Plastic Headgear Market, Trends, Size and Forecasts   

Reports and Intelligence adds a new report titled, “Global Plastic Headgear Market to 2017 - Market Size, Growth and Forecasts in Nearly 70 Countries”

Portland, OR -- (ReleaseWire) -- 09/25/2014 -- Reports and Intelligence adds a new report titled, "Global Plastic Headgear Market to 2017 - Market Size, Growth and Forecasts in Nearly 70 Countries" which is a useful piece of information for the global players in the plastic headgear market. The report provides a comprehensive analysis on the market trends, size, forecast and growth of the overall plastic headgear market.

Browse complete report at:

Report provides the market share of plastic headgears in the overall global market and further segments the plastic headgear market on the basis of product. The product segment includes Safety headgear and other headgears of plastic.

Analysis in the report is based on 2006-2012 market data and the report forecasts the global market till the year 2017, which provides insightful market information for the investors, sales, marketing & product managers and analysts in an accessible and well presented format.

The report covers the following topics:

-Global Market size
-Market growth rate
-Market segmentation on the basis of products
-Growth rate of each product segment
-Market forecasts

See similar report: Spirit Markets in the Top 5 European Countries to 2018 - Market Size, Trends, and Forecasts

Report covers the following geographical regions:
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vietnam.

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Media Relations Contact

Cathy Viber
International Accounts Manager
Reports and Intelligence
Telephone: 617-674-4143
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          Vaccines - Global Markets Package   

This market research report package offers a perspective on the actual market situation, trends and future outlook for vaccines in different countries around the world.

Portland, OR -- (ReleaseWire) -- 08/12/2014 -- This market research report package offers a perspective on the actual market situation, trends and future outlook for vaccines in different countries around the world. The studies provide essential market information for decision-makers including:

- Overall market for vaccines in different countries
- Market for vaccines by product type
- Forecasts and future outlook of the market
- Macroeconomic indicators

Get detailed report at:

These market studies answer to questions such as:
- What is the size of the vaccine markets in different countries around the world?
- How are the markets divided into different types of products?
- Which products are growing fast?
- How the markets have been developing?
- How does the future look like?
- What is the potential for the markets?
- How the macroeconomic indicators look like?

Product types discussed in the studies:
Human vaccines
Veterinary vaccines

Years covered: 2006 - 2017

Countries included in the package:
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and Vietnam

Similar report
Global Dialysis Market (Types, Products and Services, End-users and Geography):

For more information on this press release visit:

Media Relations Contact

Sona Padman
International Accounts Manager
Reports And Intelligence
Telephone: 617-674-4143
Email: Click to Email Sona Padman

          On Macedonians, “noble” origins, and how Alexander the Great is a Muslim figure   
Macedonian children, acting as Alexander’s soldiers… After the fall of Communism and the dismantling of Yugoslavia, Balkan nations were flooded by an exotic range of national beliefs with a mystical and messianic tinge. It thus became fashionable for Balkan Slavs nowadays to pretend that they are not actually Slavs. The Slovenes prefer to suggest that they […]
          More Than 90 Indicted In Macedonia Over Wiretap Scandal   
A special prosecutor in Macedonia has charged more than 90 people, including former senior officials, in connection with a 2-year-old wiretap scandal that brought down the previous government.
          Scouting Notebook: Dani Ceballos Putting His Football to the Fore at Euro U21s   

With the notable exception of 2015, Spain have been utterly dominant in Under-21 Championships this decade. 2011 saw them defeat Switzerland 2-0 in the final; in 2013 they beat Italy 4-2; and in 2017, they enter the final against Germany as heavy, heavy favourites.

The calibre of player they've taken to this tournament has been just as remarkable as their collective performances. 2011 saw Thiago Alcantara, Juan Mata, Ander Herrera and Javi Martinez form an all-powerful midfield, while in 2013, Isco, Asier Illarramendi and Koke joined Thiago to make them even stronger.

This year a new crop have shined. In their first game of the tournament—a 5-0 demolition of Macedonia—Marco Asensio, fresh off scoring in the UEFA Champions League final, grabbed the headlines (again) with an eye-popping hat-trick.

Atletico Madrid's Saul Niguez also scored that day, and he has gone on to bag four more, including a ridiculous hat-trick against Italy in the semi-final, while Marcos Llorente has swept up at the base of midfield in a calm, collected manner.

