan gambaran tentang Tata Cara Pemberian Izin Usaha Pertambangan Batuan, berikut akan diuraikan dalam artikel ini.
Pemberian Izin Usaha Pertambangan Batuan
Pemberian Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP) batuan berdasarkan PP No 23 Tahun 2010 dilakukan dengan cara permohonan wilayah. Permohonan wilayah maksudnya adalah setiap pihak badan usaha, koperasi atau perseorangan yang ingin memiliki IUP harus menyampaikan permohonan kepada Menteri, gubernur atau bupati walikota sesuai kewenangannya. Pembagian kewenangan Menteri, gubernur dan bupati/walikota adalah:
1. Menteri ESDM, untuk permohonan wilayah yang berada lintas wilayah provinsi atau wilayah laut lebih dari 12 mil dari garis pantai
2. Gubernur, untuk permohonan wilayah yang berada lintas wilayah kabupaten/kota dalam 1 provinsi atau wilayah laut 4 sampai dengan 12 mil
3. Bupati/walikota, untuk permohonan wilayah yang berada di dalam 1 wilayah kabupaten/kota atau wilayah laut sampai dengan 4 mil.
IUP mineral batuan diberikan oleh Menteri ESDM (selanjutnya disebut Menteri), gubernur atau bupati/walikota sesuai dengan kewenangannya berdasarkan permohonan yang diajukan oleh: badan usaha, koperasi, dan perseorangan.
IUP diberikan melalui 2 tahapan yaitu:
I. Pemberian Wilayah Izin Usaha Pertambangan (WIUP)
II. Pemberian Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP)
I. Pemberian WIUP batuan
1. Badan usaha, koperasi atau perseorangan mengajukan permohonan wilayah untuk mendapatkan WIUP batuan kepada Menteri, gubernur atau bupati/walikota sesuai kewenangannya
2. Sebelum memberikan WIUP, Menteri harus mendapat rekomendasi dari gubernur dan bupati/walikota dan oleh gubernur harus mendapat rekomendasi dari bupati/walikota
3. Permohonan WIUP yang terlebih dahulu telah memenuhi persyaratan koordinat geografis lintang dan bujur sesuai dengan ketentuan sistem informasi geografi yang berlaku secara nasional dan membayar biaya pencadangan wilayah dan pencetakan peta, memperoleh prioritas pertama untuk mendapatkan WIUP
4. Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota dalam paling lama 10 hari kerja setelah diterima permohonan wajib memberikan keputusan menerima atau menolak atas permohonan WIUP
5. Keputusan menerima disampaikan kepada pemohon WIUP disertai dengan penyerahan peta WIUP berikut batas dan koordinat WIUP. Keputusan menolak harus disampaikan secara tertulis kepada pemohon WIUP disertai dengan alasan penolakan.
II. Pemberian IUP batuan
1. IUP terdiri atas : IUP Eksplorasi dan IUP Operasi Produksi
2. Persyaratan IUP Eksplorasi dan IUP Operasi Produksi meliputi persyaratan: administratif, teknis, lingkungan dan finansial
II.a Pemberian IUP Eksplorasi batuan
1. IUP Eksplorasi diberikan oleh :
a. Menteri, untuk WIUP yang berada dalam lintas wilayah provinsi atau wilayah laut lebih dari 12 mil dari garis pantai
b. Gubernur, untuk WIUP yang berada dalam lintas kabupaten/kota dalam 1 provinsi atau wilayah laut 4 - 12 mil dari garis pantai
c. Bupati/walikota, untuk WIUP yang berada dalam 1 wilayah kabupaten/kota atau wilayah laut sampai dengan 4 mil dari garis pantai
2. IUP Eksplorasi diberikan berdasarkan permohonan dari badan usaha, koperasi, dan perseorangan yang telah mendapatkan WIUP dan memenuhi persyaratan
3. Menteri atau guberrnur menyampaikan penerbitan peta WIUP batuan yang diajukan oleh badan usaha, koperasi, atau perseorangan kepada gubernur atau bupati/walikota untuk mendapatkan rekomendasi dalam rangka penerbitan IUP Eksplorasi. Gubernur atau bupati/walikota memberikan rekomendasi paling lama 5 hari kerja sejak diterimanya tanda bukti penyampaian peta WIUP mineral batuan
4. Badan usaha, koperasi, atau perseorangan yang telah mendapatkan peta WIUP beserta batas dan koordinat dalam waktu paling lambat 5 hari kerja setelah penerbitan peta WIUP mineral batuan harus menyampaikan permohonan IUP Eksplorasi kepada Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota dan wajib memenuhi persyaratan
5. Bila badan usaha, koperasi, atau perseorangan dalam waktu 5 hari kerja tidak menyampaikan permohonan IUP, dianggap mengundurkan diri dan uang pencadangan wilayah menjadi milik Pemerintah atau pemerintah daerah dan WIUP menjadi wilayah terbuka
II.b Pemberian IUP Operasi Produksi batuan
1. IUP Operasi Produksi diberikan oleh :
a. Bupati/Walikota, apabila lokasi penambangan, lokasi pengolahan dan pemurnian, serta pelabuhan berada di dalam 1 wilayah kabupaten/kota atau wilayah laut sampai dengan 4 mil dari garis pantai
b. Gubernur, apabila lokasi penambangan, lokasi pengolahan dan pemurnian, serta pelabuhan berada di dalam wilayah kabupaten/kota yang berbeda dalam 1 provinsi atau wilayah laut sampai dengan 12 mil dari garis pantai setelah mendapat rekomendasi dari bupati/walikota
c. Menteri, apabila lokasi penambangan, lokasi pengolahan dan pemurnian, serta pelabuhan berada di dalam wilayah provinsi yang berbeda atau wilayah laut lebih dari 12 mil dari garis pantai setelah mendapat rekomendasi dari gubernur dan bupati/walikota setempat
2. IUP Operasi Produksi diberikan kepada badan usaha, koperasi, dan perseorangan sebagai peningkatan dari kegiatan eksplorasi yang memenuhi persyaratan dimana pemegang IUP Eksplorasi dijamin untuk memperoleh IUP Operasi Produksi sebagai peningkatan dengan mengajukan permohonan dan memenuhi persyaratan peningkatan operasi produksi
3. Pemegang IUP Operasi Produksi dapat mengajukan permohonan wilayah di luar WIUP kepada Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota untuk menunjang usaha pertambangannya
4. Dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan sejak diperolehnya IUP Operasi Produksi, pemegang IUP Operasi Produksi wajib memberikan tanda batas wilayah pada WIUP
5. Bila pada lokasi WIUP ditemukan komoditas tambang lainnya yang bukan asosiasi mineral yang diberikan dalam IUP, pemegang IUP Operasi Produksi memperoleh keutamaan mengusahakannya dengan membentuk badan usaha baru
6. Permohonan perpanjangan IUP Operasi Produksi diajukan kepada Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota paling cepat 2 tahun dan paling lambat 6 bulan sebelum berakhirnya IUP
7. Pemegang IUP Operasi Produksi hanya dapat diberikan perpanjangan 2 kali dan harus mengembalikan WIUP Operasi Produksi dan menyampaikan keberadaan potensi dan cadangan mineral batuan kepada Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota
8. Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota dapat menolak permohonan perpanjangan IUP Operasi Produksi apabila pemegang IUP Operasi Produksi berdasarkan hasil evaluasi tidak menunjukkan kinerja operasi produksi yang baik
Ketentuan pidana pelanggaran ketentuan dalam UU No 4 Tahun 2009 :
a) Setiap orang yang melakukan usaha penambangan tanpa IUP dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 10 tahun dan denda paling banyak Rp 10.000.000.000,00 (sepuluh miliar rupiah).
b) Setiap orang atau pemegang IUP Operasi Produksi yang menampung, memanfaatkan, melakukan pengolahan dan pemurnian, pengangkutan, penjualan mineral dan batubara yang bukan dari pemegang IUP dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 10 tahun dan denda paling banyak Rp 10.000.000.000,00 (sepuluh miliar rupiah)
c) Setiap orang yang merintangi atau mengganggu kegiatan usaha pertambangan dari pemegang IUP yang telah memenuhi syarat-syarat dipidana dengan pidana kurungan paling lama 1 tahun atau denda paling banyak Rp 100.000.000,00 (seratus juta rupiah).
d) Setiap orang yang rnengeluarkan IUP yang bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang ini dan menyalahgunakan kewenangannya diberi sanksi pidana paling lama 2 tahun penjara dan denda paling banyak Rp200.000.000,00 (dua ratus juta rupiah)
Menteri, gubernur, atau bupati/walikota sesuai dengan kewenangannya berhak memberikan sanksi administratif' kepada pemegang IUP atas pelanggaran ketentuan dalam undang-undang ini berupa: peringatan tertulis, penghentian sementara sebagian atau seluruh kegiatan eksplorasi atau operasi produksi, atau pencabutan IUP.
Semoga pembahasan tata cara pemberian IUP serta ketentuan pidana dan sanksi administratif dalam kegiatan pertambangan batuan ini dapat memberikan gambaran dan mendorong pelaksanaan kegiatan pertambangan yang baik dan benar serta penerapan penegakan hukum sehingga dapat mengurangi dampak negatif pertambangan dan meningkatkan dampak positif melalui penyerapan tenaga kerja, penyediaan bahan baku pembangunan infrastruktur, pendapatan asli daerah, serta penggerak kegiatan perekonomian di sekitar lokasi pertambangan.
Sumber :
Undang-undang No 4 Tahun 2009 tentang Pertambangan Mineral dan Batubara
Peraturan Pemerintah No 23 Tahun 2010 tentang Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Usaha Pertambangan Mineral dan Batubara
          KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI   
Disusun Oleh:Eko Prasetiyo (XI IPS 4 – 10 -2012)


KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI

KONSEP KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI
Apabila Anda mendengar kata “Keanekaragaman”, dalam pikiran anda mungkin akan terbayang kumpulan benda yang bermacam-macam, baik ukuran, warna, bentuk, tekstur dan sebagainya. Bayangan tersebut memang tidak salah. Kata keanekaragaman memang untuk menggambarkan keadaan bermacam-macam suatu benda, yang dapat terjadi akibat adanya perbedaan dalam hal ukuran, bentuk, tekstur ataupun jumlah.
Sedangkan kata “Hayati” menunjukkan sesuatu yang hidup. Jadi keanekaragaman hayati menggambarkan bermacam-macam makhluk hidup (organisme) penghuni biosfer.
Keanekaragaman hayati disebut juga “Biodiversitas”. Keanekaragaman atau keberagaman dari makhluk hidup dapat terjadi karena akibat adanya perbedaan warna, ukuran, bentuk, jumlah, tekstur, penampilan dan sifat-sifat lainnya.
Sedangkan keanekaragaman dari makhluk hidup dapat terlihat dengan adanya persamaan ciri antara makhluk hidup. Untuk memahami konsep keseragaman dan keberagaman makhluk hidup pergilah Anda ke halaman sekolah. Amati lingkungan sekitarnya! Anda akan menjumpai bermacam-macam tumbuhan dan hewan. Jika Anda perhatikan tumbuhan-tumbuhan itu, maka Anda akan menemukan tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang berbatang tinggi, misalnya: palem, mangga, beringin, kelapa. Dan yang berbatang rendah, misalnya: cabe, tomat, melati, mawar dan lain-lainnya. Ada tumbuhan yang berbatang keras, dan berbatang lunak. Ada yang berdaun lebar, tetapi ada pula yang berdaun kecil, serta bunga yang berwarna-warni. Begitu pula Anda akan menemukan tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang memiliki kesamaan ciri seperti: tulang daun menyirip atau sejajar, sistem perakaran tunggang atau serabut, berbiji tertutup atau terbuka, mahkota bunga berkelipatan 3 atau 5 dan lain-lain. Begitu pula pada hewan-hewan yang Anda temukan, terdapat hewan-hewan yang bertubuh besar seperti kucing, sapi, kerbau, dan yang bertubuh kecil seperti semut
serta kupu-kupu. Ada hewan berkaki empat, seperti kucing. Berkaki dua seperti ayam. Berkaki banyak seperti lipan dan luwing. Juga akan tampak burung yang memiliki bulu dan bersayap.

Di samping itu, Anda juga akan menemukan hewan yang hidupnya di air seperti: ikan mas, lele, ikan gurame. Dan hewan-hewan yang hidup di darat seperti kucing, burung dan lain-lain. Ada hewan yang tubuhnya ditutupi bulu seperti burung, ayam. Ada yang bersisik seperti ikan gurame, ikan mas, dan ada pula yang berambut seperti kucing, kelinci dan lain-lain.
Dari hasil pengamatan atau observasi di halaman sekolah, Anda telah menemukan adanya keseragaman dan keberagaman pada makhluk hidup.
Untuk lebih memahami uraian diatas, cobalah Anda kerjakan kegiatan praktikum berikut:
1. KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI TINGKAT GEN
Keanekaragaman hayati tidak saja terjadi antar jenis, tetapi dalam satu jenis pun terdapat keanekaragaman. Adanya perbedaan warna, bentuk, dan ukuran dalam satu jenis disebut variasi.
Untuk mendapatkan gambaran yang lebih jelas tentang tingkatan keanekaragaman hayati, simak uraiannya berikut ini:
1. Keanekaragaman Hayati Tingkat Gen
Apa yang dimaksud dengan keanekaragaman hayati tingkat gen? Untuk menemukan jawaban ini, cobalah amati tanaman bunga mawar. Tanaman ini memiliki bunga yang berwarna-warni, dapat berwarna merah, putih atau kuning. Atau pada tanaman mangga, keanekaragaman dapat Anda temukan antara lain pada bentuk buahnya, rasa, dan warnanya.
Demikian juga pada hewan. Anda dapat membandingkan ayam kampung, ayam hutan, ayam ras, dan ayam lainnya. Anda akan melihat keanekaragaman sifat antara lain pada bentuk dan ukuran tubuh, warna bulu dan bentuk pial (jengger).

Gambar 1. Keanekaragaman gen pada ayam
Keanekaragaman warna bunga pada tanaman mawar. Bentuk, rasa, warna pada buah mangga, serta keanekaragaman sifat, warna bulu dan bentuk pial pada ayam, ini semua disebabkan oleh pengaruh perangkat pembawa sifat yang disebut dengan gen. Semua makhluk hidup dalam satu spesies/jenis memiliki perangkat dasar penyusun gen yang sama. Gen merupakan bagian kromosom yang mengendalikan ciri atau sifat suatu organisme yang bersifat diturunkan dari induk/orang tua kepada keturunannya.
Gen pada setiap individu, walaupun perangkat dasar penyusunnya sama, tetapi susunannya berbeda-beda bergantung pada masing-masing induknya. Susunan perangkat gen inilah yang menentukan ciri atau sifat suatu individu dalam satu spesies.
Apa yang menyebabkan terjadinya keanekaragaman gen? Perkawinan antara dua individu makhluk hidup sejenis merupakan salah satu penyebabnya. Keturunan dari hasil perkawinan memiliki susunan perangkat gen yang berasal dari kedua induk/orang tuanya. Kombinasi susunan perangkat gen dari dua induk tersebut akan menyebabkan keanekaragaman individu dalam satu spesies berupa varietas-varietas (varitas) yang terjadi secara alami atau secara buatan.
Keanekaragaman yang terjadi secara alami adalah akibat adaptasi atau penyesuaian diri setiap individu dengan lingkungan, seperti pada rambutan. Faktor lingkungan juga turut mempengaruhi sifat yang tampak (fenotip) suatu individu di samping ditentukan oleh faktor genetiknya (genotip). Sedangkan keanekaragaman buatan dapat terjadi antara lain melalui perkawinan silang (hibridisasi), seperti pada berbagai jenis mangga.
Perbedaan sifat pada jenis mangga dapat Anda amati pada tabel berikut:
No. Mangga Bentuk Buah Rasa arima
1.
2.
3. golek
kuini
gedong lonjong panjang
bulat telur, besar
bulat, kecil manis
manis
lebih manis tidak wangi
wangi
tidak wangi
Pada manusia juga terdapat keanekaragaman gen yang menunjukkan sifat-sifat berbeda, antara lain ukuran tubuh (besar, kecil, sedang); warna kulit (hitam, putih, sawo matang, kuning); warna mata (biru, hitam, coklat), serta bentuk rambut (ikal, lurus, keriting). Cobalah perhatikan diri Anda sendiri! Ciri atau sifat apa yang Anda miliki? Sesuaikan dengan uraian di atas?
2. Keanekaragaman Hayati Tingkat Jenis
Dapatkah Anda membedakan antara tumbuhan kelapa aren, nipah dan pinang? Atau membedakan jenis kacang-kacangan, seperti kacang tanah, kacang buncis, kacang kapri, dan kacang hijau? Atau Anda dapat membedakan kelompok hewan antara kucing,harimau, singa dan citah? Jika hal ini dapat Anda bedakan dengan benar, maka paling tidak sedikitnya anda telah mengetahui tentang keanekaragaman jenis.
Untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman hayati tingkat jenis pada tumbuhan atau hewan, anda dapat mengamati, antara lain ciri-ciri fisiknya. Misalnya bentuk dan ukuran tubuh,warna, kebiasaan hidup dan lain-lain.
Contoh, dalam keluarga kacang-kacangan, antara lain; kacang tanah, kacang kapri, kacang hijau dan kacang buncis. Di antara jenis kacang-kacangan tersebut Anda dapat dengan mudah membedakannya, karena antara mereka ditemukan ciri-ciri yang berbeda antara ciri satu dengan yang lainnya. Misalnya ukuran tubuh atau batang (ada yang tinggi dan pendek); kebiasaan hidup (tumbuh tegak, ada yang merambat), bentuk buah dan biji, warna biji, jumlah biji, serta rasanya yang berbeda.

Gambar 2. Keanekaragaman jenis pada kacang-kacangan
Contoh lain, keanekaragaman pada keluarga kucing. Di kebun binatang, Anda dapat mengamati hewan harimau, singa, citah dan kucing.

Gambar 2. Keanek ragaman jenis pada hewan (a) harimau, (b) singan, (c) kucing dan (d) citah.
Walaupun hewan-hewan tersebut termasuk dalam satu familia/suku Felidae, tetapi diantara mereka terdapat perbedaan-perbedaan sifat yang mencolok. Misalnya, perbedaan warna bulu, tipe lorengnya, ukuran tubuh, tingkah laku, serta lingkungan hidupnya.
Cobalah Anda perhatikan perbedaan sifat dari hewan berikut ini :
No. Ciri-ciri Kucing Harimau Singa Citah
1.

2.

3. Ukuran tubuh
Warna bulu

Tempat hidup Kecil

Hitam, putih, kuning
Hutan, rumah Besar

Hitam, putih, kuning
Hutan Besar

Hitam, putih, kuning
Hutan Sedang

Hitam/ putih
Pohon
Demikian pula pada kelompok tumbuhan yang tumbuh di dataran tinggi dan dataran rendah akan memperlihatkan perbedaan-perbedaan sifat pada tinggi batang, daun dan bunga. Contohnya kelapa, aren, pinang, dan lontar, seperti tampak pada tabel pengamatan berikut ini.
No Ciri-ciri Kelapa Aren Pinang Lontar
1. Tinggi Batang >30m 25m 25 15-30m
2. Daun -Panjang tangkai daun 75-150cm
-Helaian daun 5m, ujungruncing dan keras -Panjang tangkai daun 150cm Tangkai daun pendek -Panjang tangkai daun 100cm
-Helaian daun bulat, tepi daun bercangap menjari
3. Bunga Tongkol Tongkol Tongkol Bulir

Gambar 2. Keanekaragaman pada suku Palmae
Dari contoh-contoh di atas, Anda dapat mengetahui ada perbedaan atau variasi sifat pada kucing, harimau, singa dan citah yang termasuk dalam familia/suku Felidae. Variasi pada suku Felidae ini menunjukkan keanekaragaman pada tingkat jenis.
Hal yang sama terdapat juga pada tanaman kelapa, aren, pinang, dan lontar yang termasuk suku Palmae atau Arecaceae.
3. Keanekaragaman Hayati Tingkat Ekosistem
Di lingkungan manapun Anda di muka bumi ini, maka Anda akan menemukan makhluk hidup lain selain Anda. Semua makhluk hidup berinteraksi atau berhubungan erat dengan lingkungan tempat hidupnya.
Lingkungan hidup meliputi komponen biotik dan komponen abiotik. Komponen biotik meliputi berbagai jenis makhluk hidup mulai yang bersel satu (uni seluler) sampai makhluk hidup bersel banyak (multi seluler) yang dapat dilihat langsung oleh kita. Komponen abiotik meliputi iklim, cahaya, batuan, air, tanah, dan kelembaban. Ini semua disebut faktor fisik. Selain faktor fisik, ada faktor kimia, seperti salinitas (kadar garam), tingkat keasaman, dan kandungan mineral.
Baik komponen biotik maupun komponen abiotik sangat beragam atau bervariasi. Oleh karena itu, ekosistem yang merupakan interaksi antara komponen biotik dengan komponen abiotik pun bervariasi pula.
Di dalam ekosistem, seluruh makhluk hidup yang terdapat di dalamnya selalu melakukan hubungan timbal balik, baik antar makhluk hidup maupun makhluk hidup dengan lingkungnnya atau komponen abiotiknya. Hubungan timbal balik ini menimbulkan keserasian hidup di dalam suatu ekosistem. Apa yang menyebabkan terjadinya keanekaragaman tingkat ekosistem? Perbedaan letak geografis antara lain merupakan faktor yang menimbulkan berbagai bentuk ekosistem.

Gambar 2. Keanekaragaman ekosistem (a) padang rumput (b) padang tundra (c) gurun pasir
Perbedaan letak geografis menyebabkan perbedaan iklim. Perbedaan iklim menyebabkan terjadinya perbedaan temperature, curah hujan, intensitas cahaya matahari, dan lamanya penyinaran. Keadaan ini akan berpengaruh terhadap jenis-jenis flora (tumbuhan) dan fauna (hewan) yang menempati suatu daerah.
Di daerah dingin terdapat bioma Tundra. Di tempat ini tidak ada pohon, yang tumbuh hanya jenis lumut. Hewan yang dapat hidup, antara lain rusa kutub dan beruang kutub. Di daerah beriklim sedang terdpat bioma Taiga. Jenis tumbuhan yang paling sesuai untuk daerah ini adalah tumbuhan conifer, dan fauna/hewannya antara lain anjing hutan, dan rusa kutub.
Pada iklim tropis terdapat hutan hujan tropis. Hutan hujan tropis memiliki flora (tumbuhan) dan fauna (hewan) yang sangat kaya dan beraneka ragam. Keanekaragaman jenis-jenis flora dan fauna yang menempati suatu daerah akan membentuk ekosistem yang berbeda. Maka terbentuklah keanekaragaman tingkat ekosistem.
Totalitas variasi gen, jenis dan ekosistem menunjukkan terdapat pelbagai variasi bentuk, penampakan, frekwensi, ukuran dan sifat lainnya pada tingkat yang berbeda-beda merupakan keanekaragaman hayati.
Keanekaragaman hayati berkembang dari keanekaragaman tingkat gen, keanekaragaman tingkat jenis dan keanekaragaman tingkat ekosistem. Keanekaragaman hayati perlu dilestarikan karena didalamnya terdapat sejumlah spesies asli sebagai bahan mentah perakitan varietas-varietas unggul. Kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati pada suatu ekosistem akan terganggu bila ada komponen-komponennya yang mengalami gangguan.
Gangguan-gangguan terhadap komponen-komponen ekosistem tersebut dapat menimbulkan perubahan pada tatanan ekosistemnya. Besar atau kecilnya gangguan terhadap ekosistem dapat merubah wujud ekosistem secara perlahan-lahan atau secara cepat pula. Contoh-contoh gangguan ekosistem , antara lain penebangan pohon di hutan-hutan secara liar dan perburuan hewan secara liar dapat mengganggu keseimbangan ekosistem. Gangguan tersebut secara perlahan-lahan dapat merubah ekosistem sekaligus mempengaruhi keanekaragaman tingkat ekosistem. Bencana tanah longsor atau letusan gunung berapi, bahkan dapat memusnahkan ekosistem. Tentu juga akan memusnahkan keanekaragaman tingkat ekosistem. Demikian halnya dengan bencana tsunami.
KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI INDONESIA
Tahukah Anda, bahwa Indonesia merupakan salah satu dari tiga Negara yang memiliki keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi? Dua negara lainnya adalah Brazil dan Zaire. Tetapi dibandingkan dengan Brazil dan Zaire, Indonesia memiliki keunikan tersendiri. Keunikannya adalah disamping memiliki keanekragaman hayati yang tinggi, Indonesia mempunyai areal tipe Indomalaya yang luas, juga tipe Oriental, Australia, dan peralihannya. Selain itu di Indonesia terdapat banyak hewan dan tumbuhan langka, serta hewan dan tumbuhan endemik (penyebaran terbatas).
Untuk lebih memahami materi tersebut, silakan Anda simak uraian mengenai keaneragaman hayati yang terdapat di Indonesia berikut ini!
Indonesia terletak di daerah tropik sehingga memiliki keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi dibandingkan dengan daerah subtropik (iklim sedang) dan kutub (iklim kutub). Tingginya keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia ini terlihat dari berbagai macam ekosistem yang ada di Indonesia, seperti: ekosistem pantai, ekosistem hutan bakau, ekosistem padang rumput, ekosistem hutan hujan tropis, ekosistem air tawar, ekosistem air laut, ekosistem savanna, dan lain-lain. Masing-masing ekosistem ini memiliki keaneragaman hayati tersendiri.
Tumbuhan (flora) di Indonesia merupakan bagian dari geografi tumbuhan Indo-Malaya. Flora Indo-Malaya meliputi tumbuhan yang hidup di India, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, dan Filipina. Flora yang tumbuh di Malaysia, Indonesia, dan Filipina sering disebut sebagai kelompok flora Malesiana.
Hutan di daerah flora Malesiana memiliki kurang lebih 248.000 species tumbuhan tinggi, didominasi oleh pohon dari familia Dipterocarpaceae, yaitu pohon-pohon yang menghasilkan biji bersayap. Dipterocarpaceae merupakan tumbuhan tertinggi dan membentuk kanopi hutan. Tumbuhan yang termasuk famili Dipterocarpaceae misalnya Keruing ( Dipterocarpus sp), Meranti (Shorea sp), Kayu garu (Gonystylus bancanus), dan Kayu kapur (Drybalanops aromatica).
Hutan di Indonesia merupakan bioma hutan hujan tropis atau hutan basah, dicirikan dengan kanopi yang rapat dan banyak tumbuhan liana (tumbuhan yang memanjat), seperti rotan. Tumbuhan khas Indonesia seperti durian (Durio zibetinus), Mangga (Mangifera indica), dan Sukun (Artocarpus sp) di Indonesia tersebar di Sumatra, Kalimantan, Jawa dan Sulawesi.
Sebagai negara yang memiliki flora Malesiana apakah di Malaysia dan Filipina juga memiliki jenis tumbuhan seperti yang dimiliki oleh Indonesia? Ya, di Malaysia dan Filipina juga terdapat tumbuhan durian, mangga, dan sukun. Di Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Jawa terdapat tumbuhan endemik Rafflesia. Tumbuhan ini tumbuh di akar atau batang tumbuhan pemanjat sejenis anggur liar, yaitu Tetrastigma.

Bagaimana dengan wilayah Indonesia bagian timur? Apakah jenis tumbuhannya sama? Indonesia bagian timur, tipe hutannya agak berbeda. Mulai dari Sulawesi sampai Irian Jaya (Papua) terdapat hutan non?Dipterocarpaceae. Hutan ini memiliki pohon-pohon sedang, diantaranya beringin (Ficus sp), dan matoa (Pometia pinnata). Pohon matoa merupakan tumbuhan endemik di Irian.
Selanjutnya, mari kita lihat hewan (fauna) di Indonesia. Hewan-hewan di Indonesia memiliki tipe Oriental (Kawasan Barat Indonesia) dan Australia (Kawasan Timur Indonesia) serta peralihan. Hewan-hewan di bagian Barat Indonesia (Oriental) yang meliputi Sumatera, Jawa, dan Kalimantan, memiliki ciri-ciri sebagai berikut:
1. Banyak species mamalia yang berukuran besar, misalnya gajah, banteng, harimau, badak. Mamalia berkantung jumlahnya sedikit, bahkan hampir tidak ada.
2. Terdapat berbagai macam kera, misalnya: bekantan, tarsius, orang utan.
3. Terdapat hewan endemik, seperti: badak bercula satu, binturong (Aretictis binturang), monyet (Presbytis thomari), tarsius (Tarsius bancanus), kukang (Nyeticebus coucang).
4. Burung-burung memiliki warna bulu yang kurang menarik, tetapi dapat berkicau. Burung-burung yang endemik, misalnya: jalak bali (Leucopsar nothschili), elang jawa, murai mengkilat (Myophoneus melurunus), elang putih (Mycrohyerax latifrons).
Sekarang mari kita lanjutkan dengan hewan-hewan yang terdapat di Kawasan Indonesia Timur. Jenis-jenis hewan di Indonesia bagian timur, yaitu Irian, Maluku, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, relatif sama dengan Australia. Ciri-ciri hewannya adalah:
1. Mamalia berukuran kecil
2. Banyak hewan berkantung
3. Tidak terdapat species kera
4. Jenis-jenis burung memiliki warna yang beragam
Irian Jaya (Papua) memiliki hewan mamalia berkantung, misalnya: kanguru (Dendrolagus ursinus), kuskus (Spiloeus maculatus). Papua juga memiliki kolek si burung terbanyak, dan yang paling terkenal adalah burung Cenderawasih (Paradiseae sp). Di Nusa Tenggara, terutama di pulau Komodo, terdapat reptilian terbesar yaitu komodo (Varanus komodoensis).
Sedangkan daerah peralihan meliputi daerah di sekitar garis Wallace yang terbentang dari Sulawesi sampai kepulauan Maluku, jenis hewannya antara lain tarsius (Tarsius bancanus), maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), anoa, dan babi rusa (Babyrousa babyrussa).
TUGAS
Nah, untuk mengetahui kemampuan Anda mempelajari materi tersebut, silahkan kerjakan tugas praktikum berikut ini:
I. Mengamati Keanekaragaman Tingkat Gen
Tujuan : Mengetahui adanya variasi morfologi pada buah mangga.
Alat dan bahan : Berbagai macam buah mangga yang terdapat di sekitarmu.
Cara kerja :

1. Amatilah ciri-ciri masing-masing buah mangga. Ciri-ciri yang harus diamati, misalnya warna kulit, bentuk buah, ukuran buah, warna daging buah dan ukuran biji.
2. Tuliskan hasil pengamatan Anda ke dalam tabel berikut !
TABEL HASIL PENGAMATAN
No. Ciri-ciri Mangga
Harum manis Simanalagi Indramayu



Cocokkan jawaban Anda dengan meng-klik kunci jawaban!
Pertanyaan :
1. Apa penyebab timbulnya keanekaragaman pada mangga?
2. Jelaskan pengertian dari gen!
3. Apa kesimpulan hasil kegiatan tersebut?

II. Mengamati Keanekaragaman Tingkat Jenis (spesies)
Alat dan Bahan:
1. Penggaris
2. Timbangan
3. Lima (5) jenis biji kacang hijau, kacang kedelai, kacang tanah, kacang kapri, dan kacang panjang.
4. Buku catatan praktikum
Langkah Kerja:
1. Buatlah tabel pada buku catatan praktikum, seperti contoh di bawah.
2. Amati secara seksama bentuk biji kacang satu persatu.
3. Amati warna setiap biji kacang.
4. Ukurlah dengan penggaris panjang setiap biji kacang, satu persatu.
5. Timbanglah berat setiap biji kacang, dengan menggunakan alat timbangan
6. Isikan data hasil pengamatan ke dalam tabel.

No. Jenis Biji Bentuk Warna Panjang Berat
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. Kacang Hijau
Kacang Tanah
Kacang Kedelai
Kacang Panjang
Kacang Kapri .......
.......
.......
.......
....... .......
.......
.......
.......
....... .......
.......
.......
.......
....... .......
.......
.......
.......
.......
Pertanyaan:
1. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan, adakah keanekaragaman sifat pada biji-biji kacang tersebut?
2. Menurut Anda, apakah yang menyebabkan adanya keanekaragaman jenis?
3. Apa yang dimaksud dengan keanekaragaman tingkat jenis?
Cocokkan jawaban Anda dengan meng-klik kunci jawaban!



III. Mengamati Keanekaragaman Tingkat Ekosistem
Alat dan Bahan:
1. 3 macam gambar ekosistem
2. Buku catatan praktikum

Langkah Kerja:
1. Pelajari gambar-gambar ekosistem dengan seksama
2. Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan di buku catatan praktikum Anda

Gambar 1 Gambar 2 Gambar 3
Pertanyaan:
1. Apa nama ekosistem pada gambar 1, gambar 2, dan gambar 3?
2. Tuliskan macam flora atau tumbuhan yang terdapat pada ekosistem gambar 1, 2, 3?
3. Tuliskan macam fauna atau hewan yang terdapat pada ekosistem gambar 1, 2, 3?
4. Dari ketiga macam ekosistem, manakah yang memiliki jumlah dan keanekaragaman makhluk hidup yang paling banyak?
5. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan keanekaragaman ekosistem?


Pilihlah satu jawaban yang Anda anggap paling tepat dengan memberi tanda silang (X) pada huruf di depan jawaban tersebut.
1. Perbedaan yang ditemukan di antara sesama ayam dalam satu kandang
disebut ……..
A. evolusi
B. adaptasi
C. variasi
D. keberagaman
E. adaptasi dan variasi



2.

Di antara individu sejenis tidak pernah ditemukan yang sama persis untuk semua sifat. Hal ini terjadi karena adanya perbedaan…………
A. lingkungan
B. induknya
C. jenisnya
D. lingkungan dan gen
E. gen dan plasma nutfah

3. Keanekaragaman ekosistem ditunjukkan oleh adanya perbedaan komponen berikut ini, kecuali …………..
A. sumber energi primer
B. jenis produsennya
C. produktifitasnya
D. jenis konsumennya
E. komponen biotiknya

4. Dua makhluk hidup menempati daerah yang sama dapat disebut spesies
apabila …….
A. habitat dan warna rambutnya sama
B. warna dan bentuk rambutnya sama
C. jenis makanan dan cara makannya sama
D. cara reproduksi dan jumlah anaknya sama
E. dalam perkawinan menghasilkan turunan fertil

5. Anjing pudel dapat dikawinkan dengan anjing boner. Anjing-anjing tersebut dapat melahirkan anak-anak yang fertil karena anjing-anjing tersebut ……
A. satu genus
B. satu familia
C. satu species
D. satu ordo
E. satu kingdom

6. Hutan bakau di Kalimantan, hutan hujan tropis di Jawa Barat, dan savanna di Papua, merupakan contoh keanekaragaman hayati tingkat …….
A. genetik
B. species
C. ekosistem
D. populasi
E. individu






7.




Keanekaragaman warna bulu, misalnya pada burung parkit, merupakan hasil segregasi gen secara bebas. Contoh keanekaragaman bulu pada burung parkit tersebut merupakan adanya keanekaragaman tingkat ……
A. gen
B. genus
C. ekosistem
D. species
E. individu





8.



Makhluk hidup penghuni bumi ini begitu beraneka ragam. Sumber keane-karagaman makhluk hidup tersebut adalah …………..
A. sperma
B. ovum
C. gen
D. kromosom
E. zigot

9. Berikut ini yang bukan faktor-faktor penyebab terjadinya keaneragaman hayati adalah …………
A. variasi genetik
B. keaneragaman jenis
C. keanekaragaman genetik
D. keanekaragaman daur energi
E. keanekaragaman ekosistem

10. Variasi gen dalam tingkat jenis dapat menyebabkan terbentuknya ………
A. individu
B. varietas
C. species
D. populasi
E. ekosistem
          PANAS BUMI   
ARIF BUDIATI. XI IPS 4-4/2012
ENERGI PANAS BUMI DAN PEMBANGKITAN LISTRIK TENAGA PANAS BUMI’
Pendahuluan
Dalam rangka memasuki era industrialisasi maka kebutuhan energi terus meningkat dan untuk mengatasi hal ini perlu dipikirkan penambahan energi melalui pemilihan energi alternatif yang ramah terhadap lingkungan. Salah satu energi altematif tersebut adalah pemanfaatan energi panas bumi yang cukup tersedia di Indonesia. Tulisan ini akan menguraikan secara garis besar tentang kebutuhan energi dan peranan energi panas bumi dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhan energi serta prospeknya di Indonesia.
Bila energi panas bumi yang cukup tersedia di Indonesia dapat dimanfaatkan secara optimal, kiranya kebutuhan energi listrik yang terus meningkat akan dapat dipenuhi bersama-sama dengan sumber energi lainnya. Pengalaman dalam memanfaatkan energi panas bumi sebagai penyedia energi listrik seperti yang telah dilaksanakan di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Barat akan sangat membantu dalam pengembangan energi panas bumi lebih lanjut.
Dasar Teori
Panas bumi adalah anugerah alam yang merupakan sisa-sisa panas dari hasil reaksi nuklir yang pernah terjadi pada awal mula terbentuknya bumi dan alam semesta ini. Reaksi nuklir yang masih terjadi secara alamiah di alam semesta pada saat ini adalah reaksi fusi nuklir yang terjadi di matahari dan juga di bintang-bintang yang tersebar di jagat raya. Reaksi fusi nuklir alami tersebut menghasilkan panas berorde jutaan derajat Celcius. Permukaan bumi pada mulanya juga memiliki panas yang sangat dahsyat, namun dengan berjalannya waktu (dalam orde milyard tahun) suhu permukaan bumi mulai menurun dan akhirnya tinggal perut bumi saja yang masih panas berupa magma dan inilah yang menjadi sumber energi panas bumi.

Energi panas bumi digunakan manusia sejak sekitar 2000 tahun SM berupa sumber air panas untuk pengobatan yang sampai saat ini juga masih banyak dilakukan orang, terutama sumber air panas yang banyak mengandung garam dan belerang. Sedangkan energi panas bumi digunakan sebagai pembangkit tenaga listrik baru dimulai di Italia pada tahun 1904. Sejak itu energi panas bumi mulai dipikirkan secara komersial untuk pembangkit tenaga Isitrik

Energi panas bumi adalah termasuk energi primer yaitu energi yang diberikan oleh alam seperti minyak bumi, gas bumi, batubara dan tenaga air. Energi primer ini di Indonesia tersedia dalam jumlah sedikit (terbatas) dibandingkan dengan cadangan energi primer dunia. Sebagai gambaran sedikitnya atau terbatasnya energi tersebut adalah berdasarkan data pada Tabel I. ]

Tabel 1 Cadangan energi primer dunia.
cadangan Minyak Bumi Indonesia 1,1 % Timur Tengah 70 %
Cadangan Gas Bumi Indonesia 1-2 % Rusia 25 %
Cadangan Batubara Indonesia 3,1 % Amaerika Utara 25 %

Sedangkan cadangan energi panas bumi di Indonesia relatif lebih besar bila dibandingkan dengan cadangan energi primer lainnya, hanya saja belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Selain dari pada itu panas bumi adalah termasuk juga energi yang terbarukan, yaitu energi non fosil yang bila dikelola dengan baik maka sumberdayanya relatif tidak akan habis, jadi amat sangat menguntungkan.

Energi panas bumi yang ada di Indonesia pada saat ini dapat dikelompokkan menjadi:
1. Energi panas bumi "uap basah"
Pemanfaatan energi panas bumi yang ideal adalah bila panas bumi yang keluar dari perut bumi berupa uap kering, sehingga dapat digunakan langsung untuk menggerakkan turbin generator listrik. Namun uap kering yang demikian ini jarang ditemukan termasuk di Indonesia dan pada umumnya uap yang keluar berupa uap basah yang mengandung sejumlah air yang harus dipisahkan terlebih dulu sebelum digunakan untuk menggerakkan turbin.

Gambar 1. Pembangkitan tenaga listrik dari energi panas bumi "uap basah".
Uap basah yang keluar dari perut bumi pada mulanya berupa air panas bertekanan tinggi yang pada saat menjelang permukaan bumi terpisah menjadi kira-kira 20 % uap dan 80 % air. Atas dasar ini maka untuk dapat memanfaatkan jenis uap basah ini diperlukan separator untuk memisahkan antara uap dan air. Uap yang telah dipisahkan dari air diteruskan ke turbin untuk menggerakkan generator listrik, sedangkan airnya disuntikkan kembali ke dalam bumi untuk menjaga keseimbangan air dalam tanah. Skema pembangkitan tenaga listrik atas dasar pemanfaatan energi panas bumi "uap basah" dapat dilihat pada Gambar 1.
2. Energi panas bumi "air panas"
Air panas yang keluar dari perut bumi pada umumnya berupa air asin panas yang disebut "brine" dan mengandung banyak mineral. Karena banyaknya kandungan mineral ini, maka air panas tidak dapat digunakan langsung sebab dapat menimbulkan penyumbatan pada pipa-pipa sistim pembangkit tenaga listrik. Untuk dapat memanfaatkan energi panas bumi jenis ini, digunakan sistem biner (dua buah sistem utama) yaitu wadah air panas sebagai sistem primemya dan sistem sekundernya berupa alat penukar panas (heat exchanger) yang akan menghasilkan uap untuk menggerakkan turbin.
          Botella de coleccion   
Botella de champañe. Sin abrir de 1970, conmemorativa de la inaguracion del lavadero de mineral de mazarron. posiblemente la unica que quede. Acepto pago en dos plazos en 30 dias.
          2139 MINERAL SPRING AVE, North Providence foreclosures, Providence County - RI   
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Address: 2139 MINERAL SPRING AVE
Zipcode: 2911
Code: 1056731
Bedrooms: 4
Bathrooms: 2
Price: $120,000

          Ekologiczne masło sezamowe Biofood - recenzja   
Jak już na blogu nie raz pisałam, na pastę sezamową zawsze znajdzie się miejsce w mojej szafce z zapasami - wraz z masłem orzechowym stanowi ona mój ulubiony płynny dodatek do śniadań i kolacji. Tahini świetnie się łączy zarówno z daniami słodkimi, jak i wytrawnymi, dzięki czemu może wzbogacać owsianki, jaglanki, kanapki czy dania warzywne, no i oczywiście bez niej nie powstałby hummus. Mieszaninie z sezamu nie brakuje nie tylko ciekawego smaku, ale i wartości odżywczych - w końcu sezam zawiera wiele składników mineralnych, a jego rozdrobnienie umożliwia znacznie wyższe ich przyswojenie. Nie pamiętam już, gdzie kupiłam poniżej widoczną pastę (podejrzewam, że było to w Łodzi w sklepie ze zdrową żywnością) - na pewno zapowiadała się smakowicie ;) 


Niewielki, ale dość szeroki słoiczek, skrywał w sobie 180g ekologicznej pasty, zrobionej wyłącznie z nasion sezamu, więc to od ich jakości zależał smak. Mieszanka pachniała naturalnie - sezamowo i w przyjemny sposób tłuściutko. Jak to często z tłustymi mieszaninami bywa, na wierzchu wytrącił się olej i to w dość pokaźnej ilości. Wymieszanie jednak nie stanowiło problemu, zarówno ze względu na niewielką gramaturę, jak i dość szeroki słoiczek, umożliwiający swobodne manewrowanie w jego wnętrzu sztućcem.


Niewiele czasu zajęło mi zatem uzyskanie homogennej masy, cechującej się wybitnie płynną, a przy tym kremową konsystencją. Tahini smakowała naturalnie i dało się dostrzec bogaty, płynący z sezamu smak. Nie była ani trochę gorzka, nie doszukałam się także żadnych innych oznak przypalenia ziaren przed zmieleniem. Pasta przypominała mi niesłodką, bardzo dobrej jakości chałwę, a po połączeniu z syropem klonowym upodobniła się do niej jeszcze bardziej. Zarówno smak, jak i konsystencja mnie nie rozczarowały i dzięki tym cechom tahini mogła należycie zwieńczać wiele moich dań. 
.  

WARTOŚĆ ODŻYWCZA
Sezam jest bardzo wartościowym ziarnem, a po rozdrobnieniu składniki w nim zawarte są znacznie lepiej przyswajalne przez organizm. W tahini znajdziemy zatem mnóstwo minerałów - zwłaszcza wapnia, miedzi, żelaza, magnezu, selenu i cynku, a także witamin, cennych tłuszczów, białka roślinnego oraz błonnika. Nie dodano do niej konserwantów i emulgatorów, przez co jest całkowicie naturalnym produktem. W 100g zawiera 674kcal, co nie jest małą ilością, ale to w głównej mierze zdrowe, nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. 


Wartość odżywcza w 100g tahini: 674kcal, 61,2g tłuszczu, 2,6g węglowodanów, w tym 2,4g cukrów, 24,8g białka
Miejsce zakupu: sklep ze zdrową żywnością
Cena: ok. 12zł

          Organiczna czekolada z chili Sole - recenzja   
Chilli to z pewnością nie jest mój ulubiony dodatek do czekolad i wszelkie papryczki wolę jeść w daniach obiadowych, ale po smakowitej czekoladzie z pomarańczą, w której nuty cytrusowe były ledwo wyczuwalne i po wyjątkowo udanej wersji z cynamonem, z optymizmem podeszłam do kolejnej tabliczki. 0,3% zawartość chilli nie zwiastowała obezwładniającej pikantności, ale jak wiadomo, już niewielka ilość papryczki może dodać daniu aż za bardzo płomiennego charakteru. Pozostało mi się przekonać, co skrywa w sobie pochodząca z Hiszpanii czekolada, a przy degustacji musiałam być gotowa na wszystko ;)


Tutaj, w przeciwieństwie do dwóch poprzednich wersji, listę składników rozpoczyna kakao, a nie cukier. Dalej dopiero widnieje cukier trzcinowy, a za nim masło kakaowe, chilli i wanilia, wszystko ekologiczne. Wygląd czekolady jest taki sam, jak w przypadku pozostałych smaków - prostokątna tafla składa się z 32 małych kostek, a przy dzieleniu dało się słyszeć wyraziste trzaski. 


Czekolada pachniała delikatnie kakaowo i na tym etapie oceny nie zauważyłam obecności w niej chilli, wszystko zmieniło się po spróbowaniu... Kostka w kontakcie ze śliną rozpuszczała się dość szybko i kremowo. W pierwszych sekundach uwalniała kakaowy, lekko nesquikowy aromat, ale chwilę później ukazywała swoją pieprzną naturę. Chilli wybiło się na pierwszy plan, tłumiąc łagodny smak czekolady - po połknięciu czuć było już tylko umiarkowanie pikantną papryczkę.


Z każdą kolejną kostką coraz bardziej przyzwyczajałam się do ostrości, jednak żałowałam przy tym, że tak bardzo zagłusza ona pyszny smak czekolady i że tak krótko można się cieszyć niczym niezakłóconą kakowością. Nie mogę napisać, że czekolada była za ostra, po prostu nie są to moje smaki (chilli i ostre przyprawy lubię w daniach warzywnych), za to wielbicielom pikantnych dodatków do kakao powinna ona smakować - wysokiej jakości i ciekawego smaku z pewnością produktowi nie brakuje. 


WARTOŚĆ ODŻYWCZA
Prosty skład i kakao na pierwszym miejscu listy sprawiają, że czekoladę można zaliczyć do zdrowych przysmaków. Nie zawiera ona emulgatorów, lecytyny sojowej, tłuszczów utwardzonych, składników odzwierzęcych i glutenu, więc w wiele diet się wpisze, choć osobom unikającym pikantnych przypraw bym jej nie poleciła. Z kolei tym lubiącym połączenie czekolady z chilli pomoże wzbogacić dietę w magnez, miedź, cynk, potas i wiele innych składników mineralnych, których w kakao nie brakuje ;)


Miejsce zakupu: Tesco
Cena: 12.99zł (kupiłam w promocji chyba za 8.99zł)

          Masło z orzechów ziemnych Horizon - recenzja   
Masło orzechowe to bez wątpienia jeden z moich ulubionych dodatków do wielu dań - m.in. owsianek, jaglanek czy warzyw, a i samo w sobie bardzo lubię. Czasem czuję potrzebę zanurkowania łyżeczką w słoiku z pysznością, ale od wyjedzenia całości na raz, jak niektórzy potrafią, jestem daleka :D Gdy wybierałam masła kiedyś, nie zwracałam większej uwagi na skład, ale obecnie to dla mnie priorytet i kupuję smarowidła "ukręcone" jedynie z orzechów - ich naturalny aromat najbardziej mi odpowiada. Masła orzechowe firmy Horizon jak dotąd mnie nie rozczarowały, więc i w przypadku fisztaszkowego liczyłam na znakomity smak ;)


W składzie kremu znajdują się jedynie ekologiczne orzechy ziemne, więc od ich jakości zależy cały smak. Wierzchnią część słoika zajmował wytrącony olej, a biorąc pod uwagę dość sporą pojemność naczynia, wymieszanie nie zapowiadało się łatwo. Mała łyżeczka tonęła w gęstej masie i dopiero duża, wprawiona w ruch niemałym wysiłkiem ręki, doprowadziła do uzyskania w miarę ujednorodnionej konsystencji. Całość pachniała cudnie - świeżymi orzeszkami wyjętymi wprost z łupinek, bez śladu pleśni czy innych zbędnych woni. 


Smak był odzwierciedleniem zapachu - czuć było dobrej jakości fistaszki, które po zmieleniu wydzieliły mnóstwo własnego tłuszczyku. Mieszanina, jak przystało na masło, była tłusta, a przy tym gęsta i nie całkiem jednorodna - widać było malutkie kawałki orzechów. Wolę w prawdzie bardziej lejącą konsystencję tego typu wyrobów, ale tutaj ważniejszy jest smak, a temu nie można nic zarzucić - świeżości i orzechowej głębi masłu nie zabrakło. Poza tym, dzięki gęstej strukturze, można łatwiej faszerować masłem świeże daktyle, a tę kombinację uwielbiam :)


WARTOŚĆ ODŻYWCZA
Masło orzechowe, tak jak i orzechy z których jest zrobione, składa się głównie z wartościowego tłuszczu, a co za tym idzie zawiera sporo kalorii - 617 w 100g. Ponadto jest bogate w białko, błonnik i składniki mineralne (głównie magnez, miedź i cynk), a także w witaminę E. Nie dodano do niego cukru, soli, tłuszczów utwardzonych i innych polepszaczy. Pysznie urozmaica moje owsianki, jaglanki, placki, pieczone warzywa, wafle ryżowe, a także stanowi idealne wypełnienie świeżych daktyli :)

Budyniowa owsianka z gruszką, bananem i rodzynkami, z masłem orzechowym i dodatkami na wierzchu :)
Wartość odżywcza w 100g: 617kcal, 49g tłuszczów, 17g węglowodanów (w tym 5 cukrów), 27g białka i 7g błonnika
Miejsce zakupu: sklep ze zdrową żywnością

          The Economy Hub: Do regions get a fair share of tax?   
Are the regions getting a fair share of the tax take? New Zealand First leader Winston Peters this week proposed diverting 25 per cent of the government's royalties from water, oil and mineral extraction - and the GST paid by tourists...
          North Korea is sitting on a stockpile of minerals worth trillions   
Source: AOL North Korea is notorious for its totalitarian regime and human rights violations. Fewer people may realize the secretive country is also sitting on trillions in untapped wealth. Embedded deep beneath the country’s mountainous zones...
          The 10 Best Chemical-Free SPF Skincare Products of Summer 2017   

          Dieta da Banana Matinal: A Dieta da Banana   

Dieta da Banana Matinal - A Dieta da Banana

..

[adstopo]

Conheça a Dieta da banana para emagrecer ela tira ansiedade e sacia a fome entre uma refeição e outra.

Uma Dieta da seção como perder peso rápido.

Quer saber como os tipos de banana pode ajudar a perder alguns quilinhos e de quebra lhe proporcionar um café da manhã rápido e fácil de fazer receita foi criada no pai do sol nascente mata rapidamente a fome e regula o impulso de comer doces; confira as regras desta receita.

Criada no Japão, a dieta da banana matinal parece até brincadeira, mas não é!

A fruta deve ser consumida diariamente no café da manhã e sempre acompanhada de goles de água morna.