But one man's name currently in the papers was not on the teamsheet for that opening fixture, and said man was not happy about it.

According to ESPN FC's David Cartlidge, Dani Ceballos—who you may well have seen tear Italy's entire team apart with one slinking dribble on Tuesday—was incredibly disappointed not to have been handed a key role and had to set about changing matters.

It's not the first time this season he's been left sidelined; Gus Poyet, when manager of Real Betis, inexplicably pushed him (and Chelsea loanee Charly Musonda) away from the first-team squad for periods of time before Christmas. From a footballing perspective it made no sense, as Ceballos is the most creative, talented player in that team and they battled relegation from August to April, but then, the decision to drop him may well have had nothing to do with football at all.

Despite being aged just 20, Ceballos already has a chequered past. According to, he's made some derogatory comments in the past about different regions of Spain; insulted legendary goalkeeper Iker Casillas and his wife; told a just-relegated player that he hopes his club rots in the second division; and even sent a pro-General Franco tweet.

That's been the story of his career to date: off-field issues, distractions and mishaps coming to the fore, with the unfortunate casualty being his football. For one so young to be constantly battling back from adversity is a true shame.

Missing the starting XI against Macedonia was simply the next in a lengthy line of footballing setbacks, but Ceballos made the most of his 27 minutes off the bench against Macedonia and found himself in the starting XI against Portugal for the group's key clash.

They won, he played well, and he found himself back on the bench for the third game—only this time it was alongside Asensio and Saul, as coach Albert Celades rotated his crop ahead of the semi-finals.

Against Italy, he shot to the fore for all the right reasons. His tempo-setting midfield play, so often seen in excellent Real Betis performances this year, were key to Spain controlling the game and controlling proceedings. Saul Niguez may have scored another rocket, but that was almost overlooked due to Ceballos producing the moment of the game.

Having already nutmegged Roberto Gagliardini three times and got him sent off for two yellows earned from pure frustration, he embarked on a scintillating run, ducked between two midfielders after an outrageous fake pass sent them the wrong way, beat one more and then nutmegged another poor soul in the box to set up a shot. It left the crowd, the Twittersphere, the universe gobsmacked.

That's what Ceballos is, in pure footballing terms: An electric, exciting, dazzling, smart midfielder. If he can set aside his documented off-field issues and control his emotions, the sky's the limit for him.

That slick fake-pass move to flummox Italy is one of his specialties. He did it to Atletico Madrid last season too, fooling two of Diego Simeone's seasoned warhorses with a quick swish of the leg. In the same game, he smacked the post from distance, then went one better and powered a ridiculous volley in from outside the box after a corner had been headed clear.

But while it's easy to fall for Ceballos' highlight reel moments and simply consider him a difference-maker in the final third, that would do an injustice to his abilities in the other two.

He can drop into deeper areas and control games. For long periods against Italy he was level with Marcos Llorente in the base of midfield, playing as a No. 6 and dictating. He set Spain's rhythm and tempo, kept the ball moving and probed for weak points in Italy's formation. From there he was able to either slalom forward and beat markers or launch accurate passes into Gerard Deulofeu or Asensio.

He also put the work in defensively, tracking men back and, on a number of occasions, getting a vital foot in to dispossess just outside his own box. He won't make an elite box-to-box midfielder, nor will he try to, but the graft shown is important—particularly given the circumstances he started the tournament in, and given Barcelona's Denis Suarez is on the bench, itching to reclaim that spot in the team.

The whole world has seen Ceballos at his best during this tournament, and, as if often the case, transfer links have followed. Real Betis' president has been forced to deny reports that Real Madrid are just a step away from signing him, per Canal Sur TV (h/t ESPN's Adriana Garcia), but the fact he has a €15 million buyout clause is public knowledge and can only work against the Andalusian club.

€15 million for a player who can do what he's done this summer, at the age he is? It shouldn't just be Real Madrid interested; it should be every top club on the continent.

Read more World Football news on

          Israel’s ties with Macedonia’s new government forge ahead   

After a long time of political upheaval that brought months of instability and turmoil to the citizens of Macedonia, a change of government took place in early June. The new government, run by Prime Minister Zoran Zaev, has 62 members of Parliament out of 120 seats — a small but promising majority. Israeli Ambassador to […]

The post Israel’s ties with Macedonia’s new government forge ahead appeared first on The Blogs | The Times of Israel.