O resultado dessa mistura inusitada é um tipo de gel, que preenche o estômago e acaba com a fome.

Além disso, a banana estimula o intestino e é ótima para quem malha, já que é capaz de melhorar o desempenho durante a atividade física e ainda queimar calorias.

A relados de pessoas que mesmo depois e comer até 4 bananas prata pela manhã ainda sentem fome sugerimos se isso acontecer coma uma fruta que goste ou uma porção de aveia.

é muito importante como em qualquer Dieta levar a serio e aliar outras ferramentas para obter o melhor sempre, procure cortar o sal dos alimentos e evite frituras e refrigerantes durante a Dieta da banana.

Segundo informações é possível emagrecer até 18 kg em dois meses.

beleza.blog.br.beleza-blog-dieta-da-banana-matinal-a-dieta-da-banana

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Quer ver depoimentos e dicas sobre banana

Deixe seu comentário no vídeo abaixo!

Trabalhamos com amor e dentro do possível seu comentário será respondido!

Este conteúdo não substitui uma consulta medica!

#dietablogbr

 

(VÍDEO) → Os 10 Benefícios da Banana Para Saúde

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUf2WW4f5CM

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Importante

  • Coma apenas bananas cruas, não cozidas e não congeladas.
  • Pose ser banana nanica, Banana pera ou outro tipo de banana que se venda em sua região.
  • Pessoas com intestino preso devem evitar a banana maça.
  • Mastigue sua banana e outros alimentos com consciência, saboreando-os.
  • Comer pela manhã até 4 bananas com 1 copo de água em temperatura ambiente.
  • Não existe restrições sobre outras refeições, pode-se comer normalmente, só tomando cuidado para não exagerar.
  • O resultado virá em poucas semanas.
  • Se após 30 minutos ao comer as bananas ainda tiver fome após coma uma porção de aveia.
  • Não é recomendado comer sorvete com receitas de banana, tortas de banana, Bolo de banana ou banana fritas.

 

Beba apenas água

  • A única bebida permitida nas refeições da dieta da banana é água, de preferência mineral ou filtrada.
  • A água deve estar em temperatura ambiente, não refrigerada ou quente.
  • A água deve ser bebida em pequenos goles e não usada para "por para baixo os alimentos"
  • Não existe uma cota de água para beber, apenas tenha consciência e não exagere.

 

Vale Lembrar

  • Que ela também é rica em fibras que se ligam a moléculas de água e formam um tipo de gel que cria grande sensação de saciedade.
  • Comer a fruta logo pela manhã evita a vontade de beliscar e comer várias vezes durante o dia.

ATUALIZADO: 30.06.17

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>> >> RECOMENDAMOS PARA VOCÊ:

[final]

O post Dieta da Banana Matinal: A Dieta da Banana apareceu primeiro em Beleza Blog.


          Bananas: 27 Principais Benefícios para Saúde e Beleza   

Bananas: 20 Principais Benefícios

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[adstopo]

Bananas: Benefícios para a Saúde, Riscos & Fatos de Nutrição

As bananas estão entre as frutas mais consumidas no planeta de acordo com o Departamento de Agricultura dos EUA, é a fruta preferida dos americanos.

Curvilíneos, esses frutos amarelos são ricos em "potássio e pectina, uma forma de fibra," disse Laura Flores, uma nutricionista com base em San Diego.

Eles também podem ser uma boa maneira de obter magnésio e vitaminas C e B6.

"Todos os tipos de bananas são ricas em antioxidantes, que podem fornecer proteção contra os radicais livres, que podemos entrar em contato todos os dias, a partir da luz solar pela a loção que você colocar na sua pele," acrescentou Flores.

Flores relatou uma ampla variedade de benefícios de saúde associados com a fruta.

"Bananas são conhecidas por reduzir o inchaço, proteger contra o desenvolvimento de diabetes tipo 2, ajudar na perda de peso, fortalecer o sistema nervoso.

Além de ajudar com a produção de células brancas do sangue, devido ao elevado nível de vitamina B6 que as bananas contêm," ela disse a ciência de viver.

Aqui estão os fatores de nutrição das bananas, de acordo com a U.S. Administração de Comida e Drogas, que regulamenta a rotulagem de alimentos através da rotulagem nacional e a lei da educação:

beleza.blog.br.bananas-20-principais-beneficios-para-saude-e-beleza

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>> Recomendamos Para Você:

 

Quer ver depoimentos e dicas sobre banana

Deixe seu comentário no vídeo abaixo!

Trabalhamos com amor e dentro do possível seu comentário será respondido!

Este conteúdo não substitui uma consulta medica!

#dietablogbr

 

(VÍDEO) → Os 10 Benefícios da Banana Para Saúde

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUf2WW4f5CM

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Fatos de Nutrição

Tamanho da dose: 1 banana média (4,5 oz/126g)

Calorias

110 calorias da gordura 0 *percentagem valor diário (% VD) são baseados em uma dieta de 2000 calorias.

AMT por porção

% DV*

Gordura total

0 g 0%, 30 g de hidrato de carbono total 10%

Colesterol

0 mg 0%, fibra alimentar 3g 12%

Sódio

0 mg 0%, 19 g de açucar

Potássio

13 %, 1 g de proteína

Vitamina A

2%, cálcio 0%

Vitamina C

15%, ferro 2%

 

>>> Benefícios para a Saúde

Saúde do Coração

As bananas são boas para o coração. Elas possuem potássio, um eletrólito mineral que mantém a eletricidade por todo seu corpo, necessário para manter seu coração batendo.

O elevado teor de potássio das bananas e teor baixo de sódio podem também ajudar a proteger seu sistema cardiovascular contra alta pressão de sangue.

 

>>> Depressão e Humor

As bananas podem ser úteis na superação de depressão "devido aos altos níveis de triptofano, que o corpo converte em serotonina, neurotransmissor do cérebro de elevação de humor" disse Flores.

Além disso, a vitamina B6 pode ajudá-lo a dormir bem, e o magnésio ajuda a relaxar os músculos.

Digestão e Perda de Peso

A banana prata é ricas em fibras, que podem ajudar a mantê-lo regular.

Uma banana pode fornecer quase 10% da sua necessidade diária de fibras.

A vitamina B6 também pode ajudar a proteger contra a diabetes tipo 2 e ajuda na perda de peso, de acordo com Flores.

Em geral, as bananas são importantes para a perda de peso, porque elas tem um sabor doce e não engordam, o que ajuda a evitar ânsias.
Elas também ajudam a manter os níveis de açúcar no sangue durante exercícios.

 

>>> Visão

Cenouras podem receber toda a glória por ajudar seus olhos, mas as bananas fazem a sua parte também.

Os frutos contêm uma quantidade significativa de vitamina A, que é essencial para proteger os olhos, mantendo a visão normal, além de melhorar a visão durante a noite, de acordo com o Instituto Nacional do Coração.

A vitamina contém compostos que preservam as membranas que circundam os olhos e são um elemento com proteínas que trazem luz para suas córneas.

Como outras frutas, as bananas podem ajudar a prevenir a degeneração macular, uma doença incurável, que embaça a visão central.

Ossos

As bananas podem não transbordar cálcio, mas eles são ainda úteis para manter os ossos fortes.

De acordo com um artigo de 2009, do jornal de Fisiologia e bioquímica, as bananas contêm uma abundância de frutooligossacarídeos.

Estas são carboidratos que incentivam os probióticos digestivo-amigável e reforçam a capacidade do organismo de absorver cálcio.

Câncer

Algumas evidências sugerem que o consumo moderado de bananas pode ser protetora contra o câncer de rim.

Um estudo sueco de 2005 descobriu que mulheres que comiam mais de 75 porções de frutas e legumes eliminaram seu risco de câncer de rim em 40%, e que as bananas foram especialmente eficazes.

Mulheres que comem dieta da banana de quatro a seis por semana diminuem pela metade o risco de desenvolver câncer de rim.

As bananas podem ser úteis na prevenção de câncer de rim por causa de seus altos níveis de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes.

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>>> Riscos para a Saúde

Comido com moderação, não há nenhum efeito colateral significativo associados a comer bananas.

No entanto, comer as frutas em excesso pode provocar dores de cabeça e sonolência, disse Flores.

Ela disse que essas dores de cabeça são causados por eles, "os aminoácidos da banana que dilatam os vasos sanguíneos".

As bananas maduras contêm mais destes ácidos aminados do que as outras bananas.

"Bananas podem também contribuir para a sonolência, quando ingeridas em excesso devido à quantidade elevada de triptofano encontrado nelas," ela disse.

Magnésio também relaxa os músculos, às vezes um benefício, às vezes um risco.

As bananas são frutas açucaradas, então comer demais e não manter práticas de higiene dentária adequada pode levar à deterioração de dente.

Também não contêm bastante gordura ou proteína para ser uma refeição saudável por conta própria, ou um lanche pós-treino eficaz.

Comer bananas torna-se significativamente arriscado somente se você comer demais.

O USDA recomenda que adultos comam cerca de duas xícaras de frutas por dia, ou cerca de duas bananas.

Se você comer dúzias de bananas todos os dias, pode haver um risco de alto teor de vitamina e minerais.

O Centro de Medicina da Universidade de Maryland relatou que o consumo excessivo de potássio pode levar a hipercalemia, que é caracterizada por fraqueza muscular, paralisia temporária e um batimento cardíaco irregular.

E pode ter consequências graves, mas você teria que comer cerca de 43 bananas em um curto período de tempo para que qualquer sintomas de hipercalemia ocorra.

Consumir mais de 500 miligramas de vitamina B6 diariamente possivelmente pode levar a danos nos nervos nos braços e pernas.

Você teria que comer milhares de bananas para chegar ao nível de vitamina B6.

 

Cascas de Banana: Comestíveis ou Venenosas?

Acontece que o maior risco de uma casca de banana pode realmente estar em escorregar nela.

Cascas de banana não são venenosas.

Na verdade, elas são comestíveis e repletas de nutrientes. "Casca de banana é comida em muitas partes do mundo, embora não seja muito comum no Ocidente," disse Flores.

"Ela contém quantidades elevadas de vitamina B6 e B12, bem como magnésio e potássio.

Ela também contém algumas fibras e proteína.

" De acordo com um artigo do jornal de bioquímica aplicada e biotecnologia de 2011, cascas de banana também tem "vários compostos bioativos como polifenóis, carotenoides e outros".

É importante lavar cuidadosamente uma casca de banana antes de comê-la devido as pesticidas que podem ser pulverizadas em pomares de banana.

Cascas de banana são geralmente servidas cozidas ou fritas, embora elas podem ser comidas cruas ou batidas em um liquidificador com outras frutas.

Elas não são tão doces como a banana. As cascas serão mais doces do que as bananas verdes.

 

>>> Fatos da Banana

As bananas podem ter sido o primeiro fruto cultivado do mundo.

Arqueólogos encontraram evidências de cultivo de banana na Nova Guiné, desde 8000 A.C.

As bananas são produzidas principalmente em áreas tropicais e subtropicais da África, Ásia e das Américas, bem como as ilhas Canárias e Austrália.

As bananas não crescem em árvores.

A bananeira é classificada como uma erva perene arborescente de (tipo de árvore), e a banana em si é considerada uma baga.

O nome correto para um cacho de bananas é uma mão; uma única banana é um dedo.

Quase todas as bananas vendidas nas lojas são clonadas de apenas uma variedade, a planta de banana Cavendish, originalmente nativa do sudeste da Ásia.

O Cavendish substituiu o Gros Michel, depois que essa variedade foi exterminada pelo fungo.

O Gros Michel supostamente era maior, tinha uma vida útil mais longa e um sabor melhor.

O Cavendish pode enfrentar o mesmo destino que o Gros Michel dentro dos próximos 20 anos, dizem os botânicos.

As bananas são também chamadas de plátanos.

Mas em geral, "banana" refere-se a forma mais doce da fruta, que muitas vezes é comida cru, enquanto "banana" refere-se a uma fruta que muitas vezes é cozida antes de comer.

Existem 50 espécies reconhecidas de banana.

A dieta da banana com aveia selvagens crescem em todo o Sudeste Asiático, mas não são comestíveis para os seres humanos, pois são cravejados com sementes duras.

A grande maioria das bananas cultivadas hoje é para consumo por agricultores ou a comunidade local.

Apenas 15% da produção global do fruto é cultivado para a exportação.

A Índia é a maior produtora de bananas no mundo, respondendo por 23% da total da produção de bananas, embora a maioria dos plátanos indianos é para uso doméstico.

Em 1923, a partitura de uma música popular intitulada "Sim, nós temos Bananas!" vendeu mais de mil cópias por dia

A versão de Harry Belafonte da canção "barco Banana" foi lançado no primeiro álbum que vendeu mais de 1 milhão de cópias.

ATUALIZADO: 30.06.17

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Como EU perdi 13 quilos em apenas 21 dias. Sem dieta e exercícios! Usando isso...

 

>> >> RECOMENDAMOS PARA VOCÊ:

[final]

O post Bananas: 27 Principais Benefícios para Saúde e Beleza apareceu primeiro em Beleza Blog.


          Cadápio Dieta Para Perder Medidas E Chapar A Barriga   

Cadápio Dieta Para Perder Medidas E Chapar A Barriga

..

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Com um ou dois dias de jejum, os vestígios das festas de Natal podem ser eliminados antes que se tornem quilos extras.

Isto funciona de forma muito simples. Dieta para Perder Medidas e Chapar a Barriga.

Quase ninguém escapa de ganhar alguns quilinhos a mais depois das férias. Em média cada alemão aumenta um ou dois quilogramas depois do ganso de Natal, dos molhos encorpados, sobremesas e biscoitos de Natal.

Não é possível aceitar esse efeito colateral indesejado de férias, que pode ter consequências fatais.

Como praticamos menos exercícios no inverno do que no verão, os quilos extras podem aumentar ainda mais com as festas de Ano Novo, e serem ainda piores com o Carnaval.

beleza.blog.br.6-incriveis-e-faceis-exercicios-para-perder-barriga

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>> Recomendamos Para Você:

 

Quer ver depoimentos e dicas para perder barriga

Deixe seu comentário no vídeo abaixo!

Trabalhamos com amor e dentro do possível seu comentário será respondido!

Este conteúdo não substitui uma consulta medica!

#dietablogbr

 

(VÍDEO) 60 Dicas Para Perder Barriga e Desinchar em 1 Dia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMM8Hq3KVrw&t=12s

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Impedir a obesidade nos anos bissextos

Uma fórmula comprovada, neste caso, é reduzir a ingestão calórica por um dia ou dois. A chamada dieta para perder peso intercalar prevê que você consuma nestes dois dias apenas 800 kcal diariamente.

Neste caso você pode comer apenas arroz sem sal, frutas, legumes e compotas de frutas.

Esses alimentos são ricos em potássio e podem ajudar muito, principalmente se você estiver doente.
.
Você deve, no entanto, evitar muitas frutas doces como banana, frutas secas e também as uvas na dieta do dia do ano bissexto.

Frutas cítricas como morangos e maçãs são melhores. Escolha também as melhores variedades de legumes como: pepino, tomate, alface, cebola, pimentão, couve-rábano e funcho.

 

Depois de seis horas, você engorda

Certifique-se de não comer nada entre as refeições, por um período de pelo menos seis horas. Após este período, o armazenamento de açúcar no figado é consumido depois de atacar a gordura como fonte de energia.

Você deve beber tanto quanto possível, pelo menos de três litros de chá de ervas, água mineral e sucos diluídos( uma parte de suco para duas partes de água).

Você não deve ter medo de armazenar muita água em seu organismo. Uma dieta cardápio láctea vai impedir isso.

O fluido é muito importante para transportar os poluentes resultantes da remoção de depósitos de gordura e de ácido úrico do corpo.

 

Pela manhã, arroz com molho de maçã

O plano de refeições para um dia com arroz poderia ficar assim:

Pela manhã, você pode comer 50 gramas de arroz (peso bruto) cozido de acordo com as instruções e comê-lo com uma grande dose de suco de maçã;

Você pode prepará-lo a seu gosto, com canela, cravo, cardamomo ou qualquer outro tipo de adoçante líquido.

No início da tarde coma uma grande porção de arroz, com cebolas cozidas, alho-poró e pimentas. Ervas frescas adicionam o tempero, porque o sal é proibido no dia bissexto.

À noite há arroz novamente, dependendo da preferência de frutas (por exemplo, framboesas congeladas, abacaxi) ou com legumes e salada.

 

Não executar jejuns

Desta forma, você vai perder pelo menos um quilograma de excesso de peso. Mas esta dieta não deve se estender por um longo período.

Como o nome sugere, existem jejuns individuais que são inseridos no meio. Quem segue este caminho de forma longa, perde nutrientes e substâncias vitais com esta dieta para perder barriga.

 

Para prolongar a ameaça do efeito ioiô

Além disso, a ameaça do efeito de ioiô. Porque, depois de três dias de restrição calórica severa, o corpo muda o seu metabolismo.

Ele rapidamente reduz a taxa metabólica basal.

Este programa de emergência ajuda a melhorar o funcionamento do corpo, apesar da baixa ingestão de calorias.

Em seguida, ele tem mais alguns dias para armazenar energia em novos depósitos de gordura.

 

Uma vez por mês um dia de jejum

Deixe no máximo para um ou dois dias no ano bissexto.

Para que você possa experimentar apenas os aspectos positivos do jejum, como a perda de peso e não o negativo como o efeito ioiô.

Você pode perder peso rapidamente em um ou dois dias de férias no ano bissexto. Ou usar estes jejuns uma vez por mês para manter permanentemente o seu peso sob controle.

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>> SUGESTÃO DE CARDÁPIO

 

Dia 1

 

Café da Manhã: 1 copo de iogurte desnatado com 1 colher (sobremesa) de canela, 2 fatias de canela, 2 fatias de pão integral light,

½ mamão papaia.

Lanche da Manhã: 1 maçã, 3 amêndoas.

Almoço: 3 colheres (sopa) de arroz integral, 1 prato fundo de salada de agrião, tomate, pepino, palmito e acelga temperada com vinagre, 1 filé de frango grelhado com cebola e gengibre, 8 morangos.

Lanche da Tarde: 1 copo de suco de melancia, 1 castanha-do-pará.

Jantar: 1 prato de salada verde com rodelas de pimentão vermelho temperada com 1 colher (sopa) de azeite extravirgem e vinagre de maçã, 3 colheres (sopa) de atum, 1 concha rasa de grão-de-bico.

 

Dia 2

 

Café da Manhã: 1 copo de leite de soja light, 1 fatia de queijo branco, ½ ovo cozido.

Lanche da Manhã: 1 copo de iogurte batido com 8 morangos.

Almoço: 1 filé de salmão grelhado com alcaparras. 1 prato fundo de salada de alface, rúcula, brócolis e pimentão temperado com 1 colher (sopa) de azeite extravirgem, 2 colheres (sopa) de lentilha, 8 uvas..

Lanche da Tarde: 1 xícara de chá verde, 1 maçã..

Jantar: 1 prato de salada de rúcula, agrião, cenoura e pepino, temperado com vinagre de maçã, 2 fatias de carne assada magra, 2 colheres (sopa) couve.

 

Dia 3

 

Café da Manhã: 1 xícara de chá de maçã com canela, 2 colheres (sopa) de queijo cottage, 1 fatia de pão integral, 1 xícara de café.

Lanche da Manhã: 2 ameixas-vermelhas e 1 xícara de chá verde.

Almoço: 1 bife de carne vermelha magra, 1 porção de legume ( abobrinha, mandioquinha, abóbora...), 1 prato (sobremesa) de cenoura e beterraba raladas, 1 ameixa.

Lanche da Tarde: 1 taça de gelatina de morango, 1 damasco seco.

Jantar: 3 conchas médias de salada de couve-flor com abobrinha, beterraba e quinoa temperada com 1 colher (sopa) de azeite extravirgem, 1 salmão grelhado, 1 maça.

ATUALIZADO: 30.06.17

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Isto esvazia seu intestino por completo e faz você perder muito peso também!3

 

>> >> RECOMENDAMOS PARA VOCÊ

> QUER EMAGRECER MAIS RÁPIDO? ENTÃO LEIA:

 

> DICAS E TRUQUES RÁPIDOS PARA CABELO, PELE E UNHAS:

[final]

O post Cadápio Dieta Para Perder Medidas E Chapar A Barriga apareceu primeiro em Beleza Blog.


          Belanja budget makeup pertamaku   
Aku memutuskan mau belanja budget make up buat belajar. Sebelum memutuskan belanja aku melakukan sedikit riset di internet.

Pernah ikutan beauty class La Tulip... tapi kalo gak dipraktekin kan sama aja. Aku memutuskan membeli yang ekonomis dulu, soalnya aku gak yakin akan sering-sering make.

Belajar tentang make up di internet kemana aja

1.  Buka Youtube. 

Menurutku yang pembahasannya gak rumit itu dari makeup artist Wayne Goss. Dia bikin seri, penggunaan makeup untuk lazy girl. Maksudnya bukan cewek malas beneran, tapi cewek yang males kalo nyempetin pake makeup.

Kalo yang lokal paling suka Suhay Salim. Dia banyak mereview merk lokal. Dan penjelasannya lumayan informatif mudah dimengerti, gak cuman makeupan terpotong-potong terus dengan bangganya dishoot lama nampangin muka.

Yang lain juga dilihat tapi tetep favoritku 2 itu.

2. Baca review produk dari beauty blogger.

Make up itu bergantung pada jenis kulit. Jadi kulitku yang normal cenderung kering cocoknya penjelasan dari blogger dengan jenis kulit sama.

Udah gitu warna kulit wajah juga berbeda-beda. Sebaiknya juga mesti rajin untuk mencari yang warnanya cocok di wajah.

Blogger ada yang asal reviewnya, nulis panjang tanpa spasi (gitu juga kubaca.. hadeeh). Banyak yang separo berbahasa Inggris... Tentunya paling suka yang jelasin lengkap banget, efeknya, cocok di kulit apa, ada foto-fotonya juga.

Misalnya gini, supaya awet, sebelum pakai alas bedak harusnya pake primer dulu. Soalnya ada yang ngirit, harga primer mahal, foundation Inez yang bikin glow diawali pake foundation Caring yang tahan lama. Foundation murmer dan awet lain yang lumayan bagus dari Mustika Ratu.

3. Baca di forum.

Paling rame itu forum Female Daily. Yang aku baca paling mendetil yaitu produk lokal bagus murah. Ada pembicaraan menarik di forum ini seperti
  • lipstik lokal murmer paling disukai merk Purbasari
  • bedak two way cake lokal murmer dengan efek wow untuk kulit putih adalah twc (sebutannya Precious Powdery Cake) Inez warna pink sebelumnya wajah semprot air
  • pinsil alis favorit dari Viva
  • maskara favorit Maybelline
  • kalo pake produk mengandung spf untuk malam hari dengan flash wajah jadi kusam, jadi hindari produk mengandung spf untuk malam hari 
  • supaya make up tebal awet urutannya... milk cleanser, toner, serum, pelembab, primer, base make up (foundation, bb/cc/dd cream), bedak tabur, twc... (sebagai penggemar VCO dan pengguna makeup minimalis aku pake... sabun muka tanpa deterjen, sunblock Skin Aqua, VCO yang dihilangkan kelebihan minyak dengan tisu, bedak Venus)
  • merk kosmetik termurah tapi lumayan adalah Just Miss beli di toko asesoris Strawberry
Beberapa merk baru bermunculan, semua punya daya tarik masing-masing. Aku cukup bingung membaca review yang menyatakan ini bikin gini ini bikin gitu. Beberapa daftar foundation yang tertarik pengen dibeli, foundation ringan untuk kulit sensitif Bless, foundation cair Inez, primer dan bb compact powder Beauty Story, mineral loose powder Mineral Botanica. Soalnya aku gak suka makeup selama ini mestinya pilih Bless kan, tapi sekarang ini mau ambil resiko sekali-sekali untuk efek wow..

Daftar belanjaku untuk budget makeup pertamaku
  • TWC Inez pink
  • Lipstik, eyeshadow, maskara merk Just Miss
  • Blush on merk Sari Ayu dan Inez
  • Eyeliner cair (untuk belajar bikin cat eye) merk My Darling
  • Kuas besar untuk wajah, kecil untuk eyeshadow, pipih untuk blush on, kecil tipis untuk eyeliner dengan eyeshadow hitam
  • untuk concelear masih pikir-pikir, sepertinya aku mau pake foundation cream aja, belum mutusin beli apa, mau coba foundation cair Mustika Ratu atau foundation padat konon cukup bisa nutupin mata panda, kalo enggak ya beli concealer Inez 
Wayne Goss gak ngajarin untuk contouring rumit, cuman ngasih blush on dengan brush lalu kasih bronzer dan highlight. Ini petunjuk untuk base make up kilat bukan yang tebel kayak kondangan heboh atau jadi penganten. Tapi petunjuk terakhir Wayne Goss... gak usah pake bronzer, pake blush on beberapa warna gradasi cukup bisa ngilangin chubby bikin efek sedikit tirus.

Makeup heboh itu memang pake metode contouring untuk ngilangin pipi chubby supaya tirus. Ada lagi metoda strobbing untuk memberi warna yang cerah area tertentu supaya chubby gak nampak. Terus chroming (mengoleskan lipstik jingga di area tertentu). Terakhir ada drapping (menggunakan blush on beberapa warna). Aku memilih belajar metode drapping aja, lebih simpel kayaknya, gak usah gambar contour atau oles lipstik di atas mata. Wayne Goss dan beberapa beauty blogger sudah mengajarkan di youtube tentang teknik ini.

Untuk serum-serum atau skincare aku gak tertarik deh.

Skincare alami yang aku pake
  • Membersihkan muka selain sabun tanpa SLS/deterjen juga dengan OCM (oil cleansing methode) menggunakan VCO (virgin coconut oil)
  • Menyikat bibir dengan VCO dan soda kue sebelum tidur supaya tidak menghitam, campuran VCO dan soda kue 1:1. Campuran ini juga aku gunakan untuk pengganti pasta gigi tanpa flouride dan SLS, gigiku tidak pernah ngilu sejak itu
  • Masker yang aku pakai ada beberapa, paling sering menggunakan gamat kering kapsul diberi air suling. Kadang menggunakan yogurt, lidah buaya segar, nanas, propolis. Dari pengalaman pake gamat jerawat cepet sekali kering. Seorang teman bilang setelah pake gamat satu kali pemakaian kulit kusam jadi cerah.
Nanti setelah belanja dan dicobain aku tulis lagi. Kalo sempet kasih foto deh... 
          Folleto de ofertas Julio Regalado 2017 del 30 de junio al 6 de julio   
Les comparto el adelanto del nuevo folleto de ofertas de Julio Regalado 2017 válido del 30 de junio al 6 de julio en tiendas Comercial Mexicana y Soriana: – 40% de descuento en toda la juguetería. 3×2 en: – Todos los aceites de oliva. – Sopas Maruchan. – Todos los productos Knorr. – Todos los productos empacados del departamento de carnes (hasta el 2 de julio). – Toda la dulcería del departamento de abarrotes. – Todos los cereales, barras de cereal, avenas y granolas marca Nestlé. – Todas las palomitas Altea. – Todas las salsas picantes, salsas caseras y sazonadores. – Sazonadores Jugoso al Sartén Maggi. – Todas las aceitunas en conserva. – Todos los productos de repostería. – Todas las bebidas de leche de coco, leche de almendra y leche de soya. – Todos los saborizantes de leche. – Todos los jugos y néctares. – Todos los alimentos para bebés papillas, jugos, cereales y agua infantil. – Todos los tés listos para beber. – Toda el agua mineral natural (excepto Ciel). – Todos los endulzantes, mascabado y azúcares bajo en calorías. – Todo el alimento sin azúcar. – Todos los productos enpacados Campestre de salchichonería. – Todos los detergentes líquidos Mas, Persil, 123 y Viva. – Todos los almíbares. – Todos los productos Brasso. – Todas las cremas Ponds y Hinds. – Todos los accesorios de higiene corporal. – Todos los focos. – Plásticos de hogar Precíssimo. – Utensilios y artefactos T-Fal. – Pilas Duracell y Energizer. – Todas las antorchas solares para jardín. – Tubos flotadores y lanzadores para agua. – Todos los goggles. – Galletas Juanita. – Miel Altea y Valley Foods. – Bolsas para basura Precissimo y Quality Day. – Margarinas Chantilly. – Carbón vegetal Precissimo 3 kg. – Todo el alimento para perro Precissimo 4 y 9 kg. – Jabón líquido Savon au provence 900 ml. – Todos los tintes Just for Men. – Todos los tintes Koleston y Palette. – Todas las pastillas sanitarias. – Todo el jugo de tomate con almeja. – Sustitutos de crema para café. – Carbón El Indito. – Aromatizante Quality Day. – Pinturas Acrycolor. – Todos los desodorantes Speed Stick, Stefano y Neutro Balance. – Desodorantes Obao y Bi-o. – Hojuelas de trigo y arroz Precissimo 700 gr. Bonificaciones: – $350 por cada $1,000 de compra en toda la electrónica de las marcas Samsung, LG, Daewoo y Sharp. – $200 por cada $1,000 en consolas PS4. – $25 por cada $100 en electrodomésticos Black & Decker. – $30 por cada $100 en todas las asporadoras y accesorios para aspiradoras. – $300 por cada $1,000 en todas las casas de campaña de importación. – $300 por cada $1,000 de compra en todas las maletas Samsonite y American Tourister. – $30 por cada $100 de compra en todos los flotadores y salvavidas de importación. 2×1 en: – Lencería, medias y pijama para dama (vigente hasta el 4 de julio de 2017). – Cubos organizadores de varios colores. – Todos los libros con etiqueta naranja códigos seleccionados. – Velas del departamento de regalos. – Todos los portarretratos. – Todos los relojes. – Zapatos de buzo para toda la familia. 4×2 en: – Todas las ceras, limpiadores de exterior e interior. 4×3 en: – Bebidas Frutzzo, E-pura y agua mineral saborizada Peñafiel. Ofertas en pantallas: – Pantalla Cobia de 55″ Smart TV de 4K a $7,998. – Pantalla Cobia de 32″ $2,998. – Pantalla Cobia de 32″ Smart TV $3,998. Otras ofertas: – Liquidación de ropa por fin de temporada con 50% de descuento en mercancía marcada con etiqueta roja. – Moto de trabajo Italika color naranja FT115 con casco gratis $13,498 (18 pagos mensuales de $749.89). – Blusa sublimada New Wave para dama $78. – Gato hidráulico de 2 toneladas $348. – Acumulador Voltar $798. – Gazebo de 295 x 295 a $2.838. – Set mosaico 3 piezas $998. – Colchones gala, broadway o confort individual $698, matrimonial $868 y king size $1,598. – Olla de presión H Steele 6 litros $368. – Juego de 3 sartenes Home Zone $89.90. – Vajilla cerámica 4 colores Lorna de 16 piezas $458. – Batería blue metallic 5 piezas $698. – Batería Home Zone 7 piezas $198. – Juegos de cubiertos $99.90. – Bandeja de vidrio $49.90. – Juego de 2 contenedores de vidrio $15.90. – Tripack Hersheys: 2x$33. Meses sin intereses: – 12 meses sin intereses en electrónica pagando con tarjetas participantes y 18 msi pagando con tarjetas Citibanamex.
          Supervisor minería - Gachancipá, Cundinamarca   
Supervisar, coordinar y programar actividades de trabajadores que extraen carbón y otros minerales, que operan equipos de transporte subterráneo, equipo pesado,...
De Agencia Pública de Empleo - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 01:23:36 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Gachancipá, Cundinamarca
          On This Day in Math - June 30   

You know we all became mathematicians for the same reason: 
we were lazy. 
Max Rosenlicht

The 181st day of the year; 181 is the 9th palindromic prime number.

and the 181-digit palindromic number made up of all 7's except for the center being 181 (7777...7718177...77777) is a palindromic prime with a palindromic prime decimal length.

181 is the both the difference and the sum of consecutive squares:
\( 181 = 91^2 – 90^2 = 9^2 + 10^2 \)

 Every natural number greater than 181 can be written as sum of cubes of the first two primes. (students might be asked to find all examples of numbers less than 181 that can be written in this fashion, such as 35= 23 + 33)



EVENTS
1686 The Royal Society made the decision to publish De Historia Piscium, a lavishly-illustrated history of fishes by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The books was beautiful, but turned out to be such a poor seller that the Society almost went bankrupt. At one point Edmond Halley's salary could not be paid during the same period when he was trying to get Newton to complete his epic masterpiece, The Principia. Fortunately for science, Halley accepted a deal for something like one-hundred copies of the fish book, and then mostly funded the publication of Newton's classic himself over the next year. I don't know if Halley ever managed to sell any of the De Historia Piscium that he took in lieu of salary. *PB old notes.

1737 John Harrison, after positive results on the test of his first sea-clock, receives the first money awarded by the Board of Longitude (23 years after the Act to create the Board). Harrison received 500 Pounds, 250 Pounds to be paid immediately, and another 250 Pounds after completing a second clock that passes testing at sea. *Derek Howse, Britain's Board of Longitude: The Finances 1714-1828

1742 Euler replied (see June 7 post) in a letter dated 30 June 1742, and reminded Goldbach of an earlier conversation they had ("...so Ew vormals mit mir communicirt haben.."), in which Goldbach remarked his original (and not marginal) conjecture followed from the following statement, “Every even integer greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes,” which is thus also a conjecture of Goldbach. In the letter dated 30 June 1742, Euler stated:“Dass ... ein jeder numerus par eine summa duorum primorum sey, halte ich für ein ganz gewisses theorema, ungeachtet ich dasselbe necht demonstriren kann.” ("every even integer is a sum of two primes. I regard this as a completely certain theorem, although I cannot prove it.")*Wik
As of this date, no one else has proved it either. It is one of the oldest open questions in mathematics.

1812 Congress authorized the President of the US to issue interest bearing Treasury Notes for the first time in history.  The interest was fixed at "five and two-fifths per centum a year."  *Kane, Famous First Facts (students might calculate the present value of a $100 investment on that date compounded to the present)

1808 Humphry Davy announced he had separated the element boron. However, working independently, French chemist, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac had announced* the same accomplishment nine days ealier, on 21 Jun 1808.  *TIS

1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. Several prominent British scientists and philosophers participated, including Thomas Henry Huxley, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, Benjamin Brodie, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Robert FitzRoy.
The debate is best remembered today for a heated exchange in which Wilberforce supposedly asked Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed his descent from a monkey. Huxley is said to have replied that he would not be ashamed to have a monkey for his ancestor, but he would be ashamed to be connected with a man who used his great gifts to obscure the truth *Wik

1894 Tower Bridge opens, In 1886, the foundation stone of the Tower Bridge in London, England was laid (over a time capsule) by the Prince of Wales. The need to cross the River Thames at this point had become increasingly urgent for many years, and finally the necessary Act was passed in 1885. The bridge, designed by Mr. Wolfe Barry, CB, was completed at a cost of about £1,000,000. To permit the passage of tall ships between the towers, two bascule spans, each of 100-ft length, are raised. The side spans to the towers are of the more familiar suspension type. Pedestrians can traverse a high-level footway nearly at the top of the towers, even when the bridge is raised. It was officially opened 30 Jun 1894, by the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, on behalf of Queen *TIS

1905 Albert Einstein's paper, "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies" (special relativity) is received at the Journal Annalen der Physik.
"Einstein develops the special theory of relativity in this paper. His concern, as he makes clear in the introduction, is that then current electrodynamics harbors a state of rest, the ether state of rest, and the theory gives very different accounts of electrodynamic processes at rest or moving in the ether. But experiments in electrodynamics and optic have provided no way to determine which is the ether state of rest of all inertial state of motion. Einstein shows that Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics has in fact always obeyed a principle of relativity of inertial motion. We just failed to notice it since we tacitly thought that space and time had Newtonian properties, not those of special relativity. " *John D Norton, Einstein, 1905, Pitt.edu

1908 A Comet(?) explodes above Tunguska, Siberia. *VFR In 1908, at around 7:15 am, northwest of Lake Baikal, Russia, a huge fireball nearly as bright as the Sun was seen crossing the sky. Minutes later, there was a huge flash and a shock wave felt up to 650 km (400 mi) away. Over Tunguska, a meteorite over 50-m diameter, travelling at over 25 km per second (60,000 mph) penetrated Earth's atmosphere, heated to about 10,000 ºC and detonated 6 to10 km above the ground. The blast released the energy of 10-50 Megatons of TNT, destroying 2,200 sq km of forest leaving no trace of life. The Tunguska rock came out of the Taurid Meteor storm that crosses Earth's orbit twice a year. The first scientific expedition for which records survive was made by Russian mineralogist Leonid Kulik in 1927. *TIS

1945 The first distribution of John von Neumann's First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, containing the first published description of the logical design of a computer with stored-program and instruction data stored in the same address space within the memory (von Neumann architecture)*Wik

1946 ENIAC formally accepted by the government. See 2 October 1955*VFR

In 1948, the transistor was demonstrated by its inventors, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratory in Murray Hill, NJ.* It was a simple, tiny device utilizing the electronic semiconducting properties of a germanium wafer. The transistor represented a significant advance in technology. As it was developed over the next few years, it was incorporated into electronic equipment as a functional replacment for the vacuum tube. Such use of transistors provided great savings in space and electrical power consumption. This made possible the small portable, battery-powered transistor radios which were sold to the public by late 1954.*TIS

1954 Solar eclipse in Britain. The about 3 minutes totality was visible in the Faroes and the southern line was crossing the northernmost Shetland. Many people in England do remember this eclipse and is often mistaken as total for those who saw a large partial eclipse. The eclipse track traveled across Norway, Sweden, Lithuania, Byelorussia, and Russia. *NSEC

1955 Sperry Rand formed. In 1955 Sperry acquired Remington Rand and renamed itself Sperry Rand. Acquiring then Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation and Engineering Research Associates along with Remington Rand, the company developed the successful UNIVAC computer series and signed a valuable cross-licensing deal with IBM. *Wik

1972 The International Time Bureau adds the first leap second to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). *Wik

1973     
A group of scientist boarded a prototype French Concorde airplane to chase a solar eclipse. The eclipse promised a luxurious view if you stood at the right place on the planet: a maximum of 7 minutes and 4 seconds as the moon passed over the Sahara Desert. It would be just 28 seconds short of the longest possible eclipse viewable from Earth; in the preceding several hundred years, there had only been one eclipse longer than this one, and there would not be a longer total solar eclipse until June 2150. Not satisfied with one of the longest eclpises in recent history, the group managed to negotiate a viewing flight on the still in testing Concorde. Closing in at maximum velocity, Concorde would swoop down from the north and intercept the shadow of the moon over northwest Africa. Traveling together at almost the same speed, Concorde would essentially race the solar eclipse across the surface of the planet, giving astronomers an unprecedented opportunity to study the various phenomena made possible by an eclipse. In one flight, Concorde had given astronomers more eclipse observing time than all the previous expeditions last century—generating three articles in Nature and a wealth of new data. *Motherboard


2011 Mr Ballew finally hung up his spurs and rode off into the sunset with his sweetheart, Jeannie.






2015 A Leap second is added to the clock in the last second before 8pm, so there will be a minute with 61 seconds. Between 1972 and 2012, a leap second has been inserted about every 18 months, on average. However, the spacing is quite irregular and apparently increasing: there were no leap seconds in the seven-year interval between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2005, but there were nine leap seconds in the eight years 1972–1979. *Wik


BIRTHS

1748  Dominique Cassini (30 June 1748 – 18 October 1845)  was a French mathematician and surveyor who worked on his father's map of France.  He was the son of César-François Cassini de Thury and was born at the Paris Observatory. In 1784 he succeeded his father as director of the observatory; but his plans for its restoration and re-equipment were wrecked in 1793 by the animosity of the National Assembly. His position having become intolerable, he resigned on September 6, and was thrown into prison in 1794, but released after seven months. He then withdrew to Thury, where he died fifty-one years later.
He published in 1770 an account of a voyage to America in 1768, undertaken as the commissary of the French Academy of Sciences with a view to testing Pierre Le Roy’s watches at sea. A memoir in which he described the operations superintended by him in 1787 for connecting the observatories of Paris and Greenwich by longitude-determinations appeared in 1791. He visited England for the purposes of the work, and saw William Herschel at Slough. He completed his father’s map of France, which was published by the Academy of Sciences in 1793. It served as the basis for the Atlas National (1791), showing France in departments.
Cassini’s Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire de l’observatoire de Paris (1810) embodied portions of an extensive work, the prospectus of which he had submitted to the Academy of Sciences in 1774. The volume included his Eloges of several academicians, and the autobiography of his great-grandfather, Giovanni Cassini.*Wik

1791  Félix Savart (June 30, 1791, Charleville-Mézières, Ardennes – March 16, 1841, Paris) became a professor at Collège de France in 1836 and was the co-originator of the Biot-Savart Law, along with Jean-Baptiste Biot. Together, they worked on the theory of magnetism and electrical currents. Their law was developed about 1820. The Biot-Savart Law relates magnetic fields to the currents which are their sources. Félix Savart also studied acoustics. He developed the Savart wheel which produces sound at specific graduated frequencies using rotating disks.
Félix Savart is the namesake of the unit of measurement for musical intervals, the savart, though it was actually invented by Joseph Sauveur.*Wik

1856 Cargill Knott (June 30, 1856 – October 26, 1922) born. He graduated from Edinburgh University and was then an assistant in the Physics department. With Barclay and Fraser he was one of the writers who originally proposed the founding of the EMS. He went to the Imperial University in Tokyo as Professor. He returned to a lectureship in Edinburgh and eventually became a Reader in Applied Mathematics. He became Secretary and Treasurer of the EMS in 1883 and President in 1893 and 1918.*SAU

1880 Birthdate of Rudolf Fueter (30 June 1880 in Basel; 9 August 1950 in Brunnen) who worked with functions with non-commutative variables and also in number theory. *SAU


DEATHS

1660 William Oughtred, (5 March 1575 – 30 June 1660) inventor of the slide rule (1621) and a staunch royalist, died in a transport of joy on hearing the news of the restoration of Charles II. Augustus De Morgan later remarked, “It should be added, by way of excuse, that he was eighty-six years old.” *VFR an Episcopal minister who invented the earliest form of the slide rule, two identical linear or circular logarithmic scales held together and adjusted by hand. Improvements involving the familiar inner rule with tongue-in-groove linear construction came later. He introduced the familiar multiplication sign x in a 1631 textbook, along with the first use of the abbreviations sin, cos and tan.*TIS

1919 John William Strutt 3rd Baron of Rayleigh (of Terling Place)(12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was an English physical scientist who made fundamental discoveries in the fields of acoustics and optics that are basic to the theory of wave propagation in fluids. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904 for his investigations into the densities of the most important gases and his successful isolation of argon, an inert atmospheric gas.*TIS




Credits
*CHM=Computer History Museum
*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts
*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar
*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie
*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History
*TIA = Today in Astronomy
*TIS= Today in Science History
*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA
*Wik = Wikipedia
          "Avatar", de James Cameron (2009).   
TÍTULO ORIGINAL: Avatar
AÑO: 2009
DURACIÓN: 161 min.
PAÍS: Estados Unidos.
DIRECTOR: James Cameron
GUIÓN: James Cameron
MÚSICA: James Horner
FOTOGRAFÍA: Mauro Fiore
REPARTO: Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Sigourney Weaver, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, Giovanni Ribisi, Joel Moore, Wes Studi, CCH Pounder, Laz Alonso
PRODUCTORA: 20th Century Fox / Lightstorm Entertainment / Giant Studios Inc.
WEB OFICIAL: http://www2.avatarmovie.com/

Valoración: 10.

Avatar es casi un milagro. James Cameron se ha gastado 500 millones de dólares para cambiar la historia del séptimo arte ofreciendo un espéctaculo que nunca antes se había visto en una sala de cine, usando para ello todos los avances técnicos que había hasta este momento, llevándolos un paso más allá e inventando otros nuevos. Avatar es sin ninguna duda, simple y llanamente, la primera película del siglo XXI.

Pandora y sus habitantes son reales hasta un punto que antes no se creía posible. Cada poro de piel, cada movimiento de los Na'vi, cada sonrisa de Neytiri, cada rama, roca y explosión digital nos maravilla y emociona, pero siempre al servicio de la historia, que sin bien no es original en absoluto, poco importa. Avatar consigue lo que antes fue por lo general un quiero y no puedo: lo real y lo imaginario son uno por la gracia de la tecnología digital y ya no hay limites a la imaginación. Ya no hay historias que no se puedan contar a veinticinco fotogramas por segundo, por titánicas que estan sean. Mundos ignótos cobran vida y son reales, tangibles, con huesos, carne, alma y corazón. En la pantalla, pero estan ahi. Y emocionan. Y fascinan. Y le dan al cine ese sentido del espéctaculo total que había perdido.

En el año 2135, las corporaciones de la Tierra pretenden expoliar Pandora, un planeta de una biología exhuberante, habitado por los Na'vi. Con la ayuda de especimenes fabricados con ADN humano y Na'vi, llamados Avatar, controlados a distancia por un equipo de humanos dirigido por la doctora Grace (Sigourney Weaver), las fuerzas terrestres pretenden convencer a los aborígenes de que les permitan extraer un mineral altamente energético que se haya bajo la superficie del planeta. A este escenario lleno de tensión, llega Jake Sully (Sam Worthington), un ex-marine parapléjico que, tras la sorpresa inicial, irá descubriendo poco a poco los misterios y maravillas que encierra Pandora.

James Cameron no tiene reparos en echar mano de viejos clichés y conceptos ya trillados en anteriores películas e incluso usados en su propia filmografía (Aliens y Titanic, por citar dos ejemplos). Es consciente de cual es la verdadera fuerza de la película y en qué lugar juega sus mejores bazas. Sin embargo, no descuida por ello la historia y los personajes. Desde los tiempos de Aristoteles, las grandes historias que se han leido en los libros o se han visto en el teatro o el cine son siempre las mismas y los personajes que hay en ellas, arquetípicos. No faltaran con Avatar los pregoneros de la cámara en mano, el minimalismo formal, el feísmo y la transgresión, a los que le contraríen el clasicismo y los conflictos de libro que plantea el guión. No dudo que se les escapará cuánto hay de viejo y de nuevo en esta película.

Vedla, por vuestras vidas.

          Underground Mine Supervisor Consultant (6-month contract) - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Development and implementation of Standard Operating Procedures; Rubicon Minerals Corporation is an advanced exploration company that owns the Phoenix Gold...
From Rubicon Minerals - Mon, 05 Jun 2017 19:52:35 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          Kennen Sie schon den neuesten Food-Trend?   
Ob Macarons, Burger oder Eiscreme. Alles ist jetzt schwarz. Was in Japan mit einem schwarzen Hot-Dog begann, findet nun auf der ganzen Welt Nachahmer. Wir machen den Black Food Fakten-Check! So gesund ist Black Food: Wenn nicht gerade Lebensmittelfarbe für die Schwarzfärbung des Essens verantwortlich ist, enthält Black Food viele gesunde Inhaltsstoffe. Sepia: Der grau-schwarze Farbstoff wird aus dem Beutel der Tintenfische (den „Sepien“) gewonnen. Tintenfischtinte ist reich an Lipiden, Proteinen und Mineralien. Aktivkohle: Die Kohle entsteht beispielsweise durch das Verbrennen von Kokosnüssen und hilft dem Körper beim Entgiften. schwarzes Obst und Gemüse: Schwarze Karotten, Bohnen oder Früchte wie Aroniabeeren können ebenfalls zum Einfärben genutzt werden. Ihre dunkle Farbe entsteht durch Anthocyanen, einem sekundären Pflanzenstoff. Dieser schützt den Körper vor freien Radikalen und wirkt entzündungshemmend, nierenfreundlich und ist gut für das Herz. Generell lässt sich merken: Je dunkler ein Lebensmittel von Natur aus gefärbt ist, desto mehr freie Radikale kann es abfangen und somit unsere Zellen schützen. Lebensmittelfarbe: Sicherlich die schnellste Methode Essen einzufärben. Am besten gelingt es mit Gel-Paste. Der Geschmack: Bei Black Food bleibt der Geschmack neutral. Ab und zu kann es jedoch vorkommen, dass das Essen - je nachdem wie die Schwarzfärbung erstellt wurde - einen leichten Eigengeschmack enthält. Wo bekomme ich Black Food in Deutschland? Von Japan über Gesamt-Asien ist der Trend - natürlich - erst einmal nach Amerika geschwappt. Doch auch in Deutschland kommt schwarzes Essen langsam an. Food Trucks verkaufen ihre Kreationen auf Street-Food-Markets, wie zum Beispiel die „Keluha - The Black Food Company“, die die ersten schwarzen Pommes weltweit anbieten. In Essen kann man im Eiscafé "Bertram" (Am Bocklerbaum 24-26, 45307 Essen-Kray) das schwarze Eis „Grubengold“ probieren und in Berlin lassen sich schwarze Burger im koreanischen Restaurant „Chilees“ (Choriner Str. 35, 10435 Prenzlauer Berg) genießen. Wer den Food-Trend lieber selber ausprobieren möchte, darf sich gleich an dem Rezept für Black-Burger-Buns versuchen. Rezept: Black Burger Buns Zutaten 400 ml Wasser 4 EL Milch 2 EL Milchpulver 1 Würfel frische Hefe 35 g Zucker 8 g Salz 80 g weiche oder geschmolzene Butter 500 Gramm Mehl 1 Ei 28g Tintenfischtinte/ Sepia oder schwarze Lebensmittelfarbe 1 Ei 2 EL Milch 2 EL Wasser Sesam Optional: 1 TL Xanthan aus dem Reformhaus oder Bioladen, um den Teig geschmeidiger zu machen Zubereitung Wasser und Milch in eine Schüssel geben. Die Hefe mit dem Zucker flüssig rühren, etwas Wasser dazu und ebenfalls in die Schüssel geben. Die restlichen Zutaten Mehl, Milchpulver, Salz, Ei, weiche Butter sowie ggf. das Xanthan hinzu geben. Alles zu einem geschmeidigen Teig kneten. Den Teig mit einem feuchten Handtuch abdecken, sodass er nicht austrocket und ca. eine Stunde gehen lassen. Danach in ca.100g Portionen aufteilen und mit leicht bemehlten Händen zu Kugeln formen. Die Teigkugeln auf einem mit Backpapier belegtem Blech zu einer flachen Scheibe mit ca. 8 - 9 cm Durchmesser drücken. Ein Ei mit 2 EL Wasser und 2 EL Milch verquirlen und die Burger-Buns damit bestreichen. Sesamkörner über die Brötchen streuen. Die Buns in den auf 200 Grad (Ober-/Unterhitze) vorgeheizten Backofen schieben und mit etwas Wasser leicht besprühen. Etwa 20 Minuten backen und danach auskühlen lassen. Nach Wunsch belegen. Fertig!
          Kennen Sie schon den neuesten Food-Trend?   
Ob Macarons, Burger oder Eiscreme. Alles ist jetzt schwarz. Was in Japan mit einem schwarzen Hot-Dog begann, findet nun auf der ganzen Welt Nachahmer. Wir machen den Black Food Fakten-Check! So gesund ist Black Food: Wenn nicht gerade Lebensmittelfarbe für die Schwarzfärbung des Essens verantwortlich ist, enthält Black Food viele gesunde Inhaltsstoffe. Sepia: Der grau-schwarze Farbstoff wird aus dem Beutel der Tintenfische (den „Sepien“) gewonnen. Tintenfischtinte ist reich an Lipiden, Proteinen und Mineralien. Aktivkohle: Die Kohle entsteht beispielsweise durch das Verbrennen von Kokosnüssen und hilft dem Körper beim Entgiften. schwarzes Obst und Gemüse: Schwarze Karotten, Bohnen oder Früchte wie Aroniabeeren können ebenfalls zum Einfärben genutzt werden. Ihre dunkle Farbe entsteht durch Anthocyanen, einem sekundären Pflanzenstoff. Dieser schützt den Körper vor freien Radikalen und wirkt entzündungshemmend, nierenfreundlich und ist gut für das Herz. Generell lässt sich merken: Je dunkler ein Lebensmittel von Natur aus gefärbt ist, desto mehr freie Radikale kann es abfangen und somit unsere Zellen schützen. Lebensmittelfarbe: Sicherlich die schnellste Methode Essen einzufärben. Am besten gelingt es mit Gel-Paste. Der Geschmack: Bei Black Food bleibt der Geschmack neutral. Ab und zu kann es jedoch vorkommen, dass das Essen - je nachdem wie die Schwarzfärbung erstellt wurde - einen leichten Eigengeschmack enthält. Wo bekomme ich Black Food in Deutschland? Von Japan über Gesamt-Asien ist der Trend - natürlich - erst einmal nach Amerika geschwappt. Doch auch in Deutschland kommt schwarzes Essen langsam an. Food Trucks verkaufen ihre Kreationen auf Street-Food-Markets, wie zum Beispiel die „Keluha - The Black Food Company“, die die ersten schwarzen Pommes weltweit anbieten. In Essen kann man im Eiscafé "Bertram" (Am Bocklerbaum 24-26, 45307 Essen-Kray) das schwarze Eis „Grubengold“ probieren und in Berlin lassen sich schwarze Burger im koreanischen Restaurant „Chilees“ (Choriner Str. 35, 10435 Prenzlauer Berg) genießen. Wer den Food-Trend lieber selber ausprobieren möchte, darf sich gleich an dem Rezept für Black-Burger-Buns versuchen. Rezept: Black Burger Buns Zutaten 400 ml Wasser 4 EL Milch 2 EL Milchpulver 1 Würfel frische Hefe 35 g Zucker 8 g Salz 80 g weiche oder geschmolzene Butter 500 Gramm Mehl 1 Ei 28g Tintenfischtinte/ Sepia oder schwarze Lebensmittelfarbe 1 Ei 2 EL Milch 2 EL Wasser Sesam Optional: 1 TL Xanthan aus dem Reformhaus oder Bioladen, um den Teig geschmeidiger zu machen Zubereitung Wasser und Milch in eine Schüssel geben. Die Hefe mit dem Zucker flüssig rühren, etwas Wasser dazu und ebenfalls in die Schüssel geben. Die restlichen Zutaten Mehl, Milchpulver, Salz, Ei, weiche Butter sowie ggf. das Xanthan hinzu geben. Alles zu einem geschmeidigen Teig kneten. Den Teig mit einem feuchten Handtuch abdecken, sodass er nicht austrocket und ca. eine Stunde gehen lassen. Danach in ca.100g Portionen aufteilen und mit leicht bemehlten Händen zu Kugeln formen. Die Teigkugeln auf einem mit Backpapier belegtem Blech zu einer flachen Scheibe mit ca. 8 - 9 cm Durchmesser drücken. Ein Ei mit 2 EL Wasser und 2 EL Milch verquirlen und die Burger-Buns damit bestreichen. Sesamkörner über die Brötchen streuen. Die Buns in den auf 200 Grad (Ober-/Unterhitze) vorgeheizten Backofen schieben und mit etwas Wasser leicht besprühen. Etwa 20 Minuten backen und danach auskühlen lassen. Nach Wunsch belegen. Fertig!
          Natürliches Mineralwasser bei Stiftung Warentest: Testsieger und Verlierer im Überblick   
Stiftung Warentest hat natürliches Mineralwasser einem Test unterzogen. Dabei wurde auf Geschmack, Mineralien und Schadstoffe getestet. Die Testsieger und Verlierer stellen wir Ihnen in diesem Artikel vor.
          Pušynas   
Sudėtis: vanduo, saponifikuoti alyvuogių, kokosų, palmių, avokado aliejai, taukmedžio sviestas, ricinos aliejus, pušies sakai, mineraliniai pigmentai, eterinių aliejų kompozicija.

          Aguona   
Sudėtis: vanduo, saponifikuoti alyvuogių, kokoso, palmių, aguonų sėklų aliejai, taukmedžio sviestas, ricinos aliejus, šilko gijos, mineraliniai pigmentai, eterinių aliejų kompozicija, aguonų sėklos. 

          "Pavasaris" muilas su šilko gijomis   
Smagus pavasarinis muilas su natūralaus šilko gijomis.
Sudėtis: vanduo, saponifikuoti alyvuogių, kokoso, palmių, ryžių sėlenų aliejai, taukmedžio sviestas, ricinos aliejus, šilko gijos, mineraliniai pigmentai, eterinių aliejų kompozicija.

          Kremas-pudra riebiai odai   
Labiau dengianti ir maskuojanti odą nei kremai su spalva, nekemšanti porų ir nedirginanti mineralinė kreminė pudra.
Sudėtis: apelsinų žiedų hidrolatas, caprylis, alyvuogių skvalanas, greipfurtų sėklų aliejus, alyvuogių emulsiklis, intensyviai drėkinantis kompleksas, cinko oksidas, titano dioksidas, hialurono rūgštis, pieno rūgštis, geležies oksidai, kedrų, petitgreinų, benzoinės dervos eteriniai aliejai.

          Mineralinė pudra   
Nekamedoniška, odos nedirginti pudra suteikia atspalvį ir apsaugą odai.
Sudėtis: Sericitas, šilko mika, perlų pudra, titano dioksidas, cinko oksidas, spalvoti geležies oksidai.

          Levanda   
Atnaujinu muilų kolekciją :)
Levanda - švelniai odos priežiūrai ir skaidrioms mintims.
Sudėtis: vanduo, saponifikuoti alyvuogių, kokosų, palmių, ryžių sėlenų, ricinos aliejai, taukmedžio sviestas, palmių stearinas, levandų, palmarozų, palergonijų eteriniai aliejai, mineraliniai oksidai.

          An Oddbins Adventure: Chenin Man, Buttered Coffee and Spider Pig   

The below is an adventure, what began as a buying trip to South Africa and turned into a true love of the region, the people, the culture and of course the wine! Working for Oddbins is unique in that we are a tiny buying team (just 3 of us), which requires a very involved approach where listing a new wine is more than it seems. It's a new partnership and during my journey I tasted some wonderful wines but also met some truly fantastic people. So, my story is of course about the wine but perhaps more importantly, about the people behind them.

It began with a challenge to revitalize the range, followed by a tasting in our London boardroom, it wouldn't do; I knew that I had to go to South Africa to experience the region and taste the wines in their natural habitat, alongside the people that made them, to get it right. In what seemed like a whirlwind, I touched down in Cape Town just a few weeks later! I remember landing and thinking to myself 'Okay, you're here. Now what?'

I had a lot of ground to cover, from Constantia to Swartland, out to Hemel en Aarde to Greyton in just a 10 day period. I hadn't been to SA before and I was alone with no comfort of a travel buddy, at least at this point...but things have a funny way of working themselves out and as I walked into arrivals there was a man holding a sign with my name on it. This was my first encounter with who I would come to call the 'legendary Campbell Roost' Zoom Safe Trips and Tours. At this time he was simply a ride from the airport to the hotel. I had no idea he would become such a significant part of my trip. From the get go I went to hop in the back seat, but Campbell was having none of it,"in the front with me", he said. And that would be my seat for the remainder of the trip, next to Campbell, not just my driver, but my tour guide, wake-up call, lunch buddy and friend.

There was no better way to start day one (ease into it) than at the serene Stellenbosch farm owned by the legendary Ken Forrester - The Chenin Man! Ken has been making wine for many years and his speciality is Chenin Blanc, which aged to leesy and textured, but for me it is the purity and quality of the 'Petit Chenin' that I loved - no oak, just straight up quality fruit and varietal character - bring on the crunchy apple, honey and linalool! During the visit I wandered down to Ken's barrel room to take a look around. In the back corner was a barrel with 'Roussanne' written on the face...'what is that?'. I love Roussanne, a native white Rhône grape. It's rare to see it completely on its own, especially from South Africa, and rarer to see it done right. Slightly hesitant, I tasted it and was wowed! At this point it was only sold via Ken's farm in SA, but it was so good I had to bring it back and share with the fellow wine lovers in the UK.

Rouossanne Wine

Now that I'm warmed up and have had a few sips of Chenin, it's time for a different experience...I hopped back in the car with Campbell and set off to stop no.2. Through the green, mountainous terrain of Stellenbosch and out into Swartland. It looks more like a desert, but has some super gnarly bush vines! We pulled up to a small farm house and made our way up the driveway. I was met with a curious glance that implied 'who the heck are you?''Jenny', I said, anticipating the questions. He tried to act like he hadn't totally forgotten that I was coming, and what a better way to do that than offer up a plastic cup of a new vermouth they were producing (ok, I can roll with this). Pretty soon though, we were laughing about it along with the fact there is a cheap brand of wine called 'Oddbins' sold in Checkers (the local supermarket) that doesn't have the best reputation for representing winemakers and he had thought that was who I represented! (Note to self - say Oddbins UK moving forward). A few minutes later, the man behind the establishment showed up - Adi! We went to chat in the cellar which was a stark contrast to Ken's place. It contained open top fermenters with all sorts of interesting things bubbling and was being watched over carefully by a big picture of a 60's pin up girl. Adi offered me an espresso - 'do you take butter?' [Huh?]. I truly thought he was taking the piss. A sort of 'let's mess with the tourist' kinda thing, but then he simply plopped a dollop in his own cup - not my cup of Joe please. I later asked Campbell if he had an answer for me. Nope! But he did laugh (mystery to be solved - if you have the answer, feel free to tweet me @oddbinsbuyers). Anyway, I tasted some awesome wines...watch this space!

Wine Blog

Next on the list is Miles Mossop! Miles' story is a good depiction of what's happening in the SA wine scene at the moment. He started at one of the more established estates, making wine for Tokara and was allowed to vinify a small amount under his own label each year as a bit of a side project (quite common). The culmination of this is three awesome wines, yes, awesome. As a couple of months before my visit, Miles has moved on from Tokara, hopefully giving him even more time to focus on what's not a side project anymore. These wines are seriously wonderful. Saskia - an oaky, leesy white Rhône blend, Max - a rich and juicy Bordeaux blend and 'The Introduction', an old vine barrel fermented Chenin from the Swartland.

Introduction Wine

Okay - it's impossible to go through every stop, even the ones with some of the more memorable wines, but at this point I've been in SA for a few days now and I'm slowly settling in and Campbell is definitely helping. On day three, he is waiting downstairs with a cup of coffee, settling into his routine of reading the morning paper in the lobby whilst I'm usually 5-10 minutes late. We hop in the car and we're off again, this time to meet one of the sweetest and most talented people I've met, Adam Mason. Adam is the brainchild behind Mulderbosch Wines and again, has a side project.

The wine is called Marvelous! Finding wines in the UK sub £10 on the shelf that are REAL, crafted wines is difficult. Many a time they are shipped over in large tanks and bottled here. Marvelous is Adam's baby and these are small volume parcels of grapes taken from sites that best suit each varietal, blended to create three seriously delicious wines - a Red Bordeaux blend, a Red Rhône blend and a wonderful White Rhône blend. Also from Adam, and two of my favourites, are his Yardstick Pinot Noir and Chardonnay - the Pinot is juicy, silky and fruit driven and instantly appealing, and the Chardonnay is toasty and rich. Adam is coming over in October to do tastings in the stores. Watch our Twitter feed for when he will be at your local Oddbins.

Adam Mason

Next stop! Not another farm though, this was a different approach. A way to cover more ground and soak up a bit of the culture. Campbell and I were off to Publik - a wine bar in Cape Town run by Dave and Dave (both Dave's actually make wine). They are all about getting the weird and wonderful into the bar and showcasing some of the interesting projects that are happening in the region. While some are awesome, some are a work in progress and some are downright scary, but that was the fun of it and either way it's great to see so much innovation. Over a plate of Charcuterie including Biltong, we tasted through a line up of wines. Part way through, Dave put this bottle down in front of me, with a totally serious and straight face - 'try my wine!'. So, I too kept a straight face, staring at the red headed man affectionately cradling a baby pig! The rosé was simple, charming and quite appealing, but was the UK market ready for Spider Pig to make an appearance on their dinner table? That was up for debate! Either way, the night turned into a great evening and eventually the story of THE Spider Pig was revealed, which made me like the wine even more, but that is a story for another day...The same evening, I came across Samantha O'Keefe's 'Lismore' from Greyton. Sam is an amazing lady and basically pioneered the region way up in the mountains. She is making a Rhône style Viognier, a Syrah that will blow your mind and has just added a Pinot Noir. I tasted these and was so impressed that I rescheduled my trip and Campbell and I drove two hours out to Greyton to meet Sam the next day. Her wines will be arriving into Oddbins in September.

Pig and Lismore Wine

Next up - Alex Dale from Radford (Winery of Good Hope). This guy is a true talent and the range is fantastic. We already work with Alex but I popped by for a lovely lunch with some of the vineyard staff anyway (this is a daily routine - stop, chat, live and enjoy - we could learn a thing or two!). He introduced me to Gus, his brother who grew up making wine in Burgundy. Gus is now working at Paul Roos on a tiny (literally tiny, just 3000 bottles) project, which I only found out about after I tasted and fell in love with his wine. These wines are very old world in style. The white, Paul Roos Die Skoolshoof is a co-fermented blend of Chardonnay/Chenin - really hands off winemaking here that is made in a Burgundy style - it is nutty, roasty, oaky and mineral and a gorgeous and wonderful red Bordeaux blend, the Paul Roos Die Filantroop which is a rustic and earthy Shiraz blend. A true boutique wine, which to top it all off, gives the proceeds back to provide education for the farm workers families. When the wines were listed in Oddbins there was so much pride amongst all the workers, which is exactly what it's all about.

Paul Roos Wines

When the trip came to an end, I was sad to go, and I was very humbled by my experiences and the wonderful people I had met. I received a text message 1 day after landing from Campbell Roost making sure I had made it home safely (enough said).

Meet Jim!

Meet Jim

Days later, I was in one of my local branches and got to chatting to a customer named Jim who is from Johannesburg, about my trip and the wines. Jim and his buddies had signed up to ride the Prudential 100 miles to raise money for children's education in South Africa - www.bokamosotrust.org.uk. He tells me a bit more about the Bokamoso Trust and I am in awe and touched (yes, Buyers do have hearts!). Jim bought himself a few bottles of Paul Roos and in the spur of the moment, I told him that Oddbins would sponsor his team in their ride (oops, how do I sell this to the powers that be on Monday?!). He was surprised and cheekily asked if in addition to the money for the charity, his team could have wines for the ride - my answer was no. Oddbins doesn't do cycling and drinking! But we did agree that they'd get a case of South African wines for AFTER the race. In addition to the £500 being donated by Oddbins on their behalf to the charity, for every 10 minutes Jim shaves off his goal time, the charity will get an extra £50. The ride takes place on July 30th and you can follow Jim's journey @oddbins #OnYaBikeSA


          Fancy an OddBeer...?   

OddBeers Logo


IntroducingJames-1.0

"In the recent past, premier grape-juice peddlers Oddbins, offered up - by way of competition - the role of beer blogger, in exchange for a Twitter application. 'Erudite, well-travelled beerhemouth seeks savvy, customer-focused retailer to taste beer and review for #OddbinsBeer' was my winning tweet and golden ticket to the special sauce, hand-selected by Oddbins' own merchants of gold standard no-no juice.

I should state at this point, that I am not a professional taster. I have no background in competitive tasting. I have never taken a course in beer tasting. What I do have is an appreciation of well-made things by passionate enthusiasts rather than cynical businessmen. In beer terms, this means I would usually avoid the flavourless, filtered fizzy water created on an industrial scale by corporate robots. It means that I enjoy complex flavours brought about by studying the process, ingredients and endless experimentation."

"...and just to make sure James doesn't disappear up his own back cavity in a pompously grandiloquent celebration of hipster beers, I, being Matt, James' buddy has been forced to drink, opine and say "shut up" when he uses words like 'mouthfeel'."

So, let's get going then. Here are the wondrous delights of Box Numero Uno...


Notes from the Editor:

The vast majority of our craft beer is small production and sourced locally. The reviewed beers are not always available in all of our stores, however, we have put a guide to availability under each review. Please use our store finder to locate your nearest branch and call ahead to guarantee stock is available.


CampervanMutiny

Well, this is as black as Donald Trump's heart, but fizzier than you'd expect, with a short-lived biscuit coloured head. Unfortunately Mr Trump's biscuit coloured head isn't as short-lived...

It smells a little like cola, coffee and chocolate. I tried really hard to get the hint of coconut mentioned on the label, but I just didn't smell any.

It would benefit from a little less fizz and a slightly fuller body, but it's smoky, roasted malts play well with the sweet chocolate. By now, I'm (or at least I've talked myself into) tasting coconut. This is what happens when I read the label before tasting. Overall, it's good. Not as full bodied as some, which actually makes it a going concern for a session.

Jamesforscore

I would tear through these pretty quickly. Not one you'd labour over.

3.5

Mattforscore

A fine milk stout. This is fast becoming my favourite style of beer.

4

Availability: Scotland stores only


OddbinsNo8

This is the latest in a growing line of fine collaborative brews with some of the finest independent breweries. This hazy, light gold effort, despite discernible effervescence, was headless like the horseman. Maybe the...ahem...bartender was to blame.

This, rather oddly, smells like cured ham. Not entirely of course. The smoked wood comes through loud and clear with a smattering of grains. I'm hungry. I'm getting some cheese from the fridge.

The flavour comprises of sweet bread, smoked malts, biscuit, caramel and stewed apples. The smoky quality is less a whiff as promised, but abundant and strong. The yeast does cut through the mix a bit and it goes really well with Gruyere.

Jamesforscore

Have it with cheese or cured meat. Then again, have everything with cheese.

3.5

Mattforscore

For better or worse, you get exactly what's written on the label, oak-smoked and blonde. Best paired with food.

3

Availability: All stores


ChadlingtonGoldenAle

Pretty uninspired presentation, but we're here to judge the beer, not the bottle. In the glass it's a nice deep amber colour with a small, lacing white head. Not overly bubbly, a bit like me in the morning.

It's a little toffee-like on the nose, with a subtle showing of citrusy hops.

It lacks body, feeling very watery in the mouth. It tastes malty, with a dry bitter finish. Not really fruity, not hoppy, a little tobacco maybe. A reasonable amber ale but nothing too much to recommend going out of your way for.

Jamesforscore

Not bad, but instantly forgettable.

2.5

Mattforscore

Not tasty enough for me.

2.5

Availability: Oxford branch only


MondoAllCaps

Colour me unexcited at the prospect of a Pilsner, though I should mention that the Tempest Brewing 'Easy Livin Pils' is awesome...

It pours a clear, light golden colour with a fast receding white head. It looks a lot like...a Pilsner.

My nose tells me of its light, gently floral odour, with an otters pockets worth of washing up liquid. If the taste is a disaster, maybe I'll hand it to a woman from the 50's and demand she do the washing up.

Thankfully, this is a decent pilsner. A little fruitier than average, it's bright, refreshing and not too heavily carbonated. An ever so slightly oily body, with a mouse's earlobes worth of washing up liquid. Certainly not enough to mar the experience.

Jamesforscore

Drink this all day long at a festival, that's an order.

3.5

Mattforscore

I'd happily have this again.

4

Availability: London stores only


Beavertown8Ball

The trademark comic book Beavertown weirdness adorns the hipster 330ml can. What comes out of the can is a cloudy, rich amber brew with a large, foamy, off-white head.

It smells good. There's tropical fruit, a bit of citrus and caramel malts. Matt's not so sure on the smell, he thinks it's minerally and a bit like you're down wind from a sewage outlet emptying into the sea. I heartily disagree. Also, Matt's fired.

The flavour is a good balance of sweet and bitter. A good showing of malt, like a sweet bread. It lingers a little, but the tail is caramelised hops with a light to moderate bitterness, so...stay as long as you like.

Jamesforscore

I could session this. Dangerous at 6.2%.

4

Mattforscore

Big flavour, trailing bitterness but good balance.

3.5

Availability: All stores


WimbledonGold

Oh dear, it looks like a kidney patients sample. I wonder if I should drink it out of a bag, using a catheter as a straw?

The smell is all over the place, and as evasive and unknowable as a latter day Howard Hughes. I smelled, at different times, caramel, sherbet (though this fades after a while), grass, rubber, fish. This is a real nasal curve ball for me. A smelly blind spot.

The taste fairs better. It's yeasty rather than hoppy, with subtle straw notes. She's a blonde with a good body on her, foamy, filling.

Jamesforscore

A decent, helles style. Perfectly alright.

3.5

Mattforscore

I like it. It's nice. (Yeah, thanks for that deep insight - James).

4

Availability: West London stores only


Remember, ale's well that ends well. Until next time.

James.


          Electrician Consultant - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Minimum 5-7 years’ trades experience in a heavy industrial field is required; Rubicon Minerals Corporation is an advanced exploration company that owns the...
From Rubicon Minerals - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 17:06:53 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          Movimiento de mercadería en Montevideo aumentó 7% en el primer cuatrimestre   

El movimiento total de mercaderías -carga y descarga- del puerto de Montevideo, medido por su peso en toneladas, aumentó 7% en el acumulado enero-abril de 2017, comparado con el mismo período en 2016, según datos del Instituto Nacional de Logística (Inalog).

El movimiento de granel, en tanto, presentó un descenso de 6%, mientras que los movimientos de carga general y mercadería contenerizada aumentaron 101% y 5% respectivamente.

Analizando producto a producto, se destaca en el acumulado enero-abril de 2017 el aumento interanual en términos de peso (miles de toneladas) de las solicitudes de exportación de arroz (14%), carne bovina congelada (14%), soja (744%), malta de cebada (130%) y madera (aumentos en bruto y aserrada, contrarrestados por la disminución en chips y contrachapada, lo que totaliza un aumento de 5%).

En sentido inverso, hubo un descenso en las solicitudes de leche concentrada (-31%).

El movimiento total de contenedores medido en miles de TEUS (equivalente a un contenedor de 20 pies), sumando llenos y vacíos, aumentó 4% (llenos 9% y vacíos -8%). En la consideración de los mercados de origen y destino, el movimiento de contenedores relativo al comercio exterior de bienes uruguayos tuvo un aumento de 3% y el movimiento de contenedores del Hub -Uruguay como centro de distribución regional- creció 5% (llenos 8%, vacíos -5%).

Puerto de Nueva Palmira. Los embarques de carga realizados en las terminales y zonas de transferencias del Puerto de Nueva Palmira, medidos por su peso en toneladas, aumentaron 13% en el acumulado enero-abril, comparado con el mismo período el año pasado. Las cargas de exportaciones uruguayas (Comex) y las de mercaderías de transbordo con origen no uruguayo (Hub) aumentaron 19% y 9% respectivamente.

En la comparación interanual, las cargas Comex de celulosa presentaron un aumento de 12% , las de trigo 8%, las de soja 5%, las de cebada 411%, las de malta 21% y las de fertilizantes 9% en el acumulado enero-abril de 2017.

En el detalle de las cargas Hub, en los muelles de las terminales incrementaron las de soja (34%), fertilizantes (242%) y otros varios (604%); y se registraron también embarques de cemento y clinker. 

Además, en la Zona de transferencia acuática correspondiente a Nueva Palmira aumentaron las operaciones de soja (49%). En sentido contrario, en las Zonas de transferencia, cayeron las operaciones de harina de soja (- 79%); y en los muelles de las terminales descendieron las cargas Hub de harina de soja (-28%), maíz (-68) y arroz (-20%), sin haberse registrado operaciones de trigo.

Otros puertos. El puerto de Colonia mostró un disminución interanual de 82% en el total de movimientos de enero-abril de 2017 (medido por su peso en toneladas), con caídas en los regímenes del comercio exterior uruguayo (exportación e importación, -82%) y en los del Hub (en este caso, tránsitos,-83%).

En el muelle del puerto de Fray Bentos, por su parte, se constataron en el acumulado de enero-abril de 2017 operaciones de cebada malteada, soja y combustible. En las Zonas de transferencia acuática se presentaron cargas de soja en el acumulado enero-abril de 2017, sin haberse registrado cargas de mineral de hierro al compararlo con igual período de 2016 (operativa Hub).

En el puerto de Paysandú, se observaron aumentos en las importaciones de azúcar crudo así como en los tránsitos de cebada malteada; registrándose exportaciones de cebada malteada y soja. Sin embargo, las operaciones de removido de soja cayeron y no se registró cebada malteada al compararlo con igual período de 2016.

Aeropuerto. El movimiento total de cargas en el acumulado enero-abril de 2017 en el aeropuerto de Carrasco, medido por su peso en toneladas, aumentó un 1%, al compararlo con igual período de 2016.

En millones de dólares, la sumatoria de solicitudes de exportaciones e importaciones cayó un 8%, y la de tránsitos iniciados y finalizados en la terminal descendió 1%.

Zonas Francas. La comparación interanual de las solicitudes de exportación e importaciones (acumuladas) y de tránsitos (suma de iniciados y finalizados en cada zona), muestra descensos tanto en peso como en valor en tres zonas francas, y sendos aumentos en cuatro de ellas, mientras que tres de ellas presentaron diferentes signos en la evolución de las variables.

Pasos de frontera. El movimiento de camiones con mercadería en el acumulado de enero-abril de 2017 por los pasos de frontera con Argentina (incluido el ferry del puerto de Colonia) no varió significativamente en términos de la cantidad de vehículos ni en términos de peso en toneladas, al compararlo con lo sucedido en el mismo periodo de 2016.

En los pasos de frontera con Brasil se observó a una variación total positiva en términos de la cantidad de vehículos (5%), y medido por su peso en toneladas se produjo un aumento de 4%

Bajada: 
El movimiento de granel, en tanto, presentó un descenso de 6%, mientras que los movimientos de carga general y mercadería contenerizada aumentaron 101% y 5% respectivamente.
Países: 
Tipo de nota: 
Texto imagen: 
En la comparación interanual, las cargas Comex de celulosa presentaron un aumento de 12% , las de trigo 8%, las de soja 5%, las de cebada 411%, las de malta 21% y las de fertilizantes 9% en el acumulado enero-abril de 2017.
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          AVZ Minerals – Weltklassepotenzial des Lithiumprojekts Manono bestätigt!   

Spektakuläre Entwicklungen meldet heute die australische AVZ Minerals (WKN A0MXC7 / ASX AVZ) von ihrem Lithiumprojekt Manono. Denn es zeigt sich, dass zwei der lithiumführenden Pegmatite auf dem Projekt eine ähnliche Größe aufweisen oder sogar größer sind als der berühmte Greenbushes-Pegmatit in Western Australia, der aktuell über Ressourcen von 120 Mio. Tonnen mit 2,4% Li2O verfügt!


          16 Reasons To Eat Cantaloupe   
Cantaloupes aren’t a fruit typically associated with health, which is a shame. These sweet, succulent melons are absolutely loaded with nutrients and antioxidants, yet contain very few calories. A generous helping of cantaloupes a day is enough to fill the body with vitamins A and C, potassium, fiber, and much more.

Cantaloupes can lead to a healthier, happier you, and here’s how:

16 Reasons To Eat Cantaloupe
  1. Anti-coagulant – Cantaloupes contain adenosine, a chemical compound that acts as a blood thinner and diminishes the risk of abnormal blood clot formations.
  2. Arteriosclerosis – The great amounts of vitamin C in cantaloupes make them one of the sources of this precious vitamin. Vitamin C is typically used in the same sentence as “colds” or “flu”, but did you know that it can help the heart too? Vitamin C relaxes the blood vessels and prevents arteriosclerosis, or the hardening of arteries.
  3. Cancer – Vitamin C, along with vitamin A, are vitamins with antioxidant properties. Together, they cleanse the body of free radicals, which damage the cells and promote the growth of cancer.
  4. Cataracts – Vitamin A also maintains good eyesight and lessens the chances of developing cataracts.
  5. Cholesterol – More than just eliminating free radicals, cantaloupe antioxidants combat the oxidative stress that cause low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels to shoot up.
  6. Healthy skin – Cantaloupe are an excellent food for beautiful, glowing skin: vitamin C encourages collagen formation, vitamin A promotes skin regeneration, and the high water content hydrates the skin.
  7. High-blood pressure – Another nutrient that these melons have in abundance is potassium, the mineral that counteracts sodium and stabilizes blood pressure.
  8. Immune system – Cantaloupes are efficient in strengthening the immune system, owing to their wealth of vitamin C.
  9. Insomnia – If you’re struggling to get a good night’s sleep, go ahead and munch on some cantaloupe. It’s an excellent source of inositol, a B-vitamin that can induce sleep like sleep medication, but without any of the side effects.
  10. Menstruation issues – Women who suffer from menstrual cramps and other related problems may find relief in cantaloupes. Not only do they reduce the flow of blood, but they minimize clotting as well.
  11. Metabolic syndrome – This is the collective term for the conditions that can increase your risk of heart disease and diabetes, namely high-blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels. These can all be mitigated and controlled by frequently consuming the nourishing fruit that is the cantaloupe.
  12. Muscle cramps – Without potassium, you become more prone to muscular cramps and injury. Fortunately, cantaloupes are full of this essential nutrient.
  13. Nicotine withdrawal – Cantaloupes are packed with nutrients that can help smokers deal with their nicotine withdrawal symptoms in a more efficient manner. One other benefit ex-smokers can get from cantaloupes is their ability to replenish vitamin A lost from constant smoking.
  14. Pregnancy – The vitamin B9, or folic acid, in cantaloupes ensure that babies aren’t born with neural tube defects.
  15. Stress – Potassium aids the body in more ways than one: It boosts the supply of oxygen to the brain and normalizes heartbeat. These in turn can help you feel more relaxed.
  16. Water retention – Sodium causes you to retain water, but cantaloupes greatly diminish its effects. If you want to lose a bit of weight, you can’t go wrong with adding cantaloupes to your diet.
Simply put, cantaloupes are among the best fruits to have in your home. And with summer in full swing, you can transform your cantaloupes into delicious, healthful summer treats to help you beat the heat.

By Frances Bloomfield, Natural News
SOURCE

          Drying Beans Pack   
Drying Beans Pack

Dried beans pack a load of protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals - and flavor - into their colorful and long-lasting seeds. No wonder they're classic staples of gourmet restaurants, farmhouse kitchens and cowboy line camps from coast to coast. For “Preparedne..

Price: $59.00


          Piso en Venta en Madrid Capital   
275000
Piso renta libre, 2 amplios dormitorios, 2 baños uno en suite de mármol y ambos recién reformados( con griferías termostato Grohe y platos de ducha antideslizantes de mineral). Gran salón, buena orientación, dobles ventanas en toda la vivienda....
2 habitaciones 2 baños 94 m² 2.925 €/m² cocina ducha piscina trastero
Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:16:46 -0400
          Modeling CO2–Water–Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration   

TOC Graphic

Accounts of Chemical Research
DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00049

          Engineering Technologist - Russell Redi-Mix Concrete/Langenburg Redi-Mix Ltd a Division of Coco Paving - Russell, MB   
Maximum theoretical density, marshall density, air voids, voids in mineral aggregate, stability determinations for conventional and End Product Specification...
From Indeed - Thu, 01 Jun 2017 14:08:54 GMT - View all Russell, MB jobs
          Underground Mine Supervisor Consultant (6-month contract) - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Its entirety, including Drug and Alcohol Program, Environmental Program, and the Emergency. Rubicon Minerals Corporation is an advanced exploration company that...
From Rubicon Minerals - Mon, 05 Jun 2017 19:52:35 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          Monoinvest - monoinvest.com   

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Model of development of a company depends on the population of the planet. Everyone can participate in the development and creation of new materials. We created an investment platform Monoinvest for communication and interaction with private investors from different countries.
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          Electrician Consultant - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
Familiar with the Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Mines and Canadian Electrical. Rubicon Minerals Corporation is an advanced exploration...
From Rubicon Minerals - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 17:06:53 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
          21 Iodine Rich Food Sources That Should Be Included In Your Diet   
Iodine Rich Food

Do you agree that Iodine deficiency is one of the most common public health issues? Iodine mineral is an absolute necessity for the body to function well. Especially for thyroid. It is important for the immune system, and neurocognitive function as well. Causes of Iodine Deficiency Salt used in cooking can lose up to 62.4% […]

The post 21 Iodine Rich Food Sources That Should Be Included In Your Diet appeared first on Indian Fashion Blog with Latest Trends for Women – FashionLady.


          Arputha mathirai in Peptic ulcer   
http://www.wjpsonline.org/view_issue.php?title=Anti-ulcer-activity-on-Siddha-herbo-mineral-formulation-of-Arputha-Mathirai-in-aspirin-induced-gastric-ulcer-in-rats

          Offer - Cranberry Extract - CHINA   
Xi’AN LESEN BIO-TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD. specializes in the ten years of plant extracts and export trade, to provide customers with high-quality, organic, natural, good price of various plant extracts, fruit and vegetable powder, as well as cosmetics, chemical raw materials.Cranberry(Vaccinium Macrocarpon L.) is a kind of round,bright red fruit with elastic skin on short vine, also called red small plum. It has strong cold resistance and distributes in Changbai Mountain in DongBei and XingAnLing districts. Cranberry extract offers a host of antioxidants and nutrients that help fight infections and boost your overall health. Cranberries are already popular as juice and fruit cocktails; however, in medical terms, they are commonly used treat urinary complications. Cranberry extract might also play a role in stomach ulcer treatment. Due to the multiple vitamins and minerals present in cranberries, they can make a healthy addition to a balanced diet.Product name: Cranberry ExtractLatin name: Vaccinium Macrocarpon L.Specification: Proanthocyanidin 5%-50%Appearance: Purple-red powder                          Mesh size: 80 MeshUsed Part: FruitGrade: Food & PharmaceuticalBrand Name: LS-HerbTest Method: UVFunction: Factory price Cranberry extract Proanthocyanidin(PAC) 5%-50%1. Improving the Urinary System,preventing urinary tract infection;2. Softening blood capillary;3. Eliminating eyestrain, improving eyesight and delaying cerebral nerve;4. Aging;5. Enhancing the heart function and resisting cancer;6. It has curative effect on immunity diseases of blood capillary;7. Diabetes.Application:Since the early 21st century within the global functional food industry, raw cranberries have been marketed as a "superfruit" due to their nutrient content and antioxidant qualities. 1. Food and beverage ingredients.2. Healthy Products.3. Nutrition Supplements. 
          Offer - Cranberry Extract - CHINA   
Xi’AN LESEN BIO-TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD. specializes in the ten years of plant extracts and export trade, to provide customers with high-quality, organic, natural, good price of various plant extracts, fruit and vegetable powder, as well as cosmetics, chemical raw materials.Cranberry(Vaccinium Macrocarpon L.) is a kind of round,bright red fruit with elastic skin on short vine, also called red small plum. It has strong cold resistance and distributes in Changbai Mountain in DongBei and XingAnLing districts. Cranberry extract offers a host of antioxidants and nutrients that help fight infections and boost your overall health. Cranberries are already popular as juice and fruit cocktails; however, in medical terms, they are commonly used treat urinary complications. Cranberry extract might also play a role in stomach ulcer treatment. Due to the multiple vitamins and minerals present in cranberries, they can make a healthy addition to a balanced diet.Product name: Cranberry ExtractLatin name: Vaccinium Macrocarpon L.Specification: Proanthocyanidin 5%-50%Appearance: Purple-red powder                          Mesh size: 80 MeshUsed Part: FruitGrade: Food & PharmaceuticalBrand Name: LS-HerbTest Method: UVFunction: Factory price Cranberry extract Proanthocyanidin(PAC) 5%-50%1. Improving the Urinary System,preventing urinary tract infection;2. Softening blood capillary;3. Eliminating eyestrain, improving eyesight and delaying cerebral nerve;4. Aging;5. Enhancing the heart function and resisting cancer;6. It has curative effect on immunity diseases of blood capillary;7. Diabetes.Application:Since the early 21st century within the global functional food industry, raw cranberries have been marketed as a "superfruit" due to their nutrient content and antioxidant qualities. 1. Food and beverage ingredients.2. Healthy Products.3. Nutrition Supplements. 
          Two canned wines from Alloy Wine Works   

Alloy Wine Works (Field Recordings) 2015 Central Coast Chardonnay ($8.99/500ml can)
Clear straw color. Fresh scents of pears and green apples and yeasty rising bread dough lead into a tart and tangy and very slightly sweet flavor highlighting lemony citrus and, yes, pie crust, with meyer lemon hanging on in a very long, acidic finish with warm 14% alcohol. I would never have expected a wine this balanced and well-made to come from a can. It's not my favorite style of Chardonnay, but I'd score it well on points in wine judging. (June 29, 2017)

Alloy Wine Works (Field Recordings) 2016 "Hans Grüner" Edna Valley Grüner Veltliner ($8.99/375ml can)
This wine surprises me on two levels: It's a much better wine than I would have ever expected to find in a can, and it's a much better Grüner Veltliner than I would have ever expected to taste from a vineyard that's far from Austria. It's a clear, light brass-color wine, with fresh white-fruit and green herbal aromas that I expect from a good GV. The same goes for the flavor, which shows clean, crisp white fruit, snappy citrus and a distinct touch of stony minerality with a light 12.1% alcohol. Zippy lemon-lime persists in a very long finish.

FIND THESE WINES ONLINE:
Click here to review vendors and prices for all of Field Recordings' wines including the Alloy Wine Works cans.
Read article.

The post Two canned wines from Alloy Wine Works appeared first on WineLoversPage.


          AMS 5111Q Tischuhr Quarz schwarz pianofinish lackiertes Gehäuse   
134,10 EUR
Quarz-Tischuhr, schwarz pianofinisch lackiertes Geh?use, geschwungenes Mineralglas, Aluminium-Applikation,r?mische Ziffern und Zeiger schwarz, mit SekundenzeigerH?he ca. 21 cmBreite ca. 23 cmTiefe ca. 8 cm

          AMS 5165/1 Wanduhr Funk mit Pendel Mineralglas Massivholz nussbaum   
170,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr mit Pendel, Massivholz nussbaumfarben lackiert, Mineralglas, arabische Zahlen schwarz, Zeigergoldfarben, mit SekundenzeigerH?he ca. 62 cmBreite ca. 25 cmTiefe ca. 10 cm

          re: How to Detox Heavy Metals to Help End Exhaustion and Chronic Fatigue   

This may sound counterintuitive. The ocean has all the minerals the body uses, a least 60 and maybe as many as 90. In my personal experience ocean bathing works as well or better than supplements in providing minerals to the body and at the same time the body is totally grounded and protectet from man made EMF so the absorption is not interfered with. I lived in CA and after Fukushimat I started taking KI, potassium iodide. A self test for iodine deficiency is to stain a patch of skin with iodine. If the stain disappears in less than 6 hours the body is absorbing it and it is deficient. In spite of taking KI, I tested deficient until I spent a week in La Paz, MX swimming in the ocean and then I no longer tested deficient. It would be interesting to do an actual before and after clinical trial to determine what is going on. I think that the skin is a better absorber and mediator of mineral intake than the average gut of the 21st century.

Can a green house be built that concentrates the infrared from the sun that will protect from UV? I live in Ecuador where there is much sun but little access to the latest lighting or it is expensive to import. Electricity is cheap though and 90% is hydroelectric.

For those who live far from the sea or where it is to cold to tolerate much, perhaps there is a salt water swimming pool nearby or you can build or convert your own. I would think that the detox program depletes some beneficila minerals as well as the toxic. After the sauna a jump in a cold saa water pool wwould be beneficial and at the same time ground and insulate from EMF. A rinse with filtered water after the dip would get rid of the toxins. Don't know. Just asking.

If you garden or farm, to replete the minerals in your soil, spray your plants with diluted, at least 4-1, sea water about twice a month. Observe!! They will absorb the minerals and the overspray will feed the soil microbes. Animals fed sea salt will excrete it and somehow they know enough not to over eat.


          AMS 7207/18 Wanduhr Quarz analog silbern Holz Buche massiv mit Glas   
89,10 EUR
Quarz-Wanduhr, Buche massiv mit silberfarbener Holzeinlage, satiniertes Mineralglas, H?he ca. 62 cm,Breite ca. 23 cm, Tiefe ca. 7 cm

          Podrabiany nawóz wieloskładnikowy   
Jakiś czas temu w hurtowniach na Zamojszczyźnie odkryto podrabiane nawozy mineralne. Były one tańsze od tych oryginalnych, ale też posiadały nawet o połowę mniej wymaganych składników. Sprawą zajmuje się Centralne Biuro Śledcze.
          Bardzo mało rolników bada glebę   
- Tylko nieliczni polscy rolnicy badają glebę przed zastosowaniem nawozów mineralnych. Większość ryzykuje zastosowanie na polu zbyt dużych ich dawek. Może to podnosić koszty produkcji rolniczej i nie pozostaje bez wpływu na zanieczyszczenie środowiska naturalnego – informuje w raporcie Najwyższa Izba Kontroli. Dlatego NIK wskazuje, że konieczna jest szeroka edukacja wśród rolników na temat nawożenia.
          AMS 7216 Wanduhr Quarz mit Pendel silbern modern Pendeluhr   
134,10 EUR
Quarz-Wanduhr mit Pendel, silberlackierte Holzr?ckwand mit Metalleinlage, diamantgedrehtes Zifferblattauf Mineralglas, H?he ca. 69 cm, Breite ca. 23 cm, Tiefe ca. 7 cm

          AMS 5224 Wanduhr Funk mit Pendel Holzrückwand mit Naturstein   
395,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr mit Pendel, Holzr?ckwand mit Naturstein-Einlagen und Sonoma-Optik kombiniert, geschwungenes Mineralglas, Aluminiumzifferblatt, arabische Zahlen und Zeiger schwarz, H?he ca. 85 cm, Breite ca. 24 cm, Tiefe ca. 10 cm

          AMS 5938 Wanduhr Funkwanduhr analog silbern modern mit Glas und Alu   
71,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr, geschwungenes Mineralglas, silberfarbenlackiertes Holzgeh?use, Aluminium-Zifferblatt,arabische Zahlen und Zeiger schwarz, mit Sekundenzeiger, H?he ca. 26 cm, Breite ca. 30 cm, Tiefe ca. 5 cm

          Purchasing Agent - Atlantic Minerals Limited - Lower Cove, NL   
Our quarry is located at Lower Cove on the Port au Port Peninsula. _22 June 2017 Competition # 17-017_*....
From Indeed - Thu, 22 Jun 2017 19:21:46 GMT - View all Lower Cove, NL jobs
          AMS 5141 Tischuhr Funk golden eckig modern messing farben mit Glas   
89,10 EUR
Funk-Tischuhr, Metallgeh?use messingfarben mit geschliffenem Mineralglas, wei?es Zifferblatt, arabischeZahlen und Zeiger schwarz, Sekundenzeiger messingfarben, H?he ca. 16 cm, Breite ca. 17 cm, Tiefe ca. 6 cm

          AMS 9388 Wanduhr Quarz analog silbern modern mit Glas und Metall   
116,10 EUR
Quarz-Wanduhr, dekorative Metallauflagen auf Metallst?ben, Mineralglas, H?he ca. 47 cm, Breite ca. 23 cm,Tiefe ca. 5 cm

          AMS 5998/18 Wanduhr Funkwanduhr analog eckig achteckig Holz Buche   
89,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr, Massivholzrahmen Buche, Mineralglas, wei?es Zifferblatt, arabische Zahlen und Zeigerschwarz, Sekundenzeiger rot, H?he ca. 29 cm, Breite ca. 29 cm, Tiefe ca. 5 cm

          AMS 5859/18 Wanduhr Funkwanduhr analog eckig achteckig Holz Buche   
80,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr, Buche massiv, Mineralglas, Aluminium-Ring messingfarben, arabische Zahlen und Zeigerschwarz, mit Sekundenzeiger, H?he ca. 28 cm, Breite ca. 28 cm, Tiefe ca. 5 cm

          Kattmat Mjau Oxkött 635g   
Kattmat Mjau oxköttMjau ger livskraft åt din katt. Omega-3 fettsyror för en vacker päls, A-vitamin och taurin för synen och rikligt med C- och E-vitaminer för att skydda din katt mot alla dagliga påfrestningar.SammansättningKött & animaliska biprodukter (därav nöt 4%)*, mineralämnen. * Naturliga råvarorTillsatser per kgNäringstillsatser: Vitamin A 2000 IE, vitamin D3 200 IE, vitamin E (all-rac-α-tokoferylacetat) 12 mg, taurin 150 mg, koppar (II)sulfat, pentahydrat 8 mg; mangan (II)oxid /mangan(III)oxid 2,3 mg; zinksulfat, monohydrat 39 mg; kalciumjodat, monohydrat 1 mg. Tekniska tillsatser: Cassia gum 3675 mg.Analytiska beståndsdelarProtein 8,5 %, fettinnehåll 5,7 %, kolhydrater (NFE) 1 %, växttråd 0,8 %, mineraler (råaska) 2 % (kalcium 0,25 %, fosfor 0,23 % och magnesium 0,02 %), vatten 82 %, omsättbar energi 314 kJ/100 g.vikt: 635g
          AMS 7239 Wanduhr Quarz mit Pendel silbern modern geschwungen mit Glas   
134,10 EUR
Quarz-Wanduhr mit Pendel, geschwungenes satiniertes und hochwertig bedrucktes Mineralglas, H?he ca. 60 cm,Breite ca. 23 cm, Tiefe ca. 9 cm

          AMS 5132/9 Wanduhr mit Pendel Funk, Massivholz kirschbaumfarben   
152,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr mit Pendel, Massivholz kirschbaumfarben lackiert, messingfarbene Applikationen, Mineralglas,r?mische Ziffern und Zeiger schwarz, mit SekundenzeigerH?he ca. 60 cmBreite ca. 25 cmTiefe ca. 10 cm

          Maravillosa Alberta, en streaming   
Hoy dejaré que sean los videos en streaming hagan el trabajo de enamorarte como lo hicieron conmigo de esta imponente provincia de Canadá.

Fuí a recorrer Alberta la provincia más hermosa y natural de Canadá y quedé enamorado de su majestuosidad, a cada paso me daban ganas de llorar de la emoción, pero.... también me dieron muchas ganas de sacar mi telefono a la menor provocación y hacer streaming usando las apps de periscope y facebook live. 



El resultado fué conmovedor, las personas que se conectaban hacían exclamaciones como, "que bello" "que maravilloso" que natural" "quiero ir" y ahi sucedió la magia, fue donde pensé que esta entrada de blog debería recolectar esos videos de la maravillosa experiencia que yo estaba viviendo en: Alberta en streaming. 


La verdad no quiero que esos videos se pierdan en los timelines y que el paso del tiempo los borre, prefiero resguardarlos aquí para lograr inspirarte a viajar a este fabuloso destino canadiense. Así que si tienes un poquito de tiempo observa mis transmisiones en vivo, algo de hiper realidad desde Alberta Canadá.

Y lo hice!
Empezamos transmitiendo "arriba" en el
vuelo con Aeroméxico 

A más de 11 mil piés de altura, fue todo un espectáculo, fue bastante emocionante ver como algunos followers se fascinaban con la idea de ir transmitiendo en pleno vuelo para luego aterrizar en Calgary en vuelo directo desde la CDMX.



Para empezar 
¿Por qué no un Tim Horton´s?

Divertida cafetería emblemática de Canadá nos recibió con un buen cafecito y rico desayuno de Bacon Baguel y Honey Cruller. Deli deli!

Tim Horton´s fue fundada en 1964 un ex jugador de hockey sobre hielo del equipo Toronto Maple Leafs, hoy es una parada obligada en Canadá para darte un gustito, imagínate hay mas de 3 mil locales en todo Canadá.

Las gigantescas Montañas 
Rocosas Canadienses

Después de parar a desayunar nos dirigimos en auto por la carretera que conecta Calgary con el pueblo de Banff y el espectáculo natural que estaba antes nuestros ojos era altamente periscopeable!

La Montañas Rocosas o Rocallosas son una cordillera que cruza desde Nuevo México en Estados Unidos hasta Alberta y parte de la Columbia Británica, para mi gusto son el alma de los paisajes canadienses.

Banff bello pueblo 
de Alberta

Debes visitar Banff es un lugar único que parte de su historia tiene que ver con las aguas termales que brotan en el lugar, además de que es un sitio de descanso podría también ser un Pueblo Mágico eh! Ahi hice un FB live. Dale clic


De aquí de Banff inicia el famoso recorrido de " La Carretera de los campos de Hielo" "Icefields Parway" que dicen que es el tour mas espectacular del mundo! Y lo es! 

5 cosas que te recomiendo 
hacer en Banff

Recorrer su vibrante Banff Avenue para comer en sus restaurantes, te recomiendo entrar a "The Grizzly House" famoso por sus fondues, cortes de carne y cervezas locales.


Banff Upper Hot Springs es una piscina de más de 100 años donde viajeros de todo el mundo han venido a tomar baño de agua termal mineral. Con temperaturas de 40 grados centígrados recibirás un baño relajante y delicado. Fue lugar sagrado para los antiguos amerindios y también el lugar donde empezó toda la historia de Banff y su Parque Nacional Banff.


Banff Park Museum:Toda una experiencia visitar este museo creado en 1895 ubicado en una vieja casona de estilo rústico de madera. El museo fue declarado Sitio histórico nacional de Canadá en 1985 y fue clasificada como estructura histórica. Cuenta con una colección de más de 100 años de antigüedad con 5 mil animales canadienses disecados.Tienes que ir!


Góndola de Banff
El teleférico turístico de Banff está a sólo 5 minutos de la ciudad de Banff, 
en un costado de la montaña Sulphur. 

Es una cabina para 4 pasajeros, con paredes de cristal y una vista de 360 ​​grados de seis rangos de montaña escénica a 2,281 m sobre el nivel del mar.


La vistas desde la góndola son maravillosas! 
Créeme maravillosas! 
Lo digo otra vez! Maravillosas!!

MONTE NORQUAY 
la via ferrata de Banff

Vía Ferrata Norquay es una enorme experiencia de escalada en roca y montaña en verano, es una de las vías ferratas mas bellas del mundo.


Con escenarios naturales incomparables y lo mejor no se necesita experiencia para subirla, ya que su sistema de cables y grapas en las rocas estan perfectamente calculados para darte máxima emoción y máxima seguridad 
Cuando llegas a la cima del Monte Norquay la sensación de triunfo es genial!
También lo transmitimos
 por Facebook Live 


Mi máximo "La Carretera de
 los Campos de Hielo" en Banff

Hicimos “el viaje más espectacular del mundo”, el Icefields Parkway  “Carretera de los campos de hielo” atraviesa los espectaculares Parques Nacionales de Jasper y Banff, en el corazón de las Rocosas Canadienses, llegamos hasta el glaciar Athabasca aquí pudimos pisar los hielos eternos.
La “Carretera de los campos de hielo”, es un bellísimo recorrido panorámico de 232 km, se construyó en la década de 1930, y se llama así por las llanuras heladas presentes en su recorrido, visibles desde la propia carretera.



A lo largo de sus más de 200 km el tour va realizando diferentes paradas para disfrutar de los bellos escenarios naturales

Lago Peyto
Este lago es de los más hermosos del mundo esta formado por aguas de glaciar y es otra parada del tour de la "carretera de los campos de hielo" recibió su nombre en honor a Ebenezer William Peyto, una antiguo guía de la zona, apenas mide 2.8 km x 800 m pero su belleza es espectacular

Lake Louise
El lago Luisa es también un hermoso cuerpo de agua del glaciar Victoria que baja del la montaña homónima. 


También es una parada del tour de la "carretera de los campos de hielo" aquí hicimos un periscope bastante bueno.
Debe su nombre a una de las hijas de la reina Victoria, la princesa Luoise Caroline Alberta, de hecho la provincia se llama Alberta también en honor a dicha princesa. 

¿quien te lleva?

Un anochecer en Alberta
Me impresionó mucho que a las 10 de la noche en verano en el cielo aun había muy buena luz de día, y ahi ameritaba periscopear. Durante el verano los días son más largos y eso lo puedes aprovechar muy bien!

Todo en uno

Al volver a casa ya desde la comodidad de la computadora reuní varios videos y realicé una transmisión de donde mostré en unos minutos los momentos más representativos del viaje
Me encantó este viaje a Canadá, fue un experiencia nueva y reveladora de una provincia fascinante que me dió lo mejor de si misma para comunicarla como lo es: Maravillosa Alberta en Streaming


Volveré muy pronto a redescubrirla!

Por: Marco Daniel Guzmán
enviado.