          Price Drop: Ancient Battle: Successors (Games)   

Ancient Battle: Successors 1.1

Device: iOS Universal
Category: Games
Price: $1.99 -> $.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes)


Ancient Battle: Successors is the latest edition to the Ancient Battle series for iPhone and iPad. Alexander the Great died on 13 June 323 B.C., leaving no heir. Perhaps foreseeing the many great conflicts that would follow his demise, he left the Macedonian Kingdom 'To the best man'.

These lands, spanning most of the known world, were divided between his former generals, who saw themselves as rightful Successors (or 'Diadochi') to the Kingdom. The Successors plunged into a maelstrom of epic conflict as they fought for power and glory. Now you have the opportunity to reign supreme over your rivals, if you can first defeat them on the battlefield. Use units such as Greek Pikemen, Macedonian Pikemen, Spearmen, Archers, Indian Elephants, Chariots, Cavalry, and Javelinmen to engage in some of the largest battles of the ancient world.

Key Game Features:

• High Definition Ancient Era Graphics.
• 7 Mission Tutorial Campaign.
• 6 Mission Wars of the Successors Campaign; Featuring the battles of The Hellespont, Cretopolis, Paraetacene, Gabiene, Salamis and Ipsus.

Bonus Mission (Available for free by registering)
• 1 Mission Ptolemies Campaign; featuring the battle of Gaza.

• All missions, except the tutorial, can be played as both sides.
• 66 Unique Ancient Units.
• Detailed Combat Analysis
• Flank Attacks
• Strategic Movement.
• Hours of Gameplay.
• Game Center Achievements and Leaderboards.
• iCloud saves (also compatible with the Apple Mac version of the game).
• Map Zoom.

Purchasable Extra Content:

• 5 Mission Pyrrhic War Campaign; Featuring the battles of Siris River, Heraclea, Asculum, Asculum Satrianum & Beneventum.
• 5 Mission Ascent of Rome Campaign; Featuring the battles of The Aous River, Cynoscephalae, Magnesia, Pydna & Corinth.
• 5 Mission Eclipse Campaign; Featuring the battles of Thermopylae Plain, Lamia, Crannon, Sellasia & Raphia.

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What's New

Added in-app purchases.

Ancient Battle: Successors

          Sparkling Rosé from Kir-Yianni: Greece For The Win   
"The best kind of wine is that which is most pleasant to him who drinks it."
--Pliny the Elder

Drink some Xinomavro this summer! Maybe you're not sure what Xinomavro is, but I hope you're willing to learn. Xinomavro (which roughly translates as "acid black") is an indigenous grape in northern Greece and often is compared to Nebbiolo. Xinomavro is difficult to grow and usually provides mild color, strong tannins and high acidity. Because of those characteristics, it ages very well. While young, the wines tend to be dominated by red fruit flavors and as the wine ages, it starts to show more savory notes, such as tomato and olive. Though it can make impressive red wines, it can also be used to produce compelling Rosé wines.

In Greece, there is a single Appellation of Origin for Rosé wine, the Amyndeon, located in northern Greece in Macedonia. All of the wines from Amyndeon must contain at least 85% Xinomavro. One of the most well known wineries in this region is Kir-Yianni, which means "Sir John" in Greek. The winery was founded in 1997 by Yiannis Boutaris, who had left the Boutari Wine Group. Though their first vintage was in 1990, it was not until the 1995 vintage that the wine was bottled under the Kir-Yianni name. More than half of their labels are single vineyard growths on the eastern and western slopes of Mt. Vermio in Macedonia. They grow indigenous Greek grapes, like Xinomavro and Assyrtiko, as well as some international ones such as Syrah and Sauvignon Blanc.

Last night, I chose to open a Greek Sparkling Rosé, made from Xinomavro. I received a media sample of the 2016 Kir Yianni Akakies Sec Sparkling Rosé ($19.99), which is made from 100% Xinomavro. The vineyard for these Xinomavro grapes is located in the viticultural zone of Agios Panteleimon within the Amyndeon appellation in Florina, in northwestern Greece. The vineyard is located at a high altitude of about 600 meters. This Sparkling Rosé spent about 3 months on the lees and has a low 11.5% ABV.