          AMS 5866/9 Wanduhr Funk Funkwanduhr analog Holz kirschbaum farben   
89,10 EUR
Funk-Wanduhr, Holzgeh?use kirschbaumfarben lackiert, Mineralglas, arabische Zahlen und Zeiger schwarz,mit Sekundenzeiger, H?he ca. 26 cm, Breite ca. 26 cm, Tiefe ca. 5 cm

          AMS 1168 Tischuhr Quarz mit Pendel Mineralglasgehäuse auf Metallsockel   
125,10 EUR
Quarz-Tischuhr mit Pendel, Mineralglasgeh?use auf Metallsockel, Aluminium-Zifferblatt, arabische Zahlen undZeiger schwarzH?he ca. 23 cmBreite ca. 17 cmTiefe ca. 6 cm

          My Bare Essential Make Up A Review Of Bare Minerals   
Last year I decided that I would try the Bare Minerals make up by Bare Escentual. I had seen the infomercials on TV and thought, hey; I'll give it a try and see what I think.
          METALURGIA DEL COBRE   
METALURGIA

La metalurgia es la ciencia aplicada cuyo objeto es el estudio de las operaciones industriales tendentes a la preparación, tratamiento (físico y/o químico) y producción de metales y sus aleaciones.

ORIGENES


En términos generales, la técnica metalúrgica comprende las siguientes frases:

obtención del metal a partir de uno de sus minerales (mena);
afino o purificación del metal;
preparación de aleaciones;
tratamientos mecánicos, térmicos o termoquímicos para su mejor utilización;

Existen diversos tipos de técnica metalúrgica , según sea el metal que se quiere beneficiar o el proceso utilizado. Así, se distinguen la siderurgia ( hierro, acero); las metalurgias especiales (cobre, aluminio, cinc, plomo, estaño, etc.); la pulvimetalurgia y la electrometalurgia.

LOS HORNOS METALÚRGICOS


Los hornos pueden ser eléctricos (de arco, de resistencia o de inducción) o de combustible.

En siderurgia se denomina horno alto el que se emplea para reducir minerales de hierro y transformarlos en arrabio, metal fundido que contiene entre 2,6 y un 4,3% de carbono y cantidades variables de manganeso, azufre y fósforo.

En los hornos Martín-Siemens, los gases procedentes de la combustión, antes de salir por la chimenea, circulan por una cámara llena de tabiques refractarios, a los que ceden su calor.



PRINCIPALES YACIMIENTOS

Oro : Elemento químico, metal amarillo, el más dúctil y maleable de todos, muy pesado, sólo atacable por el cloro y el bromo y el agua regia. Su símbolo es Au , su número atómico 79 y su peso atómico 196,96.

Cobre: Elemento químico, metal de color rojizo, tenaz, muy dúctil, maleable y uno de los mejores conductores de la electricidad; entra en muchas aleaciones (bronce y latón); se encuentra nativo, pero con mayor frecuencia combinado en forma de óxidos o sulfuros minerales. Su símbolo es Cu , su número atómico 29 y su peso atómico 63,546.

Plata: Elemento químico, metal noble muy dúctil y maleable; buen conductor del calor y la electricidad; se alea con el cobre para la fabricación de monedas. Su símbolo es Ag , su número atómico 47 y su peso atómico 107,8.

Hierro: Elemento químico, metal dúctil, maleable, muy tenaz, magnético y fácilmente oxidable, que formando diversos compuestos es abundantísimo en la naturaleza. Su símbolo es Fe , su número atómico 26 y su peso atómico 55,84.

Aluminio: Elemento químico, metal de color blanco, ligero, maleable y resistente a la oxidación; se obtiene de la bauxita y se emplea para utensilios, cables eléctricos y, puro o en aleación, para piezas de avión y automóvil. Su símbolo es Al , su número atómico 13 y su peso atómico 26,98.

METALURGIA DEL COBRE

El tratamiento metalúrgico para la obtención del cobre depende del mineral de procedencia. Si es de sulfuros se utiliza la pirometalurgia en que se producen anodos y catodos, o tambien pueden ser de oxidos, aqui se ocupa la hidrometalurgia y se producen directamente catodos. Veamos los distintos procesos:

  • Cobre procedentes de minerales que contiene el metal puro en estado nativo. El tratamiento e estos minerales, actualmente escasos, es muy sencillo, debiendo atenderse solamente en la separación del metal mas pesado, englobado en una masa inerte en forma de granos o paja, mediante procesos mecánicos capaces de separar las masa, previamente machacadas, según sus diferentes densidades.

  • Cobre procedente de minerales que lo contienen en forma de óxidos. Si los minerales son ricos, puede ser rentable el tratamiento pirometalùrgico, que se efectúa en un horno de fusión con adición de carbón como elemento reductor.
    -Pirometalurgia:


    El proceso de producción de cátodos vía pirometalúrgica es el siguiente:
    Concentración del mineral -> Fundición (Horno Fusión -> Convertidores -> Afino y Moldeo de ánodos) -> Refinería (Electrorefinería) -> Cátodo

    -Hidrometalurgia:

    El proceso de producción de cátodos vía hidrometalúrgica más conocido por su nomenclatura
    anglosajona Sx-Ew es el siguiente:
    Mineral de cobre -> Lixiviación -> Extracción -> Electrólisis -> Cátodo


  • Cobre procedente de minerales que lo contiene como sulfuro. En este caso, un proceso fisicoquímico preliminar de flotación permite el enriquecimiento del metal, separando las partículas del sulfuro de las de la ganga.




  •           LA MINERIA EN CHILE   
    Chile es un país de grandes reservas de minerales. Dentro de la minería metálica se destaca la producción de cobre, hierro, molibdeno, manganeso, plomo, zinc, oro y plata. De estos productos, los de mayor interés son el cobre y molibdeno, siendo este último un subproducto de la producción de cobre. Como resultado de esta abundancia, la minería ha sido desde siempre la principal actividad productiva del país.

    El Cobre

    En Chile, la minería del cobre se encuentra compartida entre empresas privadas y empresas del Estado. CODELCO Chile, la Corporación del Cobre, es una empresa estatal autónoma, la más grande del país en la minería del cobre y la principal productora de cobre del mundo.

    Los principales productos comercializados por Chile, son los cátodos y concentrados de cobre, los que son exportados para procesarlos y obtener productos manufacturados. Su destino ha sido desde siempre los países industrializados y hoy en día, además, los países en proceso de industrialización, como China. Destaca la gran concentración de las exportaciones a los mercados de Asia y Europa Occidental, lo que refleja el alto grado de dependencia de la comercialización del cobre con esos mercados.


    Camion gigante en minera Spence extrayendo cobre.



    Equipos Mineros Minera Michilla Rajo Lince (Chile)


    Camiones en Chuquicamata

    Operaciones Invierno Minera Los Pelambres (Chile)


    - La minería no metálica comprende las actividades de extracción de recursos minerales que, luego de un adecuado tratamiento, se transforman en productos aplicables en diversos usos industriales y agrícolas, gracias a sus propiedades físicas y/o químicas. De allí que el interés público y privado por su desarrollo se orienta tanto a su fase productiva como en el uso final de sus productos.

    Esta actividad se considera como una oportunidad para la mediana y pequeña minería. Con excepción de los grandes recursos salinos del norte y los de caliza, la mayoría de los yacimientos no metálicos se explotan a nivel de pequeño tamaño, generalmente en operaciones a tajo abierto, seguida inicialmente de un tratamiento simple, que puede incluir molienda, clasificación, lavado, secado, etc.Cabe destacar que se aplica el concepto de "producto minero" para aquellas substancias susceptibles de ser comercializadas, sea un mineral simple o un derivado obtenido vía un tratamiento de tipo industrial, generalmente integrado a la fase minera. Tiene por lo tanto un significado más amplio que el concepto geológico de "recurso minero"Dada la diversidad de productos no metálicos considerados de interés y sólo para efectos de análisis de su comportamiento, éstos se clasifican en 4 grupos en virtud de su importancia económica y características de su mercado:

    Grupo I:
    SALITRE (Nitrato de Potasio, Nitrato de Sodio y Salitre Potásico)
    YODO (Yodo y sus sales derivadas Yoduros y Yodatos)
    SALES DE LITIO (Carbonato y Cloruro)
    BORATOS (Ulexita y sus derivados Acido Bórico, Bórax refinado)
    CLORURO DE SODIO
    SALES POTÁSICAS (Cloruro y Sulfato)

    Grupo II:
    CARBONATO DE CALCIO (Caliza para cemento y cal)
    YESO (Para objetos de yeso y cemento)
    PUZOLANA (Para cemento)
    ARCILLAS (Arcillas comunes y plásticas)
    OXIDO DE HIERRO (Para cemento y pigmentos)
    PIROFILITA (Para cerámicas)
    CEMENTO (Se incluye como producto industrial)
    CAL (Se incluye como producto industrial)

    Grupo III:
    FOSFATOS (Superfosfatos, Fosfatos de amonio, Roca fosfórica, Guano)
    ARCILLAS CAOLINIFERAS (Caolín, Arcillas Refractarias)
    RECURSOS SILICEOS (Sílice, Cuarzo, Arenas Silíceas)
    SULFATO DE SODIO
    DIATOMITA
    AZUFRE (Crudo, Sublimado)
    CARBONATO DE CALCIO (Creta, C.C. Granulado y Precipitado)
    TALCO
    FELDESPATO
    ROCAS (Mármol, Granito)
    BENTONITA(Cálcica y Sódica)
    ABRASIVOS (Piedra pómez, Granate)
    WOLLASTONITA
    PERLITA
    BARITINA
    SULFATO DE ALUMINIO
    CIMITA

    Grupo IV:
    CARBONATO DE SODIO
    MAGNESIO (Dolomita, Magnesia, Magnesita)
    ASBESTO
    OXIDO DE ALUMINIO (Alúmina, Bauxita)
    CROMITA
    GRAFITO NATURAL
    ANDALUSITA
    FLUORITA
    MICA
              CLASIFICACION DE LOS MINERALES   
    Actualmente los minerales se clasifican segun el principio cristaloquimico, que hace referencia a la clasificación química, esta divide los minerales en grupos según sus compuestos químicos. Anteriormente se clasificaban los minerales fisicamente puesto que no se tenian las herramientas para analizarlos con mas detalles, ya con el comienzo del avance de las tecnologias y la optica se pudo empezar a analizar detalladamente los minerales.
    Cualquier mineral conocido puede ser integrado dentro de estos grupos, pues la práctica totalidad de ellos incluyen alguno de estos compuestos.

    1.- Elementos nativos: son los que se encuentran en la naturaleza en estado libre, puro o nativo, sin combinar o formar compuestos químicos. Ejemplos: oro, plata, azufre, diamante.

    2.- Sulfuros: compuestos de diversos minerales combinados con el azufre. Ejemplos: pirita, galena, blenda, cinabrio.

    3.- Sulfosales: minerales compuestos de plomo, plata y cobre combinados con azufre y algún otro mineral como el arsénico, bismuto o antimonio. Ejemplos: pirargirita, proustita.

    4.- Óxidos: producto de la combinación del oxígeno con un elemento. Ejemplos: oligisto, corindón, casiterita, bauxita.

    5.- Haluros: compuestos de un halógeno con otro elemento, como el cloro, flúor, yodo o bromo. Ejemplos: sal común, halita.

    6.- Carbonatos: sales derivadas de la combinación del ácido carbónico y un metal. Ejemplos: calcita, azurita, marmol, malaquita.

    7.- Nitratos: sales derivadas del ácido nítrico. Ejemplos: nitrato sódico (o de Chile), salitre o nitrato potásico.

    8.- Boratos: constituidos por sales minerales o ésteres del ácido bórico. Ejemplos: borax, rasorita.

    9.- Fosfatos, arseniatos y vanadatos: sales o ésteres del ácido fosfórico, arsénico y vanadio. Ejemplos: apatita, turquesa, piromorfita.

    10.- Sulfatos: sales o ésteres del ácido sulfúrico. Ejemplos: yeso, anhidrita, barita.

    11.- Cromatos, volframatos y molibdatos: compuestos de cromo, molibeno o wolframio. Ejemplos: wolframita, crocoita.

    12.- Silicatos: sales de ácido silícico, los compuestos fundamentales de la litosfera, formando el 95% de la corteza terrestre. Ejemplos: sílice, feldespato, mica, cuarzo, piroxeno, talco, arcilla.

    13.- Minerales radioactivos: compuestos de elementos emisores de radiación. Ejemplos: uraninita, torianita, torita.





              ESCALA DE MOH O DE DUREZA   

    Escala de Dureza

    La dureza de un mineral puede ser probada de varias maneras. Comúnmente, se compara a los minerales raspándolos con un objeto de dureza conocida. Por ejemplo, si un clavo puede rayar un cristal, el clavo es más duro que ese mineral. En el año 1820, Friedrich Mohs, un minerólogo austríaco, desarrolló una escala de dureza relativa, basada en una prueba donde se raspa el mineral con un objeto. Esta es la llamada escala de Mohs y es una relación de diez materiales ordenados en función de su dureza, de menor a mayor. Se utiliza como referencia de la dureza de una sustancia. Se basa en el principio que una sustancia dura puede rayar a una sustancia más blanda, pero no es posible lo contrario.

    Mohs eligió diez minerales a los que atribuyó un determinado grado de dureza en su escala empezando con el talco, que recibió el número 1, y terminando con el diamante, al que asignó el número 10.

    Cada mineral raya a los que tienen un número igual o inferior a él, y es rayado por los que tienen un número igual o mayor al suyo.

    El material más duro es el diamante (10) y el menos duro es el calcio (1).

    Generalmente los enlaces covalentes formarán minerales más duros que los enlaces iónicos. La dureza de un mineral depende principalmente del tipo de enlace que exista entre sus átomos.

    La escala no es lineal (el corundo es, en realidad, 4 veces más duro que el cuarzo) y otros métodos más recientes ofrecen medidas de dureza más rigurosas. A pesar de la falta de precisión en la escala de Moh, ésta sigue siendo útil porque es simple, fácil de recordar y fácil de probar. El acero de una navaja (un instrumento común que los geólogos llevan al terreno), se encuentra casi en el medio de su longuitud, así que es fácil distinguir la mitad superior de la inferior. Por ejemplo, el cuarzo y la calcita pueden parecerse mucho - ambos son claros, sin color, translúcidos y se presentan en una gran variedad de rocas. Pero una simple prueba de raspado puede distinguirlos; la navaja o el martillo rayan la calcita pero no el cuarzo. El yeso puede también parecerse mucho a la calcita, pero es tan blando que puede ser arañado con una uña.

    La variaciones en la dureza hace que los minerales sean útiles para diferentes propósitos. La blandura de la calcita la hace apropiada para la escultura (el mármol está compuesto totalmente de calcita), mientras que la dureza del diamante hace que sea usado como un abrasivo para pulir rocas.



              SISTEMAS CRISTALINOS   

    Los cristales se describen por los sistemas cristalinos.
    Se pueden observar el análisis de un cristal considerando un cubo.
    Existen 7 sistemas cristalinos y cada uno de ellos tiene sus propios elementos de simetría.
    Se describen los sistemas cristalinos por:

      - Sus ejes cristalográficos.
      - Los ángulos que respectivamente dos de los ejes cristalográficos rodean.
      - Las longitudes de los ejes cristalográficos.

    1. Se fijarán el aspecto obvio que todas las caras están perpendiculares entre sí.
    2. Hay tres planos de simetría, que están perpendiculares entre sí y los cuales se llaman 'planos axiales de simetría'. Cada cara a un lado de este plano de simetría se refleja a su otro lado. También se pueden coger dos caras opuestas del cubo entre pulgar y índice asi incluyendo un eje de simetría y girar el cubo para encontrar un eje cuaternario de simetría. Es decir que por una rotatión completa de 360° una cara se repite cuatro veces.
    Un otro eje de simetría entre las esquinas opuestas del cubo es un eje ternario de simetría. De los mismos hay cuatro en el cubo. Un eje de simetría perpendicular a un par de aristas opuestas es un eje binario de simetría, de los cuales existen seis en el cubo.
    3. El aspecto esencial de la simetría es el siguiente: se pueden realizar una operación geométrica en tal manera que una cara se repite en una otra posición. Es decir que al realizar una operación geométrica como una rotación p. ej. una cara nueva ocupará la misma posición que fue ocupado por una otra cara antes de la rotación y con la consecuencia que no pueden distinguirse entre la apariencia después la rotación y la apariencia original.

    Simetría de un cubo según PHILLIPS & PHILLIPS (1986):
    Zona: Un grupo de caras que se interceptan formando aristas paralelas, se dice que constituyen una zona. Eje de zona: La dirección de las líneas de intersección entre las caras de una zona, se llama eje de zona.
    1. El cubo exhibe tres conjuntos de aristas paralelas, por tanto se compone de tres zonas. Las tres ejes de zona son ortogonales. Las seis caras del cubo son idénticas, cada una de ellas es paralela a dos ejes de zona y perpendicular al tercer eje de zona. En consecuencia el cubo es una forma de seis lados, que encierre completamente a un espacio.. Por ello, a la forma cúbica de designe como una forma simple.
    2. Cuando una misma cara del cubo de observa en cuatro posiciones diferentes durante la rotación, el eje paralelo de las aristas es un eje de simetría cuarternario, el cual se denomine eje cuarternario. En el cubo hay tres ejes cuarternarios.
    3. Puesto que las caras del cubo tienen la misma orientación en tres posiciones durante una rotación completa, el eje que pasa por las esquinas de un cubo perfectamente simétrico puede describirse como un eje de simetría ternario o un eje ternario. Ya que los ejes ternarios unen esquinas opuestas del cubo deberán existir cuatro ejes ternarios.
    4.Cuando se gira sobre un eje perpendicular a un par de aristas opuestas y la imagen del cubo se repite dos veces, el eje es de simetría binaria y se llama eje binario. En vista de que hay seis pares de aristas opuestas en el cubo éste debe tener seis ejes binarios


    1. Sistema cúbico

    Existen tres ejes cristalográficos a 90° entre sí:
    alfa = beta = gama = 90°
    Las longitudes de los ejes son iguales:
    a = b = c
    Formas típicas del sistema cristalino y sus elementos de simetría :
    El cubo (p.ej. halita, fluorita), el rombododecaedro (p.ej. granate) y el octaedro son formas de 3 ejes cuaternario de simetría, 4 ejes ternarios de simetría y 6 ejes binarios de simetría.
    El Tetraedro es una forma de 4 ejes ternarios y de 3 ejes binarios.
    Minerales que pertenecen al sistema cúbico son:
    Halita NaCl, Pirita FeS2,Galena PbS, las cuales forman entre otros cubos.
    Diamante de forma octaédrica, Magnetita Fe3O4 forma entre otros octaedros.
    Granate, p. ej. Almandina Fe3Al2[SiO2]4 de forma rombododecaédrica, de forma icositetraédrica o de combinaciones de las formas icositetraédrica y rombododecaédrica. - El rombododecaedro es una forma simple compuesta de 12 caras de contorno rómbico. El icositetraedro es una forma compuesta de 24 caras de contorno trapezoidal.
    Esfalerita ZnS de forma tetraédrica.


    2. Sistema tetragonal

    Existen 3 ejes cristalograficos a 90° entre sí:
    alfa = beta = gama = 90°
    Los parámetros de los ejes horizontales son iguales, pero no son iguales al parámetro del eje vertical:
    a = b ≠ [es desigual de] c
    Formas típicas y sus elementos de simetría son :

    Circón (ZrSiO2) pertenece al sistema tetragonal y forma p. ej. prismas limitados por pirámides al extremo superior y inferior.
    Casiterita SnO2

    3. Sistema hexagonal

    Existen 4 ejes cristalográficos, tres a 120° en el plano horizontal y uno vertical y perpendicular a ellos:
    Y1 = Y2 = Y3 = 90° - ángulos entre los ejes horizontales y el eje vertical.
    X1 = X2 = X3 = 120° - ángulos entre los ejes horizontales.
    a1 = a2 = a3 ≠ c con a1, a2, a3 = ejes horizontales y c = eje vertical.
    Apatito Ca5[(F, OH, Cl)/(PO4)3] y grafita C pertenecen al sistema hexagonal.
    Formas típicas son el prisma hexagonal y el trapezoedro hexagonal de un eje sexternario y 6 ejes binarios.


    4. Sistema trigonal

    Existen tres ejes cristalográficos con parámetros iguales, los ángulos X1, X2 y X3 entre ellos difieren a 90°:
    X1 = X2 = X3 = 90°
    a1 = a2 = a3
    Calcita CaCO3 y Dolomita CaMg(CO3)2 pertenecen al sistema trigonal y forman a menudo romboedros.
    Otra forma es una combinación de pirámide trigonal y pinacoide con 3 ejes binarios de simetría.


    5. Sistema ortorómbico

    Existen tres ejes cristalográficos a 90° entre sí:
    alfa = beta = gama = 90°
    Los parámetros son desiguales:
    a ≠ b ≠ c [a es desigual de b es desigual c]
    Ejemplo: Olivino (Mg,Fe)2(SiO4)
    Una forma típica es una combinación de paralelogramo y pinacoide con 3 ejes binarios de simetría.


    6. Sistema monoclínico

    Hay tres ejes cristalográficos, de los cuales dos ( uno de los dos siempre es el eje vertical = eje c) están a 90° entre sí:
    alfa = gama = 90° y beta es mayor de 90°
    Los parámetros son desiguales.
    a ≠ b ≠ c [a es desigual de b es desigual de c]
    Ejemplo: Mica


    7.Sistema triclínico

    Hay tres ejes cristalográficos, ninguno de ellos a 90° entre sí:
    alfa es desigual de beta es desigual de gama es desigual de 90°
    Los parámetros son desiguales.
    a ≠ b ≠ c [a es desigual de b es desigual de c]
    Ejemplo: Albita: NaAlSi308 y Distena: Al2SiO5


              ESTRUCTURA CRISTALINA DE LOS MINERALES   

    Un mineral es un sólido inorgánaico natural que posee una estructura interna ordenada y una composición química definida. Existen en la tierra alrededor de 4000 minerales cada uno de los cuales está definido por su composición química y su estructura interna.

    Un mineral está compuesto por átomos químicamente unidos en una disposición ordenada formando una estructura cristalina concreta. La disposición ordenada se observa en objetos de formas regulares llamados cristales. La estructura cristalina esta dada por la carga de los iones y por su tamaño.
    Propiedades de los minerales
    Dureza: Es una propiedad que mide la facilidad con que se puede rayar la superficie de un mineral. El diamante es el mineral más duro conocido, éste puede rayar el vidrio y cuarzo. En 1822 Friedrich Mohs inventó la escala de durezas, basada en la habilidad de un mineral para rayar otro. El menos duro es el talco y el más duro el diamante.
    Propiedades de los minerales
    Dureza: Es una propiedad que mide la facilidad con que se puede rayar la superficie de un mineral. El diamante es el mineral más duro conocido, éste puede rayar el vidrio y cuarzo. En 1822 Friedrich Mohs inventó la escala de durezas, basada en la habilidad de un mineral para rayar otro. El menos duro es el talco y el más duro el diamante.


    Generalmente los enlaces covalentes formarán minerales más duros que los enlaces iónicos. La dureza de un mineral depende principalmente del tipo de enlace que exista entre sus átomos. La estructura cristalina que posea el mineral también hace variar la dureza, esta estructura dependerá principalmente de tres factores:

    1)El tamaño de los átomos: Una menor distancia entre los átomos hace mayor la atracción electrónica entre ellos.

    2)La Carga: La diferencia de carga entre los iones determinará la atracción entre éstos.

    3)El arreglo atómico: Cuanto más cerrado sea el empaquetamiento entre los átomos e iones más duro será el mineral.
    "Un mineral está compuesto por átomos químicamente unidos en una disposición ordenada formando una estructura cristalina concreta. "

    Clivaje (exfoliación): Es la tendencia de un mineral a romperse a lo largo de una superficie plana. El término es usado para describir el arreglo geométrico producido por su rompimiento. El clivaje varía inversamente a la fuerza del enlace. Si los enlaces son fuertes el clivaje será malo y si el enlace es débil el clivaje será bueno. Generalmente en los enlaces iónicos el clivaje es mejor que en los enlaces covalentes. El número de planos y patrones del clivaje es identificado en muchas rocas formadoras de minerales. La muscovita tiene un solo plano del clivaje pero la calcita y la dolomita tiene tres direcciones de clivaje. La estructura cristalina determina los planos del clivaje y las caras del cristal. En cristales con poco clivaje es posible que dicho clivaje corresponda a las caras del cristal. Las caras están formadas a lo largo de numerosos planos definidos por columnas de átomos e iones. El clivaje ocurre a lo largo de esos planos.

    Peso específico: Cada mineral tiene un peso definido por centímetro cubico; este peso característico se describe generalmente comparándolo con el peso de un volumen igual en agua; el número resultante es lo que se llama peso específico del mineral. El peso específico de un mineral aumenta con el número atómico de la masa de los elementos que lo constituyen y con la aproximidad o compactamiento con que estén arreglados en la estructura cristalina.

    Color: Aunque el color no es una propiedad segura para la identificación de la mayoría de los minerales, se le usa en ciertas distinciones de carácter general. Por ejemplo los minerales ferruginosos, por lo común son de color oscuro que puede ser gris oscuro, verde oscuro y negro. Los minerales que contienen aluminio son de color claro, que puede incluir el púrpura, rojo profundo, amarillo y algunos tonos café.

    Brillo: Se refiere al aspecto de la luz reflejada por un mineral. Minerales con aspecto de metal se dice que tienen brillo metálico independiente del color que posean. Los parcialmente metálicos son submetálicos. Los minerales de brillo no-metálico pueden ser de brillo vítreo, perlado, sedoso, resinoso o terroso.

    Raya: La raya de un mineral es el color que éste presenta cuando se pulveriza finamente. La raspadura puede ser muy diferente del color del ejemplar de mano. Por ejemplo la hematita puede ser de color café, verde o negro, pero la raspadura siempre tiene un color café rojizo.

    Fractura: Cuando los minerales no poseen clivaje entonces poseen fractura. La mayoría se rompen en superficies irregulares, pero también pueden romperse en curvas lisas (fractura concoide) o en astillas.



              LOS MINERALES: FORMACION DE MINERALES   
    Primero para adentrarnos dentro de la naturaleza de los minerales, debemos saber que un mineral es una sustancia natural, homogénea, de origen inorgánico, de composición química definida (dentro de ciertos límites), posee unas propiedades características y, generalmente, tiene estructura de un cristal (forma cristalina).

    Un mineral posee una disposición ordenada de átomos de los elementos de que está compuesto, y esto da como resultado el desarrollo de superficies planas conocidas como caras. Si el mineral ha sido capaz de crecer sin interferencias, pueden generar formas geométricas características, conocidas como cristales.

    Mineral, según la mineralogía y geología, son los compuestos y elementos químicos formados mediante procesos inorgánicos, es decir, son estructuras formadas por procesos naturales de origen inorgánico, propiedades físicas y químicas homogéneas y composición química definida. La ciencia que se ocupa del estudio de los minerales recibe el nombre de Mineralogía.


    Formación

    La formación de minerales es el resultado de procesos químicos y físicos que se verifican en todas las épocas geológicas y que aun continúan manifestándose.

    Los minerales se originan a través de tres procesos fundamentales:
    - magmático
    - metamórfico
    - sedimentario

    Proceso magmático: Conduce a la formación de minerales por solidificación del magma. Teniendo en cuenta la rapidez con la que se produce el enfriamiento del magma, se pueden dar tres situaciones:





    Si la consolidación se produce en profundidad, bajo presiones elevadas, los gases magmáticos y el lento enfriamiento favorecen la cristalización


    A veces la cristalización de distintos minerales no es simultanea, sino que sucede de forma selectiva y se completa según va disminuyendo la temperatura.


    Los magmas se encuentran generalmente a gran profundidad pero en ocasiones pueden alcanzar la superficie dando origen a una actividad volcánica superior, en este caso el magma se solidifica creando una masa rocosa compacta, a veces granulosa.

    Proceso metamórfico:

    Es toda la transformación estructural, mineralógica y química que se produce en las rocas bajo el efecto de la temperatura, la presión y los fluidos circulantes.

    Hay dos tipos de metamorfismo: metamorfismo térmico y regional.



    Metamorfismo térmico: las intrusiones magmáticas provoca fenómenos de metamorfismo en rocas incandescentes. Los minerales más característicos dentro de este tipo de metamorfismo son: granates, sillimanita, cordierita, vesubiana, espinela, piroxeno, pirita, etc.




    Metamorfismo regional: se desarrolla en grandes extensiones de la corteza terrestre sujetas a hundimientos y dislocaciones. Se distinguen tres en función de profundidad son: epizona, mesozona y catazona.
    - Epizona: comprendida entre 5.000 y 7.000 m de profundidad. En esta zona aparecen: talco, albita, epidota, hematites, titanita, minerales fibrosos y lamelares.
    - Mesozona: comprendida entre 7.000 y 12.000 m de profundidad. En esta zona encontramos: biotita, moscovita, cianita, placioclasa, epidota, etc.
    - Catazona: comprendida entre 12.000 y 20.000 m de profundidad. En esta zona encontramos: ortoclasa, biotita, plagioclasa, pirosenos, olivino, granate, grafito.

    Migmatita: Roca de alto grado de metamorfismo.

    Proceso Sedimentario:
    La mayor parte de los minerales que podemos encontrar en las rocas sedimentarias provienen de la erosión mecánica y alteraciones químicas de rocas ya existentes. Estos procesos se producen sin la acción de grandes presiones o temperaturas.

    Pueden ser clasificados teniendo en cuenta los mismos criterios utilizados por las rocas sedimentarias, de este modo, tenemos:
    * minerales de depósito mecánico, son principalmente detritos que, trasportados y depositados sufren un proceso de consolidación o cementación, por ejemplo las limonitas..
    * minerales de depósito químico, se forman por precipitación de sustancias que se encontraban en disolución.
    * minerales de depósito orgánico y bioquímico, en su formación interviene directamente la acción de organismos vivos.

    Los conglomerados son rocas sedimentarias clastos de gran tamaño ( mayor de 2mm) y una matriz o cemento que los engloba.


    La arenisca es una roca sedimentaria constituida por clastos de tamaño de arena (2-0,02mm) y una matriz o cemento que los engloba.

    Video Informativo sobre las Rocas y los Minerales:

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              Klett-Fußbodenheizung trifft erstmals auf trittschalldämmende Mineralfaser   
    Uponor stellte in Frankfurt die erste Verlegeplatte mit integrierter Mi­ne­ral­faserdämmung für ein Klett-Fußbodenheizungssystem vor. Damit empfiehlt sich die Klett Silent als nachhaltige und nicht brennbare Alter­native zu Polystyrol-Dämmungen.
              Journeys toward Sustainable Development: Policy Entrepreneurs and the Rise of the Green State in Chile and Peru   

    Project by Jose Carlos Orihuela (completed thesis):

    Journeys inquire why and how mineral-rich Chile and Peru joined in the international trend of good green governance. Behind formal governance convergence hides effective institutional divergence: a relatively strong and autonomous green state in Chile and a relatively weak and captured green state in Peru. The “green state” [...]

                  
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    FORT WORTH, Texas, June 30, 2017/ PRNewswire/-- Kimbell Royalty Partners, LP, a leading owner of oil and natural gas mineral and royalty interests across 20 states, today announced it will release its second quarter 2017 financial results on Thursday, August 10, 2017 before the market opens. In conjunction with the release, Kimbell Royalty Partners has scheduled a...
              Siete formas de restar 100 Kcal a tu dieta    

    1366 20002

    Para adelgazar es necesario un déficit calórico de alrededor de 500 Kcal diarias, sin embargo quitar sólo 100 Kcal a la dieta puede hacer una diferencia a largo plazo en nuestro cuerpo. Por ello, a continuación dejamos siete formas de restar 100 Kcal a tu dieta.

    No todas las calorías sirven

    Cuando hablamos de restar calorías no hablamos de quitar cualquiera de ellas, pues no todas las calorías son iguales sino que dependiendo de los nutrientes que le dan origen, las propiedades físicas del alimento y su efecto en el organismo, algunas opciones muy calóricas igualmente sirven al momento de mantener el peso corporal y reducirlo y cuidar la salud.

    Entonces, no todas las calorías sirven para restar a nuestra dieta sino que tenemos que prestar atención a aquellos alimentos que no aportan más que azúcar o harinas refinadas, que no sacian ni aportan nutrientes que el cuerpo necesita para funcionar adecuadamente. Es decir, tenemos que restar calorías vacías a nuestros días.

    Sólo cuidando la calidad podremos restar calorías de forma adecuada con el objetivo de proteger la salud mientras logramos un balance energético adecuado o negativo que nos ayude a mantener el peso o a reducirlo, respectivamente.

    Más allá de las calorías, debemos mirar los alimentos que las ofrecen, sus características y efecto en nuestro organismo.

    1366 20001

    Siete formas de restar 100 Kcal a la dieta

    Para quitar alrededor de 100 Kcal de nuestra dieta y además, mejorar la calidad de la misma, podemos acudir a las siguientes opciones:

    • Reemplazar carne grasa por carne magra: en sólo 100 gramos ya tendremos 10 gramos menos de grasa o lo que es igual, 90 Kcal menos casi sin darnos cuenta.
    • Sustituir 3 galletas dulces rellenas por 2 ciruela o nectarinas: cada galleta puede tener alrededor de 40 Kcal provistas sobre todo por harinas refinadas, azúcar y grasas, por lo que son alimentos que no sacian en absoluto, pero su las cambiamos por dos frutas de estación estaremos obteniendo muchas menos calorías con muchos más y mejores nutrientes para el organismo.
    • Cambiar un vaso de zumo comercial por agua: los zumos comerciales poseen alrededor de 100 kcal por vaso y muchos de ellos están colmados de azúcar sin fibra ni muchos nutrientes buenos para el organismo, por lo que podemos reemplazar su ingesta por agua o bien, por agua saborizada con unos gajos de naranja fresca.
    • Reemplazar una cucharada de ketchup por una de puré de aguacate: este cambio nos permite restar 100 Kcal derivadas de azúcar principalmente así como también quitar sodio y agregar buenos nutrientes como el potasio, la fibra y la vitamina E a los platos.

    1366 2000

    • Usar yogur desnatado natural en reemplazo de yogur entero de sabores: en 200 gramos tendremos una diferencia de poco más de 100 Kcal que se debe a menor cantidad de azúcar, así como también a menos grasas, pero con igual cantidad de proteínas, vitaminas y minerales.
    • Cambiar una taza de cereales de chocolate por 1/2 taza de avena: los cereales de desayuno pueden tener mucho azúcar en su composición y más aun los de chocolate que también ofrecen grasas y sodio. Reemplazar una taza de los mismos por 1/2 taza de avena que después puede duplicar su volumen al hidratarla es una buena forma de quitar calorías vacías, sumar fibra, potasio, calcio y otros buenos nutrientes al organismo.
    • Reemplazar un paquete pequeño de patatas fritas de bolsa por 10 almendras: este es un gran reemplazo para saciarnos más, obtener vitaminas, fibra, antioxidantes, minerales y proteínas vegetales mientras simultáneamente restamos 100 Kcal a la dieta.

    Lo importante no sólo es controlar las calorías sino más bien, restar aquellas de mala calidad nutricional y reemplazarlas por opciones saciantes, nutritivas y sanas para el organismo.

    Imagen | iStock

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              Siete formas de restar 100 Kcal a tu dieta    

    1366 20002

    Para adelgazar es necesario un déficit calórico de alrededor de 500 Kcal diarias, sin embargo quitar sólo 100 Kcal a la dieta puede hacer una diferencia a largo plazo en nuestro cuerpo. Por ello, a continuación dejamos siete formas de restar 100 Kcal a tu dieta.

    No todas las calorías sirven

    Cuando hablamos de restar calorías no hablamos de quitar cualquiera de ellas, pues no todas las calorías son iguales sino que dependiendo de los nutrientes que le dan origen, las propiedades físicas del alimento y su efecto en el organismo, algunas opciones muy calóricas igualmente sirven al momento de mantener el peso corporal y reducirlo y cuidar la salud.

    Entonces, no todas las calorías sirven para restar a nuestra dieta sino que tenemos que prestar atención a aquellos alimentos que no aportan más que azúcar o harinas refinadas, que no sacian ni aportan nutrientes que el cuerpo necesita para funcionar adecuadamente. Es decir, tenemos que restar calorías vacías a nuestros días.

    Sólo cuidando la calidad podremos restar calorías de forma adecuada con el objetivo de proteger la salud mientras logramos un balance energético adecuado o negativo que nos ayude a mantener el peso o a reducirlo, respectivamente.

    Más allá de las calorías, debemos mirar los alimentos que las ofrecen, sus características y efecto en nuestro organismo.

    1366 20001

    Siete formas de restar 100 Kcal a la dieta

    Para quitar alrededor de 100 Kcal de nuestra dieta y además, mejorar la calidad de la misma, podemos acudir a las siguientes opciones:

    • Reemplazar carne grasa por carne magra: en sólo 100 gramos ya tendremos 10 gramos menos de grasa o lo que es igual, 90 Kcal menos casi sin darnos cuenta.
    • Sustituir 3 galletas dulces rellenas por 2 ciruela o nectarinas: cada galleta puede tener alrededor de 40 Kcal provistas sobre todo por harinas refinadas, azúcar y grasas, por lo que son alimentos que no sacian en absoluto, pero su las cambiamos por dos frutas de estación estaremos obteniendo muchas menos calorías con muchos más y mejores nutrientes para el organismo.
    • Cambiar un vaso de zumo comercial por agua: los zumos comerciales poseen alrededor de 100 kcal por vaso y muchos de ellos están colmados de azúcar sin fibra ni muchos nutrientes buenos para el organismo, por lo que podemos reemplazar su ingesta por agua o bien, por agua saborizada con unos gajos de naranja fresca.
    • Reemplazar una cucharada de ketchup por una de puré de aguacate: este cambio nos permite restar 100 Kcal derivadas de azúcar principalmente así como también quitar sodio y agregar buenos nutrientes como el potasio, la fibra y la vitamina E a los platos.

    1366 2000

    • Usar yogur desnatado natural en reemplazo de yogur entero de sabores: en 200 gramos tendremos una diferencia de poco más de 100 Kcal que se debe a menor cantidad de azúcar, así como también a menos grasas, pero con igual cantidad de proteínas, vitaminas y minerales.
    • Cambiar una taza de cereales de chocolate por 1/2 taza de avena: los cereales de desayuno pueden tener mucho azúcar en su composición y más aun los de chocolate que también ofrecen grasas y sodio. Reemplazar una taza de los mismos por 1/2 taza de avena que después puede duplicar su volumen al hidratarla es una buena forma de quitar calorías vacías, sumar fibra, potasio, calcio y otros buenos nutrientes al organismo.
    • Reemplazar un paquete pequeño de patatas fritas de bolsa por 10 almendras: este es un gran reemplazo para saciarnos más, obtener vitaminas, fibra, antioxidantes, minerales y proteínas vegetales mientras simultáneamente restamos 100 Kcal a la dieta.

    Lo importante no sólo es controlar las calorías sino más bien, restar aquellas de mala calidad nutricional y reemplazarlas por opciones saciantes, nutritivas y sanas para el organismo.

    Imagen | iStock


              Some notes on white monopoly capital: Definition, use and denial   

    “The theoretical conclusions of the Communists are in no way based on ideas or principles that have been invented, or discovered, by this or that would-be universal reformer. They merely express, in general terms, actual relations springing from an existing class struggle, from a historical movement going on under our very eyes” - Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848.

    “Today, the main task of the working class is to abolish the white monopoly of power, to carry out the national democratic revolution for the liberation of African and other oppressed people”- Augmented Meeting of the Central Committee of the South African Communist Party, 1970.

    “We have in the past defined the forces which the NDR sought to defeat as the white ruling class, represented by monopoly capitalism and including other class and social strata within the white community, all whom had an objective interest in the continuation of white minority rule”, ANC Discussion Document, Umrabulo 8, 2000.

    1. Context

    A narrative is now gaining momentum that the concept “white monopoly capital” is an invention of some public relations firm called Bell Pottinger, which was founded in 1987, and that it does not exist in the literature of the national liberation movement.

    Some have continued to maintain that “white monopoly capital” does not exist, while others acknowledge that it exists but, fearing for their positions in white monopoly establishments, their deals and careers, they say it is harmful to investment to keep on referring to “white monopoly capital”.

    But, is it really true that the concept, “white monopoly capital”, does not exist in the annals of the South African revolution?

    In his recent Open Letter, Justice Pitso says something very profound, “…where the fundamental principles of our scientific revolutionary theory of Marxism-Leninism are concerned, the question of who is right or wrong cannot be judged necessarily on the basis of the view of the majority”.

    In these notes, we show that the claim that the concept “white monopoly capital” cannot be found in the literature of the national liberation movement is not true. As we have said before in our input titled: “Concerning the Current Situation”, which appeared on 7 April 2017, this narrative which seeks to deny the existence of white monopoly capital, or white monopolisation of South Africa, is aimed at ideologically confusing black people in general, Africans in particular.

    This is done so as to hide the real class force that wields power in South African society, the class force which is responsible for much of the poverty, starvation and suppression of talent that is experienced by black people.

    Others have decided to give up on the real situation and lurch on to idealism. We are now informed that we should suppress the facts and ignore the national character of monopoly capital in South Africa. All of a sudden, monopoly capital has turned colourless as pure water. This is revisionism.

    Writing in the New Age, Nelson Mandela had this to say: “The system of white supremacy has its roots in the cheap labour need of the major economic groups in the country. South Africa’s economy is dominated by giant monopolies in the gold mining industry linked with big financial and farming interests whose tentacles reach also into secondary industry. These groups have been responsible for the reserve system, migratory labour, the low wage policy. These groups own and control the national wealth of our country and determine the basic structure of the South African state ...”

    Mandela continued to say: “If tomorrow every discriminatory law on the statute book were repealed, but the mineral wealth, monopoly industry and financial empires were not transferred to the ownership of the people as a whole, the system of white superiority would in its basic essentials be perpetuated for many generations.”

    We are exactly where Nelson Mandela warned us we would be, if we did not transfer the basic wealth to the ownership of the people as a whole. As Mzwakhe said, “the people’s patience is not endless”!

    Needless to say, the concept “white monopoly capital” is an invention of the South African Communist Party. It emerged in revolutionary literature for the first time in the SACP 1962 programme, The Road to South African Freedom. That was way before the founding of Bell Pottinger.

    2. The motive forces: some critical thoughts on the National Democratic Revolution

    Some time ago, in 2002, I wrote a paper titled “The motive forces: Some critical thoughts on the NDR”, which was published in Umrabulo Number 14, inspired by the SACP 1962. In that paper, I attempted to scientifically outline the alignment of class forces in the NDR. I sought to define what the class forces of the national democratic revolution are and the forces of the enemy.

    At that time in 2002, as it is now, there was confusion on the issue that was peddled by the neoliberals in the ANC. The neoliberals, worked hard to empty the ANC of its revolutionary theory. There was a dominant tendency, as it is to this day, that made the ANC to rapidly depart from a consistent class analysis in the formulation of the Strategy and Tactics document.

    When the question “who is the enemy of the NDR?” kept on being asked by ANC activists, we were constantly told that “the enemy of the NDR is poverty, unemployment and inequality”. When we responded by saying that the ANC has defined the enemy to be “white monopoly capital”, we were told, “that was in the past”, now we have to “fight poverty, unemployment and inequality”.

    This was obviously unsatisfactory. As young people in the ANC-led movement, we started searching for answers; we felt as though our elders were hiding a “family secret”, because the answer they gave did not make sense.

    Another reason that set me off to write that paper was what I perceived to be an error that some of the comrades were committing. They postured in a way that meant the black bourgeoisie as a whole was not part of the motive forces. They ridiculed and rejected the concept of a “patriotic bourgeoisie”. I still think it is wrong to reject this concept.

    The issues that were at stake then are still at stake today. In a way, one could argue that, substantially at the theoretical level, the ANC has come full circle to the old debate which we hoped would animate theoretical discussion and change the contents of subsequent Strategy and Tactics documents. Alas, the paper failed to catch the attention of comrades.

    In that paper, I stated that: “South Africa's social formation was characterised in the historical papers of the movement as a colonialism of a special type (CST). Because the concept of colonialism does not specify the nature of class relations it was important to move beyond the form of the social formation to its content. Colonialism of a special type was found to be perpetrated by a capitalist class. This class came to be known as "white monopoly capital".

    I continued to assert that, “The movement characterised the principal contradiction in SA as between apartheid colonialism led by white monopoly capital on one side, and national liberation led by the black working class on the other side”.

    In fact the whole paper is replete with the concept “white monopoly capital”. That was in 2002. My confession is that I had no idea that I was pushing a Bell Pottinger concept which was invented more than ten years later, after 2012!

    1. White monopoly capital: Definition

    One of the most disturbing tendencies to emerge from the debate about white monopoly capital is that some contenders claim that white monopoly capital has not been defined. These contenders express their ignorance.

    Here we begin with how the national liberation movement defined the main opponent of the South African revolution and the idea of “white monopolisation” of South Africa.

    3.1 The South African Communist Party

    3.1.1 Extracts from “The Road to South African Freedom, 1962”

    “The three million Whites hold a monopoly of political rights and economic opportunities. They alone can vote for and be elected to Parliament and other governing bodies. They are fortified behind a wall of privilege in the civil service, in jobs and professions, in educational opportunities and a hundred other fields. 87 per cent of the land is reserved for White ownership, and White capitalists own and control the mines, factories and banks and most of commerce. Their government inculcates a lying and insulting doctrine of race superiority”.

    “Effective economic domination in South Africa is thus exercised by an alliance of local White monopoly interests in mining, industry and agriculture, together with foreign imperialists and representatives of state monopoly capitalism. These interests have conflicts among themselves, which are reflected in the main White political parties and groupings. But they find common ground in the perpetuation of the colonial-type subjugation of the non-White population”.

    “In fact, however, real power is in the hands of the monopolists who own and control the mines, the banks and finance houses, and most of the farms and major industries. The gold and diamond mines are owned by seven mining-financial corporations and controlled by a handful of powerful financiers. These seven corporations are closely linked with British and American imperialist interests. They control capital investment in mining alone of R490 million, and employ almost 500,000 workers. In addition, they dominate large sections of manufacturing industries. They are linked with the main banks, two of which control assets of over R2,000 million, mainly in the form of loans to industry, commerce and estate.

    They own vast tracts of arable land and mining rights in almost every part of the country. In agriculture, too, monopoly dominates. 4 per cent of the farms make up an area amounting to almost four-tenths of the total White-owned farmland. Thus, in mining, industry, commerce and farming, monopolists dominate the country’s economy. They are also closely linked with state monopoly capital ventures, such as Iscor (Iron and Steel), Escom (Electricity) and Sasol (Petrol).

    These monopolists are the real power in South Africa. The special type of colonialism in South Africa serves, in the first place, their interests”.

    “All positions of economic strength and influence are held as the jealously guarded monopoly of members of the White group alone”.

    Whites have a monopoly of the best paid jobs, and of entry into skilled trades”.

    “The once powerful Labour Party is dead. The White trade unions — with a few honourable exceptions — collaborated in the implementation of apartheid in industry and job reservation. In fact, most of these unions have become little more than societies to preserve a White monopoly of skilled jobs. For the most part, the White workers of this country support their capitalist rulers and exploiters in the maintenance of White supremacy and colonialism”.

    3.1.2 Extracts from the African National Congress

    Extracts from the Green Book, 1979

    “The  principal  enemy of our revolution  is   the South   African ruling   class, which  is  distinguished  by  a  combination  of  several  key             characteristics. Like     its counterparts in other    capitalist countries, its power  is  rooted, in the first instance,  in         its        ownership       and      control of         the basic    means  of  production.  But  in South Africa, the  system  of  economic  exploitation  is  reinforced  and  deepened  by the national oppression of the black majority.  Thus, capitalist exploitation and racial oppression operate together and reinforce one another”.

    To  maintain this system and safeguard         its        control, the       ruling   class    operates through         a            state    apparatus        whose  political           institutions      and instruments   of repression  -  the army,   police force,   civil            service,  judiciary etc.      -  protect            the existing      relations of         production                  and,     at  the  same            time, the race      rule      which excludes all who     are       not       within  the white   minority group   from    political    rights and        civil     liberties           in         the       land     of  their  birth.  Real  liberation  is  inconceivable without  the overthrow  of  the  economic  and  political   power  of this      class    and      the total destruction of its state apparatus.                                       

    Extracts from “The Nature of the South African Ruling Class, 1985”

    “But the war had also defined the future relationship of Britain and South Africa: economically, South Africa would be a satellite of British imperialism, an outlet for the export of capital and a source of raw materials; politically, the local ruling class would be allowed autonomy and could even be granted sovereignty. By the terms of Vereeniging, Milnerian policy and finally the terms of Union, this ruling class was to be exclusively white. Thus the `small group which owns South Africa`s wealth` is drawn from one racial community, the whites”.

    “The ruling class does not rule on its own, since it is a minority within the white minority. In order to secure its position, it has had to come to terms with other class forces; make deals and reach compromises with class forces and fractions whose interests temporarily intersect with its own. From such alliances has emerged what we can refer to as a bloc led by the ruling class, which wields power. The matrix that holds this bloc together is the ideology of white supremacy which projects the particular interest of the ruling capitalist class as the general interest of all whites”.

    “This type of democratic state we envisage is spelt out in the ten clauses of the Freedom Charter. Though we place equal weight on the separate clauses, the first five, setting out the most pressing political, economic and social reforms a democratic state will have to embark on, can be said to be its core. The enactment of these measures will place political power in the hands of the black masses and transform South Africa from a country belonging to and exploited by a small class of white capitalists and their imperialist [backers], into a country belonging to all who live in it, black and white”.

    Extracts from “Apartheid South Africa: Colonialism of a Special Type, 1987”.

    “This is why the ANC has always considered the two economic clauses of the Freedom Charter: "The People Shall Share in the Country`s Wealth" and "The Land Shall Be Shared Among Those Who Work It" to be the very core of its programme. These clauses envisage the seizure of economic assets, presently owned and controlled either by individual capitalists or capitalist companies drawn exclusively from the white minority or trans-national corporations”.

    “This hierarchy of oppression was devised as a tool of divide-and-rule, as an expression of the warped minds of the white racist ruling clique and as a tactic to buttress the forces which would have a stake in the system of apartheid to defend”.

    Extracts from “Strategy and Tactics, 1997”

    “Over time, the policies of government and the tactical sensibilities of some white monopolists, have precipitated a situation in which some of the black propertied classes are expanding their positions within important sectors of the economy”.

    “However, the improvement in Black and female ownership and control of wealth and access to management and many professions is still limited, with overall proportions which are inversely related to the country`s demographics. This is more starkly reflected in terms of land ownership. As such, while progressive forces have attained political power, economic power remains largely in the hands of the white minority.”

    4. White monopoly capital: Use

    In this part of the notes, we show the use of the concept as such. The point to demonstrate is that those who say the concept “white monopoly capital” does not exist in the documents of the national liberation movement are wrong.

    4.1.1 Extracts from the South African Communist Party

    “At the same time, in order to guarantee the abolition of racial oppression and White minority domination, the Freedom Charter necessarily and realistically calls for profound economic changes: drastic agrarian reform to restore the land to the people; widespread nationalisation of key industries to break the grip of White monopoly capital on the main centres of the country’s economy; radical improvements in the conditions and standards of living for the working people”- The Road to South African Freedom, 1962. [This is the first time the phrase “white monopoly capital”, appears in the literature of the national liberation movement].

    “The form of domination developed by the Union of South Africa also perpetuated the racialised economic structures of the pre-Union period. There was a white monopoly of capitalist means of mining, industrial and agricultural production and of distribution. There was also a virtual white monopoly of skilled and supervisory jobs in the division of labour”- Path to Power, 1989.

    “The struggle for national democracy is also an expression of the class contradiction between the black and democratic forces on the one hand, and the monopoly capitalists on the other. The stranglehold of a small number of white monopoly capitalists over the great bulk of our country`s wealth and resources is based on colonial dispossession and promotes racial oppression. This concentration of wealth and power perpetuates the super-exploitation of millions of black workers. It perpetuates the desperate plight of millions of the landless rural poor. And it blocks the advance of black business and other sectors of the oppressed. This reality, therefore, forms the basis of the antimonopoly content of the national democratic programme”-Path to Power, 1989.

    “This is not to argue that the economic dominance enjoyed by white-dominated monopoly capital with its strong international links should be ignored. The SACP, in evaluating the first decade of our democracy, came to the conclusion that in economic terms white-dominated monopoly capital was the single biggest beneficiary, at the direct expense of the working class, which experienced casualisation, a job loss bloodbath and outsourcing. Therefore the first decade of our democracy, in economic terms, became the decade of the white-dominated bourgeoisie, joined by a small black elite”-The South African Road to Socialism.

    “White monopoly capital in South Africa has, in fact, been the principal beneficiary of the post-1994 period. There is stabilisation and restored profitability, and many of our major corporations have used the period to trans-nationalise, some locating their head-quarters outside of South Africa, others re-locating major share-listings to foreign stock exchanges”. (Two steps forward…two steps back…SACP perspectives on the ANC’s draft Strategy and Tactics 2007, Bua Komanisi Volume 6 - Issue 1, May 2007).

    “This central tenet is quite distinct from the core perspective of what we might call the “1988 class project” – we are referring to the strategic agenda of white monopoly capital that evolved primarily in the late 1980s”. (Seeing Double, SACP contribution to the debate on the ANC’s “Economic Transformation for a National Democratic Society” discussion paper).

    “By the second half of the 1980s, the apartheid-colonial state and its deepening crisis had, however, indeed become an impediment to sustained growth for white monopoly capital”.

    “The continued presence of this 1988 white monopoly class project within our own thinking is visible in parts of the current ANC policy discussion document”.

    “Leaving aside the passing reference to a “democratic and redistributive state” which has its own problems and to which we will return below, it is obvious that, in the key concepts it evokes, this paragraph is located within the “liberate the market from apartheid constraints” paradigm of the 1988 white monopoly class project”.

    “Clearly in the very last years of apartheid, white monopoly capital experienced regional and global mobility challenges – and, while removing mobility constraints on capital may or may not be one of our tasks, it can hardly be the central strategic task of the NDR to help white monopoly capital to recover its regional and global mobility”.

    “But to rise to the challenge of that vision we will have to finally banish the ghost of the 1988 (white monopoly capital) class project from our imaginations, from our practice and…from our discussion papers!”

     “This impact has been deepened by the assiduous cultivation by white monopoly capital of a tiny stratum of ANC-linked black shareholders and board-members in the name of “black economic empowerment”.

    “The two allies resolved to stand shoulder-to-shoulder, together with the ANC, in the struggle to deepen our national democratic revolution, to end the national oppression of the majority, the super-exploitation of workers by white monopoly capitalism and the triple oppression faced by women, in order to create a new non-racial, non-sexist, democratic and prosperous South Africa” (SACP-COSATU Bilateral, 3 April 2012).

    We can thus see that the concept “white monopoly capital” is integral to the revolutionary theory of the national liberation movement. It originated from the classic SACP 1962 programme, and has since been used in various versions to explain the nature of South African society.

    5. Leaders who used the concept

    Several leaders of the national liberation movement emphasised white monopolisation and the dominance of white monopoly capital in the South African economy. In this part of the notes, we highlight a few instances where white monopoly and white monopoly capital were used explicitly. Here we just highlight a few instances to demonstrate the point.

    Nelson Mandela 1990

    “Our discussion on Strategy and Tactics began by recognising that the ANC and the De Klerk government approach the issue of negotiations with opposed agendas. The government`s aim is to reform the apartheid system out of existence while carrying over into the future the accumulated privileges and advantages the white monopoly on power” ( Speech by Nelson Mandela at an ANC rally after the close of the National Consultative Conference, 16 December 1990).

    Joe Slovo 1988

    “The immediate primacy of the struggle against race tyranny flows from the concrete realities of our existing situation. The concept of national domination is not a mystification to divert us from class approaches; it infects every level of class exploitation. Indeed, it divides our working class into colour compartments. Therefore, unusual categories such as 'white working class' and 'black working class' are not 'unscientific' but simply describe the facts.

    We will come back to the need for immediate steps to be taken in the post-apartheid period to break the economic stranglehold of the monopolies and to transform a major portion of wealth from private into social property. Suffice it to say that such measures will, of necessity, result in an immediate sizeable contraction of the private sector. Ninety nine per cent of this sector is presently owned and controlled by white capitalists; a race monopoly which constitutes the key instrument of national domination.

    In the world as a whole, capitalist exploitation does not necessarily involve race domination. But the historically-evolved connection between capitalist exploitation and race domination in South Africa creates a link between national liberation and social emancipation. In our conditions you don't have to be a doctrinaire Marxist to conclude that a liberation which deals only with a rearrangement of the voting system and leaves undisturbed the race monopoly of 99% of our wealth, is no liberation at all” (Joe Slovo, The South African Working Class and the National Democratic Revolution, 1988).

    Blade Nzimande

    “The call for only organised workers to make sacrifices, without calling for the same from white monopoly capital, is essentially a reactionary call for the maintenance of the super-exploitation of the black working class.” (Blade Nzimande, Address to COSATU Congress, September 18, 1997)

    “The single biggest obstacle to the development of the SME and co-operative sector is the lack of finance. In the South African context we have a financial sector that is structured and geared towards supporting white monopoly capital”, (Blade Nzimande, Address to NAFCOC AGM, 4 October 2007 - Durban International Convention Centre).

    “The above might appear to be just skirmishes, but in essence they are a reflection of the dominant and suffocating power of the monopolistic white finance capital in the South African economy, and the extent to which our own government is unwilling to confront this power”, (Blade Nzimande, The financial sector charter is on the brink of collapse, Umsebenzi Volume 6, No. 21, 21 November 2007).

    “One thread that runs through all the groupings that have broken away or engaged in factionalist activity in our liberation movement is their anti-communism and anti-worker attitude, often expressing itself in exactly the same way as that of the apartheid regime and white monopoly capital”, (Blade Nzimande, The good boys and girls, the boss-class instruments’: The 2008 dissidents in their historical context, Umsebenzi Online 5 November 2008).

    Jeremy Cronin

    “In 1979 SASOL was privatised by the apartheid regime, with shares being sold at a discount to (white) monopoly capital, particularly in the mining sector” (Jeremy Cronin, Address to the SACTWU 12th Congress, 22 August 2013).

    Sdumo Dlamini

    “As COSATU, we are now moving forward to build unity of the federation on the ground through activities which takes us closer to the members and position us to heighten our battle against employers and white monopoly capital which is our primary enemy”, (Sdumo Dlamini, COSATU President, Address to the COSATU Gauteng Provincial Congress, 4 August 2015).

    Mbhazima Shilowa

    “As I  have  indicated  in  the past,  we  need to send     a clear message  that   the time for  white  monopoly  capital  to  pay  lip service to economic transformation and empowerment,  especially      for  women,  is  past     and      will  not  be rewarded  in Gauteng” (Mbhazima Shilowa, Address by Premier Mbhazima Shilowa at the Gauteng BBBEE Strategy launch, 18 April 2006).

    Zwelinzima Vavi

    “Economic power is still in the hands of white monopoly capital. The aspirant and vocal black bourgeoisie remains numerically small and depends heavily on the state and white business for its survival”, Zwelinzima Vavi, COSATU General Secretary at the SACP Special Congress, 08 April 2005).

    Fikile “Slovo” Majola

    “Using the superficial banner of our Constitution, the strategic opponent of the NDR – white monopoly capital which includes bourgeois monopoly media houses and its global imperialist connections – is increasingly setting itself on a political collision course with the ANC as part of this wider anti-majoritarian offensive” (Fikile “Slovo” Majola, Joe Slovo Memorial Lecture in North West, 27th January 2013).

    Jacob Mamabolo

    “But we also said at that Special National Congress that the momentum, pace and character of the NDR is deeply and severely constrained by the pain inflicted on the working class by the persistent and reproduced legacy of the Colonialism of a Special type. The working class in our country continues to suffer the pain inflicted by the many years of the crisis of white monopoly capital and its private accumulation of wealth. (Jacob Mamabolo, Acting Gauteng SACP Provincial Secretary, Message of Support to the 11th Gauteng Provincial Conference, 6-8 May 2010).

    We can therefore see that this concept is standard in the language of the national liberation movement. Our own submission is that the concept of white monopoly capital simultaneously implies colonialism of a special type. The two concepts are theoretically inter-twined, one cannot exist without the other. To fail to mention the racial character of monopoly capital is to fail to acknowledge the colonial character of South Africa and the special nature of that colonialism.

    6. White monopoly capital: Denials

    It is to Hillary Joffe’s credit, in her article “Share ownership can be force for change”, published in the Business Day on 22 March 2017, to note that “We’re told UK’s public relations agency Bell Pottinger crafted the white monopoly capital narrative. Whoever did so seems sadly unfamiliar with Marxist texts from which the notion of monopoly capital comes”. We agree!

    However Joffe then makes an unwarranted statement: “…in its original form monopoly capital could not, strictly speaking, have been white, black or any other colour. It was, rather, a particular stage of capitalism, and who owned the means of production didn’t have much to do with it”.

    Now this is the problem of failing to express actual relations which arise from the historical movement going under our very eyes.

    As Pitso correctly mentions in his Open Letter, it was Lenin who first elaborated in detail the idea of monopoly capitalism as a stage in the development of capitalism. However Lenin’s approach was concrete and historical, in that he understood the importance of identifying who owns the means of production in this stage because he was not just interested in interpreting the world, he wanted to change it.

    That is why to us to specify who owns and controls monopoly capital, because our lived experiences, under our very eyes, dictate to us who is responsible for poverty, starvation and marginalisation, so that we can devise proper strategy and tactics to change this situation. Baran and Sweezy as well, did not elaborate the concept of “monopoly capital” in purely abstract terms, they in fact based their study on the concrete history of the United States, and they hinted that some of their conclusions may in fact apply in South Africa.

    Baran and Sweezy’s concrete and historical articulation of the concept of monopoly capital leads them to dedicate a whole chapter (Chapter 9), on monopoly capital and race relations, which makes them also mention South Africa. In this chapter they show that “all the forces we have been discussing…are deeply rooted in monopoly capitalism and together are strong enough to account for the fact that Negroes have been unable to rise out of the lower depths of American society”.

    Who owns and controls the means of production under monopoly capitalism mattered to Baran and Sweezy, because they would not have dedicated a chapter specifically dealing with the suppression and marginalisation of the Negroes, if the demographic composition of American monopoly capital was non-racial.

    Furthermore, the fact that Baran and Sweezy criticise American monopoly capital on the “Negro question”, does not mean that they posit “Negro monopoly capital” as a solution to the “Negro problem”, as some of our intellectually dishonest detractors like to do. In other words, when we criticise white monopoly capital, we do not posit black monopoly capital as a solution. Instead, we posit democratic state monopoly of the strategic sectors under working class leadership as the solution.

    But then, despite this repeated clarification, our detractors continue to deny the concept. For instance Jeremy Cronin, First Deputy General Secretary of the SACP, now claims:

    “There is a world at play in the slippage between a consistent Marxist perspective and the illusions that arise from adding one small word "white" to "monopoly capital". And it is in this small slippage that you will find the ideological bed on which the Polokwane "marriage of convenience" was consecrated. When the "new tendency" and its demagogic vanguard rail against "white monopoly capital" what they are hearing is "white" and what they are thinking is "it`s our turn now". And while populist demagogues might scream about "imperialism" and "monopoly capital" – the threats to carry out nationalization and expropriation simply increase (as they are meant to) the length of the queues of wealthy supplicants outside their office doors, the numbers of sponsorships, the gifts of whisky and helicopter trips they are offered from the very monopoly capital they are threatening!” (Thinking about class - Part One: What were they doing in BUSA in the first place?, Bua Komanisi Volume 10 Number 15, 20 July 2011).

    Thus to Cronin this concept derives its ideological basis from the “Polokwane marriage of convenience”, which was in 2007. But we all know that there was no “Polokwane marriage” in 1962!

    In his response to Fikile Mbalula, Trevor Manuel writes:

    “If you also took the trouble to read the Economics Resolutions of each ANC Conference since the 49th in 1994, you will not find the language of 'White Monopoly Capital' in any of them. This is because WMC is not part of the lexicon of terms used in ANC policy. It was conjured up as a red herring to obscure the misdeeds of the Guptas and those who benefit from their patronage network” (Fikile, do you remember the tears you shared over the Guptas? Daily Maverick, 09 June 2015).

    This statement is very revealing. We can only underline the words “each ANC Conference since the 49th in 1994”. What about the ANC before 1994? What is it about the year 1994 which made the concept “white monopoly capital” to disappear?

    Then Manuel makes the claim:

    “I stand by what I said at the Nelson Mandela Foundation: the term "White Monopoly Capital" was conjured up by Bell Pottinger on behalf of the Guptas, and filtered into the political discourse to serve their agenda” (Fikile, do you remember the tears you shared over the Guptas? Daily Maverick, 09 June 2015).

    In his rebuttal, Fikile Mbalula quoted the article I wrote, which he incorrectly attributes to the ANC. But the point he makes nevertheless remains valid, the concept was there long before the current talk about Bell Pottinger; it was not conjured up by Bell Pottinger.

    Trevor Manuel has yet to sustain his argument.

    As we have noted, a variation of the concept appears to have mistakenly slipped through into the 1997 ANC Strategy and Tactics, where the ANC spoke about “white monopolists”, or in 2000, where the ANC spoke about “the white ruling class, represented by monopoly capital and including other class and social strata within the white community”.

    In his address to the SACP Imbizo held in 2017, the Secretary General of the ANC, Gwede Mantashe said:

    “There is an attempt to vulgarise monopoly capital debate; today vocabulary talks about white monopoly capital. It is vulgarisation of the revolution. We then use that vulgarised terminology to deal with each other”.

    We all know that the SACP 1962 programme was not a vulgar programme and neither was the SACP 1989 programme vulgar Marxism.

    The General Secretary of the SACP, in his address to the COSATU Central Committee in 2017, claimed:

    “There is a new phrase that we do not have by the way…white monopoly capital. It’s not anywhere in the documents of the movement. I am challenging you to go. This thing is Gupta-inspired by this public relations company Bell Pottinger by the way, that is now in the emails that are being spoken about…”

    But on several occasions he used the concept.

    The SACP created this concept in its programme of 1962.

    * CHRISTOPHER MALIKANE is Associate Professor of Economics, Wits University.

    * THE VIEWS OF THE ABOVE ARTICLE ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHOR AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT THE VIEWS OF THE PAMBAZUKA NEWS EDITORIAL TEAM

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              La diabetes, el gran problema de salud del siglo XXI   



    UNA ENFERMEDAD MUY POCO DULCE



    Si las cosas siguen como hasta hoy, para el año 2025 habrá más de 10 millones de mexicanos con diabetes, una enfermedad de aparición discreta, pero de terribles consecuencias.














    EL MECANISMO DE LA DIABETES






    ¿Pero qué pasa con los diabéticos?
    El problema que sufren es su incapacidad para aprovechar la glucosa-un tipo de azúcar-indispensable para obtener la energía celular necesaria.
    Unas veces porque la insulina no es producida por el páncreas de manera constante y suficiente y, otras, porque las mismas células no responden a la hormona y no dejan pasar el azúcar a su interior. Entonces, los niveles de glucosa en la sangre se elevan anormalmente y provocan daños de muy diverso tipo que pueden a largo plazo desembocar un infarto, ceguera, neuropatía de la extremidades inferiores o severo daño renal.
    La diabetes no es, sin embargo, una sola enfermedad. Cuando menos hay dos tipos principales: la I o insulinodependiente, que aparece en los primeros años de vida como la manifestación de un páncreas incapaz de sintetizar la insulina y la II o no insulinodependiente, la más común en nuestro país, y que se está convirtiendo en el principal asesino de los mexicanos en los años recientes.

    • Alimentación, obesidad y resistencia

      Cuando comemos, muchos de los alimentos que tomamos contienen hidrato de carbono o carbohidratos, que son moléculas de azúcar de diferentes tamaños y formas.
      Cuando llegan a nuestro intestino delgado son procesados para convertirlos en glucosa. Una vez la concentración de glucosa en la sangre detectada por el páncreas, vierte insulina y provoca una serie de reacciones hasta lograr un núcleo celular abra la puerta a la glucosa. Así después de comer, los niveles de azúcar se elevan, para más tarde regresar a concentraciones normales debido a la acción de la hormona pancreática.

    El diabético tipo II no puede llevar a cabo este proceso. Los receptores de la insulina en las células de los músculos se modifican y se resisten a la acción de la Hormona.

    La resistencia a la insulina es una fase previa a la diabetes propiamente dicha, que da a un círculo vicioso.
    Ante el exceso de trabajo, las células beta de la glándula, encargadas directas de la generación de la hormona, terminan a la largo por fatigarse y dejan de trabajar.
    Una vez que la concentración de la insulina decrece, la asimilación de la glucosa se torna todavía más deficiente y su concentración en nuestra sangre se pronuncia.



    LOS REFRESCOS FAVORECEN LA APARICION DE LA DIABETES






    Investigadores de la Universidad de California en San Francisco (Estados Unidos) aseguran que el mayor consumo de bebidas azucaradas e isotónicas, o refrescos con sabores de frutas, puede haber favorecido la aparición de nuevos casos de diabetes y enfermedades cardiovasculares en Estados Unidos durante la última década.
    Estas conclusiones, dadas a conocer en un encuentro sobre epidemiología y prevención cardiovascular de la Asociación
    Americana del Corazón, parten de los resultados de un modelo de simulación creado a partir de grandes estudios epidemiológicos realizados en Estados Unidos. Según dicho modelo, el aumento en el consumo de bebidas azucaradas entre los años 1990 y 2000 favoreció la aparición de 130,000 nuevos casos de diabetes, 14,000 nuevos casos de cardiopatía isquémica y 50,000 años de vida adicionales con una enfermedad coronaria a lo largo de esa década.
    Este tipo de productos contiene entre 120 y 200 calorías según el tipo de bebida, por lo que los investigadores están convencidos de que pueden haber tenido parte de culpa en el aumento de la obesidad que se ha registrado en los últimos años en Estados Unidos. Además, a través del modelo han estimado que este incremento de enfermedades cardiovasculares ha provocado un gasto sanitario de entre 300 y 550 millones de dólares. Y estiman que se pueden haber producido al menos 6,000 muertes y unos 21,000 años de vida perdidos por el aumento de las bebidas azucaradas.
    ¿Un impuesto para los refrescos?
    Para evitar que la situación empeore en años sucesivos, los expertos en política sanitaria sugieren limitar el consumo de bebidas azucaradas incluyendo un impuesto de 1 centavo de dólar por cada 28.3 gramos de bebida, ya que aseguran que esta medida podría hacer disminuir el consumo en un 10 por ciento.

    La Asociación Americana del Corazón recomienda un límite máximo de calorías procedente de azúcares añadidos, que para las mujeres no debería superar las 100 calorías por media jornada, mientras para los hombres el límite sería de 150 calorías diarias.
    PANCREAS ARTIFICIAL CONTRA LA DIABETES



    Los pacientes con diabetes tipo 1 podrán controlar mejor su enfermedad en el futuro gracias a un nuevo páncreas artificial que utiliza un algoritmo computarizado para equilibrar los niveles de azúcar en el organismo.

    En la diabetes tipo 1, el páncreas deja de producir suficiente insulina, una hormona que reduce los niveles de azúcar, y también de liberar suficiente glucagón, que eleva la concentración de azúcar en la sangre. El nuevo páncreas artificial, desarrollado por bioquímicos de la Universidad de Boston y del Hospital General de Massachusetts (EE.UU.), resuelve este problema casi como lo haría un órgano sano. Su mecanismo está compuesto por un monitor continuo de azúcar en la sangre, dos surtidores que inyectan ambas hormonas debajo de la piel y una computadora portátil, que ejecuta un programa capaz de calcular el nivel de hormonas necesita el paciente en un momento determinado.
    Según describen sus creadores en un estudio publicado en la revista Science Translational Medicine, si bien aún no es una cura definitiva, la nueva tecnología supone un giro radical en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad crónica, que afecta a unos 285 millones de personas en todo el mundo.

    ENTREGA INMEDIATA

    Hay medicinas especializadas para tratar el cáncer o la diabetes que no
    pueden administrarse por vía oral pero que deben consumirse de forma
    intermitente durante largos periodos, proceso que llega a ser incómodo para los pacientes. Para solucionarlo, un equipo de científicos dirigidos por el doctor Daniel Kohane, del Hospital Infantil de Boston, Estados Unidos, creó un sistema inteligente que combina magnetismo y nanotecnología. Se trata de un pequeño dispositivo de menos de 2.5 cm de diámetro que encapsula el bfármaco requerido en una membrana de gel armada con nanopartículas hechas de mineral de magnetita, el cual se implanta bajo la piel del enfermo. Cuando
    se aplica un campo magnético cerca del dispositivo, dichas nanopartículas se calientan y abren sus poros para liberar la sustancia en el cuerpo. Al
    retirar la fuerza magnética, las membranas se enfrían, el gel cierra sus
    poros y detiene la entrega de medicina. Aunque el dispositivo está en fase
    de experimentación, de acuerdo con Kohan, quien dirige el laboratorio de
    biomateriales del hospital, permitirá a los pacientes y a sus médicos
    “determinar con precisión cuándo y en qué cantidades” se administran los
    medicamentos, todo con relativa facilidad y prácticamente sin errores.
    Fuente: Hospital Infantil de Boston
               Herman Miller Aeron Chair (Remastered) Mineral - Precision   
     Herman Miller Aeron Chair (Remastered) Mineral - Precision

    Herman Miller Aeron Chair (Remastered) Mineral - Precision

    By working in authorised partnership with Herman Miller, Precision means:   • Your Herman Miller chair installed from stock by Wellworking’s trained staff• 1 Hour Delivery time slots• No Assembly Required• Onsite fitting & user training• Removal of all packaging   Herman Miller Aeron Chair Mineral - Precision comes with as standard: • 8Z Mineral Pellicle • Fully Adjustable pivoting arms• SL PostureFit• Tilt limiter & forward tilt• Mineral Frame• Mineral Vinyl Armpads• Choice of Castors  If you are looking for a Herman Miller Classic Aeron chair in a range of other fabric, colour and technical options please click here.   The Precision delivery service is available within 100 miles of London only.  For other areas chairs will be delivered fully assembled & boxed to the front door by courier.  


              Offer - Slag Heating Furnace - CHINA   
    Smelting categories: Resistance smeltingProduction: 3t/hourPower consumption: noDetailed description:1.The usage of equipment:This equipment is mainly used to receive the slag from electric furnace to heat and keep warm, conveying to the mechanism of centrifugal cotton, whereas there is a slag hole, for the use of a mineral wool machine, and the ability of slag notch is 3t/hour, 80% yield and annual output can be reached to 15000-20000 tons.This furnace has a taphole, which is used for tapping the other irons.There is a thermometer hole on the furnace hole which is used for fast thermocouple temperature measurement.2.Main technical parameters:   Furnace capacity                       30t    Transformer                          HKSSP-3200/35  (overload 20%)   The secondary voltage                  160~290V   The secondary current                  6359A                                The diameter of furnace shell            Φ5300   The electrode diameter                 350mm                              Electrode trip                        2200mm                             The outer diameter of the furnace shell     5300mm                             The height of furnace shell               2500mm                            The chamber size                       Φ3340mm                          The depth of the chamber                1200mm                             Electrode section heart round size         Φ1400mm                           Circulating water consumption             200t/h3.Summary of the equipmentThis equipment is designed and manufactured based on GBl0067.1-4 The Elementary Technological Conditions of Electric Heating Equipment The main techniques adopted by this equipment are:Fully enclosed structure design;Tube type water cooling furnace cover:Energy-saving short-net;Hydraulic lift conductive copper - steel composite beam;In large cross-section water-cooled cables;PLC automatic control system;
              Herman Miller Aeron Chair (Remastered) Executive Mineral - Precision   
    Herman Miller Aeron Chair (Remastered) Executive Mineral - Precision

    Herman Miller Aeron Chair (Remastered) Executive Mineral - Precision

    By working in authorised partnership with Herman Miller, Precision means:   • Your Herman Miller chair installed from stock by Wellworking’s trained staff• 1 Hour Delivery time slots• No Assembly Required• Onsite fitting & user training• Removal of all packaging   Herman Miller Aeron Chair Mineral Executive - Precision comes with as standard: • 8Z Mineral Pellicle • Fully Adjustable pivoting arms• SL PostureFit• Tilt limiter & forward tilt• Mineral Frame / Polished Aluminium Base & Linkage• Mineral Vinyl Armpads• Choice of Castors   If you are looking for a Herman Miller Classic Aeron chair in a range of other fabric, colour and technical options please click here.   The Precision delivery service is available within 100 miles of London only.  For other areas chairs will be delivered fully assembled & boxed to the front door by courier.  


              Faculty Member, Chemical and Biological Engineering - University of Saskatchewan - Canada   
    Biotechnology and Biomaterial processing, Energy and Renewable Resources, Environment, and Mineral Processing. Faculty Position in Energy and Environment....
    From University of Saskatchewan - Wed, 21 Jun 2017 10:43:39 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              FILO MINING SHARE CAPITAL AND VOTING RIGHTS UPDATE   

              Piso en Venta en Madrid Capital   
    275000
    Piso renta libre, 2 amplios dormitorios, 2 baños uno en suite de mármol y ambos recién reformados( con griferías termostato Grohe y platos de ducha antideslizantes de mineral). Gran salón, buena orientación, dobles ventanas en toda la vivienda....
    2 habitaciones 2 baños 94 m² 2.925 €/m² cocina ducha piscina trastero
    Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:16:46 -0400
              crushing operations helper - mineral products processing - Carwald Redi-Mix (Slave Lake) Ltd. - Slave Lake, AB   
    Valid driver's licence Work Conditions and Physical Capabilities. No degree, certificate or diploma Experience.... $20 - $25 an hour
    From Canadian Job Bank - Fri, 16 Jun 2017 02:17:05 GMT - View all Slave Lake, AB jobs
              Mineral Resource Manager - Barrick Gold Corporation - Cortez, NV   
    Geological Data Management. And geological data management functions of Geology Department. Ensure that the Data Management Team are fully engaged and resourced...
    From Barrick Gold Corporation - Mon, 22 May 2017 18:18:58 GMT - View all Cortez, NV jobs
              Senior Mineral Geologist - Leidos - Edison, NJ   
    The candidate will participate in field hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations at hazardous waste sites throughout the US and will evaluate, select and...
    From Leidos - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 10:31:33 GMT - View all Edison, NJ jobs
              Mineral Resource Manager - Barrick Gold Corporation - Nevada   
    Geological Data Management. And geological data management functions of Geology Department. Ensure that the Data Management Team are fully engaged and resourced...
    From Barrick Gold Corporation - Mon, 22 May 2017 18:19:35 GMT - View all Nevada jobs
              Transformers: El último caballero / Transformers 5 (2017)   
    Historia sobre una guerra extraterrestre que tiene lugar en la Tierra. Dos razas de robots transformables -los villanos decepticons y los amistosos autobots- llegan a nuestro planeta en busca de la "chispa vital", o "el cubo", una misteriosa fuente de poder. Aquí entablarán una disputa con los humanos de por medio, que tomarán partido por los autobots. La Tierra es la salida para estas máquinas, pues rica en minerales y químicos, representa la salvación para los autómatas, quienes emprenderán una terrible guerra por el preciado Cubo. Y, en medio de todo, un espabilado adolescente, Sam Witwicky (Shia LaBeouf), que sólo pretende conquistar a la bella Mikaela (Megan Fox), se convierte en la clave de una guerra que puede destruir a la humanidad.

              Gift Shop Assistant Manager - Manitou Springs Resort & Mineral Spa - Manitou Beach, SK   
    Full time gift shop assistant manager required for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 voted #1 Spa in Saskatchewan, Manitou Springs Resort and Mineral Spa.... $16 an hour
    From Indeed - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 19:29:30 GMT - View all Manitou Beach, SK jobs
              Food and Beverage Server - Manitou Springs Resort & Mineral Spa - Manitou Beach, SK   
    Visit our website at manitousprings.ca for more information on the Watrous and Manitou Beach area. Free accommodations provided for the first few weeks of...
    From Indeed - Wed, 22 Mar 2017 21:46:04 GMT - View all Manitou Beach, SK jobs
              Cook - Manitou Springs Resort and Mineral Spa - Manitou Beach, SK   
    Now hiring at 302 McLachlan Avenue, Manitou...
    From Job Spotter - Sun, 11 Jun 2017 20:42:37 GMT - View all Manitou Beach, SK jobs
              Pequeno Dicionário de Umbanda. 1ª Parte - Letra: A à Letra: C   

                                                                     
    Esse texto de hoje é um pedido especial de vários e vários amigos,
    que por muitas vezes entram em contato conosco por diversos meios,
    apenas para tirar dúvidas em certas palavras ditas em terreiros,
    templos, tendas e casas de Umbanda.

        Como foram muitos pedidos, selecionamos algumas palavras usadas
    dentro da Umbanda e até mesmo em outras religiões afro brasileiras
    para fazer esse pequeno dicionário a todos que se interessarem. E para
    não ficar algo massante de se ler, dividimos em 3 partes.

        Os links de cada parte posterior a esse são:

    Parte 2: Será postado no dia: 10/07/2017.
    Parte 3: Será postado no dia: 20/07/2017.

        Espero que todos apreciem, pois o saber é algo maravilhoso.
    **********************************************************************
                                  *LETRA A*

    ABAÇÁ: Templo, tenda, terreiro de Umbanda. Casa umbandista, onde se tem
    as sessões espíritas.

    ABACÊ: Cozinheira que prepara as comidas de Santo, no culto JeJê.

    ABADÁ: É o nome dado a uma túnica larga e de mangas compridas, usada
    nos terreiros pelos homens.

    ABADÔ: Parte da vestimenta de Oxum.

    ABALÁ: Comida muito semelhante ao acarajé.

    ABAÔ: Quer dizer um iniciante do sexo masculino, desenvolvendo-se
    mediunicamente no terreiro de Umbanda.

    ABARÁ: Comida dos pretos africanos como seja bolo de feijão, que vem
    enrolado em folha de bananeira.

    ABARÉ: Nome dado ao médium desenvolvido.

    ABARÉ GUASSU: O mesmo que grande trabalho.

    ABARÉ MIRIM: Médium em desenvolvimento.

    ABATÁ: Sapato ou qualquer tipo de calçado.

    ABEDÊ: É o leque de Oxum, quando feito de latão.

    ABICUN: Uma criança que desencarna logo após o parto.

    ABÔ DOS AXÉS: Água contendo ervas maceradas, não cozidas.

    ABRIR A GIRA: Significa o início ou abertura dos trabalhos nos
    terreiros de Umbanda.

    ABROQUE: É um manto usado somente pelas mulheres durante uma sessão de
    Umbanda.

    ACAÇÁ: Comida ou alimento dos Orixás. Bolo feito com massa de farinha
    de milho branco ou arroz, cozido em água, sem sal e envolto em folhas
    de bananeira. É comida votiva do Oxalá, mas pode ser ACARAJÉ.

    ACARAJÉ: Comida de santo feita na base de feijão fradinho com pimenta
    malagueta, camarões e também outros temperos. É a comida de Iansã.

    ACENDE CANDEIA: Planta muito utilizada para banhos. Conhecida também
    como Candeia Mucerengue

    ADARRUM: É o toque feito seguidamente pelos atabaques quando da
    invocação dos protetores para incorporarem nos médiuns.

    ADÉ: Homem com trejeito femininos, homem afeminado.

    ADJÁ: É uma campainha sino) usada nas cerimônias de terreiro. É um
    instrumento utilizado pela entidade chefe ou Zelador, ou ainda pelos
    auxiliares durante as giras para ajudar na incorporação de médiuns
    iniciantes, ou de médiuns com Falangeiros que tomam excesso de carga
    espiritual do mesmo.

    ADOBALÉ: Nome dado ao ato de deitar-se no chão para ser abençoado pelo
    Orixá.

    ADUPÊ: Bode.

    AGÉ: Pessoa que não entende o Ritual.

    AGÔ: Significa pedir licença ou permissão, em outros momentos em que
    este termo traduz perdão e proteção pelo que se está fazendo.
    Ex.: Agô meu Pai agô.

    AGOGÔ: Instrumento de percussão feito de boca de sino que marcam o
    toque dos orixás e os pontos das Entidades de Luz.

    AGUIDAVIA: Varetas de cipó, goiabeira, marmelo ou ipê utilizadas para
    tocar Atabaque.

    AGURÊ: Toque em ritmo muito lento para chamar ou homenagear Iansã.

    AIA: Toalha branca para uso em terreiro.

    Aieieu ou Oraaieieu: saudação a Oxum.

    AIOCÁ: Referente a Iemanjá e ao fundo do mar.

    AIUKÁ: Fundo do mar. Também se diz os domínios de Iemanjá Rainha do
    Aiuká.

    AJÉ ou AKÃ: Faixa usada para amarrar no peito dos médiuns
    incorporados.

    AJUCÁ: É a festa da Cabocla Jurema entre os capangueiros.

    AKIKÓ: Galo.

    AKOKEM: Galinha d'angola.

    AKUKÓ: O mesmo que Akikó, ou seja  galo.

    ALDEIA: Povoado de índios. Tratando-se de terreiros, esta palavra quer
    dizer a moradia dos espíritos de caboclos na Aruanda.

    ALFANJE: Sabre curvo, um tanto curto e de lâmina larga.

    ALGUIDAR: Vasilha ou bacia de barro usada para entregas, acendimento
    de velas, depósito de banhos, entrega de comidas e defumação.

    ALIBÃ: Mesmo que  polícia.

    ALUBOSA: Cebola.

    AMACI NI ORY:  Cerimônia da lavagem (feitura) de cabeça dos médiuns.

    Amaci: Líquido preparado de folhas de ervas, macerados pela Iabá ou
    Babalorixá ou Ialorixá, onde após preparado fica curtindo por alguns
    dias, dependendo da linha de Orixá ao qual se destina o Amaci.

    AMALÁ: Comida de Santo.

    AMARRADO: Estado do indivíduo que se encontra perturbado e
    influenciado por espíritos e forças maléficas que se agregam a ele e o
    prejudicam na vida material e espiritual, sugando suas energias e o
    levando a falta de evolução.

    AMOBIRIM: Mulher que não casou , mulher solteira.

    AMOLOCÔ: Comida de Oxum.

    AMPARO: Chicote sagrado usado especialmente para afastar espíritos
    atrasados e maléficos.

    AMULETO: Objeto feito artesanalmente e cruzado pela entidade Chefe do
    terreiro, onde tem por finalidade dar a proteção ao indivíduo que o
    usa. Pode ser usado pendurado no pescoço, no bolso, em bolsas, no
    carro, ou onde for determinado pela Entidade de Luz. O mesmo que
    Patuá.

    ANGOLA: Região do sudoeste da África, de onde vieram negros escravos
    para o Brasil, trazendo vários dialetos de origem Bantu como Kimbundo,
    Embundo, Kibuko e Kikongo.

    ANGOMBÁ: É a designação para um segundo atabaque.

    APARÁ: Uma das qualidades da Orixá Oxum, quando se apresenta
    carregando uma espada.

    APARELHO: O mesmo que Médium.

    ARAUANÃ: Dança ritual africanista para quebrar demandas e trazer
    alegrias.

    ARÊ: Ruas e Encruzilhadas.

    ARIAXÉ: Banho preparado com ervas e folhas. Esse banho consta mais de
    21 diferentes espécies de vegetais. Preparado somente pelo próprio
    Zelador.

    ARIMBÁ: Pote de barro para guardar o azeite de dendê.

    ARIPÓ: Panela muito semelhante ao alguidar de barro.

    ARROBOBÔ: Uma das saudações do Orixá Oxumaré.

    ARUANDA: Céu, Nirvana ou Firmamento significam a mesma coisa, isto é,
    a moradia daquele que é Criador de todos os mundos e de todas as
    coisas. Alta esfera, local onde habitam iluminados seres que viveram
    ou não no planeta Terra. Espíritos de Luz diretamente ligados com as 7
    Divindades criadas por Deus.

    ARUÊ: Espírito desencarnado

    ARUQUERÊ: Objeto de metal usado por Oxossi.

    ASSENTAMENTO DE ORIXÁ: É o lugar no Gongá onde é colocada a
    representação de Orixá, ou da sua ferramenta, ponto riscado, etc.

    ASSENTAR: Consagrar objetos lançando mão de apetrechos e rituais, a
    fim de oferecê-los ao Orixá.

    ASSENTO: Termo utilizado para um local preparado para um Orixá ou Exú.
    Santuário exclusivo.

    Atabaque: Instrumento sagrado utilizado para firmar a curimba durante
    as giras, através do Ogã. Eles são três tambores de tamanho pequeno,
    médio e grande, que marcam o ritmo e a cadência dos cânticos. O maior
    se chama RUM, o médio RUMPI e o pequeno Lê.

    ATARÉ: Pimenta da Costa.

    ATIM: Pó de pemba.

    Atotô: saudação ao Sr. Omulú.

    AXÉ: É a força mágica do terreiro representada pelo segredo composto
    de diversos objetos pertencentes as linhas e falanges. Força bendita e
    divina. Termo de múltiplas acepções no universo dos cultos: Amém,
    Salve, Que Deus esteja contigo.

    AXEXÊ: Cerimônia fúnebre iorubana. Semelhança com a missa de 7º dia
    Católica.
    Ritual fúnebre para libertar o espírito da matéria.

    AXÓ: Roupas dos filhos de santo.

    AXOXÔ: Nome dado à uma comida de Oxossi.

    AZÊ:  Capuz de palha. Ornamento da roupa de Omulú.

    AZEITE DE DENDÊ: Óleo baiano extraído do dendezeiro, sendo muito
    utilizado na culinária dos Orixás.
    **************************************************************************************
                                  *LETRA B*

    BABA KEKERÊ: O mesmo que Pai Pequeno.

    BABALAÔ: Pai de Santo. Chefe de terreiro. Somente o Zelador de gênero
    masculino.

    Babalorixá: Sacerdote masculino, chefe material do terreiro,
    orientador, curador e mentor. Denominado como “pai de santo” ou
    Zelador. Dirige tanto o corpo administrativo como sacerdotal.

    BABUGEM: Restos de comidas e bebidas que sobram no terreiro.

    BACO: Ato Sexual.

    BACURô DE PEMBA: Filho de Santo.

    BAIXAR: Termo que quer dizer incorporação das Entidades/Orixás nos
    médiuns. Esse termo designa que toda entidade que vem do Céu, ou
    seja, de Aruanda, baixe do céu para terra. Mesma coisa que incorporar,
    assim a Entidade espiritual se comunica com os demais através do
    médium.

    BALANGANDÃ: Enfeites e ornamentos. Podem também ser amuletos.

    BALÊ: Casa dos Espíritos mortos ou seja desencarnados.

    BANDA: Termo utilizado para dizer em qual linha está ligado a Entidade
    de Luz, ou seja lugar de Origem da Entidade.

    BARRACÃO: Local de ritual, terreno, o terreiro fisicamente
    propriamente dito. O lugar principal do terreiro.

    BASTÃO DE OGUM: Espécie vegetal de espada de São Jorge.

    BATER PARA O SANTO: Ato de percutir os Atabaques usando o ritmo
    especial de determinado Orixá.

    BATER CABEÇA: Ritual que quer dizer cumprimentar respeitosamente e
    humildemente. Consiste... em abaixar-se aos pés do Gongá (altar) ou a
    uma Entidade Espiritual e tocar sua cabeça ao chão, aos seus pés.
    Representa respeito e humildade.

    BEJA: Cerveja branca.

    BENTINHOS: Escapulário que traz pendurado no pescoço e contém orações,
    rezas e figuras de santos. O mesmo que Patuá.

    BETULÉ: Machado feito de pedra e de bambu para designação de Xangô.

    BILONGO: Amuleto muito usado por caçadores para proteção.

    BOLAR NO SANTO: Início incompleto de transe que ocorre com os médiuns
    não preparados.

    BORÍ: Ato pelo qual filho de santo oferece sua cabeça ao Orixá. Termo
    usado também cujo significado é cabeça. Termo muito utilizado no
    Candomblé.

    BOTAR NA MESA: Quando um médium atente particularmente um consulente e
    através de um oráculo principalmente as cartas) procede a consulta e a
    orientação espiritual.

    BREVE: o mesmo que patuá ou amuleto. Utilizado para proteção, pequeno
    envelope de pano ou couro, contendo uma oração ou imagem de santo.

    BURRO: o mesmo que médium. Termo utilizado pelos guardiões para se
    referir aos médiuns de incorporação. E dito assim não pela referência
    a falta de inteligência, mas sim pela força contida no físico para
    incorporações.

    BÚZIOS: Tipos de conchas de uso recorrente na vida cerimonial dos
    terreiros, Especialmente servem para serem jogados na busca de
    respostas sobre a espiritualidade, e somente com os búzios que se pode
    dizer os Orixás de Coroa dos médiuns. São empregados geralmente
    dezesseis búzios, porém isso quem determina é o jogador ou Mentor.
    Assim sendo, é com os búzios que se pode ser evocado o Ifá, feito
    somente pelo Zelador do terreiro ou Mentor da casa.
    **********************************************************************
                                  *LETRA C*

    CABAÇA: Vaso feito do fruto maduro do cabaceiro depois de esvaziado o
    miolo. Utilizado também como moringa para água.

    CABAIA: Assim é denominado uma túnica de mangas largas utilizada por
    médiuns e Cambonos.

    CABEÇA MAIOR: Pessoa de alta hierarquia no terreiro.

    CABEÇA FEITA: Denominação do médium desenvolvido e que já foi cruzado
    no terreiro, tendo já definido seu Orixá de cabeça. Médium que já
    passou pelo ritual do amaci.

    CAIR NO SANTO: Transe mediúnico de quem ainda não está preparado para incorporar.

    CALIFÃ: Prato ritualístico com 4 búzios, onde se pede a confirmação
    aos Orixás em certos rituais.

    CALUNGA GRANDE: Oceano, mar.

    CALUNGA PEQUENA: Cemitério, Campo Santo.

    CAMBONO ou CAMBONE: Auxiliar de Médiuns de Incorporação e o Servidor
    dos Orixás e Entidades de Luz.

    CAMOLETE: Lenço branco de tamanho grande colocado na cabeça dos
    médiuns durante alguns rituais.

    CAMUCITÊ: Nome dado ao Gongá, ou Altar, ou congar, ou pegi.

    Camutuê: cabeça do indivíduo.

    CANJIRA ou CANDJIRA: Lugar onde são realizados algumas danças
    religiosas.

    CANZUÁ ou CAZUÁ de QUIMBÉ: Terreiro, casa, tenda espiritual.

    CAÔ: Saudação de Xangô.  O mesmo que: Salve! Viva!

    CAÔ CABECILE XANGÔ: saudação a Xangô.

    CAPANGUEIRO: termo utilizado para designar os companheiros.

    CARMA: É a consequência de vidas passadas, as quais dirigem a presente
    e organizam as futuras encarnações.

    CARREGADO: termo utilizado para denominar a pessoa que esta com má
    influência, com energias negativas, baixa vibração mental e
    espiritual. A pessoa demonstra prostração, desânimo, mal estar, medo.

    CASA DAS ALMAS: Pequeno cômodo com velas e imagens de Obaluaiê, Omulú
    e Pretos Velhos. Local utilizado para fazer as orações e preces às
    Almas.

    CASA LIMPA: Templo ou moradia livre de más influências e demandas.

    CAZUÁ: Casa, moradia ou Lar das pessoas.

    CATIMBOZEIRO: termo utilizado para chefe do catimbó.

    CATULÁ: Termo usado em sessão que significa anular um trabalho
    maléfico.

    CAVALO: O mesmo que médium, pessoa que incorpora.

    CAVARIS: Conchas da África, búzios, instrumento pelo qual se faz as
    consultas a Ifá.

    CAVUNJE: Moleque.

    CENTRO: Terreiro, tenda ou casa de Umbanda, cazuá..

    CERA DOS TRÊS REINOS: São empregados para trabalhos de Umbanda
    sagrada. São elas: 1ª Carnaúba, sendo do Reino Vegetal. 2ª Abelha,
    sendo do Reino Animal. 3ª Parafina, sendo do Reino Mineral.

    CHEFE DE CABEÇA: Entidade chefe do médium, guia protetor.

    CHEFE DE FALANGE: Entidade espiritual chefe da corrente vibracional de
    uma determinada linha.

    CHEFE DE LEGIÃO: Entidade de grande escala evolutiva espiritual, que
    descem nos templos representando os Orixás de uma determinada linha ou
    corrente vibratória. O mesmo que Falangeiros.

    CHEFE DE TERREIRO: O mesmo que dirigente espiritual.

    COISA FEITA: Quer dizer trabalho feito para levar o mal a alguém,
    despacho maléfico, feitiço, bruxaria, Magia negra.

    COITÉ: Fruto que partido ao meio, serve como recipiente para servir
    bebidas as Entidades de Luz. Hoje em dia se faz também com casca de
    coco e se utiliza o mesmo nome.

    COMPADRE: utilizado por alguns terreiros para denominar os guardiões,
    Exús ou o Povo da Legião da Malandragem.

    CONSULENTE: Indivíduo que vai a um terreiro de Umbanda se consultar
    com uma Entidade de Luz.

    CONSULTA: Termo utilizado no atendimento da entidade com o
    necessitado.

    CORPO FECHADO: Nenhum espírito maléfico pode incorporar no médium, ou
    nenhum espírito pode trazer o mal a pessoa que tem o corpo fechado.

    CORREDOR DE GIRAS: Frequentador que passa por vários terreiros, sem
    ter firmado compromisso espiritual com nenhum deles.

    CREDO EM CRUZ: Interjeição que traduz espanto, admiração e repulsa.

    CURIÁ: Beber marafo.

    CURIAU: Comida de Santo, despacho.

    CURIMBA: Conjunto de instrumentos musicais do terreiro. Os
    instrumentos que compõe uma curimba pode ser Atabaques, tambor,
    agogôs, chocalhos, Também pode se chamar de Curimba os pontos cantados
    na umbanda.

    CURIMBEIRO: Médium que “puxa” os pontos durante os trabalhos das
    giras.

    CURUMIM: Pequeno Índio. Pequeno guerreiro.
    **********************************************************************


        Grande axé a todos os irmãos!

    Carlos de Ogum.
                                   Imagem relacionada
                                   
              La obsesión por el kale   

    No hay restaurante en Nueva York que no presente en su carta una ensalada con este ingrediente. Desde hace un par de años es más que una moda: es una epidemia. Y la epidemia traspasa poco a poco las fronteras. Si no sabes lo que es el kale ya no eres chic y quedas fuera de la conversación más cool.

    Tienes que conocer el kale, haber leído sobre él y sus beneficios, tener en la cabeza un par de restaurantes en los que las ensaladas con esta verdura "son la bomba". Además, le añade un plus de glamour decir que lo compras en Whoole Foods —una cadena estadounidense de supermercados que vende alimentos naturales y orgánicos—. Sin kale no hay vida. Hasta el punto de que uno de los nombres para bebés más de moda en Estados Unidos es Kale. Tal cual.

    ¿Qué tiene de especial la verdura de moda? El kale es una col rizada. Nada exótico más allá del nombre y que se supone que es una de las verduras más ricas en vitaminas que crecen en el planeta. Su popularidad también se debe a la alta concentración de minerales, antioxidantes y vitaminas A, C y K de su hojas. Sin embargo, las espinacas, las acelgas y la col rizada tienen valores nutrientes similares.

    Los vegetarianos deben saber desde siempre de las bondades de esta variedad de col rizada, pero nos las ocultaron. Es delicioso en ensaladas, casi indistinguible en batidos y perfecto para decorar los platos más sofisticados. Se transforma en espagueti, muffins, brownies o pizzas. Las patatas chips de kale son superventas en grandes ciudades americanas como Nueva York o Los Ángeles. Hay hasta 450 productos diferentes que ya contienen kale entre sus ingredientes. Todo un negocio.

    Es tal la obsesión por esta verdura que el precio de sus semillas se ha incrementado en los últimos tres años hasta un 80% y su demanda ha crecido también en un 80%, confirman los datos de Rythym Superfoods —la empresa que fabrica patatas de kale—. En estos momentos, según Bloomberg, en Estados Unidos hay unas 3.000 granjas dedicadas exclusivamente a esta variedad de col rizada, frente a las 1.000 registradas en 2007, según datos del departamento de agricultura de este país.

    TAMBIÉN TE PUEDE INTERESAR

    - La gran noche de la gastronomía mundial

    - Supermercados 'bio', tendencia al alza

    Échale un vistazo al Facebook de Tendencias. ¡SÍGUENOS!


              Underground Mine Supervisor Consultant (6-month contract) - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
    Development and implementation of Standard Operating Procedures; Rubicon Minerals Corporation is an advanced exploration company that owns the Phoenix Gold...
    From Rubicon Minerals - Mon, 05 Jun 2017 19:52:35 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
               [P] Compania Romaqua Group sarbatoreste 10 ani de la lansarea pe piata a apei oligominerale naturale plate Aquatique   
    Aquatique isi are izvorul in inima muntilor Carpati, la o altitudine de 1.100 m in zona protejata Parcul Natural Bucegi, rezervatia naturala Abruptul Prahovean. Imbutelierea apei oligominerale Aquatique a inceput la data de 30 iunie 2007. La numai un an de la lansarea pe piata, in anul 2008, Aquatique a primit distinctia "Grand Gold Medal" de la Institutul International de Selectie a Calitatii, Monde Selection, Bruxelles, fiindu-i recunoscute astfel calitatile deosebite.
              Piedmont’s controversial 2014 vintage in the Langhe   
    How important is vintage? Does terroir prevail over the wind and the rain and the sun? Does a farmer, who works the land for 40 years, have special tools to overcome the vagaries of the land? Or is it all a cosmogonic crap-shoot?

    Those are questions people, far better connected than me, have been grappling with for aeons. But nonetheless, those were the questions I too asked as I stood on the tower in Barbaresco, overlooking one of the dearest wine producing spots on earth. And 2014 was the vintage in question.


    The 2014 vintage overall, in Italy, presented a number of quandaries. Italy experienced a wet and cool growing season followed by rain during harvest time. Or so one would think, reading prognostications from the “influencers” on the internets. One would lead to believe the vintage a complete “wash-out” if one never set foot in the vineyards and post-harvest, the cellars. And for many, that will be the case. But it would be a grave mistake to take the word of bloggers and other sharpshooters, looking to make their mark by firing into the crowd of the 2014 vintage. There are plenty of innocent producers in the congeries - producers who made admirable wines.

    Piedmont wasn't without its share of problems. Producers in Barolo are not looking forward to explaining it away, when the wines will be released next year. For now, they have 2013 to work with and 2013, in Barolo-land, did not disappoint. 2014 however, I am sure, we will hear from many that the bad weather “narrowly missed their plot,” that “ we worked our land carefully and harvested only the best grapes,” and “our winemaker, in concert with the moon and the cosmos…” We will hear it all. And some of it will be the truth.

    Meanwhile, the folks in Tuscany, Chianti Classico, Brunello and Vino Nobile producers, will have to contend with the “judgement of 2014” in their lives. Brunello will fare well enough, for by the time the wines are released, in two years (2018), everyone in Piedmont will be waxing over the glories of the 2015 vintage. And Brunellopoli will have been in in the rear view mirror 10 years hence. A lifetime in the wine world. Chianti Classico is now dealing with it, and the chatter is still at a low-decibel level. Etna escaped the wrath of 2014, but is also dealing with outsider's murky perception of the vintage, on the whole. Etna is still a darling. There wasn’t enough wine made to fret over. And, the wines were damn good.

    No, the burden falls square in the lap of the Barbaresco producers – and right now – as the wines are in release. I first tasted the 2014 Barbaresco (in barrel) in the spring of 2015. It was in the cellar of Carlo Boffa, a small producer, neighbor to DeForville and Gaja, two renowned producers in their own right. When I tasted his Barbaresco I made a note, “Buy all you can of this wine.” When I tasted the wine again, last month, at the winery, I did just that. The wine was a benchmark for what Barbaresco means to me: fresh, elegant, balanced and still very affordable to those of us who still yearn for value in their wine.