With a light red color and tiny bubbles, this Sparkling Rosé possessed an alluring nose of bright red fruits. On the palate, it was crisp, dry and full bodied with a refreshing effervescence, a mild creaminess and rich flavors of strawberry and cherry. It has a pleasingly long and delicious finish, with hints of savoriness at the end. I paired this Rosé with garlic & parmesan sausage and rice pilaf, and it was a tasty pairing, the fruit meshing well with the herbs of the food. This Rosé would also pair well with a variety of other foods, from seafood to burgers, pizza to roast chicken. Or you could enjoy it on its own, sitting outside in the summer sun, toasting a special occasion, or savoring it at home some evening.

I often recommend people drink Greek wine and you should explore my Ten Reasons To Drink Greek Wine, which I hope will motivate you to explore the diversity and wonders of Greek wines. The 2016 Kir Yianni Akakies Sec Sparkling Rosé would be an excellent choice to start your sampling of Greek wines.

This summer, drink Greek!
          [Ticker] Macedonia's special prosecutor indicts former PM   
Macedonia’s special prosecutor charged 94 people in connection with an illegal wiretapping scandal that led to the fall of the previous government, prosecutor Katica Janeva announced Thursday. Those charged include former prime minister Nikola Gruevski and high-ranking officials, local media reported. Gruevski dismissed the case as “political prosecution”. The prosecutor’s office was established under EU-sponsored talks in 2015, to diffuse the political stalemate in the wake of the wiretapping scandal.
          A blog post by Benjamin Boyd was featured   
A blog post by Benjamin Boyd was featured

LA+ Takes on Landscape Identity in Their Spring Issue

LA+, published by ORO Editions, started out in the spring of 2015 as a unique, landscape-focused journal that deviated from the pack by not only bringing designers, but philosophers, artists, geographers, ecologists, planners, scientists, and others to the table for their take on a core theme in each issue. Since then, the folks over at the UPenn School of Design have covered the themes of Wild, Pleasure, Tyranny, and Simulation. Along with the individual theme, each issue ends up with its own unique tone and perspective. This season’s issue is Identity.The concept of identity shapes the very core of what we do as landscape architects. “Place-making” is often the seminal charge of clients and the means they use to create, reinforce, or change the identity of a place. This process pulls from every aspect of our skill set. LA+’s Spring Edition explores how the ideas of place have evolved and how “sense of place as the the manifestation of cultural identity has been landscape architecture’s raison d'être and its main aesthetic contribution to the cultural landscape of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.”Not easing in, the editors start by literally comparing the landscapes of Nazi Germany to those “mass produced by today's so-called 'placemakers.'” Shots fired. The creative backlash against organizations like Project for Public Places is real and mentioned more and more often. What are we to make of manufactured identities? Is a 21st century programmed place any less authentic than one developed in centuries past? Images courtesy of LA+The initial brushes of the Identity issue wax romantic on the notions of self and personal identity. It surmises that only through the lens of yourself, can you truly take the next logical step and consider a symbiotic relationship with your convenient planet of reference. This symbiotically connects the life and health of the planet directly to you and your actions. However, though these philosophical ruminations are clear and convincing, are they really arguments that need to be made to the intended audience? A philosophical understanding of our entire industry notwithstanding, the invocations of meaning are thoughtfully pondered, but for this reader, mostly end up in the same place they started.A more interesting evolution of the symbiotic premise is then applied to the idea of colonizing other planets. If humans are currently in a thoroughly vetted, interdependent relationship with Earth, then how do humans sync up with worlds of different origins and inhospitable environments? Are we hopelessly confined to being but guests and never capable of the sort of congruence we have with our current home? Images courtesy of LA+A brief and fascinating passage by Dirk Sijmons asserts that identity is, in fact, a verb, or more specifically, a process. He asserts that though in the past century, designers have clung to the idea that landscape form is just a creative output of the project constraints and an application of art, we forget to consider the massive importance of macro processes that shape space. In his example, the massive dam and weirs projects in Holland attest to human's ability to shape and augment space to fit basic needs. Modern designers have used remnants and echoes of these forms to derive designs that supposedly echo the “genus of place.” Their assertion, however, under weighs the agricultural, industrial, and defensive motivations for the augmentation in the first place. The changing needs of inhabitants over centuries and their willingness to take on massive scale revolutions in the landscape are the true basis of identity. Consider the canals of Egypt, the rapidly spreading swaths of suburban China, the Hoover Dam of Nevada, or the artificial islands of Dubai where Sijmons asks if processes of civilization are the generators of identity, rather than social or colloquial elements landscape architects often use to derive form. Images courtesy of LA+Further considering manufactured uniqueness, Andrew Graan and Aleksander Takovski mine Macedonia's "Skopje 2014 for lessons in identity." Skopje 2014 is an extraordinary architectural makeover project in the namesake capital city of Macedonia that seeks to clear asunder the remnants of Ottoman and Socialist markers that unfortunately results in a "sense that one has stumbled into a fantastic landscape that desperately wants to be noticed." Skopje's array of massive statues of Alexander the Great and others seeks to create a "political economy of architectural spectacle." While the statues and buildings are derived from historical references and hit all the notes of place-derived focuses, the product borders on infatuation and excess. How are we to consider the identity of these places years, and even decades, from now? Will Skopje be viewed as an exercise in abject nationalism, or will it meld into the fabric of Macedonia's identity causing future designers to derive their forms from it? Images courtesy of LA+Finally, one of the most interesting reads from this issue is Branding Landscape by Nicole Porter. She asserts that 'place' itself has obvious intrinsic economic value and the strategic practice of 'place branding' seeks to exploit that value. Two case studies, Singapore's Gardens by the Bay and Norway's national park branding, outline her argument that these branded landscapes have been reduced to "functioning as commodified objects functioning as brands." In both instances, the government harnesses the most cost effective way to impress and, consequently, express the commitment and efficiency of said government. She laments that "the irony is that producing place identities according to market-friendly typologies can destroy their true uniqueness and inherent value at the same time." Her worry is that a capitalist ideology injected into the human-nature relationship is a slippery slope that forces everyone to be consumers.LA+ Identity is another excellent entry into an already thoughtful collection of varied perspectives on the work that landscape architects do. While some of the more existential explorations of philosophy are valuable and necessary, the critique of pervasive ideologies and popular landscapes is even more essential.-- Benjamin Boyd is a landscape architect practicing at Mahan Rykiel Associates in Baltimore, Maryland. Check out his profile on Goodreads to see what he has been reading. Ben often tweets about landscape at @_benboyd.See More