    Aldo Vacca, who is the director for Produttori del Barbaresco, also has good response to the 2014 vintage. His notes on the 2014 vintage follow:

    “2014 was a quite difficult season in the vineyards all over Europe; however the favorable end of the season proved to be a pleasant surprise for the quality of the grapes on the Langhe Hills. In particular, the region of Barbaresco was a shining exception in a difficult vintage.

    After a mild winter we experienced the usual up and down. Unfortunately this climatic pattern continued through June and July resulting in a mix pattern of cool / warm days and frequent, heavy, extremely localized rainfalls. The ideal conditions for the spread of vine diseases made vineyard management and spray timing absolutely crucial in order to save grapes through the harvest. Summer green harvest was mainly focus onto limiting the potential risk of botrytis spread; the work in the vineyard was crucial and painstaking through the summer.

    By mid - August, however, Barbaresco was experiencing a much better situation, far dryer than the rest of Piemonte. September was undoubtedly a more positive month with good day/night temperature difference which proved to be fundamental for the ripening of the grapes and the complexity of the aromas.

    In the end, the total rainfall during the growing season in Barbaresco was almost one third than the rest of Piemonte and almost half of the one in Barolo. As we know a dry end of the season is all what it takes to make a great vintage. We were therefore able to wait and Nebbiolo harvest started late in Barbaresco, at least by the new millennium standards, on October 8th and ended, under dry and sunny conditions, on October 22nd.

    2014 wines will be similar to those from the 2013 vintage, medium in body, but well balanced, rich in color and aromas, with great mineral finish and long lasting potential."

    A further signal that Aldo Vacca and Produttori del Barbaresco is invested in the greatness of the 2014 vintage is that they will release the Riserva Cru wines from the 2014 vintage, something the winery opted out of for the 2012’s ( the winery will also release the Riserva Cru wines from the 2013 vintage).

    Yes, there will be blood, when the 2014 wines get into the system. And there will be more blood, when the Barolo wines are arraigned within the commercial vein. There will be divinations (in real time) from the “sky is falling” set. The heavens will rain blood red, the blood of insipid Nebbiolo that missed its mark in the 2014 vintage. All for the sake of attention, or hits on their blog/web/Instagram feeds. And who will believe this “fake news?” People who don’t take the time to dig in for themselves, the “followers.”

    I’m not asking anyone to follow me. That is, unless one is looking for supple, graceful, delicious wine. I am an unabashed fan of Barbaresco. I have more of that wine in my wine closet than any other wine. It is part of my pension plan, the wine I wish to drink in my dotage, when I have stripped away most of the chatter and distraction that the material world clamors over. It will be the wine I will drink when I am in my cave facing the wall, looking towards a more introspective (and introverted) segment of my life. And the 2014 Barbaresco will be there with me in my cave, long past the screeds of the attention-addicted naysayers and the din of the thundering herds.




    Highly recommended reading - additional links:


    wine blog +  Italian wine blog + Italy W

              Biological Science Technician - USGS - Southwest Biological Science Center - Moab, UT   
    (b) have any substantial personal, private, direct or indirect interests in any private mining or mineral enterprise doing business with the United States;... $17.54 an hour
    From Indeed - Tue, 27 Jun 2017 18:08:32 GMT - View all Moab, UT jobs
              Authentic Models Semi-Precious Solitaire Game, 35mm   

     

    Semi-Precious Stones

    The Authentic Models Semi-Precious Solitaire Game contains many hand cut, shaped and polished precious stones. At least 15 different semi-precious minerals are included. Try your hand at jewel-like stones with this precious solitaire! Use as a wonderful game, or just place it on a coffee table and use it as a beautiful piece of home decor.

    Wonderful Present

    The hardwood hand turned base holds all the marbles, which have no artificial stain or colouring. It ships in a beautiful gift box, making it a wonderful present.

    Solitaire History

    The game of Solitaire is rumoured to have been invented by a nobleman confined in the Bastille prison during the early years of the French Revolution. The game is played with 36 marbles and the object is to eliminate all but one marble.

    Price: £191.67 Special Price: £143.75


              Authentic Models Solitaire Game 20mm, French FInish   

    Semi-Precious Stones

    The Authentic Models Semi-Precious Solitaire Game contains 38 hand cut, shaped and polished precious stones. At least 15 different semi-precious minerals are included; Malachite, Azurite, Quartz, Serpentine, Hematite, Bloodstone, Lazulite, Amethyst, Crystal, Garnet, and more. Try your hand at jewel-like stones with this precious solitaire! Use as a wonderful game, or just place it on a coffee table and use it as a piece of home decor.

    Wonderful Present

    The hardwood hand turned base holds all the marbles, which have no artificial stain or colouring. It ships in a beautiful gift box, making it a wonderful present.

    Solitaire History

    The game of Solitaire is reputed to have been invented by a nobleman confined in the Bastille prison during the early years of the French Revolution. The game is played with 36 marbles and the object is to eliminate all but one marble.

     

    Price: £89.58 Special Price: £67.19


              Cuart fumuriu   
    thumb

    Cuartul fumuriu este o varietate a mineralului cunoscut sub numele de Cuart. Cuvantul provine din cuvantul german "quarz". Exista mai multe varietati de cuart, multe dintre ele pietre semi-pretioase, dintre care cele mai cunoscute sunt agatul, onixul si ametistul.


              Supervisor minería - Gachancipá, Cundinamarca   
    Supervisar, coordinar y programar actividades de trabajadores que extraen carbón y otros minerales, que operan equipos de transporte subterráneo, equipo pesado,...
    De Agencia Pública de Empleo - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 01:23:36 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Gachancipá, Cundinamarca
              Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 1.65X1.04   
    Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 1.65X1.04

    Price: £290.83 Special Price: £218.12


              Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 2.26X1.60   
    Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 2.26X1.60

    Price: £624.17 Special Price: £468.13


              Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 2.44X0.69   
    Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 2.44X0.69

    Price: £282.50 Special Price: £211.88


              Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 3.20X2.39   
    Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 3.20X2.39

    Price: £1,249.17 Special Price: £936.88


              Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 3.89X2.82   
    Calvin Klein Rug Maya - Mineral 3.89X2.82

    Price: £1,832.50 Special Price: £1,374.38


              Re:Ayuda donde puedo comprar Sal del Himalaya   
    Para esa gracia compra sal marina que la venden en radio mi gente a dos dolares el bote grande que trae como dos libras, y no trae nada de otros minerales es la pura sal, supuestamente.
              Association of Mg-rich Olivine with Magnetite as a Result of Brucite Marble Assimilation by Basaltic Magma in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China   
    Abstract
    An unusual feature of the magmatic Fe–Ti oxide deposits associated with layered intrusions in the Permian Emeishan large igneous province (LIP) in SW China is the association of the mineralization with olivine that is significantly more Mg-rich than those that occur elsewhere. A working hypothesis for the production of Mg-rich olivine is that significant assimilation of carbonate occurred during the formation of the Fe–Ti oxide deposits in the Emeishan LIP. This study provides several lines of supporting evidence from a coeval picritic dyke in the footwall of the Panzhihua layered intrusion at Zhujiabaobao. Country rocks to the Zhujiabaobao picritic dyke are brucite marbles. Olivine phenocrysts in the dyke have Fo contents varying from 79 to 91 mol %. The most Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts (Fo89–91) are present in the margins of the dyke and contain undissolved calcite. Olivine phenocrysts in the marginal sample show reversed zoning in Fo content and contain ∼20% lower Ni than those with similar Fo contents in the coeval picrites emplaced in the nearby area. Olivine-hosted oxide inclusions in this sample are exclusively Cr-magnetite (calculated atomic Fe3+/Cr3+ > 1) instead of chromite or Cr-spinel (calculated atomic Fe3+/Cr3+ < 1) that characterizes the coeval picrites. Within the dyke olivine phenocrysts with different ranges of Fo content (Fo89–91 versus Fo78–83) have similar Mn contents but different Ni contents. The most Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts have Ni contents that are 20–30% less than those for the more Fe-rich olivine phenocrysts. Diopside crystals associated with the most Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts contain higher Fe2O3/FeO than those associated with the more Fe-rich olivine phenocrysts. The dyke samples with different olivine compositions have similar ɛNd values (1·4–2) but contrasting Sr isotope compositions. The sample with the most Mg-rich olivine (Fo89–90) has the highest initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0·7054), whereas samples with more Fe-rich olivine (Fo78–83) have lower initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0·7046–0·7049). The results of mixing calculations indicate that up to ∼25 wt % assimilation of brucite marble by basaltic magma with a composition similar to that of the average of the coeval high-Ti basalts can readily explain the observed mineralogical and isotopic variations within the dyke. The results from the dyke show that carbonate assimilation by basaltic magma is an efficient way to produce the association of magnetite with olivine that is anomalously rich in magnesium.

              Clearance Duresta Sutherland Sofa Medium Olympus   

    Available Now

    This clearance Duresta Domus Sutherland sofa is in excellent condition, previously used either for a photoshoot, an ex-display model or a cancelled order. Upholstered in Olympus Mineral, a range L1 leather. On it’s own it is a fabulous statement piece for your living room, and works with a modern, contemporary or transitional scheme. 

    Handmade Sofas
    Duresta sofas are handmade and hand sewn in the UK by skilled craftsman. Constructed from two types of hardwood; beech and tulipwood, the triple dowelled sofa frame is incredibly strong and rigid yet lightweight, with the tulipwood kiln dried to prevent it from bowing and twisting – perfect for using in different climates. There are two types of springs used in Duresta sofas. The seat is coil sprung which provides a durable base for the seat cushions and serpentine springs are used on the back for the ultimate in comfort and support. All fabrics are individually hand cut and pattern matched. To request a sample of the fabric to be sent to your home please call us on 01386 711512 or email our Duresta specialists: sales@pavilionbroadway.co.uk.

    Arrange a Viewing
    This sofa is located in our warehouse in Ashchruch, Tewkesbury. If you would like to arrange a viewing, please contact us using the details above. We also make Duresta sofas and chairs to order with your choice of upholstery, trimmings, castors and seat fillings. For more information please visit the Duresta Made to Order pages or speak to one of our Duresta specialists who will be happy to tailor a quote to your personal specifications.

     

    Price: £3,178.54 Special Price: £1,907.12


              Underground Mine Supervisor Consultant (6-month contract) - Rubicon Minerals - Red Lake, ON   
    Development and implementation of Standard Operating Procedures; Rubicon Minerals Corporation is an advanced exploration company that owns the Phoenix Gold...
    From Rubicon Minerals - Mon, 05 Jun 2017 19:52:35 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
              A.Vogel Milk Thistle Tablets 60   
    This liver is so important. It stores vitamins, minerals, produces bile (essential for the breakdown of fat), and is the main organ for the metabolism of food, drugs and hormones. If the liver's performance is impaired, it can cause gall bladder complaints and digestive discomfort e.g. nausea/indigestion after consuming fatty food. Other problems can be high cholesterol, weight gain and skin complains e.g. Acne or Eczema. How does it work? Artichoke, Dandelion, Boldo and Peppermint: These all have a cholaogogic and choleretic action on the liver (Induces the production and flow of bile). Also, they help to remove toxins and help to restore liver function. Dandelion also a mild laxative and also has been traditionally used in gall bladder treatment. Peppermint and Boldo have an additional function in relaxing the smooth muscle, helping to relieve colic, dyspesia and can help with flatulence. Milk Thistle: Its main constituent is Simymarin. It directly effects the cell membranes of the liver, preventing further damage and encourages repair. Simymarin also helps to prevent excess cell production - as seen in psoriasis. To ensure a successful cleanse of your system, it is really important to cut out fatty, sugary and chemically enhanced foods and drink. This includes caffeine and alcohol and be sure to replace them with pleanty of water. Directions for use: Directions for use : Adults: 1 tablet twice daily. Maintenance: 1 tablet daily. Children: This product is not recommended for children. Please seek medical advice if pregnant. If you are recovering from hepatitis, alcoholism, drugs or gall bladder disease, check with a health care professional first. Do not take if breast feeding. Ingredients: Fresh Cynara Scolymus* (Artichoke) leaves 46% • fresh Silybum Marianum (Milk Thistle) dried fruit 32% • fresh Taraxacum Officinalis* (Dandelion) herb and root 12% • Peumus Boldus (Boldo) dried leaf 7% • fresh Mentha Piperita* (Peppermin) leaves 3% • Also contains: Microcrystalline Cellulose & Cottonseed oil. *Organically grown.

    Price: £10.25 Special Price: £8.75


              Allergenics Non-Steroidal Emollient Cream 50ml   
    free moisturiser suitable for those prone to dry, itchy skin conditions such as Eczema and Dermatitis. Developed using hypoallergenic ingredients which significantly reduce the risk of allergic reaction. Ingredients (Natural Origin): Aloe Barbadensis, Cetearyl Alcohol (from Palm & Coconut oil) Borago Officinalis (Borage Oil), Cera Alba (Beeswax), Glycerin (Vegetable Source), Prunus Dulcis (Sweet Almond Oil) Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter), Cetearyl Glucoside (from glucose), Brassica Campestris (Rapeseed) Sterols (Rapseed Source) Zinc Oxide (Mineral Source), Capryloyl Glycine (from palm & sunflower seed) Rosa Moschata (Rose Oil) Tocopheryl Acetate (from cereals) Glycyrrhetinic Acid (from liquorice Root) Hyaluronic Acid (Natural Mucopolysaccharide) Xanthan Gum (natural) Citric Acid. Dermatalogically Tested: Allergenics Cream provides soothing, antiflare-up and protective action against external irritants, thanks to the inclusion of functional ingredients such as Phytosterols, Borage Oil, Aloe Vera, Zinc Oxide and Glycyrrhetinic Acid. The highly effective rich emollient action provided by Hyaluronic Acid, Rose Oil and Shea Butter are combined with Vitamin E to form a perfectly balanced cream that maintains the skins elasticity and hydration, and protects against external irritants. Hypo Allergenic Dermatologically Tested Microbiologically Tested.

    Price: £5.99 Special Price: £5.57


              Arm & Hammer Enamel Care Toothpaste 75ml   

    and fluoride to remineralise and strengthen teeth. Arm & Hammer Enamel Care Toothpaste will restore and protect you radient, bright, youthful smile.
    Directions: Children under the age of 7 t use a pea sized amount and supervise brushing toa minimise swallowing. If using fluoride supplements, consult your dentist. Ingredients: Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda), Glycerin, PEG8, Hydrated Silica, Silica, PEG/PPG-116/66 Copolymer, Calcium Sulfate, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Aroma, Dipotassium, Phosphate, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Saccharin, Cellulose Gum, Sodium Fluoride, Limonene, CL42053, CL77891

    Price: £3.49 Special Price: £2.99


              Aveeno Bath & Shower Oil 250ml   

    It is used in homeopathy to prepare moisturising skin...preparations. The oil also contains liquid paraffin (sometimes known as mineral oil) and sunflower seed oil, and works by providing a layer of oil on the surface of the skin to prevent water evaporating from the skin surface. With Natural Colloidal Oatmeal Bath & Bodycare and Shower Oil Suitable For People who may be prone to Eczema Aveeno Oil for Bath & Bodycare and Shower with Colloidal Oatmeal and Softening Oils, thoroughly cleanses, moisturises and conditions dry and sensitive skin.

    May be used in Bath & Bodycare and shower. Use - Bath & Bodycare: add approximately 30ml (2 tablespoons) to Bath & Bodycare water. Shower; massage directly onto wet skin and then rinse.

    Ingredients: Paraffin Liquidum, Helianthus Annus, (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Diethylhexyl Adipate, Sorbeth-40 Hexaoleate, Avena Sativa (Oat) Kernel Flour, Silica, Cera Alba, Tocopheryl Acetate, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Triclosan, Parfum.

    Price: £7.70 Special Price: £7.09


              Avene Cold Cream Nourishing Body Care Regime Box Set    

    Cold Cream leaves skin feeling instantly hydrated, with restored comfort and suppleness. 

     

    Cold Cream Lotion for the body and Cold Cream hand-cream for dry/very dry skin.

    Thermal Spring water, low in minerals and rich in silica, the Avene Thermal Spring water is clinically proven to be naturally soothing and anti-irritating.

    Price: £19.50 Special Price: £15.50


              Berocca Mixed Berries Flavour Effervescent Tablets 30   

    Berocca contains a super dose of essential vitamins and minerals, in one handy tablet form that dissolves in water to create a delicious and healthy drink. This helps your body release energy from food, as well as supporting your immune system. Berocca is not an energy drink that give you a caffeine and sugar hit, then wears off shortly afterwards. Berocca simply gives you the vitamins and minerals that will help you have the best day possible, and be healthier

    Price: £12.45 Special Price: £10.75


              Berocca Tropical Effervescent Tablets 15   
    Berocca has a high dose formulation of B and C vitamins with other essential minerals.These key nutrients work in synergy to help those with hectic lifestyles perform at their best and get the most out of the day ahead. BEROCCA helps to stay awake, relieves hangovers and headaches due to hangovers. BEROCCA is free from artificial stimulants, so offers a healthy way to STAY SHARP, STAY AWAKE. How to Use Berocca? Take 1 tablet per day dissolved in a glass of water to make a delicious tropical flavoured effervescent drink. Berocca is best taken first thing in the morning to make the most of the day ahead and can be taken every day throughout the year. Taking more than the recommended daily intake may be harmful. Berocca should not be used to replace a well balanced diet. Do not swallow or chew the tablets. BERROCCA is suitable for: * Vegetarians * Adults and children aged 12 and over

    Price: £6.50 Special Price: £5.50


              Berocca Vitamin B Effervescent Mixed Berries Tablets 15   
    BEROCCA is a super dose formulation of B and C vitamins with other essential minerals into one handy tablet, helping your body release energy from food, as well as supporting your immune system. These key nutrients work in synergy to help those with hectic lifestyles perform at their best and get the most out of the day ahead. BEROCCA helps to stay awake, relieves hangovers and headaches due to hangovers. BEROCCA is free from artificial stimulants, so offers a healthy way to STAY SHARP, STAY AWAKE. How to Use Berocca? Take 1 tablet per day dissolved in a glass of water to make a delicious orange-flavoured effervescent drink. Berocca is best taken first thing in the morning to make the most of the day ahead and can be taken every day throughout the year. Taking more than the recommended daily intake may be harmful. Berocca should not be used to replace a well balanced diet. Do not swallow or chew the tablets. BERROCCA is suitable for: * Vegetarians * Adults and children aged 12 and over

    Price: £6.50 Special Price: £5.49


              Bionsen Japanese Spa Minerals Aluminium Free Deo Pump Spray 100m   
    skin without preventing perspiration. It neutralises the bacteria responsable for bad odours, ensuring a natural sensation of freshness that lasts all day. Bionsen deodrants contain a unique blend of Japenese Spa Minerals found in the volcanic spas of Japan (known as 'Onson'), long prized for their ability to nourish the skin and keep it healthy. It's unique aluminium and paraben free formula deodorises whilst allowing your body's natural perspiration, leaving the skin to breathe naturally and feel refreshed. Bionsen's hypoallergenic-approved formula effectly neutralises bacteria responsible for body odour all day long, whilst protecting sensitive skin. .This range is ideal for those with sensitive skin that care about their well being. HYPOALLERGENIC AND DERMATOLOGICALLY TESTED. Suitable for even the most sensitive skin. Tested in collaboration with the Clinic of Dermatology at Sienna University. ALUMINIUM FREE, PARABENS FREE.

    Price: £3.49 Special Price: £2.99


              Bionsen Japanese Spa Minerals Aluminium Free Deo Spray 150ml   
    skin without preventing perspiration. It neutralises the bacteria responsable for bad odours, ensuring a natural sensation of freshness that lasts all day. Bionsen deodrants contain a unique blend of Japenese Spa Minerals found in the volcanic spas of Japan (known as 'Onson'), long prized for their ability to nourish the skin and keep it healthy. It's unique aluminium and paraben free formula deodorises whilst allowing your body's natural perspiration, leaving the skin to breathe naturally and feel refreshed. Bionsen's hypoallergenic-approved formula effectly neutralises bacteria responsible for body odour all day long, whilst protecting sensitive skin. .This range is ideal for those with sensitive skin that care about their well being. HYPOALLERGENIC AND DERMATOLOGICALLY TESTED. Suitable for even the most sensitive skin. Tested in collaboration with the Clinic of Dermatology at Sienna University. ALUMINIUM FREE, PARABENS FREE.

    Price: £3.49 Special Price: £3.29


              Bionsen Japanese Spa Minerals Aluminium Free Deo Stick 40ml   

    Bionsen Japenese Spa Minerals Alumium Free Deo Stick.
    It neutralises the bacteria responsable for bad odours, ensuring a natural sensation of freshness that lasts all day.
    Bionsen deodrants contain a unique blend of Japenese Spa Minerals found in the volcanic spas of Japan (known as 'Onson'), long prized for their ability to nourish the skin and keep it healthy.
    It's unique aluminium and paraben free formula deodorises whilst allowing your body's natural perspiration, leaving the skin to breathe naturally and feel refreshed.
     Bionsen's hypoallergenic-approved formula effectly neutralises bacteria responsible for body odour all day long, whilst protecting sensitive skin.
    This range is ideal for those with sensitive skin that care about their well being.
    HYPOALLERGENIC AND DERMATOLOGICALLY TESTED. Suitable for even the most sensitive skin.
    Tested in collaboration with the Clinic of Dermatology at Sienna University. ALUMINIUM FREE, PARABENS FREE.

    Price: £3.49 Special Price: £2.49


              Bionsen Japenese Spa Minerals Aluminium Free Deodorant Roll On 50ml   

    without preventing perspiration. Bionsen neutralises the bacteria responsable for bad odours, ensuring a natural sensation of freshness that lasts all day.
    Bionsen deodrants contain a unique blend of Japenese Spa Minerals found in the volcanic spas of Japan (known as 'Onson'),
    long prized for their ability to nourish the skin and keep it healthy.
    It's unique aluminium and paraben free formula deodorises whilst allowing your body's natural perspiration, leaving the skin to breathe naturally and feel refreshed.
    Bionsen's hypoallergenic-approved formula effectly neutralises bacteria responsible for body odour all day long, whilst protecting sensitive skin. .
    This range is ideal for those with sensitive skin that care about their well being.
    HYPOALLERGENIC AND DERMATOLOGICALLY TESTED. Suitable for even the most sensitive skin.
    Tested in colloration with the clinic of Dermatology at Siena University. ALUMINIUM FREE, PARABENS FREE.

    Price: £3.49 Special Price: £2.49


              Bonjela Complete Plus 10ml   
    Carboxylic Acids, Mineral Acid, Cellulose Derivative, Ethanol (Anhydrous), Purified Water, Orange Flavour. DO NOT GIVE TO CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE. This is because there is a possible association between the derivative of salicylic acid and Reye's syndrome when given to children. Reye's syndrome is a very rare disease which affects the brain and liver and can be fatal. Read the enclosed leaflet carefully before use. For use on oral mucosa only. Apply sufficient gel using the spatula to cover the ulcer. Let dry before closing the mouth. Apply as often as necessary up to 4 times a day. If symptoms persist after 5 days consult your doctor. Do not use: In Children Below 16 years of age. In case of allergy to salicylic derivaties. On major mouth ulcers bigger than 1cm in diameter or herpes like ulcers. (many tiny ulcers).

    Price: £8.99 Special Price: £7.99


              Centrum Advance 30 Tablets   

    Centrum range is the world's No 1 selling multivitamin. Centrum, with a natural form of lutein, helps to keep you feeling 100%. It supplements your diet and lifestyle by containing all the essential vitamins and minerals (27 in total) recommended on a daily basis. The stresses and strains of modern living sometimes make it very difficult to follow a balanced diet with all the right vitamins and minerals, let alone the right quantities. Taken daily, one Centrum tablet contains a comprehensive formula of vitamins and minerals, most of them at the ecommended Daily Allowance (RDA) to complement your daily diet. Centrum is only intended to supplement your daily diet and not to be taken in place of food. Take one Centrum tablet daily with water. Centrum is suitable for adults and children of 12 years and over. Calcium Phosphate, Magnesium Oxide, Microcystalline Cellulose, Potassium Chloride, Vitamin C, Ferrous Fumarate, tablet coating (Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose, colour: E171 and E110, Glyceryl Triacetate. Exceeding the daily dose is not recommended.

    Price: £5.20 Special Price: £3.99


              Centrum Advance 50+ 30 Tablets   
    Enhanced formula Centrum Advance 50+ is a complete daily multivitamin/multimineral supplement with specially balanced, age adjusted nutrient combinations. - Vitality - Helps unlock energy from food to help you feel full of life and vitality - Immunity - With antioxidants to help support healthy immune system of adults over 50+ - Eye Health - Balanced blend of lutein and beta carotene essential for healthy vision - Bone Health - Includes calcium, vitamin D and magnesium to help maintain strong bones. Directions for use: Take one tablet daily with water, preferably with food. Suitable for adults over 50. Not suitable for children or women who are pregnant or breast feeding. >Centrum Advance 50+ Tablets are free from gluten, wheat and yeast. Contains gelatin.

    Price: £5.10 Special Price: £4.65


              Centrum Advance 50+ 60 Tablets   

    Centrum Advance 50+ (for adults aged 50 and over) has adjusted levels of key vitamins and minerals, complete and balanced from A to Zinc, to support your changing health needs! Enhanced formula Centrum Advance 50+ is a complete daily multivitamin/multimineral supplement with specially balanced, age adjusted nutrient combinations. - Vitality - Helps unlock energy from food to help you feel full of life and vitality - Immunity - With antioxidants to help support healthy immune system of adults over 50+ - Eye Health - Balanced blend of lutein and beta carotene essential for healthy vision - Bone Health - Includes calcium, vitamin D and magnesium to help maintain strong bones. Directions for use: Take one tablet daily with water, preferably with food. Suitable for adults over 50. Not suitable for children or women who are pregnant or breast feeding. >Centrum Advance 50+ Tablets are free from gluten, wheat and yeast. Contains gelatin

    Price: £9.17 Special Price: £8.20


              Centrum Pregnancy Care 30 Tablets    
    Centrum Pregnancy Care multivitamin and multimineral supplement has been specially formulated by our nutritionists to support the nutritional needs of you and your baby. Each tablet contains 19 vitamins and minerals, including the level of folic acid supplementation recommended by the Department of Health, required for the healthy development of your baby's spinal cord. It is important to start taking folic acid when you decide to get pregnant, ideally 12 weeks prior to conception and continue throughout your pregnancy. Centrum Pregnancy Care is a new comprehensive multivitamin and mineral supplement that is scientifically formulated to support the specific nutritional needs of women who are pregnant or trying to conceive. Zinc contributes to fertility and reproduction and the production of DNA. Calcium, vitamin D and magnesium help maintain strong bones. Folic acid, vitamin B12 and iron help maintain normal blood formation which is important for blood supply doing pregnancy. Vitamin C helps maintain a healthy immune system which can be particularly important at this time.

    Price: £3.99 Special Price: £3.05


              Gift Shop Assistant Manager - Manitou Springs Resort & Mineral Spa - Manitou Beach, SK   
    Full time gift shop assistant manager required for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 voted #1 Spa in Saskatchewan, Manitou Springs Resort and Mineral Spa.... $16 an hour
    From Indeed - Mon, 27 Mar 2017 19:29:30 GMT - View all Manitou Beach, SK jobs
              Food and Beverage Server - Manitou Springs Resort & Mineral Spa - Manitou Beach, SK   
    Visit our website at manitousprings.ca for more information on the Watrous and Manitou Beach area. Free accommodations provided for the first few weeks of...
    From Indeed - Wed, 22 Mar 2017 21:46:04 GMT - View all Manitou Beach, SK jobs
              Transitions   
    Transitions are the stuff of life. Or: change is the only constant.

    There is a lot of transition in my life these days. It is unsettling.

    There is a desire for stability and certainty that stays with me. It makes me moody, depressed, anxious, and envious.

    Some of the transition is life stage stuff. I'm closer to 40 then I used to be. Health stuff is becoming more of an issue. I've got to pay closer attention to my body and how to not abuse it.

    My four kids are all getting older everyday - though it seems most apparent when they finish up another year of school. Like they did the other day. 5th grade, 3rd grade and 1st grade are all coming up this fall.

    And I'm back in school, at Northern Seminary in Lombard, Illinois; I'm finishing up my first class in Missional Ecclesiology for my doctor of ministry degree in Missional Church Leadership. The class is messing with my assumptions about ministry and church. "New" brings both opportunity and anxiety.

    Tara and I are approaching our 18th wedding anniversary, 19th engagement anniversary, and 20th dating anniversary. In all those years (two decades!!!!!) there has been so much transition (aka: growing up). I can't believe how much of my narcism and pettiness she has had to put up with all this time. There is so much more room for improvement for me when it comes to loving.

    We are moving, for the fourth time, to a house we hope to make our home for a long time. Hopefully it can be a hangout house for our kids and their friends, and our friends.

    But selling a house, buying, packing and moving brings with it lots of transition tension and frustration. All this while Tara is wrapping up a challenging school year as a kindergarten teacher, I'm transitioning back into pastoral work with Anchor after a four month sabbatical, and the responsibilities for lots of other details in life all seem to converge at once.

    I suppose this sounds like whining. Maybe it is. But it's all swirling around in my head. And now that it's typed out, it doesn't all seem so intimidating. Still a little overwhelming, though.

    But it's not just the physical transitions, the geographic ones or the scheduled changes. It's also about what I believe, what I see, how I interpret reality, what my purpose is, what matters in life, and how to sort through all the ramifications of my choices. There is spiritual transitions, existential transitions, philosophical and theological transitions, emotional and social transitions. It feels like everything in my life is in transition. Like I can feel the churning of all the transitions. Well, not all, but a lot.

    Maybe the transition that weighs on my mind the most is economic transition. Meaning: the growing awareness that every economic transaction has a real consequence on how other people live and experience reality. For over three decades I never cared where my stuff came from or how it was made. But now there is a growing awareness that my purchasing power affects real people. My Apple products that I purchased affect the livelihood of underpaid workers in China. The Tyson chicken I eat was likely prepared in a disgusting factory by illegal immigrants. The gasoline I purchased for my car came at the expense of local villagers who were displaced by an energy company in Africa. The more global our economy, and the more "truth" that journalists uncover, the more aware I am becoming of how my actions affect other people.

    I don't want to think about how to better spend my money on products that will contribute to real flourishing of workers. It seems so complicated. And yet....

    Jesus makes a big deal about money and possessions in his teachings. I don't want money and possessions (ie anything I buy with money) to have priority over a life oriented around love of God and my neighbor. If I really am going to let the love of Jesus affect every part of my life, that has to include my money and all that I possess - whether for survival or leisure.

    In getting ready to move, it has become apparent to Tara and I that we have way more stuff then we need. And we hardly ever go shopping for stuff! It is too easy to accumulate more stuff then we can even use. And as our economy becomes globalized, cheap stuff isn't so "cheap" anymore; and technology that is supposed to bring convenience and leisure to our lives often makes life more cluttered while impoverishing those that slave in another land to produce the minerals or piece together the instrument for my user-friendly life.

    I can feel the resistance in me, the desire to put my head in the sand and not pay attention to the impact that my dollars have in the world. I tithe. Tara and I give more then ten percent of our before taxed income away. Most of it to our local church, and then also to other charities and needs. And we still have more then enough money to accumulate stuff we don't need. We could afford to give away more money. And yet some of the best use of our money would be to use it more wisely on the products we know we need.

    Constant items we purchase are food (grocery and restaurant), utilities and mortgage for our house, gas, household items, and then there is the occasional purchase of clothes, luxury items like movies, music, books, and then big ticket items like vacation, technology stuff, and gifts for birthdays and Christmas. I'm sure I'm missing something. Tara and I work hard to handle our money well. But it seems so apparent to me that we need to pay more attention to what we buy, who we buy it from, how it was made, who made it, and what the real cost of the item is to us and those who "made" it.

    To me, this transition gets at a core belief: does my money have anything to do with my love for God and my neighbor? Who is my neighbor? The one in need. Does my use of money in purchasing stuff keep people in need? Does it create greater need? Does it contribute to alleviation of need? With where I live in America, in Indiana, in Fort Wayne: do I believe that God wants a greater accounting with the why, what and how how of what I do with my money? And my time, for that matter.

    If love of God and neighbor is the summary commandment of Jesus, and if money really is a central part of my life, I ought to make some practical connections with how I view/use money and possessions. Otherwise, all my Christianity is a whitewash for my unexamined motives and assumptions about money and possessions. As the truth comes out about how Americans purchasing habits shape the world, Christians have to ask: what does my use of money and possessions communicate about Jesus and the gospel?

    It's this kind of musing that is bringing about fundamental transitions in my heart, mind, and life. There are expenses in moving, going back to school, doing a sabbatical, and raising a family. There is money to be earned through our work. Where we live, how we live, what we live for all connects to money and our purchasing values. I have paid too little attention to money and how it shapes my schedule, my time and energy for friends, my availability and heart for my family.

    I want to do something great in the world. This desire is something I am learning to submit to Jesus. Same for my desire for stability and certainty. But in my desire to do something great in the world, I ought to probe around my unexamined assumptions about money. Maybe I can do more in the world with less. But with the less that I do consume/purchase - knowing how/what/where it came from can begin to make a great difference in the world. And my motivation for all of this? Obedience to Jesus. Because what I really desire is to please Him. And that starts with believing Him. And I'll know I believe him when I obey him. And I can only obey him when I let him convict me of my sins, forgive me, put a clean heart within me, and reshape my desires such that I can participate in his restoration of all things.

    And now that I've written this post, gotten stuff out of my head, I feel better. And has all this just been a way to procrastinate on changing any of my purchasing habits? Tomorrow will tell....
              DulcoEase Stool Softener   
    or difficult,if you are constipated or suffer from piles or anal fissure. DulcoEase softens hard,dry stools by increasing their absorption of natural fluids. Also may be used before abdominal X-ray. Directions: Adults; 1 capsule orally,up to 5 times per day; initially,try 3 capsules per day, then adjust according to need. Reduce the dose when you feel more comfortable, usually within 1-2 days. Swallow whole with water. Children under 12 years-Not recommended. Do not take if you are: pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant,or breast feeding. suffering from stomach pains,feeling sick or have been sick in the last 24 hours. allergic to the ingredients. intolerant to a small quantity of sugar (sorbitol, fructose ). taking a mineral oil laxative ( liquid paraffin ). Consult a doctor if you need this medicine every day, or have persistent stomach ache. If you accidentally overdose,drink lots of water and contact a doctor immediately. This medicine does not usually cause side-effects,but on rare occasions you may experience diarrhoea,nausea,abdominal cramps,or skin rash. Consult your doctor if any of these symptons occur.

    Price: £5.10 Special Price: £4.90


              Cook - Manitou Springs Resort and Mineral Spa - Manitou Beach, SK   
    Now hiring at 302 McLachlan Avenue, Manitou...
    From Job Spotter - Sun, 11 Jun 2017 20:42:37 GMT - View all Manitou Beach, SK jobs
              Haliborange Effervescent Vitamin C 1000mg Tablet x20 Blackcurrant   
    tablets have been a delicious way of adding to the body's supply of Vitamin C effectively and easily. With as much Vitamin C as 12 freshly pressed oranges and bursting with blackcurrant flavour. Sugar Free Haliborange Effervescent Vitamin C drink is a perfect way to start the day. They help you replace the Vitamin C lost through Colds and Flu, and we recommend that you take the product every day. As our bodies cannot store Vitamin C for any length of time there is a daily need to replenish the body's supply of this important nutrient. Nutrition Information per tablet: Vitamin C 1000mg. Ingredients: Sucrose, Vitamin C, Sodium Bicarbonate, Citric Acid, Oligofructose, Flavour: Blackcurrant (2.2%), Colours: Beetroot Powder (Maltodextrin, Beetroot Juice Concentrate) Blackcurrant Powder (Glucose, Blackcurrant Juice Concentrate) Riboflavin, Maize Starch, Binder: Polyvinylpyrrolidinone. Sweeteners: Acesulfame, Sodium Saccharin. Recommended Daily Intake: One tablet dissolved in a glass of water. Do not exceed the recommended intake. Women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should consult their doctor before taking vitamin or mineral supplements.

    Price: £4.30 Special Price: £4.07


              Hubner Silicea Gastro Intestinal 200ml   
    Silica contained in Silicea Gastrointestinal Gel is present in high concentration. As a result, it forms large molecular complexes. The great advantage of these complexes is their ability to unfold a tremendous binding potential. This works much in the same way as a sponge: the pathogens and the associated toxins are absorbed and subsequently excreted by natural means. The gastrointestinal tract is thus allowed to recuperate and not subjected to additional strain, for the composition of the gel is of a purely mineral nature and does not contain any chemical preservatives. It is therefore also suitable for children! Ingredients: Water, Colloidal dispersion with 2.8g silicic acid anhydride (silicon dioxide) in each 100ml. Directions for use (Internally): As a food supplement take one tablespoonful (20ml) Original Silicea daily, diluted in a glass of mineral water or fruit juice 30 minutes before a meal. To control severe symptoms take 2x 15ml 3-5 times a day and if required just before bed. Shake well before use. Keep in refrigerator after opening. Use within 4 weeks of opening. Please note: If you have any form of kidney disease, please consult your practitioner before taking this product.

    Price: £9.95 Special Price: £9.75


              iWhite Instant Teeth Whitening Mouthwash   
    1. Immediately whiter effect with blue covarine, which places an ultrathin film over the surface of the teeth, altering the way light reflects on them and giving a visibly whiter appearance immediately.
    2. Hexametaphosphate removes existing plaque and helps to prevent new plaque from forming.
    3. Active whitening based on PAP - a new whitening substance for deep and effective whitening, working on stains and suppressing the growth of bacteria.

    Includes other active ingredients, including fluoride, which helps to strengthen and remineralise teeth.

    Suitable for twice daily use.

    Price: £8.95 Special Price: £7.95


              AGUAS DEL LAGO TITICACA FUERON DESVIADAS A TACNA   
    La Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA), tiene que explicar la autorización que otorgó para el trasvase del líquido elemento para la implementación del proyecto Vilavilani en el departamento de Tacna, informó el gerente de Recursos Naturales y Gestión del Medio Ambiente del Gobierno Regional de Puno (GRP), Edson Pizarro Rojas.
    “Hemos presentado a la Cancillería Peruana para que nos dé explicaciones de cómo es que la ANA ha dado la autorización para el uso de ese recurso en el proyecto Vilavilani, en la región Tacna, y estamos a la espera de la respuesta de esa institución diplomática. También hemos cursado un documento a la Cancillería Boliviana, pero igual no se tiene alguna respuesta”, expresó.
    En ese contexto, el funcionario de Juan Luque Mamani, señaló que a raíz de los reclamos por parte de los pobladores de la zona sur del departamento de Puno, el pasado 15 de junio se desarrolló una reunión en el distrito de Capaso (El Collao).
    “Se trató sobre el trasvase de agua que se pretende hacer a la región Tacna, y se llegó a algunos acuerdo, dentro de ellos está realizar una visita a la misma zona el próximo 20 de julio, en la que estarán presentes los pobladores de los distritos de Capaso, Pisacoma y también una delegación del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia”, anunció.
    Adelantó que las finalidades de esa reunión será sellar algunos pozos que están en la zona, conformación del Frente de Defensa por los habitantes del lugar; en tanto que el GRP estará presente como institución, y tiene comprometido un equipo técnico que está elaborando el informe que será elevado a las cancillerías de ambos países.




    BOOM DEL LITIO: CALCULAN QUE LLEGARÁN INVERSIONES HASTA U$S 1000 MILLONES EN JUJUY

    Macri junto al gobernador Gerardo Morales lanzaron un plan para quintuplicar la producción de litio en Jujuy y la instalación de la primera fábrica de baterías en la provincia

    El Cronista de Argentina (www.cronista.com)

    El presidente Macri junto al gobernador de Jujuy Gerardo Morales anunciaron un ambicioso plan de inversiones para "quintuplicar la producción de carbonato de litio" en la provincia. La meta es pasar de las 17 mil toneladas anuales de producción de este componente clave para las baterías de artículos electrónicos y autos eléctricos, a 90 mil toneladas anuales, según un comunicado oficial.
    Esto "implicará el arribo a la provincia de casi u$s 1000 millones de dólares, de los cuales u$s 800 millones se destinarán al salar de Cauchari, emprendimiento que opera la compañía Exar, con participación de capitales jujeños; y u$s 160 millones se volcarán al yacimiento Olaroz, donde tiene emplazado su complejo de producción la firma Sales de Jujuy", destacó el mandatario provincial.
    Una vez en marcha estos proyectos, "se generarán 1300 puestos de trabajo en la Puna en los períodos de mayor actividad", sostuvo Morales. Además, en los años de explotación se abrirán más de 500 oportunidades de empleo permanente y directo a partir del desarrollo de proveedores por parte de pymes locales.
    El primer proyecto, de la firma de semiconductores estadounidense Exar junto Lithium Americas y SQM, tiene como objetivo alcanzar una producción de 50 mil toneladas de litio anuales. En tanto, la minera Sales de Jujuy (joint venture entre la australiana Orocobre y la japonesa Toyota), busca duplicar su capacidad actual de producción hasta llegar a las 35 mil toneladas anuales.
    El litio es un mineral liviano que se utiliza en baterías para teléfonos celulares, computadoras portátiles, materiales cerámicos, vidrios y psicofármacos, pero su uso más extendido viene por el lado del almacenamiento de energías renovables y en baterías de autos eléctricos.
    Las provincias del Noroeste argentino conforman, junto con Chile y Bolivia, el llamado "triángulo del litio", donde se encuentran el 80% de las reservas mundiales de este estratégico recurso.
    Los proyectos anunciados ayer se vinculan a la apuesta que realizó Jujuy por las energías renovables, desde la creación en 2013 de una empresa provincial de energía Jemse. La misma resultó ganadora de una de las las licitaciones del Plan Renov.Ar, para construir "un parque solar de 300 MW con una inversión de u$s 390 millones a cargo de dos compañías chinas", comentó a El Cronista el secretario de energía jujeño, Mario Pizarro.
    Otro de los anuncios destacados fue la próxima instalación de una fábrica de baterías de litio en la provincia, a partir de un convenio entre Jemse y el grupo italiano Seri. La futura planta industrial se construirá en la localidad de Perico, y según adelantó el ministro de producción provincial Abud Robles, "se comenzará con el ensamble de baterías, para en una instancia futura fabricar las celdas de litio localmente".
    La inversión en esta planta será de u$s 2,5 millones, y se espera que comience a operar en el primer semestre de 2018, empleando en forma directa a 55 personas. De concretarse la segunda fase (de producción de celdas de litio en el país), se trataría de la primer planta de este tipo en la Argentina, que es hoy un neto exportador de litio sin procesar. Para esta instancia, la inversión necesaria sería de u$s 50 millones. Según el director de Jemse, José Palomares, "la idea es empezar a producir en principio para el mercado interno y luego para exportar".




    BOLIVIA: EVO ENFRENTA NUEVA CONJURA

    Cuba Sí (www.cubasi.cu)

    La reacción interna y externa contra el presidente Evo Morales y el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia vuelve nuevamente a acudir a las clases más humildes de la población para torpedear los avances revolucionarios y desprestigiar el ejemplo que representa la gobernanza popular del mandatario indígena.
    Consciente de la asechanza, Evo ha hecho personalmente hincapié, en el terreno, a las masas campesinas, para evitar que sea saboteado cualquier avance en la producción y alertar sobre la campaña de difamación que se erige en su contra, todo lo cual conspira contra el intento de eliminar la pobreza.
    Como hace meses hizo con los mineros, soliviantados por dirigentes que no quieren perder privilegios, alertó sobre las pretensiones de la derecha de imponer nuevamente el neoliberalismo en la región, contra los derechos y conquistas alcanzadas por el poder popular a través de gobiernos progresistas:
    “Somos obreros, originarios, trabajadores (…) y el pueblo tiene que entender eso, tiene que reaccionar todo, (…) tiene que saber defender sus derechos, sus conquistas, y es la enorme responsabilidad que tenemos por ahora”.
    No muy lejana está la efectividad de la campaña mediática que difamó su vida personal para evitar que triunfara en el referendo que respaldaba una continuada reelección presidencial. La consigna era, y es, tumbarlo, pues se opone al sistema y al orden establecido por las transnacionales.
    En esta urdimbre difamatoria han estado jugando un papel importante las denominadas organizaciones no gubernamentales. Las ONGs fueron creadas para  promover la globalización y abrir camino a las transnacionales. Su verdadero autor  fue el profesor norteamericano William A. Douglas, quien en su libro escrito en 1972, Developing Democracy, dice que “los países de Asia, África y América Latina son en realidad unos  “niños que para su desarrollo necesitan la reglamentación, el control y tutela de los Estados Unidos”.
    La confabulación tiene sobretodo la participación de varios medios locales, como los diarios Página Siete y El Deber y las agencias de noticias católicas ANF y Erbol, así como líderes opositores que actúan  como cajas de resonancia de las mentiras y la difamación.
    No obstante, Evo Morales sigue teniendo la aceptación de la mayor parte del pueblo boliviano, como demuestra su respaldo en sus once años de gobierno.
    LO QUE LES MOLESTA
    Y es que Bolivia, de país pobre, se ha convertido en referente de estabilidad económico-social en América Latina.
    Casi un millón de personas, 997 956, se han alfabetizado, contando con el apoyo solidario cubano, que ha sido también efectivo en el sector de la salud, que permitió salvar la vida a 93 375. Otros logros trascendentes en estos once años de gobierno son la nacionalización de los recursos, el aumento de la participación de indígenas y las mujeres en la política, y el aumento de la inversión social.
    De ahí que no es exagerada la afirmación de Evo de que la economía nacional en 180 años "estaba descuartizada" por los monopolios extranjeros y las transnacionales.
    Actualmente empresas como Shell Gas (Latin America) BV, Red Eléctrica internacional S.A.U., Paz Holdings Limitada e Inversiones Econergy Bolivia S.A figuran entre los negocios nacionalizados y registran grandes ingresos para la nación.
    En cuanto a la estabilidad política, el promedio de duración de mandatarios era dos años. Durante ese tiempo se tuvieron 83 presidentes, algunos de los cuales sufrieron golpes de Estado, en tanto el actual, pese a las continuadas conjuras, mantiene la continuidad y la estabilidad necesaria para el desarrollo del país.
    Durante 180 años hubo solo dos referendos, mientras en estos últimos once se efectuaron 47, lo que refleja la participación popular, avalada por la presencia de nueve titulares indígenas en la Asamble4a Legislativa Plurinacional.
    Según datos oficiales, la extrema pobreza se redujo de 38,2% al todavía alto de 16,8%, y los ingresos del 10% más rico de la población, que eran superiores en 128 veces, ahora bajo a 37, o sea disminuye la desigualdad social, elemento muy importante para enfrentar cualquier tipo de conjura, teniendo en cuenta que los métodos practicados por los enemigos del pueblo siguen vigentes.




    GRUPOS INDÍGENAS DE BOLIVIA BUSCAN ARTICULAR RESISTENCIA CONTRA MEGAOBRAS DEL GOBIERNO

    Sputnik News de Rusia (www.mundo.sputniknews.com)

    Los pueblos indígenas bolivianos del norte de La Paz impulsarán acciones de resistencia a nivel nacional contra las megaobras de impacto ambiental que impulsa el Gobierno, dijo a Sputnik el representante de la Mancomunidad de Pueblos indígenas del Río Beni y Quiquibey, Alex Willca.
    "Vamos a movilizarnos y articularnos con nuestros hermanos del Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro-Secure (TIPNIS) en el departamento del Beni (este), así como los hermanos guaranís en el Chaco donde también existen problemas socio ambientales", declaró el representante.
    Willca hizo esa declaración al anunciar que los pueblos indígenas del norte de la Paz que serán afectados por la hidroeléctrica se declararon en emergencia ante la decisión del Gobierno de reanudar los estudios para la construcción de esa obra.
    El Gobierno pretende invertir unos 6.337 millones de dólares para la construcción de la hidroeléctrica del Bala y el Chepete en la perspectiva de generar unos 3.676 megavatios para exportarlos al Brasil.
    "Estamos en alerta máxima porque el Gobierno ha desplazado nuevamente equipos de la empresa Servicom (subsidiaria de Datacom) y continúan los estudios para la construcción de la hidroeléctrica del Bala y el Chepete", dijo el representante indígena.
    Además, anunció que la semana que viene será clave para los pueblos que viven en la ribera de los ríos Beni y Quiquibey porque constataron además que el Gobierno ha logrado que algunas comunidades estén de acuerdo con la construcción de la represa.
    "La Empresa Nacional de Electricidad (ENDE) solo está explicando las supuestas bondades de la hidroeléctrica, pero no los efectos que tendrá sobre las comunidades indígenas que viven en la ribera de los ríos Beni y Quiquibey", dijo delegado indígena.
    Según datos de la Fundación Solón, solo la represa del Chepete tendrá un área de influencia de 1.931 kilómetros cuadrados, lo que significa que esta generará una inundación superior a toda el área que corresponde a la ciudad de La Paz que es de unos 472 kilómetros cuadrados.
    Se estima que al menos 2.314 personas están ubicadas en las áreas que serán inundadas por las represas del Bala y El Chepete.
    Se prevé que hasta fines de 2018 la empresa Datacom entregue el estudio a diseño final para que el Gobierno lance la licitación para la adjudicación de la obra, señala un informe de la Fundación Solón.
    "No podemos seguir en esta lucha solos, vamos a unirnos con otros pueblos que también se sienten afectados por proyectos de gran impacto ambiental", remarcó Willca.
    En noviembre de 2016, la Mancomunidad de Pueblos Indígenas del río Beni y Quiquibey junto a unas 17 comunidades de la zona realizaron una vigilia de doce días que obligó a la empresa Datacom a retirarse del lugar.
    El Gobierno boliviano acusó a los grupos ambientalistas de poner un freno al desarrollo de la región y aseguró que contará con el aval de los pobladores del norte de La Paz para construir la hidroeléctrica.




    EL ANTROPÓLOGO QUE ENCONTRÓ LA TUMBA SECRETA DEL CHE, RECORDÓ EL HALLAZGO

    El cadáver del guerrillero argentino fue sepultado sin manos, dato decisivo para identificarlo, narró el antropólogo forense Héctor Soto, uno de los expertos que lo halló en 1997.

    Clarín de Argentina (www.clarin.com)
                                                  
    El cadáver del guerrillero argentino Ernesto Che Guevara fue sepultado sin manos, dato decisivo para identificarlo, narró el antropólogo forense Héctor Soto, uno de los expertos que encontró su tumba secreta.
    "Yo estaba excavando allá abajo y veo una chaqueta verde oliva; al Che lo habían enterrado con una", narró Soto. "Lo primero que buscamos fue si tenía manos o no. Sabíamos que el único cuerpo sepultado sin manos era el del Che”, expuso.
    Tras su asesinato, el 8 de octubre de 1967, en la remota región de Vallegrande, en Bolivia, los militares bolivianos cortaron las manos del guerrillero para que se confirmara en Argentina su identidad comparando sus huellas dactilares. Dos años después fueron llevadas a Cuba, según versiones históricas.
    Soto dijo ahora, a la publicación habanera Cubadebate, que el día que desenterró el cuerpo del Che, acción que llevó a cabo junto a Jorge González Pérez, quien era el director del Instituto de Medicina Legal de la isla en aquella época, lo hicieron bajo la advertencia de que podía haber una bomba en la fosa colocada como una trampa contra quienes quisieran recuperar su cuerpo. "Había información de que posiblemente la fosa estuviera dinamitada. Y dije: "Denme un bisturí y quítense del lado mío. Si vuelo, vuelo yo solo. Cogí con el bisturí y le di un corte a la chaqueta. Lo que había allá abajo no era metal, era un cráneo", contó.
    Con su mano palpó el cráneo, la frente y los arcos supra orbitarios en los que eran notables las características de Guevara. Tras la recuperación, de inmediato los investigadores tuvieron grandes presiones por temor a que alguien "intentara hacer desaparecer los restos". "No confiábamos en nadie. Los días que estuvimos en la morgue dormimos junto con los esqueletos; no nos fuimos a un hotel, ni a una casa. Estuvimos ahí hasta que los restos se trasladaron a Cuba", expuso el antropólogo.
    Cuba está conmemorando de manera especial en 2017 los acontecimientos más relevantes de la vida del legendario médico argentino, guerrillero y Comandante durante la guerra civil contra el régimen de Fulgencio Batista (1952-1958), bajo las órdenes del líder Fidel Castro. El Mausoleo del Che Guevara es su tumba en Santa Clara, una localidad en el centro de la isla donde sus restos están acompañados por 29 de los combatientes que lo acompañaban en Bolivia.
    En el área del Complejo Escultórico Ernesto Guevara fue erigida una estatua de bronce de 22 pies del guerrillero. El 17 de octubre de 1997 sus restos fueron colocados en medio de todos los honores militares en el gran mausoleo, a unos 400 kilómetros al este de La Habana. En el lugar existe también un museo dedicado a su vida y arde una "llama eterna" encendida por Fidel Castro en su memoria.
    En 2017 se cumplirá medio siglo desde su muerte. Soto narró que tras la exhumación y el traslado del cadáver a Cuba "hace unos años estaba el runrún de que no eran sus restos, que si era una farsa. La identificación de los restos del Che no fue una farsa", subrayó categóricamente.
    Cuba ratificó la identidad plena de la osamenta de Guevara mediante las técnicas de ADN, incluido el establecimiento de la paternidad en dos de sus hijos, resultados que constan en un dictamen oficial emitido en noviembre de 1997.




    “EL SUEÑO CAPORAL”, UN NUEVO "REALITY" SALTEÑO

    El primer campeonato provincial de danza folclórica boliviana se iniciará el sábado. Será televisado por Canal 11 y conducido por Mariano Burgos. 

    El Tribuno de Argentina (www.eltribuno.info)
                                                                             
    Enorme expectativa viene despertando el primer campeonato provincial denominado “El sueño caporal”, un show televisivo, que se emitirá desde el sábado, a partir de las 15, por Canal 11, bajo la conducción del periodista Mariano Burgos.
    “El certamen desea mostrar la diversidad de culturas que encontramos en nuestra provincia. En esta oportunidad “el sueño caporal” es una competencia de baile destinada a los seguidores de la música boliviana. Los participantes tienen la oportunidad de mostrar sus habilidades arriba de un escenario, acompañados por sonido, luces, escenografía y un coach, el cual es el encargado de incentivarlos para montar un buen espectáculo. A través de un jurado, integrado por personalidades que conocen del tema, se decidirá quienes continúan en carrera. También será importante la participación del televidente y el público presente en el show.
    Los jóvenes estarán incentivados por los importantes premios que dispondremos gracias a la compañía de auspiciantes. La idea es que lleguen cuatro grupos a la final, que todos reciban un premio de acuerdo al logro obtenido, y que el ganador sea beneficiario con un reconocimiento importante, como un viaje para todo el equipo por una semana a Santa Cruz de la Sierra, en Bolivia”, sostuvo Burgos.
    Entre los objetivos se encuentran: hacer un show para toda la familia; incentivar en los jóvenes a buscar el apoyo barrial que los represente; mostrar un espectáculo transparente y de primer nivel; brindar un espacio de expresión cultural; llevar a cabo una producción sustentable que garantice el resultado de calidad asumiendo todos los costos.
    “Es un show para que comparta y apoye toda la familia, no solo de los concursantes sino que desde cada rincón de la provincia podrán participar activamente votando a los que sean merecedores de dicho concurso. Nuestra producción tiene como objetivo desarrollar la idea y captar la audiencia”, agregó el conductor.
    La escenografía fue montada en el escenario del Teatro Provincial con un telón negro, definiendo una artística con la iluminación, además dos pantallas de forma vertical, serán el eje principal de la escenografía, resaltando los principales detalles de los participantes.
    La primera emisión será el sábado y se sucederá todos los sábados, hasta la gran final del 5 de agosto.
    “El jurado estable está integrado por César Guantay (bailarín y coreógrafo), quien estuvo desde un principio aconsejando a los chicos en la etapa de casting. Tenemos el orgullo de contar con Vidala Barbosa, la nueva directora del Ballet Folclórico Provincial. El cupo del jurado se completará con un invitado. En el primer programa lo ocupará Oscar Belondi, voz líder del reconocido grupo La Repandilla. En el siguiente programa estará uno de los iconos de la música tropical del país: José Luis Salinas, del Grupo Ternura, quien está cumpliendo 30 años en la música”, añadió Burgos.
    “Cabe aclarar que los programas se graban con anterioridad en el Teatro Provincial y luego se transmiten por la pantalla de Canal 11. Se vivieron momentos muy lindos, llenos de emoción, en la grabación de los dos primeros programas. Los jóvenes son muy profesionales en la presentación de sus coreografías. Es muy importante que los bailarines sientan el apoyo de sus familiares, amigos, compañeros de estudio y todos los que quieran ir a disfrutar de un gran espectáculo”, dijo Mariano.
    El martes próximo se grabarán el tercer y cuarto programa, donde se disfrutará de los duelos entre: Dinastía Caporal (femenino) con Reales Huascar (mixto), y Alma Latina (masculino) con Orgullo Caporal (femenino).
    El precio de la entrada es solo de $60. “La idea fue de poner un precio bajo para que pueda concurrir toda la familia”.




    EDMUNDO PAZ SOLDÁN DEVELA EL HORROR DE LAS CÁRCELES

    Escritor boliviano acaba de publicar la novela Los días de la peste. En ella expone la situación infrahumana de muchas cárceles latinoamericanas.

    La República de Perú (www.larepublica.pe)
                                                                     
    El boliviano Edmundo Paz Soldán se adentra en un duro microcosmos, una cárcel en la que conviven el horror con la cotidianeidad, en Los días de la peste, y lo usa como reflejo “distorsionado y exacerbado de la sociedad actual”, de la corrupción endémica, la estructura de poder y los abusos.
    Una novela coral con una treintena de narradores que se suceden sin pausa en una narración con la que Paz Soldán (Cochabamba, 1967) quiere hacer sentir al lector la sensación de hacinamiento que se vive en muchos penales latinoamericanos, explicó el escritor en una entrevista con Efe.
    Inspirada en la peculiar cárcel de San Pedro, en La Paz, en la que los reclusos pueden vivir con sus familias, pero con elementos tomados de prisiones de Argentina, México, Brasil o Uruguay, el escritor abandona la ciencia ficción de su trabajo anterior, Iris (2014), para sumergirse en una cruel realidad que por momentos supera cualquier idea de ficción.
    Tras una profunda investigación de motines y enfermedades en cárceles e incluso del lenguaje, el escritor se dejó llevar y empezó a volcar todos esos conocimientos en la construcción de un lugar ficticio, que no existe y que podría ubicarse en cualquier parte, no únicamente en Bolivia.
    A Paz Soldán lo que le interesaba era mostrar “cómo funciona el poder en nuestra sociedad” y eso es lo que ha hecho en una novela publicada por Malpaso primero en España antes de salir a la venta en Latinoamérica, probablemente en otoño.
              Lifeplan Alpha Max / Saw Palmetto Twin Pack   

    ALPHA MAX - A powerful combination of essential vitamins and minerals specifically formulated for men of all ages. Whether 25 or 75, vitamins and minerals that support immunity, promote energy, reduce tiredness and fatigue are important for all men.

    SAW PALMETTO - This product contains a standardised extract of Saw Palmetto which is naturally rich in fatty acids and phytosterols.

    Price: £25.98 Special Price: £19.99


              LSA Inza Vase Mineral H36cm   

    Price: £83.33 Special Price: £50.00


              Lifeplan ExtraVits Wide Spectrum Multivitamin and Mineral 90 Tablets   

    Daily Amount of all vitamins and including important trace minerals.

    Contains No added sugar, salt, starch, lactose, gluten, live yeasts, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives. Suitable for vegetarians.

    Nutrition information: Vitamin A 800g (40% as Beta carotene); Vitamin D 5g; Vitamin E 10mg; Vitamin C 60mg; Thiamin (B1) 1.4mg; Riboflavin (B2) 1.6mg; Niacin 18mg; Vitamin B6 2mg; Folacin (Folic Acid) 300g; Vitamin B12 1.5g; Biotin 0.15mg; Pantothenic Acid 6mg; Vitamin K 25g; Calcium 162mg; Phosphorus 125mg; Iron 14mg; Magnesium 100mg; Zinc 15mg; Iodine 150g; Copper 2mg; Manganese 2mg; Potassium 40mg; Chloride 36mg; Boron 150g; Chromium 20g; Molybdenum 20g; Selenium 25g; Silicon 10g; Nickel 1g; Tin 3g; Vanadium 10g

    Ingredients: Dicalcium Phosphate, Magnesium Oxide, Niacin (as ascorbate), Potassium Chloride, Stearic Acid Powder, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Ferrous Fumarate, Cross-linked sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Zinc Oxide, Vitamin E (as succinate), D-calcium Pantothenate, Magnesium Stearate, Magnesium Sulphate, Vitamin A (as acetate), Vitamin C (as Ascorbic acid), Glaze (HPMC prep), Folic Acid, Biotin Prep, Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCL), Vitamin K prep, Copper (as Cupric Oxide), Riboflavin, Thiamin (as Thiamin HCl), Vitamin B12 prep, Boron prep, Vitamin D3, Potassium Iodide, Chromic Chloride, Sodium Molybdate, Sodium Selenate, Sodium Metasilicate, Nickelous Sulfate. From vegetable source

    Price: £7.99 Special Price: £6.99


              Lifeplan ExtraVits Wide Spectrum Multivitamin Mineral 30 Tablets   

    Daily Amount of all vitamins and including important trace minerals.

    Contains No added sugar, salt, starch, lactose, gluten, live yeasts, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives.

    Suitable for vegetarians.

    Nutrition information: Vitamin A 800g (40% as Beta carotene); Vitamin D 5g; Vitamin E 10mg; Vitamin C 60mg; Thiamin (B1) 1.4mg; Riboflavin (B2) 1.6mg; Niacin 18mg; Vitamin B6 2mg; Folacin (Folic Acid) 300g; Vitamin B12 1.5g; Biotin 0.15mg; Pantothenic Acid 6mg; Vitamin K 25g; Calcium 162mg; Phosphorus 125mg; Iron 14mg; Magnesium 100mg; Zinc 15mg; Iodine 150g; Copper 2mg; Manganese 2mg; Potassium 40mg; Chloride 36mg; Boron 150g; Chromium 20g; Molybdenum 20g; Selenium 25g; Silicon 10g; Nickel 1g; Tin 3g; Vanadium 10g Ingredients: Dicalcium Phosphate, Magnesium Oxide, Niacin (as ascorbate), Potassium Chloride, Stearic Acid Powder, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Ferrous Fumarate, Cross-linked sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Zinc Oxide, Vitamin E (as succinate), D-calcium Pantothenate, Magnesium Stearate, Magnesium Sulphate, Vitamin A (as acetate), Vitamin C (as Ascorbic acid), Glaze (HPMC prep), Folic Acid, Biotin Prep, Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCL), Vitamin K prep, Copper (as Cupric Oxide), Riboflavin, Thiamin (as Thiamin HCl), Vitamin B12 prep, Boron prep, Vitamin D3, Potassium Iodide, Chromic Chloride, Sodium Molybdate, Sodium Selenate, Sodium Metasilicate, Nickelous Sulfate. From vegetable source

    Price: £3.99 Special Price: £3.39


              Lifeplan Hair Care Nutrients 60 Tablets   

    Acid 100mg, Vitamin B12 6ug, Folic Acid 400ug, Biotin 100ug, Niacin 35mg, Zinc 10mg, Iron 8mg, Copper 2mg, Manganese 1mg. Also provides: Choline 200mg, Inositol 125mg, PABA 30mg.

    Ingredients: Bulking Agent: (Dicalcium Phosphate), Glazing Agent: (Hydroxypropyl Methycellulose, Mineral Oil), Choline Bitartrate, Inositol, Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium Pantothenate), Niacin (as Nicotic Acid), Stearic Acid, Ferrous Gluconate, Manganese Sulphate, Zinc Gluconate, Copper Gluconate, Magnesium Stearate, Microcrystaline Cellulose, Potassium Iodine, Biotin, Natural Colour (Titanium Dioxide), Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Compound.

    Directions: As a food supplement, take one tablet, twice daily with food.

    Contains No added sugar, salt, starch, lactose, gluten, live yeasts, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives or animal derivatives. Suitable for Vegans.

    Price: £5.69 Special Price: £4.99


              Lifeplan Maitake Mushroom 480mg 60 Capsules   

    Lifeplan Maitake Mushroom Capsules 480mg x60
    They are rich in vitamins, minerals, fibre and amino acids. Maitake (Grifola frondosa) grows in clusters particularly under oak trees and its name derives from the Japanese 'Dancing mushroom'.
    It has been used traditionally to help balance out the body, for immunity, blood pressure and normalising blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
    Ingredients; Maitake Mushroom Powder, Capsule Shell (Cellulose).
    Each capsule provides; Maitake Mushroom Powder 480mg Contains No added sugar, salt, gluten, soya, lactose, yeasts, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives, or animal derivatives.
    Suitable for vegans.
    Directions: As a supplement take one to two capsules daily with food.
    Do not exceed the recommended intake.

    Price: £8.99 Special Price: £4.99


              Lifeplan Minerals Zinc Gluconate Super Active 10mg 100 Tablets   

    Zinc is a component of more than 300 enzymes that are involved in fertility, vision, cell production, growth and repair, immunity, and protein synthesis. Zinc also helps protect against cell damage caused by excess free radicals.

    CONTAINS NO added sugar, salt, starch, lactose, gluten, live yeasts, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives or animal derivatives. Registered with the Vegan Society

    Each tablet typically provides Zinc 10mg 67% of the Recommended Daily Allowance.

    Price: £2.99 Special Price: £2.49


              Learn About The Minerals and Vitamins - Basics 1 BORON   
    Understanding about vitamins and minerals and what they can do for the body (yours and your equine friend) is an important part of being a horse owner.  In this group of articles, we will discuss what vitamins and minerals are and what they do to the body.  We know from scientific studying that increased farming and the use of chemical additives to the ground has created a situation where the soils are constantly coming up deficient in a range of minerals.  This emerged as far back as 1937 in
              Lifeplan Ostron 60 Tablets   

    formulas also contain Magnesium and, perhaps Boron.

    Ostron is a supplement which goes many steps further, providing a balanced ratio of Calcium and Magnesium, plus B Vitamins, Vitamin D and 6 different minerals.

    Ingredients: Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium Oxide, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Calcium Citrate, Calcium Amino Acids Chelate, Stearic Acid, Zinc Oxide, Carboxylmethyl Cellulose, Magnesium Stearate, Boron Prep, Manganese Sulphate, Cupric Sulphate, Vitamin B6, Folic Acid, Vitamin D (as D3 prep).

    For Further Nutritional Information Please refer to Reverse of Packet.

    Directions: As a supplement, take two tablets daily with a meal, preferably with a little liquid.

    Contains No added sugar, salt, starch, lactose, gluten, yeast, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives. Suitable For Vegetarians.

    Price: £5.29 Special Price: £4.99


              Lifeplan Sea Kelp 400mg 280 Tablets   

    a naturally rich marine source of iodine. Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones which help control the metabolic rate of the body.

    Calcium is an essential mineral necessary for the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, normal muscle function and normal blood clotting.

    Each tablet typically provides: Calcium 68mg, Iodine 245ug, Powdered Sea Kelp 400mg. Ingredients: Sea Kelp Powder (Ascophyllum Nodosum), Microcrystalline Cellulose, Silica, Dicalcium Phosphate, Flavouring Aniseed Oil.

    Directions: As a supplement, take two tablets daily, preferably with a little liquid before food.

    Contains No added sugar, salt, starch, sucrose, gluten, live yeast, synthetic flavours, artificial colours or preservatives. Pregnant women and people with thyroid disorders should consult their doctor before taking this product. Kelp is not suitable for children.

    Note: Not recommended for use during pregnancy or when breastfeeding.

    Price: £5.49 Special Price: £4.99


              Lifeplan Super Strength MSM 1500mg 90 Tablets   

    MSM comprises of the naturally occurring organic compound called Sulphur. This water soluble mineral is found in every cell of the human body, particularly in high concentrations in hair, skin, nails and joints.

    Product Information:

    Each Tablet Typically Provides: Methylsulphonylmethane (MSM) 1500mg. Ingredients: MSM (Methylsuphonylmethane). Microcrystalline Cellulose, Dicalcium Phosphate, Stearic Acid, Cross linked Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, Magnesium Stearate Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, Magnesium Silicate, Silica.

    Directions: Swallow or crush one tablet daily and take with food and a little liquid.

    Contains No added sugar, starch, lactose, gluten, dairy, yeast, artificial colours, flavours or preservatives or animal derivatives. Suitable for Vegans.

    Price: £13.99 Special Price: £11.99


              Nutriplan Original   
    NutriPlan is a convenient way to help support the nutritional health of adults, children and the elderly. Having a balanced diet with the correct amounts of nutrients, vitamins and minerals that you need can be hard in modern life, which is where NutriPlan can help. It is a source of balanced nutrients and a mixture of essential proteins, with the addition of fat and carbohydrate as sources of energy: Carbohydrates contain sugars to provide energy, and healthy saturated fats have a number of benefits for your body. Fibre is an ingredient contributing to good digestion. Vitamin A is important for healthy eyes and skin. Vitamin D is crucial for bone health. Vitamin E is known for its antioxidant function. Vitamin B6 is an efficient coenzyme for overall metabolism. Vitamin B12 is responsible for the normal functions of the nervous system and the brain. Folic acid is paramount for a number of body functions, especially for rapid cell division and growth, and hence is especially important in infancy and pregnancy. Calcium for strong, healthy bones. Iron to support mental focus. NutriPlan also contains a comprehensive range of essential minerals, including potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, and iodine. Although trace elements such as copper, iodine, iron are only needed in really minute amounts, they are vital for a balanced diet. NutriPlan can benefit almost everybody: Nutriplan for the Family: Nowadays families do not take enough essential proteins, vitamins and minerals with their food, and that often leads to the accumulation of excess fats and the loss of energy. This is especially important when considering a child's diet as it may affect the way they grow and potentially limit their abilities as an adult. Nutriplan for Busy Lifestyles: It can be hard to get a balanced diet when your work-home life leans towards the former and you have limited time to refuel. NutriPlan is quick and easy to prepare and quick to drink, so you can get advanced nutrition in minutes and can even be prepared in advance to take with you to work. Nutriplan for Weight Management: When time is a problem, NutriPlan makes a great alternative to fast food and is more cost effective too. Nutriplan for Seniors: As you get older, your nutritional requirements may change, due to illness, physical disability etc. and you many no longer be able to get enough from the foods you normally eat, or you may have trouble eating. NutriPlan is easy to prepare and consume, so is great even for those with limited dexterity. NutriPlan at a glance: Provides balanced nutrition. Contains 26 vitamins & minerals Low Glyceamic Index Free from gluten, lactose, wheat, sucrose and egg. Non genetically modified. Suitable for vegetarians, diabetics and Halal diets. Can be taken during pregnancy. No artificial flavours, flavour enhancers, preservatives, colours or sweeteners.

    Price: £4.69 Special Price: £3.99


              Omega-H3 Concentrated Fluid Bio-Formula 30 capsules   

    Omega-H3 Concentrated Fluid Bio-Formula 30 capsules. A daily food supplement to help promote health and vitality.

    Contains 33 bio-elements including beta carotene, zinc, iron, copper, selenium, vitamin E, amino acids, omega-3 & fish oil, garlic conc, ginseng-pollen, wheatgerm, 12 vitamins and 9 minerals.

    Directions: Once capsule to be taken daily with your main meal of the day.

    Price: £6.25 Special Price: £4.99


              Optibac Probiotic Food Supplements Daily Immunity Capsules 30   

    Contains Lactobacillus, Acidophilus and super antioxidants. What's it for?
    Supports the body's resistance to infection and promotes a healthy immune system. Who's it for? For those with active, demanding lifestyles.
    Keeping you at your best. This OptiBac Probiotics formula is an advanced multi-strain probiotic and antioxidant blend developed to support the bodys resistance to infection and promote a healthy immune system. For daily immunity is recommended for people who lead active, demanding lifestyles and for those with weaker immune responses (e.g. people who catch every cold going round, the elderly etc.)
    The varied types (strains) of friendly bacteria in OptiBac Probiotics For daily immunity ensure the intestinal lining throughout the gut is well colonised with a healthy coating of friendly bacteria.
    A strong intestinal lining bars contaminants and harmful bacteria from entering into the bloodstream.
    A rich probiotic balance also supports immune cells in the intestinal walls to help limit the growth of pathogenic organisms.
    The antioxidants in for daily immunity are a unique and balanced combination of essential antioxidants as well as other potent natural extracts with very powerful regenerating and free radical neutralising properties.
    A unique synergy exists between the advanced antioxidants and probiotic blend in this OptiBac Probiotics formula.
    A healthy probiotic balance enhances nutrient and mineral absorption in the intestines, thereby ensuring that the antioxidants are more efficiently absorbed into the bloodstream and can make their way to the cells and organs where they are needed most.
    The effect of this synergy makes for daily immunity the best antioxidant formulation available.
    Ingredients: Antioxidants: Extracts of Grape Seed, Pine Bark, and Green Tea in OptiBac Probiotics For daily immunity contain powerful, natural and hypoallergenic free radical scavengers and bioflavonoid complexes which are rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body.
    These antioxidants seek out the free radicals (chemicals produced from the breakdown of foods that can cause cell damage in the body) and neutralise them.
    Grape Seed extract contains oligomeric procyanidins (or OPCs) known for their properties in performing regenerative functions such as maintaining the structural strength of blood vessels and assisting in the healthy development of capillary walls.
    Probiotics: Lactobacillus acidophilus among the most well researched and documented species of friendly bacteria naturally resident in the human gut.
    An ability to survive the gastric acids and bile salts expected at mealtimes and to reach the intestines without damage ensures that these health promoting bacteria colonise well in the gut where they support immune cells and create a healthy lactic acid environment that limits survival of harmful bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus). Bifidobacteria strains: Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium infantis colonise primarily in the large intestine (or colon) where they play important roles in maintaining immunity.
    In this region they promote the production of antibodies and maintain resistance to infection from undesirable bacteria by competitively excluding their attachment to the intestinal walls.
    In addition, a healthy balance of bifidobacteria supports the intestines to assist transit and optimise a healthy frequency and regularity of bowel movements.

    Price: £10.20 Special Price: £9.99


              Perspi-Rock Natural Deodorant 60g   

    Perspi-Rock Natural Deodorant is made from natural mineral salts and will provide the body with a chemical free sweat and odour reduction.

    Price: £5.80 Special Price: £5.50


              Pharmaton Vitality 100 Capsules   

    Pharmaton Vitality also helps prevent and treat symptoms caused by ill-balanced or deficient nutrition. Pharmaton Capsules are a balanced, multivitamin, mineral and ginseng supplement.

    Pharmaton Vitality Capsules are suitable for both men and women but not for children. The recommended course of treatment is one Pharmaton capsule per day. The capsule should preferably be taken in the morning with food. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water. Do not take more than the recommended dose. In the case of overdose, ask advice from a pharmacist or doctor.

    Each capsule contains the following active ingredients: Standardised Ginseng extract (made from the roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) G115 40.0 mg,  Vitamin A palmitate, Biotin 150.0 mcg,  Thiamine nitrate (Vit. B1) 1.4 mg, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 1.6 mg, Pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vit B6) 2.0 mg, Cyanocobalamine (Vit. B12) 1.0 mcg, Ascorbic acid (Vit C) 60.0 mg, Cholecalciferol (Vit. D3) 200 lU dl-alpha Tocopherol acetate (Vit E) 10.0 mg, Nicotinamide 18.0mg, Folic acid 100.0 mcg, Iron (as dried ferrous sulphate) 10.0 mg, Calcium (as dibasic calcium phosphate) 100.0 mg, Copper (as dried copper sulphate) 2.0 mg, Magnesium (as dried magnesium sulphate) 10.0 mg, Zinc (as zinc sulphate monohydrate) 1.0 mg, Selenium (as dried sodium selenite) 50.0 mcg, Lecithin 100.0 mg.

    The capsules also contain the following inactive ingredients: rape oil, arachis (peanut) oil, ethyl vanillin (flavouring), gelatin, hard fat and triglycerides, medium chain. The capsule shell contains gelatin, glycerol and iron oxide red and iron oxide black (colourings).

    Price: £23.58 Special Price: £18.99


              Pharmaton Vitality 30 Capsules   

    Pharmaton Vitality also helps prevent and treat symptoms caused by ill-balanced or deficient nutrition. Pharmaton Capsules are a balanced, multivitamin, mineral and ginseng supplement.

    Pharmaton Vitality Capsules are suitable for both men and women but not for children. The recommended course of treatment is one Pharmaton capsule per day. The capsule should preferably be taken in the morning with food. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water. Do not take more than the recommended dose. In the case of overdose, ask advice from a pharmacist or doctor.

    Each capsule contains the following active ingredients: Standardised Ginseng extract (made from the roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) G115 40.0 mg,  Vitamin A palmitate, Biotin 150.0 mcg,  Thiamine nitrate (Vit. B1) 1.4 mg, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 1.6 mg, Pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vit B6) 2.0 mg, Cyanocobalamine (Vit. B12) 1.0 mcg, Ascorbic acid (Vit C) 60.0 mg, Cholecalciferol (Vit. D3) 200 lU dl-alpha Tocopherol acetate (Vit E) 10.0 mg, Nicotinamide 18.0mg, Folic acid 100.0 mcg, Iron (as dried ferrous sulphate) 10.0 mg, Calcium (as dibasic calcium phosphate) 100.0 mg, Copper (as dried copper sulphate) 2.0 mg, Magnesium (as dried magnesium sulphate) 10.0 mg, Zinc (as zinc sulphate monohydrate) 1.0 mg, Selenium (as dried sodium selenite) 50.0 mcg, Lecithin 100.0 mg.

    The capsules also contain the following inactive ingredients: rape oil, arachis (peanut) oil, ethyl vanillin (flavouring), gelatin, hard fat and triglycerides, medium chain. The capsule shell contains gelatin, glycerol and iron oxide red and iron oxide black (colourings).

    Price: £9.64 Special Price: £8.49


              Phyto Subtil Elixir Intense Nutrition Shine Oil 75ml    

    Phyto Subtil Elixir Intense Nutrition Shine Oil restores ultimate shine and suppleness to the hair. Extremely rich in Vitamins (A,E) and minerals, the ultra-nourishing egg yolk oil is combined with wheat germ and karanja oils to deeply regenerate and protect the hair fiber from external aggressions. Selected for its lightness and its high essential fatty acid content, camellia oil intensely hydrates and softens, resulting in healthier, silkier hair. An intensive weekly treatment, Phyto Subtil Elixir Intense Nutrition Shine Oil weightlessly repairs dry and ultra-dry hair, illumining it with incredible shine.

    Price: £24.50 Special Price: £21.20


              Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite.   
    Related Articles

    Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite.

    Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Jun 29;:

    Authors: Franzen M, Müller-More E, Cadamuro J, Koller J, Salmhofer W, Wohlmuth-Wieser I, Kronberger C, Salmhofer H

    Abstract
    Subcutaneous calcifications can lead to complications, including pain, inflammation, ulceration and immobilization. Studies on the pathophysiology of mineral compositions and effective treatment modalities are limited. We therefore studied 14 patients with subcutaneous calcifications. Mineral material was collected and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Blood analyses were run to evaluate systemic alterations of mineral metabolism. Carbonate apatite (CAP) was found to be the single constituent in the majority of patients (n = 9, 64.3%), 3 cases (21.4%) had a composition of CAP and calcium oxalate dihydrate and one case had a combination of CAP and magnesium ammonium phosphate, whereas CAP was the major component in all 4 cases. Only one case showed predominantly calcium oxalate. CAP was found to be the only or predominant component in subcutaneous calcifications. Chemical analyses of the mineral compositions may aid in the development of new treatment regimes to improve the solubility of mineral components and to decrease extraosseous calcifications.

    PMID: 28660279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


              PhytoElixir Subtle Oil intense nutrition for ultra-dry hair 75ml   

    A subtle blend of powerful, beautifying oils; this unique elixir restores hair for ensurpassed shine and suppleness. Rich in vitamins A and E and minerals, ultra-nourishing egg yolk oil is combined with corn germ and karanja oils for long-lasting protection from external aggressors while restoring the hair fiber. Selected for its high essential fatty acid content, camellia oil intensely hydrates and softens, resulting in healthier, silkier har.

    Price: £26.50 Special Price: £22.90


              Regelle Long Lasting Vaginal Moisturiser Pack of 6 Tubes   

    Regelle long lasting vaginal moisturiser. Pack of 6 hygienic pre-filled applicators.

    Vaginal dryness is a common problem which is caused by lack of natural moisture inside the vagina. Symptoms include painful intercourse, itching, irritation and discomfort. Regelle replenishes essential vaginal moisture.

    Apply internally every 3 days and not just before intercourse. Regelle provides soothing, continuous moisture and comfort. Regular use of Regelle can help to maintain vaginal health and comfort.

    Ingredients: Purified water Ph.Eur.78.82% w/w, glycerol, mineral oil, polycarbophil, hydrogenated palm oil glycerides, carbopol 974P, sorbic acid

    Price: £9.45 Special Price: £8.45


              Solgar Advanced Acidophilus Plus (100% Dairy Free) 60 Vegetable Capsules   
    acidity and naturally resides in the lower digestive tract to help maintain a healthy intestinal flora. Solgar's Advanced Probiotics utilise a polysaccharide matrix comprised of a specially formulated blend that includes nutrients such as amino acids, mineral salts and carbohydrates, to provide food for the organisms, enhanced shelf stability and protection from destruction by stomach acid. Food supplement, Suitable for Vegans. Sugar, Starch and salt Free.

    Price: £8.97 Special Price: £7.99


              Solgar Kangavites Multivitamin & Minerals 60 Chewable Tablets   
    Multivitamin & Mineral Formula for Children (Kangavites) 60 Chewable Berry flavour tablets. Solgar Kangavites bouncing berry chewable tablets are free from diary products and are formulated without the use of preservatives, artificial flavours or colours.

    Price: £7.61 Special Price: £6.99


              Spatone 100% Natural Iron Supplement 28 Daily Sachets   
    Iron is an essential mineral for carrying oxygen around your body and maintaining good health. This iron is naturally in water, so it is easily and gently absorbed by your body. It should not cause certain side effects (stomach irritation and constipation) associated with high supplement iron intake.

    Price: £8.25 Special Price: £5.25


              Spatone Liquid Iron Supplement With Vitamin C 28 Daily Sachets   
    A daily iron and vitamin C supplement suitable for everyone (over the age of 2) including pregnant and post-natal women. Iron is an essential mineral for the human body, required to transport oxygen around your body and ensure vitality and energy release. Iron also plays a key role in helping to maintain a healthy immune system and sustain concentration levels.

    Price: £8.25 Special Price: £5.99


              Vitabiotic Perfectil Plus for Skin, Hair & Nails 28Tabs+28Caps    

    Each original tablet contains a range of over 20 micronutrients specially formulated for utilisation by the skin's lower dermal layer, hair follicles and nails. Standardised grape seed extract may help maintain a healthy complexion.
    Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and natural plant carotenoids are important antioxidants which can help protect the skin. Minerals which are vital factors for the maintenance of hair, nails and skin condition.
    Each Nutri-dermal capsule provides additional nutrients which play a particularly important role in skin health. Essential Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and Omega-6 fatty acids from Starflower and Blackcurrant seed oil.
    The antioxidant carotenoids lutein and lycopene help to protect against free radical damage from sunlight and pollution. Co-enzyme Q10 helps support healthy skin cell metabolism.
    Directions: One Original Perfectil Tablet per day, plus One Nutri-dermal capsule per day. Swallow each with a glass of water or a cold drink and take with a main meal. Not to be chewed.
    Perfectil Plus tablets and capsules should only be taken on a full stomach.
    No Gluten No Artificial Colours No Preservatives No Salt or Yeast Not Tested on Animals

    Price: £18.18 Special Price: £17.95


              Vitabiotics Diabetone for people with Diabetes Tablets x30   
    Colours, No Gluten, Salt or Yeast, No Preservatives, No Lactose or Added Sugar If you have diabetes, eating the right foods every day is vital. Research shows that certain vitamins and trace minerals are particularly important in helping maintain the day to day health of people with diabetes. Diabetone has been specially formulated with 21 nutrients to help safeguard your daily requirements, with particular emphasis on those of special relevance to people with diabetes. These include Vitamin B1 (Thiamin), plus B6 and C, which are important factors in glucose metabolism. Diabetone contains zinc and magnesium, to help replace that which can be lost through excretion Ingredients: Tablet Binder: Maltodextrin, Magnesium Oxide, Vitamin C, Bulking Agent: Microcrystalline Cellulose, Thiamin (Vitamin B1 Mononitrate), Niacin (as Nicotinamide), Vitamin E Natural Source, (D Alpha Tocopheryl Acid Sulphate) Zinc Sulphate, Tablet coating (Hydroxypropyl Cellulose, Hydroxypropylmethyl Cellulose, Natural Source Colours, (Titanium Dioxide, Iron Oxides), Ferrous Furnarate, Vitamin B6, Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium Salt), Vitamin A (as Acetate), Anti-caking agent: Silicon Dioxide, Lubrificants: Stearic Acid & Magnesium Stearate, Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol, Acacia, Sucrose, Corn Starch, Medium Chain Triglycerides, antioxidant: DL Alpha Tocopherol) Manganese Sulphate, Riboflavin, Copper Sulphate, Chromium Trichloride, Folacin (as Folic Acid) Sodium Selenate, Potassium Iodide, L-Carnitine Tartrate, Biotin, Vitamin B12. For Further Nutritional Information Please refer to reverse of pack. Directions: One tablet per day with your main meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed. Do not exceed the recommended intake. Diabetone should not be taken on an empty stomach. This product contains iron, which if taken in excess by very young children may be harmful. As with other supplements, seek professional advice before use if you are under medical supervision, pregnant, breast-feeding or suffer from food allergies.

    Price: £10.16 Special Price: £9.99


              Vitabiotics Feroglobin B12 Capsules 30   

    Iron is an essential mineral, which is required for the formation of haemoglobin. This carries oxygen to the tissues where it is used for the release of energy from food. As well as keeping blood healthy, iron is involved to help maintain resistance to infection and in helping to maintain intellectual performance. Sometimes our diets are not well balanced and everyday activities, even drinking tea or coffee, can inhibit iron absorption.
    Feroglobin-B12 Capsules provide an effective source of vital blood forming nutrients including organic iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. Excess iron in the stomach is prevented by Feroglobin-B12's special slow release system. This ensures that the release of the blood forming nutrients is gradual and even.
    This unique combination is particularly suitable during pregnancy and for women during the monthly cycle. Athletes and slimmers may also benefit from extra blood forming nutrients. No Artificial Colours No Gluten No Preservatives No Fat, Salt or Yeast Feroglobin-B12 is not tested on animals For further Nutritional Information please refer to back of packet.
    Directions: One Capsule per Day with your main meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed. Do not exceed recommended intake.
    Feroglobin-B12 should only be taken on a full stomach. As with all food supplements, seek professional advice before using if you are under medical supervision, pregnant, breast-feeding or suffer from food allergies. This product contains iron, which if taken in excess by very young children may be harmful.
    This amount of iron may cause mild stomach upset in sensitive individuals.

    Price: £5.85 Special Price: £4.99


              Vitabiotics Feroglobin Gentle Iron B12 Liquid Iron 200ml   

    This special combination delivers an optimum amount of organic form of iron, minerals and vitamin B-complex, including vitamin B12 and folic acid. Feroglobin-B12's iron is essential for the natural production of haemoglobin found in red blood cells. This carries oxygen to the heart, brain, other organs and muscles, so energy can be released. Iron may also play a role in maintaining our immune resistance.
    Feroglobin-B12's blood-building nutrients are ideal whatever your age and may be of particular benefit for children, over 50's, athletes, and women during pregnancy or menstruation.
    No Artificial Colours No Alcohol No Fat or Yeast Feroglobin-B12 is not tested on Animals.
    Directions: Children (1-3 Years): Half a teaspoonful daily. Children (4-6 Years): Half a teaspoonful twice daily. Children (7-12 Years): One teaspoonful 1-2 times daily. Adults (Men and Women): One teaspoonful 2 times daily.
    During menstruation or pregnancy, one teaspoonful three times daily is recommended.

    Price: £5.49 Special Price: £4.85


              Vitabiotics Immunace for your Immune System Tablets x30   

    To Help Maintain Healthy Immune Resistance & Long Term Cell Protection Immunace provides a comprehensive formula for the immune system, with effective levels of antioxidants. Vitamins C and E circulate in the body to help protect against the damage caused by free radicals. Other nutrients such as betacarotene protect DNA and cells from within. Immunace helps safeguard nutrients required for:
    The Short Term - to help maintain your resistance against infection. It also helps replace the vitamin C lost during colds.
    The Long Term - to increase the body's level of protective substances for long term cell protection. Immunace provides vital minerals such as zinc and selenium which are co-factors in 300 of the body's antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase (GShPx). These eliminate harmful chemicals, including free radicals and peroxides.
    No Artificial Colours No Preservatives No Lactose or Gluten No Salt or Yeast Immunace is not tested on animals.
    Directions: One Tablet Per Day with Your Main Meal. Swallow with glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed.
    Do not exceed recommended intake. Immunace should only be taken on a full stomach.

    Price: £7.10 Special Price: £5.49


              Vitabiotics Jointace High Strength Chondroitin Glucosamine Tablets x30   

    Vitabiotic Jointace contains a unique combination of Chondroitin and Glucosamine to help maintain healthy joints including; Glucosamine Sulphate. A naturally occuring amino sugar, which is a structural component of collagen and synovial fluid found in joints. The glucosamine in jointace is present in the preferred potassium form, with minerals for improved absorption. Ginger Root Extract. A spice commonly associated with joint health.
    Chondroitin Sulphate. Chondroitin helps form proteins found in cartilage. Jointace contains a high quality LMW(low molecular wieght) form of Chondroitin. Trace Minerals & Vitamins. Vitamin E and Selenium help to neutralise free radicals, which can attack joints and cartilage. Contains Vitamin D3 and Zinc to help maintain strong bones, plus copper for normal connectivetissue health.
    Directions: Two tablets per day with your main meal . Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink . Not to be chewed . Do not exceed the recommended intake The benefits of the ingredients in Jointace are thought to build over time. A regular intake is therefore recommended. Jointace is recommended with a balanced diet, rich in fish oil.
    Do not take if you are allergic to fish or shellfish. Jointace contains Glucosamine sourced from natural chitin. Diabetics should consult their doctor before using this product. .
    No artificial colours . No gluten . No preservatives . No lactose or yeast Jointace is not tested on animals.  It does not contain any drugs and can be taken alongside anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs if desired. As with other supplements seek professional advice before using if you are under medical supervision, pregnant, breast-feeding or suffer from food allergies.

    Price: £10.99 Special Price: £9.49


              Vitabiotics Jointace Joint Mobility Rose Hip, MSM Tablets x30   

    Jointace contains a unique combination of ingredients to help maintain healthy joints including: MSM: MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) is a naturally occurring nutritional component of many foods. Research indicates MSM can help support connective tissues and joint mobility. Rosehip Extract (Rosa Canina): Contains active compounds, which can help maintain joint mobility. Chondroitin Sulphate: Helps form the proteins that maintain cartilage elasticity and works synergistically with glucosamine to help maintain joint health.
    Jointace contains a high quality LMW (low molecular weight) form of chondroitin. Jointace has been produced to high pharmaceutical standards of quality control. It does not contain any drugs and can be taken alongside anti-inflammatory drugs of NSAIDS if desired.
    Directions: Two Jointace Tablets Per Day with Your Main Meal. Swallow with a glass of water or cold drink. Not to be chewed. Do not exceed the recommended intake. Glucosamine Sulphate: A naturally occurring amino sugar renowned for the benefits it offers to joints. Glucosamine is naturally required by the body for the production of collagen to cushion the joints (cartilage) and synovial fluid, which bathes and lubricates them. Vitamins & Trace Minerals: Vitamin E helps to neutralise free radicals, which can attack joints and catilage. Contains vitamin D and zinc to help maintain strong bones.
    No Artificial Colours No Gluten or Lactose No Preservatives No Sugar, Salt or Yeast Jointace is not tested on animals. For Further Nutritional Information, Jointace contains glucosamine sourced from natural chitin. Do not take if you are allergic to fish or shellfish. Diabetics should consult their doctor before using this product.

    Price: £13.25 Special Price: £12.49


              Vitabiotics Menopace Original Tablets x30   

    Does not contain any Drugs or HRT Optimal nutrition is important during the menopause, whether or not you decide to take HRT. Menopace is an effective one-a-day supplement of 21 nutrients scientifically formulated for during and after your 'change of life'.
    Hormone Balance: Essential co-factors for the synthesis of GLA (gamma linolenic acid), a precursor of the body's own hormone like substances which help regulate changes in hormone balance.
    Supple Skin: Vitamin C and supporting nutrients needed for the formation of collagen, the substance which helps keep skin supple.
    Heart Health: Natural vitamin E to help maintain heart health, plus folic acid and B vitamins, associated with homocysteine levels, an important consideration after the menopause.
    Bone Strength: Vitamin D plus magnesium and trace minerals to help maintain strong bones. Menopace contains dietary levels of standardised soy isoflavones commonly taken by women during the menopause.
    No Gelatin or Gluten .No Artificial Colours .No Preservatives .No Salt or Yeast .No Lactose .Menopace is not tested on Animals.
    Directions: One Tablet Per Day with your main meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed. Do not exceed recommended intake. Menopace should only be taken on a full stomach.
    Menopace can be taken alongside or independently of Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT). It can be continued after the menopause for as long as required. .

    Price: £7.25 Special Price: £6.49


              Vitabiotics Menopace Original Tablets x90   

    Does not contain any Drugs or HRT. Optimal nutrition is important during the menopause, whether or not you decide to take HRT. Menopace is an effective one-a-day supplement of 21 nutrients scientifically formulated for during and after your 'change of life'.
    Hormone Balance: Essential co-factors for the synthesis of GLA (gamma linolenic acid), a precursor of the body's own hormone like substances which help regulate changes in hormone balance.
    Supple Skin: Vitamin C and supporting nutrients needed for the formation of collagen, the substance which helps keep skin supple.
    Heart Health: Natural vitamin E to help maintain heart health, plus folic acid and B vitamins, associated with homocysteine levels, an important consideration after the menopause.
    Bone Strength: Vitamin D plus magnesium and trace minerals to help maintain strong bones. Menopace contains dietary levels of standardised soy isoflavones commonly taken by women during the menopause.
    No Gelatin or Gluten .No Artificial Colours .No Preservatives .No Salt or Yeast .No Lactose. Menopace is not tested on Animals.
    Directions: One Tablet Per Day with your main meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed.
    Do not exceed recommended intake. Menopace should only be taken on a full stomach.
    Menopace can be taken alongside or independently of Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT). It can be continued after the menopause for as long as required. .

    Price: £15.95 Special Price: £14.99


              Vitabiotics Menopace plus Botanicals Dual Pack Tablets x56   

    Sage Extract, Green Tea Extract Dual Pack; 28 Original Menopace Tablets 28 Active Botanical Tablets Optimum nutrition is important during the menopause, whether or not you decide to take HRT. Menopace Plus combines the orginal effective Menopace formula with a unique active botanical tablet to be taken alongside Original Menopace Tablets to provide you with even greater support.

    Each tablet provides a scientifically formulated combination of essential vitamins and minerals.

    • Hormone Balance; Essential co-factors for the synthesis of GLA (gamma linolenic acid), a precursor for the body's own hormone-like substances, which help regulate changes in hormone balance. 
    • Bone Strength; Vitamin D plus magnesium and trace minerals to help maintain strong bones. 
    • Heart Health; Natural Vitamin E, folic acid and B vitamins to help maintain heart health.

    Swallow each with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed.

     

    Price: £14.95 Special Price: £12.99


              Vitabiotics Osteocare Original for Strong Bones Tablets x90   
    bones strong and healthy, you must receive enough of certain nutrients in your diet every day. Osteocare has been scientifically developed on the very latest research to help maintain strong bones and teeth. Its natural source mineral calcium is the most concentrated form of calcium available. Are you getting enough magnesium? As well as calcium, other specific nutrients such as magnesium is found in the bones, Osteocare's unique formula provides the ideal balance of magnesium (300mg) and calcium (800mg) both at full RDA levels. No other calcium supplement provides this special formula: - More magnesium than 4 pints of milk - More calcium than a whole pint of milk - Plus vitamin D3, zinc and 4 additional supporting nutrients No gluten or lactose No preservatives No salt or yeast Osteocare is not tested on animals DIRECTIONS; Two tablets per day with a main meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed. Do not exceed the recommended intake.

    Price: £9.15 Special Price: £8.15


              Vitabiotics Osteocare Plus 2 in1 Dual Pack for Strong Bones 84Tabs/Caps   

    Pack Contains: 56x Osteocare Calcium, Mineral & Vitamin D3, Magnesium and Zinc Tablets 28 x Soy Isoflavones & Omega-3 Capsules. Additional vitamin D3 provides increased bone health support. No Gluten or lactose. No Preservatives No Salt or Yeast Osteocare Plus is not tested on animals.

    Directions: Two Osteocare Tablets Per Day, Plus One Isoflavone Capsule Per Day. Swallow each with a glass of water or a cold drink and take main meal.

    Not to be chewed.

    Price: £12.20 Special Price: £11.95


              Vitabiotics Perfectil Plus ProTan 60 Tablets    

    Vitabiotics Perfectil Plus ProTan - micronutrient, vitamin and mineral tablets with nutrients to help maintain normal skin, hair and nails. 

    With 1000mcg of Copper, which contributes to normal skin and hair pigmentation. 

    Suitable for Vegetarians.


    Directions: Take 2 tablets daily with your main meal.
    Swallow whole with water or a cool drink.
    Should only be taken on a full stomach

    Warning: Perfectil ProTan does NOT provide UV protection.
    Do not take if you are allergic to soya.
    Contains Iron, which if taken in excess may be harmful to young children.

    Price: £34.95 Special Price: £25.95


              Vitabiotics Perfectil Triple Active Skin Hair & Nails Tablet x30   

    Certain nutrients are vital to help maintain healthy looking skin,hair and nails in both women and men. Their effect is of greater importance than even the most expensive creams and conditioners because they are delivered via the bloodstream, at the very deepest level.
    Perfectil is designed to complement your daily skin and hair care routine with a range of over 20 micronutrients specially formulated for utilisation by nails,hair follicles and the skin's lower dermal layer. By understanding how specific vitamins and minerals work together, Perfectil's synergistic formula works to maximise their combined effect, because your skin, hair and nails are really nourished from the inside.
    Directions. One tablet per day with your main meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed.
    Do not exceed recommended intake. Perfectil should only be taken on a full stomach. A general multivitamin is not necessary in addition to Perfectil.
    Suitable for Vegetarians.

    Price: £9.15 Special Price: £7.99


              Vitabiotics Pregnacare Original 30 Tablets   

    Pregnacare® is the most popular and trusted prenatal supplement by mums to safeguard the diet of those who are planning for pregnancy or are already pregnant. A scientifically developed formulation of 19 important vitamins and minerals, Pregnacare® contains vitamin B12 and folic acid at exactly the level recommended by the Department of Health. Pregnacare® has been carefully developed by experts so that all ingredient levels are within safe levels for pregnancy and are moderate rather than excessive.

    Good nutritional intake is vital throughout pregnancy, not just the first 12 weeks. Pregnacare provides essential nutrients throughout pregnancy including folic acid which plays an important role during the full nine months, such as contributing to normal blood formation. You can start taking Pregnacare at any point during pregnancy.

    Price: £6.35 Special Price: £5.95


              Vitabiotics Wellman Tablets x30   

    Wellman is ideal for those with a hectic lifestyle and is used by professional sportsmen to help them maintain optimal nutrient levels during training. Unlike a general multivitamin the nutrient levels have been specifically formulated for men, often providing more than 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance.
    Sport & Exercise: Vitamins C and E help protect against free radicals generated during exercise, plus Amino Acids and Ginseng for all round support. Hectic Lifestyle: L-Carnitine, Magnesium and Vitamin B Complex for the efficient release of energy from food.
    Immune System: Antioxidants and Minerals, including Bioflavonoids, to help maintain a healthy immune system.
    Reproductive Health: Zinc and other Minerals are particularly important to men's reproductive health.
    No Artificial Colours No Gluten No Preservatives No Salt or Yeast Wellman is not tested on animals Suitable for Vegetarians.
    Directions: One Tablet Per Day with Your Main Meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink.
    Not to be chewed. Do not exceed the recommended intake.
    Not to be taken on an empty stomach.

    Price: £8.60 Special Price: £7.99


              Vitabiotics Wellteen Multi-Vitamins & Minerals 30 Tablets   

    WellTeen is a dynamic comprehensive combination of 25 nutrients, including green tea extract & cranberry extract. The formula includes vitamin c, iron and copper which, along with pantothenic acid, contribute to normal energy release. A range of nutrients including vitamin D, iron, zinc and selenium contribute to the normal function of the immune system.

    All round health and energy release B-complex vitamins are important to help maintain energy release, while iron may help support physical and cognitive performance. Vitamins A, C, E and minerals zinc and selenium, play a number of key roles in the body and help to maintain all round health and vitality.

    Price: £8.10 Special Price: £7.49


              Vitabiotics Wellwoman Original Capsules x30 + FREE GIFTS   

    Vitabiotics Wellwoman has been designed for the demands of modern life. With a wide range of nutrients and trace elements, Wellwoman gives nutritional support to areas of health which are of most relevance to women: Total Wellbeing: A comprehensive spectrum of micronutrients are provided for all round nutritional support.

    The Monthly Cycle: Evening Primrose Oil and Starflower Oil help maintain healthy hormone balance. Iron is provided for blood formation and Vitamin B6 helps to maintain a healthy nervous system. Energy Levels: Magnesium and B Vitamins are provided for the release of energy.

    The Immune System: A wide range of Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals, including Vitamin C and Citrus Bioflavonoids, to help maintain a healthy immune system. Skin, Hair & Nails: Natural Carotenoids, Vitamin E and Zinc are necessary to help maintain healthy skin and for cell renewal.

    No Artificial Colours No Gluten No Preservatives No Starch or Sugar No Salt or Yeast Wellwoman has not been tested on animals For Further Nutritional Information Please Refer to Back of Pack.

    Directions: One Capsule Per Day with Your Main Meal. Swallow with a glass of water or a cold drink. Not to be chewed.

    Price: £7.95 Special Price: £5.99


              WellKid Baby & Infant Liquid 150ml   

    & Vanilla Flavour WellKid Baby & Infant liquid is a unique, carefully balanced combination, developed by Vitabiotics.

    No other supplement for babies and young children provides such a comprehensive combination of 14 vitamins and minerals plus flaxseed oil and malt extract. WellKid Baby & Infant is recommended for children up to 5 Years old, and includes:

    • Vitamins A,C,D, as recommended for babies over 6 months. 
    • B Complex Vitamins, including B6 and B12. 
    • Vitamin D3 which helps support the health of bones. 
    • Antioxidant Vitamin E. 
    • Minerals Iron, Zinc and Copper, involved in a wide range of functions. 

     

    No Sweeteners, Artificial Colours or Flavours. No Alcohol, No Lactose. Gluten Free. No Salt, Fat or Yeast.

    WellKid Baby & Infant is not tested on animals.

    Directions: Recommended Orally Once Per Day. Babies (3 to 6 months): 2.5ml (half teaspoon) daily. Infants (7months to 5 years): 5ml (1 teaspoonful) daily. Do not exceed the recommended intake. Wash and dry the spoon thoroughly after use.

    As with other supplements, seek professional advice if your child is under medical supervision or suffers from food allergies.

    This product contains iron, which if taken in excess may be harmful to very young children.

    Price: £5.95 Special Price: £4.95


              WellKid Smart Chewable Multivitamin Tablet x30   
    Flavour Each WellKid Smart Chewable Multivitamin tablet provides a comprehensive range of vitamins, trace minerals and Omega-3 fatty acids at levels specially formulated to safeguard the nutritional intake of children aged 4-12. Strong & Healthy Includes a comprehensive range of 20 nutrients to help maintain a child's all round health, immune system and energy release. Strong Bones Vitamin D3 and minerals such as magnesium and zinc are important to help support the health of rapidly growing bones. Concentration Iron & Zinc are two of the most abundant minerals in the brain. Iron can help to maintain concentration levels in children. Blood Building Iron, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid are essential for healthy blood, the body's transport system for nutrients and oxygen. No Artificial Flavour or Colours No Preservatives or Lactose No Salt, Yeast or Gluten WellKid Has not been tested on animals. For Further Nutritional Information Please refer to reverse of packet. Directions: Chew One Tablet Daily. Preferably take a main meal. These chewable tablets are not designed to be swallowed whole. Do not exceed the recommended intake. Do Not Give to Children Under 4. As with other supplements, seek professional advice before using if you are under medical supervision or suffer from food allergies. This product contains iron, which if taken in excess may be harmful to very young children. Excessive consumption may produce laxative effects.

    Price: £7.10 Special Price: £6.95


              Job’s Tears Fat Burning Salad   
    This salad is a really great food to help you loose weight or to simply help you have a healthy body and the ingredients are full of rich nutrients and minerals.  It’s main ingredient, Job’s Tears a type of barley, … Continue reading
               Mineral ballast and particle settling rates in the coastal upwelling system off NW Africa and the South Atlantic    
    Article Fischer, G. , Karakas, G. , Blaas, M. , Ratmeyer, V. , Nowald, N. , Schlitzer, R. , Helmke, P. , Davenport, R. , Donner, B. , Neuer, S. and Wefer, G. (2007) Mineral ballast and particle settling rates in the coastal upwelling system off NW Africa and the South Atlantic , International Journal of Earth Sciences. . doi:10.1007/s00531-007-0234-7 , hdl:10013/epic.28482
              Comment on New to Mineral Sunscreen? Read This First by Badger Balm   
    Hi Becky! Yes, zinc oxide can be drying - it's the same stuff that's used in calamine lotions and other drying formulas. Your kids might benefit from one of our Active or Sport sunscreens, which feature sunflower oil as the base. https://www.badgerbalm.com/c-24-natural-sunscreen.aspx The oil helps keep skin moisturized, as well as keep the product on the skin. It might be worth a shot! Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any more quesions. :) Jentri
              Ernährung: «Öko-Test»: Schokolade oft mit Mineralöl belastet   

    Eigentlich entspannt Schokolade. Ob das nach dem Test-Ergebnis der Zeitschrift «Öko-Test» noch gelingt? Denn die untersuchten Schoko-Tafeln wiesen in vielen Fällen überhöhte Mineralöl-Werte auf.


              ARBUZ - właściwości odżywcze. Arbuz wzmaga potencję i wspomaga pracę serca   

    Arbuz w 92 procentach składa się z wody i zawiera niewielką ilość witamin i składników mineralnych. Jednak arbuzy ceni się za inne właściwości - dużą zawartość przeciwutleniaczy, które opóźniają proces starzenia i hamują rozwój komórek nowotworowych, oraz cytruliny – aminokwasu, który wspomaga pracę serca, przyśpiesza proces regeneracji mięśni u sportowców oraz... działa jak viagra. Sprawdź, jakie właściwości odżywcze i zdrowotne posiada arbuz.


              Foods for Aging Gracefully   

     

    Genetics and old age are far too often blamed for being the root cause of problems as we get older. Sometimes conditions like arthritis, heart burn, high cholesterol and general fatigue are looked at as being inevitable. And though aging is not always easy or painless, wise decisions when it comes to food and lifestyle choices can make it a more graceful process. Staying active strengthens the heart, keeps the lungs clear and healthy,

    Olive Oil

    Olive oil has antioxidants to fight free radicals that damage and cause signs of wear on your skin and organs. It is also a good source of Vitamin E that improves elasticity in the skin by keeping collagen strong which maintains youthfully tight skin. Olive oil also contains an abundance of heart healthy fats that have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease.

    Yogurt/Sauerkraut

    Fermented foods provide an abundance of beneficial bacteria that is necessary for proper digestion. The process of metabolizing food is taxing to the system. In fact, studies have begun to show that overconsumption of calories can speed the ageing process white under consuming, or calorie restriction (not starvation) can increase certain hormones that may prevent degeneration and protect the body from stressors. Digestive issues themselves can be the root cause of a variety of illnesses. When the gut is disturbed, it causes inflammation throughout the body, especially when food allergies are present. But plentiful good bacteria in the gut can keep the system running smoothly and the body able to assimilate all of the necessary nutrients from food.

    Nuts, Seeds, Fish and Avocado

    Fats are the building blocks of cells. Read more about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids here>>. Be sure to eat these fats raw, as heated fats oxidize and when eaten, create free-radicals in the body and increase the potential cancer risk, high cholesterol and clogged arteries.

    Chocolate

    Chocolate is good for the soul, right? Of course, gaining pleasure from life and experiences is also a component of aging gracefully. But chocolate, or rather, cocoa has the additional benefit of being good for the body too. Cocoa is rich in flavonoids that act as antioxidants. It supports healthy blood vessels and has been shown to reduce high blood pressure.

    Wine

    Alcohol is a popular topic of study. The good news is that alcohol in moderation has been shown to have benefits for long-term health and longevity. Just like chocolate, there are benefits of increased sociability and pleasure associated with healthy alcohol intake. Wine, more importantly, red wine, protects against heart disease, diabetes and memory retention thanks to the compound resveratrol found in the skin of red grapes.

    Fruits and Vegetables

    Oxidized fats will be consumed, even in the diets of the most cautious individuals. The important condition is to have a balance of these oxidized fat originated free-radicals and antioxidants as they keep each other in check. Colorful fruits and vegetables are the best way to create this balance. OF all of the foods available, fruits and vegetables “take the cake” when it comes to highest amounts of vitamins and minerals that are essential for cell function, organ health, eye, ears, skin and fluid health. Another reason fruits and vegetables increase longevity is that they reduce inflammation. Most western diseases that are at the top of the list for most deadly killers are due to inflammation. Inflammation occurs for a number of reasons: when allergies are present, as a reaction to some drugs, when environmental toxins are present, or the body is in an acidic state. The body is naturally on the alkaline side of the spectrum and needs to maintain the proper pH in order to fight disease, cultivate a healthy immune system, ward off environmental toxins, and assimilate nutrients properly.

     

    Adina Ferrin

    Nutrition Writer

    naturalfootcareproducts.com


              Baby Cosmetics – Safe Natural Baby Lotions and Creams   

    I just had the honor of being present for the birth of our 3rd grandchild, Dottie. She was born on St. Patrick’s Day, has Patrick as her last name, and seems to have reddish hair, although there isn’t much of it and it’s too soon to tell! She was the most lovely, tiny bundle of love I’ve ever held. She’s a few weeks old now so is gaining some weight and plumping up, but at first her little limbs were so frail, scrawny and twiggy. And her skin was so delicate, translucent and tissue like. She lives out west in dry climate, so I worried about what to put on her skin that could help with dryness and diaper rash.

    Baby skin care is so important! Newborn skin is delicate, as is the baby's immune system. Chemicals, dyes, and fragrances in baby skin care products, clothes and laundry detergents can cause skin irritation and rashes, as well as internal hormonal disruptions. So it’s important to choose products wisely.

    Because a baby’s skin is so sensitive, you need to be sure the lotions and creams you rub into your baby’s skin are safe. So, how do you choose products?

    Non-natural sun screens typically have between 2 to 6 of these chemical active ingredients: avobenzone, octisalate, octocrylene, oxybenzone, homosalate and octinoxate. In research done by The Environment Work Group, (a nonprofit organization dedicated to research and education on environmental safety and healthy consumer choices), many of these chemicals penetrate the skin and effect hormone levels.

    Most natural sunscreens use Zinc Oxide as the active ingredient. Zinc Oxide is a natural mineral that works effectively in blocking both UVA and UVB rays of ultraviolet light. It is widely known to be nonallergenic and non-irritating to the skin. It doesn’t penetrate the skin so does not cause hormonal side effects either.

    The EWG has a wonderful info-graph showing what these ingredients have proven to do. It’s a great resource to use when choosing skin care products:

    The upside to your baby’s sensitive skin is that all the hugs, kisses, touches, and cuddles have a wonderful effect on your baby! So cuddle away and choose skin care products wisely!

    Thalia Oster 

    Thalia Oster, JD
    Founder and COE (Chief of Everything)

    Naturalfootcareproducts.com

     


              Eating for Healthy Skin, Hair, and Nails   

    With so much focus on topical conditioners, creams, shampoos, lotions, and treatments it’s easy to forget to check on what’s on our plates for health hair ski and nails. The outward appearance and condition of our hair, skin and nails is affected just as much by what we put inside our mouths as what we put on the surface. Nutrients are the building blocks of beauty and health. The bloodstream provides vital vitamins and minerals to all areas of the body, as well as oxygen. Undesirable conditions result when this transportation is poor. Undesirable conditions also occur when nutrients are not available, meaning that they are not being supplied by diet, as well as when there is hindrance in the digestive tract that interferes with assimilation. Unhealthy hair, skin and nails can be caused by hormone, or mineral imbalance, or lack of vitamins or insufficient exercise. There are many foods that can contribute to the wellbeing of our external body, consuming plenty of these key nutrients is critical to subtle skin, luxurious hair, and strong nails.

    Proteins

    Hair is made up of protein, more precisely, a protein called keratin. Low protein consumption, a rare condition in Western Cultures, can result in hair loss and slowed growth. When thinking about getting adequate protein in our diets, it is easy to think about steak for dinner or an extra serving of chicken breast. But actually, leafy greens like swiss chard and cabbage are better sources of a keratin. Other sources of healthy protein come from whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, fish and wild or grass fed meats.

    Essential Fatty Acids

    Cell membranes of the body get their structure from cholesterol and unsaturated fats. Since we can’t make essential fatty acids (omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids) on our own, consuming them frequently is important. Unsaturated fats regulate moisture and keep the skin soft and hydrated properly. Omega-6 fatty acids are consumed frequently and in larger quantities than omega-3s. Since intake of the two should be equal, intentionally getting in extra omega-3s can have a positive impact on health. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include nuts, avocado, seeds, salmon, scallops, olive oil, nuts or seed oils.

    Vitamins

    B vitamins found in nuts, brown rice, and oats increase circulation throughout the body, oxygenating and nourishing the skin and scalp. Vitamin E prevents breakage of hair and nails, and also keeps the skin tone. Vitamin E can be found in sunflower oil, olives and olive oil, spinach, dried apricots and almonds. Vitamin E, along with Vitamin A and Vitamin C helps with Collagen production, the main protein in the skin that keeps it strong and firm. Collagen wears down as age sets in; this is why it’s important to get it from sources like citrus fruits, strawberries and red peppers. Sevum is another component derived from vitamin A and vitamin C that is a natural hair conditioner.

    Biotin

    Biotin gets particular attention as a hair growing super-supplement. Biotin is essential for proper metabolism of protein, which is what hair is made of, as well as carbohydrates and fats. Biotin deficiency results I skin rashes and hair loss. Biotin preserves strength and texture of hair. Biotin is found in high amounts in peanuts, almonds, sweet potatoes, eggs, onions and oats.

    Minerals

    Mineral imbalance can result in skin disease, discoloration brittle nails and hair loss. For example, low selenium can lead to poor hair growth. Weak nails can be caused by deficient calcium. Spots on the nails and dark patches on the face can come from copper overload. Silica and Zinc are also important. All minerals work in balance, eating lots of whole foods, fruits and vegetables can ensure proper amounts of all minerals.

    When it comes down to it, eating whole foods and large amounts of fruits and vegetables, will ensure that the body will be able to supply skin, hair and nails with the nutrients they need to be strong and healthy. Adding in lots of green leafy vegetables, healthy fats and ready to digest protein will give you body the building blocks it needs to create a healthy glow.


              5 Serving Ideas for Spirulina and The Benefits For Your Skin   

    Ingredient Profile: Spirulina

    Sea Vegetables have been eaten since 8000 B.C. when they originally found their way into the regular diets of parts of Japan. On the other half of the world, the Aztecs were enjoying the benefits of spirulina and would regularly grind it into a paste as a regular part of their diet. Seaweeds are an important part of health for all types of life, from plants to humans. Spirulina in particular is a particularly unique food source, carrying with it exceptional benefits as one of the most complete foods found in nature.

    What is Spirulina?

    Spirulina is a blue-green micro-algae. It harvests all of its nutrients through sunlight, transforming it into the blue and green pigments that can be seen with the eye. The blue pigments come from an amino acid group called phyococyanin. These amino acids are what give Spirulina high amounts of ready to digest protein. The green color comes from chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the best natural detoxifier. This is the component in spirulina that breaks down and removes heavy metals and toxins from the body and also binds to and removes toxins. This process keeps the liver, kidneys, skin and other organs clean and healthy.

    The Benefits of Spirulina

    • It is full of antioxidants that bind with free radicals, preventing cancer
    • It is an immune system booster
    • It acts as a co-factor to minerals like calcium and helps the body in assimilation
    • It helps fight infections
    • It helps to inhibit viruses. As such, it can get rid of warts and viruses like herpes.
    • Diminishes allergies, both internally and allergies that cause reactions on the skin.
    • Anti-inflammatory (Read more about the benefits of anti-inflammatory foods for the skin here)
    • Helps to foster beneficial bacteria in the gut
    • Improves aging, sun spots, eczema, acne and rashes
    • Rich in an essential fatty-acid that relieves high blood pressure, lowers cholesterol, and relieves arthritis.
    • It is rich in vitamin A, vitamin B-12 (the only vegetarian source), Vitamin E, calcium, iron and phosphorus, making it a toner, cleanser and strengthening supplement for the skin and nails.
    • Contains all essential amino acids and is thus, a complete protein
    • Supports energy, cell turnover and blood cell production

     

    How to Use Spirulina

    The following are a few easy serving suggestions to disguise the strong taste of seaweed that Spirulina has.

    • Add a teaspoon to fruit smoothies or apple juice
    • Sprinkle it on salads or add a teaspoon to salad dressing
    • Make homemade power bars with a mixture of Spirulina, shredded coconut, cocoa powder, blended raisins and coconut butter.

    Make your own seasoning mix and keep it at the table with salt and pepper to flavor dishes throughout the day. A simple mix is all it takes and the best part is that you can add your favorite herbs, spices or peppers and make your own signature blend.

    Italian Spirulina Seasoning mix.

    Add amounts to taste.

    Ingredients: 

    • Sea salt
    • Spirulina
    • Rosemary
    • Thyme
    • Basil,
    • Parsley
    • Garlic
    • Tarragon
    • Onion
    • Lemon zest
    • Dill seed
    • Celery seed
    • Sage
    • Coriander

    Whichever way you add Spirulina into your diet, make sure to consume it raw. Cooking this delicate seaweed can destroy the vital nutrients and benefits that it has. This nutritional content puts Spirulina high on the list of the world’s healthiest foods. You can be sure that adding Spirulina into your diet is sure to pay off.

     

     

    Adina Ferrin

    Nutrition Writer

    naturalfootcareproducts.com


              Blog Series: What's on your skin? Salts   

    The Different Types of Salts

    Salts are often spoken about for their varying benefits. Between sea salts, Epsom salts, Dead Sea salts and iodized salts, sometimes it can be hard to decipher the difference between these varying types and to know which one to use for their appropriate purpose.

    Table Salt and Iodized Salt       

    Most table salt is produced through a high yield method of hydraulic mining. Water is pumped into the earth where old aquifers have dried up. The water dissolves salt deposits creating salt brine. This brine is then extracted to the surface and treated. Unfortunately this treating process strips minerals from the salt, leaving pure sodium chloride. Iodized salt is table salt where iodine has been added. You may wonder why salt is iodized; this addition began in the 1920s to prevent a common illness called Goiter. It is not naturally occurring in table salts.

    Dead Sea Salt

    The Dead Sea has been used since ancient times as a remedy for illness and as a pleasurable, relaxing dip into the water. The water itself is prized for its uniqueness. Unlike the normal sea, which contains 3% salt, the Dead Sea contains 27% various salts, and thus contains higher amounts of various minerals including magnesium, potassium, calcium and bromides.

    Epsom Salt

    Epsom salt is composed primarily of high levels of magnesium and sulfate that are readily available for the skin. As such, Epsom salt is a popular choice for use in skin care. Epsom salt is produced through a chemical process.

    Sea Salt

    Sea salt is the most natural choice of all salts, Dead Sea salt is also a sea salt. Sea salt is produced when normal sea water evaporates and leaves behind salt residue. This salt contains high levels of minerals, including iodine, potassium, sodium and magnesium.

    Why Are Salts Beneficial For Your Skin?

    The minerals in sea salts have unique benefits. Bromide is a mineral that is known for soothing the skin. Bromide is also the reason that salt baths are relaxing. It calms stiff muscles and can ease the pain of achy, stiff or tense muscles. Calcium is known for strengthening bones and nails, but it also prevents water retention and increases circulation. Increasing circulation helps to heal wounds and to keep skin oxygenated and youthful. Magnesium is most easily absorbed through Epsom salts and also helps against fluid retention. Magnesium also fights aging and stress by acting as a sedative to the nervous system. Potassium energizes the body as an electrolyte and balances skin moisture. Iodine regulates metabolic processes of the skin cells and sodium balances the lymphatic system.

    In addition to the benefits of the minerals, using salts exfoliates the skin, releasing dead skin cells and improving skin regeneration. Salt also acts as a natural detoxifier due to the magnesium sulfate content that draws out and absorbs toxins from within the deeper levels of tissue. Salts can help the healing process through desiccating the skin. You can read more about this process on the description of this product.

    Next time you light a candle and draw a relaxing bath, add a couple handfuls of bath salts to enhance relaxation and calm the nervous system. Salts can also be used on minor rashes, splinters, insect bites, calluses on the feet, externally caused skin allergies and other skin conditions like eczema and infections. Salt rubs that also exfoliate the skin are an easy choice for spot treatments of these conditions. Salts can also be used to remove excess oil from hair and as a natural facial cleaner. Uses for salts are numerous, easy and incredibly enjoyable and the benefits are immense. Salts will be praised for many more centuries as natures gift for improving our health and wellbeing.

     

    Adina Ferrin

    Nutrition Writer

    naturalfootcareproducts.com

     


              Common Food Allergies and How They Affect Your Skin   

    No amount of make-up can create a glow where there is not one. External beauty and health come from what’s going on underneath the skin. Often, the phrase “true beauty comes from within” is addressing our disposition, and the way that we interact with others. Of course, this is true, inner beauty outshines any outward blemish. However, when it comes to truly taking care of our skin, the same concept applies, our skin’s glow comes from within, it comes from what we eat and sometimes, even more, what we don’t eat. One of the largest factors to affect our skin is poor reactions to our food in the form of food allergies and intolerances.

    There are two types of food allergies. The first is sudden reaction, what we generally think of when someone has an allergic reaction. These happen immediately and can be fatal. Only about 1-2% of adults have these anaphylactic reactions. The second type is a delayed reaction. These occur over time and are only detectable by symptoms. The food causing the reaction is harder to identify. About 25% of adults have these types of allergies. Both of these allergies are immune system reactions. Our immune system sees the food as a threat, or antigen, and attacks it. Sometimes these allergies can change over time as the food is brought into the diet at the proper amount and reactions stop occurring. Sometimes these allergies continue through life. Food intolerances are not immune system reactions but cause similar undesirable reactions over a longer period of time.

    The symptoms of food allergies are numerous and variable. Sometimes they are gastrointestinal, such as canker sores, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption, IBS, food cravings and addictions. Other times symptoms are cerebral, including anxiety, depression, mood swings, seizures, ADHD, insomnia, and an inability to concentrate. Symptoms of allergies can also manifest in the immune system with frequent ear infections, autoimmunity, and chronic infections. They can affect the musculoskeletal system with joint pain or the metabolic system with insulin resistance, diabetes, weight gain, and hypoglycemia. They can even result in respiratory issues such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and sinus problems.

    When it comes to our skin, short term effects of allergies are easy to identify but sometimes hard to trace back to food. Hives, eczema, dry, itchy skin, warts and dark circles under the eyes can be caused by food allergies and can sometimes be the first alert that there is a chronic allergy occurring. Long term internal problems can cause poor skin and skin diseases that have negative and unsightly reactions. When the immune system is stressed, it is more difficult for the body to fight off infections.

    Common allergies are thought to be common because they are hidden in almost all store-bought/packaged foods, causing widespread intolerance. These common allergens are milk, corn, egg, wheat and mold.

    What can you do?

    If you think an allergy is present, personalized care from an RD or a certified nutritionist is the best option for individualized analysis and guidelines for help. On your own, cleansing from caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, sugar and refined foods is a good start to understand what may be causing any unwanted symptom. Drinking lots of water during this process is helpful as well. Elimination diets can be followed if there is a suspected allergen. To maintain health and for stronger resistance in general, boosting the immune system can help to ward off intolerances and allergies. This can be done by including foods with immune boosting vitamins and minerals. These include:

    Vitamin C: The white part and pulp of citrus fruits, onions and garlic.

    Vitamin E: Leafy greens, sunflower oil, and brown rice.

    Zinc: Red meats, oysters and pumpkin seeds.

    Beta-carotene: Papaya, leafy greens, yams, carrots, and pumpkins.

    Omega-3s: Flax seeds, and hemp seeds.

    Fermented Foods: Kimchi, sauerkraut and yogurt.

     

    Adina Ferrin

    Nutrition Writer

    naturalfootcareproducts.com

     


              Antioxidants....Anti-what?   

    It's officially spring in these here parts, and despite the unseasonably dry and warm weather, I am happy to say that it is the time of year when, if you're a blogger, your "office" starts to look like this. Outside, in the fresh air, with a glass of wine...

    We all love the clean air of the mountains and wide open spaces. We know venturing away from the city and into nature, weather it’s for a gentle hike or a big adventure, keeps us fresh, healthy, alive and well. But do we also look to the ground or to our plate (or our glass) for a healthy glow? The world is full of vibrant medicinal wild plants and colorful power packed food crops. The spectrum of nutrition benefits that these foods provide is vast but what I am particularly excited about today are antioxidants.

    So what are antioxidants?

    The irony of the name is that “antioxidant” could be translated a few different ways; anti-oxidation, anti-free-radicals, ant-cancer, anti-blemish, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle… ooh, I like the sounds of this! Don’t you? Antioxidants are present in plants to protect the plants from damage from the sun and air. They are most well known for their rich color, the reason blueberries and red wine have such luscious hues. In our bodies, antioxidants play an important role in controlling free radicals. They are scavenger molecules that diminish or eliminate the damaging effects of free radicals. They do so by binding on to the unpaired electron, returning the free radical atom to balance. Antioxidants come from inside and outside sources; they can be made in the body in the form of glutathione and lipoic acid as well as assimilated from our food.

    What are free radicals?

    Free radicals are atoms with at least one unpaired electron and are electronically out of balance. They get balanced by a damaging process called oxidation, stealing an electron from a second molecule. This creates a chain reaction of free radicals that can damage our molecules and tissues. Free Radicals come from two sources; they are made internally through energy production, chronic infection, inflammation, immune responses. They also come from outside sources, UV light from the sun, air pollution, cigarette smoke, pesticides, and car exhaust, poor food choices and oxidized (heated) fats.

    Antioxidants and Your Skin

    Free-radicals damage our tissues, damaging our skin, causing wrinkles, blemishes and are thought to be the cause skin cancer. Eating and using antioxidants on skin helps to keep the body in balance and get rid of excess free-radicals

    Sources

    It’s nice to think of antioxidants as color. Eat large amounts of rich, colorful, whole, unprocessed, unheated foods and odds are, you will reap plentiful antioxidants. Black currants, blueberries, red grapes and wine, turmeric, garlic, onions, blackberries, honey and cranberries are rich sources of antioxidants overall. Additionally, below are specific sources to dive more specifically in some of the beneficial vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients within antioxidant foods.

    Vitamin E: Beneficial for skin and present in antioxidants vitamin E can be found in Mustard Greens, Spinach and Turnip greens. Oils, especially Olive oil are a rich source of Vitamin E for the skin.

    Antioxidant Minerals

    Selenium: Wild mushrooms and whole grains. Animal sources like beef and chicken are also local sources.

    Zinc: Spinach, mushrooms, beef, beans and wheat germ contain high levels.

    Antioxident Phytonutrients

    Bioflavonoids: Strawberry, broccoli, spinach and Garlic.

    Anthocyanidins: Red Onions and Red Cabbage are the best sources.

    Flavanol: Red wine, apples and berries.

    Flavanones: Flavanones are present in the white material and pulp of citrus fruits.

    Isoflavones: Legumes are a great choice, soy products contain isoflavones as well.

    Adina Ferrin

    Nutrition Writer

    naturalfootcareproducts.com

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


              Go Nuts!   

    Nuts are technically the vehicle of plant reproduction, but for humans, they are nutritious power houses. Nuts provide a massive energy source that is high in flavor and crucial vitamins and minerals. Nuts have a bad reputation for being high in calories. As counter intuitive as it seems, studies have shown that those who consume nuts more frequently have a lower rate of obesity and an easier time maintaining a healthy weight. Nuts need not to be feared, there are countless benefits in including nuts in a healthy diet, for the health of our bodies, our mood and our skin’s appearance. While each nut and seed is worthy of a blog post all its own, (coming soon), let’s start with an overview of the general benefits that they all share.

     

    What are nuts?

    Nuts are the shell-encased seeds of trees, there are more than 300 types of nuts, and every plant has a seed however, only a few of these are eaten in the human diet. Peanuts are the leading nut crop in the United States, coming in at over 70% of yearly production. Worldwide, the coconut comes in as the winner for the most grown and used nut crop. These two account for 94% of nut production globally. Coconuts are prized mostly for their oil. Peanuts- well, everyone loves their peanut butter. The lesser known nuts and seeds, brazil nuts, macadamia nuts, almonds, walnuts and pumpkin seeds, for example, are the true nutrition gems.

     

    Their Nutrition and Your Skin

    Nuts contain many crucial compounds, phytochemicals, such as ellagic acic, vitamins and amino acids that keep us young, healthy and our skin looking great. ¼ cup of walnuts contains about 95% of the recommended daily serving of Omega-3 fatty acids. These acids have been known to ward off depression and keep us feeling happy. Additionally, our cell membranes are built up of a blend of Saturated and unsaturated fats. Having the right ratio is crucial for cell membrane support. Consuming plenty of Omega-3 fatty acids allows the cell membranes to allow toxins out and nutrients in. They also have been shown to protect against sun damage, possibly help prevent skin cancer and reduce inflammation throughout the body. Vitamin-E keeps skin firm and elastic, protects cell membranes and also aids against damage from UV rays. Nuts may be high in healthy fats, but they are also a good source of vegetarian protein. The protein and minerals ensure quick recovery from wounds and blemishes by optimizing cell regeneration. Nuts are a great source of arginine, an amino acid that plays an important role in wound healing, detoxification reactions (Sweat, etc.), immune functions, as well as the secretion several hormones; all of which are important to healthy skin. Arginine with nitric oxide (also in nuts), plays a role in determining the tone of blood vessels, it exerts a relaxing effect on blood vessels, improving blood flow and giving us a young and healthy glow.

    Walnuts

    How to Eat them

    Always soak nuts before eating them, overnight is perfect for must nuts, except for cashew, 6 hours is enough for them. Eat them raw or lightly roasted at home, and here’s why. Most commercial roasting happens through deep-frying. Roasting them at home can help prevent oxidation that could cause cancer.

    Phytic acid is a compound in legumes, nuts and grains that resides in the bran of the grain and serves as an external layer of protection for nuts or seeds from threats in their habitat. For humans, phytic acid inhibits nutrients and minerals from being absorbed in the body. This barrier can also have a negative impact on our digestive systems, causing bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn and indigestion. On our skin, this can result in autoimmune disorders, allergic reactions, hives, poor immune system, fatigue, as well as unhealthy hair, skin and nails. Soaking nuts before you eat them can help increase phytase which helps break down the phytic acid and making the goodness of nuts easier to assimilate.

     Serving Ideas

    As a Snack: Nuts are great eaten raw or plan but when that gets boring, lightly roast them with sweet or savory seasonings, combine them with craisins and coconut, or throw a small handful in granola.

     

    With Breakfast: Add nuts to oatmeal, cereal, yogurt, sautéed greens with eggs, chop and add to scrambled tofu, you could even try baking your next batch of pancakes or muffins with almonds flour.

     

    With Dinner: Chop them and throw them into a messaged kale salad with apples and a savory dressing, use them with taco seasoning and ground chickpeas to make a vegetarian friendly taco, top a soup or main dish with a garnish of chopped nuts.

     

    As Dessert: Add them to any brownie or chocolate for a boast when you want a treat, or try chocolate, lemon, or coconut truffles like the ones pictured below!

     

    Adina Ferrin

    Nutrition Writer

    naturalfootcareproducts.com

     

     

     

     

     

     


              Ingredients to Avoid in Skin Care: Mineral Oil   

    We’ve all used mineral oil, or petroleum jelly on our lips, in our nostrils, on our feet, or even on our babies’ bottoms, as a moisturizer and protective layer.

    But did you know that Mineral Oil, a petroleum by-product , coats the skin like plastic, clogging the pores? Did you know that it interferes with your skin’s ability to eliminate toxins, promoting acne and other conditions? It also slows down skin function and cell development, resulting in premature aging. These toxins are known to even cause cancer.

    We absorb approximately 60% of what we put on our skin, and babies absorb even more. So, to apply a petroleum-based product to your skin exposes you to chemical toxins that aren’t healthy.

    Mineral oil is a very common ingredient in skin care products, used in everything from lip balm to foundation, to baby oil, which is 100% mineral oil. According to the Environmental Working Group,” mineral oil is derived from petroleum and may be contaminated with cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).”

    Be mindful of the ingredients in your skin care products. Choose products that contain only natural ingredients that are effective alternatives to chemical based, petroleum derived ingredients. Many vegetable and nut oils, such as coconut, olive, sunflower or sesame oils are great alternatives for skin moisturizing. Read Adina’s guest blog entitled Choosing the Right Oil for Your Skin to learn more about the best oils for your skin. I use our Natural Antifungal Healing Cream as a safe and healthful moisturizer for not only my feet, but my legs, elbows, grandbabies' bottoms, etc!

     

    Thalia Oster 

    Thalia Oster, JD
    Founder and COE (Chief of Everything)
    Naturalfootcareproducts.com


              delhi best institute of mineral engineering (new friends colony )   
    ABOUT US: In the era of highest competition, Engineering and Management field is one of the best options to stand a bright career. These are evergreen area for employment in future. For this, ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE OF INDIA (EMII) offers va...
              Chemist (Precious Metals) - SGS - Red Lake, ON   
    Demonstrates strong leadership skills in the supervising of small technical teams, ideally including the supervision of people in a minerals related laboratory....
    From SGS - Fri, 02 Jun 2017 14:48:10 GMT - View all Red Lake, ON jobs
              Acqua Di Gioia Eau Fraiche Giorgio Armani   
    С ароматами Armani я дружу уже 8 лет. С тех пор, как вышел первый классический Aqua di Gioia и он пленил меня своим промо-фото, на котором изображена девушка с невероятными глазами. В тот же день я помчалась в ближайший Брокард тестить парфюм. Это было 100% попадание. И следующие 8 лет Armani в различных вариациях был всегда со мной.

    Читать дальше

    Источник: Acqua Di Gioia Eau Fraiche Giorgio Armani
    Косметиста - отзывы о косметике
              Идеальная марсала. Румяна Plum Crazy от Sweetscents   
    В последнее время меня потянуло на румяна. Я в очередной раз поняла, что именно этот продукт помогает легко и быстро создать настроение и выстроить образ. Дааааа, утром не особо могу найти время на полноценный макияж глаз, а вот с помадами так и не подружилась. Поэтом тушь, основа, бальзам и акцент на щёчки — это любимый и универсальный мейк последних месяцев.

    Сегодня хочу вас познакомить еще с одним удачным приобретением, а именно румяшками Plum Crazy от Sweetscents. Они отлично вписались в мой цветотип, к тому же их оттенок очень в тренде сейчас. Но не буду долго бла-бла-бла — сейчас вы сами всё увидите.

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    Источник: Идеальная марсала. Румяна Plum Crazy от Sweetscents
    Косметиста - отзывы о косметике
              –   
    The HIV-Aids Titanic hits its own iceberg Rethinking AIDS Day is the 23rd of April. Just one day after Earth Day, celebrated on 22 April to promote the need for reexamining our relationship with the environment, Rethinking AIDS Day prompts us to critically examine the widely held idea that the immune weakness we see in AIDS is caused by an infective virus. According to HEAL, "Rethinking AIDS Day (RAD) is April 23rd to remember (not celebrate) the anniversary of the infamous Gallo/Heckler news conference announcing the 'probable' cause of AIDS had been discovered. By the time the science was published and found wanting, it was too late." RethinkingAIDS has a call to action which goes into more detail about that botched announcement of "the cause" of AIDS: At an international press conference on April 23, 1984, Dr. Robert Gallo, a federally funded cancer researcher, announced that he had discovered "the probable cause of AIDS," a new virus which would later be given the name HIV. The world media accepted the discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS as a matter of fact although no proof was presented that day or anytime thereafter. Now, twenty four years and $500 billion later, there is still no scientific evidence that Gallo ever isolated HIV from any of the AIDS patients he had studied, and there is still no published paper from any other scientist anywhere in the world demonstrating the direct purification of HIV from any human being. They also have an evolving page of initiatives: List of Events. Wearing a black ribbon (instead of the red one) is one of the ideas of how you can make that day your own. Anyone with a computer, an internet connection and some basic skills of finding information can confirm for themselves that the theory that tells us that HIV=AIDS=ILLNESS AND DEATH is full of holes. A number of articles on this site point out such holes, among them: HIV-Aids: A Tragic Error Why I Quit HIV - Is AIDS Myth Falling Apart? Alternatives to AZT in Aids Patients World AIDS Day 2004 - What happened to Koch's Postulates? HIV Test Bogus - Based on Circular Reasoning Seeing a great number of holes in the official theory, the question arises: What really does cause AIDS? Dr Harold Foster answers that question from the viewpoint of epidemiological geology, saying that those with certain mineral deficiencies - especially of selenium - are at risk. The book What Really Causes AIDS? is a free download from his site. There is more information on nutrient deficiencies and aberrated biochemical pathways as a possible cause of AIDS in Glutathione Peroxidase - Selenium, Aminoacids Overcome AIDS. Beldeu Singh, a Malaysian researcher and writer, argues that AIDS is really a consequence of our lifestyle. Nothing to do with a virus, as much as the medical establishment wishes to promote that cause. The dogma that HIV causes Aids which in turn causes death is like the Titanic and it going to sink just like the ship after it hit the iceberg. The real culprit, says Singh, is our infatuation with drugs, medical and non, but especially those based on the benzene molecule. Our use of chemicals to treat both emotional and physical problems is to blame. Unfortunately, this use of chemicals is sustained and promoted by a multi-billion dollar industry that has the ear of health authorities world wide. In his article, Singh illustrates the mechanism that is behind this common immune weakness....
              Day 1   
    Today was mainly a travel day, as was yesterday. We started our trip yesterday at 9:30am, flew from OR Tambo to Abu Dhabi, from there we flew to Moscow and from Moscow to Mineralnye vody. At Mineralnye vody airport we found our guide who sent us on our way to our hotel which by itself […]
              Whittling away   
    Because I need another hobby like I need another hole in my head, I've started whittling a little bit.  It's not really a new thing.  Like, I already knew how to do it and have done it before.  But now I am seeing the potential for this new thing to complement my other hobbies and create things that complement what is already in my etsy shop.

    Below you will see my most recent creation, a 3-in-1 spinning tool.  It is a nostepinne, wrist distaff, and WPI tool in one, carved from an oak branch I found lying on the sidewalk in the rain.

    This tool has a fun story.  I was on my way out the other day when I looked out the window and spotted this little branch on the sidewalk.  All the way to my destination, I thought about that branch and decided that if it was still there on the way home, I'd snag it and carve it up into a wrist distaff.

    It was there as I drove home, so I pulled over, hopped out of the car (in the rain) and rescued that branch.  I put it in the oven to dry it out, curing it for about an hour and a bit at 175F.  This dried out the wood and also killed any little bugs that may have been making their home inside.  Then I set myself down at the kitchen sink (I don't have a dedicated workspace and the sink with some papertowels in it caught all the woodchips and dust) with my little knife and began to whittle.

    I removed most of the bark, but not all.  I deliberately left the bark on around the top.  I removed the knots down the length of the twig, but again left them on the top.  I smoothed out the tip where it had been broken.  As I worked it over, I decided that it should also have a WPI notch at the top, so I measured and carved it out.  Then I began to sand it.  I worked it over with progressively finer paper from 120 to 600 grit.  The areas where I hadn't removed all the bark worked out darker than the other areas.  The WPI area was worked over with a nailfile as well as sandpaper (I needed a nice, well-defined edge).  I drilled a hole and sanded it through with a round metal file.

    I wiped it down and finished it by rubbing it with a thin coat of mineral oil.  I worked the oil in with a cotton ball first, then a paper towel, then my hands until it was absorbed all the way through.  The final coat was beeswax to protect the wood.

    I wrapped a piece of smokey quartz in goldtone wire and used the same sort of wire to create a bail for a leather wriststrap.

    I love the final product.  It's so smooth and soft to touch.  The mineral oil brought out the colour of the wood so very beautifully.

    So now I'm on the hunt for more twigs like this one.  Unwanted, discarded, destined for the mulch pile or the fireplace.  This piece is spoken for, but I can't wait to create more for the shop.
              Ideal Shape coupons for weight loss & Diet plans    

    Grab Ideal Shape Coupons & to get huge discounts on Diet plans for Weight loss with the help of Diet Supplements including, Meal Replacements, bars, Vitamins, Proteins, and Minerals for becoming healthy person. For more details please visit us at clicksnm.com
              HCG Diet Coupons for Dietary & Vitamin supplement for weight loss   

    Avail HCG Diet coupons & to get huge savings on diet supplements for weight loss and overcome from shortfall of nutritious foods, like vitamins, minerals and more. For more details please visit us about health related coupons at clicksnm.com.
              Mineralogist / Geometallurgist - Barrick Gold Corporation - British Columbia   
    BSc degree or equivalent in Geology or related Earth Sciences. AuTec is a well-established, Vancouver-based metallurgical testing facility, with a history of...
    From Barrick Gold Corporation - Fri, 07 Apr 2017 11:46:37 GMT - View all British Columbia jobs
              Razones por las que debes comer semillas de uva   

    Muchos solemos desecharlas, pero las semillas de uva pueden ser un gran aliado de nuestra salud. Gracias a su aporte de fibra dietética, mejoran la digestión y combaten el estreñimiento. Al momento de comer uvas muchas personas prefieren retirarles las semillas porque, aparte de tener un sabor amargo, consideran que son un desecho de la fruta. Lo que no se alcanzan a imaginar es que, pese a su diminuto tamaño, son una importante fuente de nutrientes esenciales que le pueden brindar muchos beneficios al cuerpo. Contienen ácidos grasos insaturados y poderosos antioxidantes que, en conjunto con sus vitaminas y minerales,

    La entrada Razones por las que debes comer semillas de uva aparece primero en Consejeros De Salud.


              Kimbell Royalty Partners Announces Timing of Second Quarter 2017 Earnings Release and Conference Call   

    FORT WORTH, Texas, June 30, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Kimbell Royalty Partners, LP (NYSE: KRP), a leading owner of oil and natural gas mineral and royalty interests across 20 states, today announced it will release its second quarter 2017 financial results on Thursday, August 10, 2017 before...



              Chief Mine Engineer - Silver Standard Resources - Saskatchewan   
    Silver Standard Resources; Seabee Gold Operation is a Saskatchewan-based gold producer, engaged in the production, exploration and development of gold mineral...
    From Silver Standard Resources - Sat, 20 May 2017 07:34:04 GMT - View all Saskatchewan jobs
              Supervisor minería - Gachancipá, Cundinamarca   
    Supervisar, coordinar y programar actividades de trabajadores que extraen carbón y otros minerales, que operan equipos de transporte subterráneo, equipo pesado,...
    De Agencia Pública de Empleo - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 01:23:36 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Gachancipá, Cundinamarca
              Revelation 4-5   
      Here we go with chapters 4-5. I think these are really unique chapters, and they can really help provide a glimpse of the Biblical perspective of who God is.


    Revelation 4-5
    Chapter 4
    • Revelation 4 and 5 are distinct in that they are essentially dedicated solely to describing God and a little bit of the Throne in heaven.
    • We start off chapter 4 with John being shown God.
    • What's interesting is the description of God (vs 3)
      • Jasper – a precious, colorful stone that sparkles and flashes luminously of various colors.
      • Carnelian – a beautiful reddish, brown mineral that also shines brightly, semi-translucent.
    • Why, exactly, do you think God is described in such an odd way?
      • It's important to remember how Jews view God. God is a very abstract entity who is difficult to really give human attributes. As such, he is typically described by physical things. Earlier in Revelation the “Son of Man” is described as having hair like wool, and a voice like many waters. Here, God is described by physical things just as he has been traditionally described. The Burning Bush (Exodus 3) is the most common example in which God is portrayed through the natural world. Exodus 24:10 describes God as sapphire.
      • Additionally, the specific minerals that are mentioned, Jasper and Carnelian are both precious and valued greatly. This is just to add to the effect that the author is trying to make about the glory of God.
      • Yahweh wasn't meant to be pronounced, but was just written as four letters YHWH (some scholars have disputed this stating that it was meant to be pronounced, but from what I've been able to find, this is a small, minority view).
    • In verse 3, we also have an account of a rainbow that is like emerald. What exactly does a rainbow traditionally symbol in the Bible?
      • Deliverance and security, just like Noah had received when the rainbow was offered to him as a sign in that tale.
    • 24 thrones for 24 elders are mentioned. There is too much speculation about this to really know what these are form, but some interesting thought is that 12 are for patriarchs of the OT and the other 12 are for the disciples.
    • The most important thing to take from Chapter 4 is that it is keeping with the Jewish tradition of reluctance to actually describe God. Survey the Old Testament, and you will encounter various descriptions of God, all of which are physical or strange. What happened here was that a finite, human language (particularly of such a primitive time) was simply incapable of describing what they felt or saw in their God.
      • John just keeps with this tradition.
    Chapter 5
    • While Chapter 4 was all about describing God, chapter 5 is all John's descriptions of "The Lamb of God".
    • We start off with a strange scroll that apparently no one is able to open because of the seven seals on it.
      • It should be noted, for those who don't know, that a seal was like a wax “stamp” placed on scrolls to ensure that they stayed closed and weren't opened before they got to who they were supposed to.
      • This concept of “who it was supposed to get to” is very important when we bring in the figure of the Lamb.
    • Apparently no one in heaven or on earth was able to open the seal (4). What sort of significance does this carry?
      • If Jesus is the lamb, as is overwhelmingly assumed, why is he the only one who can open the seals?
    • At first Jesus is described as the “Lion of Judah” (5) and the “Root of David.” More importantly, he is described as “victorious so that he may open the scroll and its seven seals”
      • The significance of this is pretty big. What was Jesus victorious in that he has this right to open these seals?
    • Back to the Lion of Judah, though. At first when you're reading this, you get an image of a powerful lion. One who was strong and ready to conquer. This is exactly what the Jews were expecting in their Messiah. They believed that their Messiah would be a political or military leader who would lead the Jews to deliverance from the Roman government.
      • Clearly, Jesus doesn't meet this expectation. This was the man who told people to turn the other cheek (Mat. 5:39) and to love one's neighbor as themselves.
      • What follows is Jesus' description as a lamb. This is all too fitting since he wasn't the expected military leader, but a spiritual leader who promoted redemption through his teachings.
    • He is described as a “slaughtered lamb” (6). Why were lambs slaughtered in the Jewish tradition? For remission of sins or guilt, but also as praise to God (think of the story of Noah after the ark).
    • He is described as having “seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent into all the earth” (6). Do you remember the significance of the number seven?
      • Seven implies fullness or completeness. In this case, horns represent power, so it is shown that this lamb has complete or full power, and with eyes he has complete or full vision. I don't mean that he has 20/20 vision, but rather that he has full knowledge.
    • What follows seems to be a worship narrative in which the Lamb is described as “a redeemer” (9), “worthy, receiving power and riches, wisdom and strength, honor, glory, and blessings” (12), as well as “Blessing and honor and glory and dominion” (13). 
      • In vs. 9, we see that the blood of the lamb was enough to "purchase men for God." I think strong comparisons can be drawn from this to the tradition of Passover in which the blood of the lamb would offer security or safety.
      • All this is given by what is described as “countless thousands, plus thousands of thousands” (11). I can't help but think that what the author is trying to get across here is that God is completely worthy of countless or endless amounts of praise.
    Recommended Reading:
    Daniel 7
    Ezekiel 1, 10

              Starting off Revelation   
    So, for clarity, I'm going to start dividing the book of Revelation into various sections. I think that sometimes being overly divisive can be harmful, but in taking a hard look at, or a study of,  a Biblical text, I would generally call it a good thing. I also think that breaking it into sections can really help you understand what is going on in the book, and what is being implied. For a side note, I like to use the Holman Christian Standard Bible (used here) when possible or the New Oxford Annotated Bible.

    Chapters 1-3 are essentially an introduction and a notice to the target audience. John is writing to these churches in Asia (not the modern continent, but more like the modern-day country of Turkey), and he is essentially scolding and commending them for the application of their faith.  These churches are Ephesus (good but losing their devotion), Smyrna (good and under persecution), Pergamum (generally good, but has trouble with false or "aberrant" teachings), Thyatira (similar to Pergamum), Sardis (slowly starting to die out), Philadelphia (good/praised), and Laodicea (awful).

    Chapters 4-5 are a little bit different and now that we've already moved past the target audience and the introduction we get a little background about who God is and how we can describe him. In chapter 4 we open with the throne room of heaven, and as is typical, God is described kinda strangely through natural phenomena or occurrences. My favorite example of this is the burning bush where God is essentially portrayed through a fire that does not consume (Exodus 3). He is described as "like jasper and carnelian" (Revelation 4:3) which we learned were precious, valuable, and to many, beautiful minerals. We also see this "emerald rainbow [surrounding the throne]" (4:3) which is traditionally seen as a symbol of hope or promise. The throne of heaven should be seen as a promise. As usual, we see recurring use of the word seven. In chapter 5 we are introduced to the lamb (also referred to as the lion of Judah), and he is described as the only one who is worthy or capable of opening the seals (5:5). When we remember the importance of a seal (authenticity and a sort of security), we can see why the ability of the lamb to open the sealed scroll is important.

    Okay, so I've put together this small post about the introduction to the book, and I will update soon with the information about the seals and the trumpets as we cover them more. Feel free to comment or to contact me with any questions or concerns you may have!
              ZIRCÓN: UN MINERAL PARECIDO AL DIAMANTE   

    El zircón es una piedra exótica en el mundo de joyería, dado su parecido al diamante. Aparte de su belleza y uso en la orfebrería, este mineral arroja importantes datos sobre el origen de la Tierra, ya que sobre ella el reconocimiento como el material terrestre más antiguo del planeta, considerado por la comunidad científica […]

    The post ZIRCÓN: UN MINERAL PARECIDO AL DIAMANTE appeared first on Joya Life.


              Carb Conscious Supreme Protein is the Best Tasting, Premium Quality Protein Bar on the Market!   
    The world's first quadruple layer protein bar combines real candy flavor and high-quality whey isolate. This new smaller snack sized bar contains highly bioavailable protein isolate, in this case a 15-gram serving of a proprietary protein blend powered by whey protein isolate as the main protein source. It also contains healthy fats, including flax seed oil, and a full spectrum of vitamins and minerals. This mini version of the Supreme Protein Bar contains only 3 net carbs and only 2 grams of sugar, as well as zero trans fat.
              Are Banana Lover Read These Facts   

    Bananas are surely ones of the healthiest foods on the planet, with an abundance of minerals and vitamins. These delicious fruits have a unique, delicious flavor and a mild, specific aroma.

    The post Are Banana Lover Read These Facts appeared first on HFS Tips.


              The Almanac at 18 months.   
    Throughout my life, I've collected many things: Backscratchers. Owls. Shiny gems, minerals and the like. As a kid, there were unicorns and cabbage patch dolls. Pin-ups of the irresistible teen boy-du-jour.
    Every accumulation eventually lost it's glamour and wound up suffocating in a black garbage bag on the curb, awaiting the truck from the Kidney Foundation to scoop it up for it's unfortunate fate. Tax deductible.

    And then there are the words. Millions and millions of words collected over the years. Hundreds of thousands of words collected since Opal's birth. Words in dribbly ink that smears against the outer edge of my palm. Words in a variety of personality-defining fonts, tiny clusters of gangs in bold and royalty in italics.

    I have no idea what to do with all the words.

    What I do know is this, there is a satisfaction that comes from offering the words to someone other than myself. To let them view a landscape that exceeds the interior of my desk drawers and hard-drives. This makes them feel at least like free-range notions. Winged thoughts that could blow into some very interesting tundras indeed.

    Truth: this blog has a good many words. Likely a few thousand, though I didn't check. As with many of the human-almanac blogs that have preceded this one, the intention is more to share the facts than to entertain, as it were.

    Not much editing, could be some grammar and spelling errors. One straight-forward Ulysses-esque draft as transcribed from Opal's warn little baby journal from where we left off in January (see Front Row: A 14.5 Month Development-Blitzkrieg as Told in List Form.).
    Just wanted you to be clear what you were getting in to...

    January 12th, 2011. (14.5 months)
    Opal sings her A-B-C's. No joke, and with very little prompting. She also says LOLLOO for love you, knuckles pishy and lollipop. Her vocab list for things to be named when pointed at is growing by the day. She nods now and inserts yea, yea in places that are appropriate as well as not. (But you can tell she enjoys how the yea keeps her connected in the circle of conversation in a way she never had access to before.)
    Bedtimes are epic now, she is learning to stall, seeing the power in it.
    ** See Blogs: Eight-minute speed round: Knuckles Pishy and The Fox and the Epic Bedtime.**

    January 21, 2011.
    Opal is just starting to gain success at feeding herself with a spoon and can color with crayons (though, she is often met with some level of frustration with the latter).

    February 4, 2011.
    Opal knows many of her books by content as opposed to simply cover-art now and can ask for them by name. She recalls certain books by what animals, shapes and themes they contain and likes to stick to certain themes for days at a time. Doggie book! Balls! She can also spot and identify many different animals (and fruits) in magazines. Knows the difference between Owls and Birds.
    She is struck with the beauty of rushing water and refers to it all as waterfall. From the rainwater that pours out of the gutters to water that drips from the sink-faucet, any moving water is a waterfall.
    She once saw a 'real choo-choo' while playing at a park while, ironically, inside of a fake choo-choo. (Hence the coining of the term real choo-choo versus simply choo-choo.) She learned the very distinct sound of their long-think horn that day and never misses the sound of one in the distance. (You can often hear them from our house, gently hollering a quarter-mile in the distance.)
    She also listens for airplanes and trucks and sirens in her world. Drops everything to run to the window to look. Except for the choo-choo: she's learned she can't really see a choo-choo from where you are standing.
    She puts mittens on her hands and walks around like a lobster with claws.
    She plays the kazoo, by and large, better than I do.
    She sleeps with the following cast of characters: Golla (gorilla), B (Bunny), Baby, Doggie, Raggetty Ann and Little Blankie. She tracks every one of them and any attempt at distillation is noticed and kiboshed.
    She sprouted her very first top tooth today!
    Is working the No No No No No No angle with puckered lips.

    February 10, 2011.
    Opal is beginning to make word associations.
    For example, she was playing with the words "Leo Koettke" and said Leo Car-Car and Lulu Koettke.