          Ancient Golden Wreaths Unearthed During Thessaloniki Metro Excavations   

The ongoing construction of Thessaloniki’s modern subway system has unearthed a trove of ancient gold wreaths, which had rested undisturbed in long-forgotten, unmarked cemeteries for some 2,300 years. Excavation crews working in Greece’s second-largest city have collected nine wreaths since the subway project began in 2006.  


According to the Greek Reporter, the ninth wreath was found within a large Macedonian tomb, adorning the head of its female occupant. Construction crews discovered the tomb in an ancient cemetery at what will be the Dimokratias Station stop.


“It’s not common. It’s an extraordinary finding,” Vasiliki Misailidou-Despotidou, director of 16th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities for Greece’s General Directorate of Antiquities, told “It happens quite seldom.”

In an amazing testament to the enduring qualities of gold, the wreath resembling an olive branch looked virtually new despite being buried for thousands of years. It was dated to the Early Hellenistic Era, at the end of the 4th century/early 3rd century BC.


The nine Thessaloniki wreaths share a common theme. They incorporate oak, olive, vine, laurel or myrtle leaves crafted in gold on a simple gold band meant to encircle the head. The delicate wreaths were intended as adornments for royal or aristocratic burials, according to Discovery News.

The Thessaloniki subway project has already yielded more than 23,000 ancient and medieval artifacts. The subway is scheduled for completion in 2017.

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JEWISH KING JESUS IS COMING AT THE RAPTURE FOR US IN THE CLOUDS-DON'T MISS IT FOR THE WORLD.THE BIBLE TAKEN LITERALLY- WHEN THE PLAIN SENSE MAKES GOOD SENSE-SEEK NO OTHER SENSE-LEST YOU END UP IN NONSENSE.GET SAVED NOW- CALL ON JESUS TODAY.THE ONLY SAVIOR OF THE WHOLE EARTH - NO OTHER. 1 COR 15:23-JESUS THE FIRST FRUITS-CHRISTIANS RAPTURED TO JESUS-FIRST FRUITS OF THE SPIRIT-23 But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming.ROMANS 8:23 And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.(THE PRE-TRIB RAPTURE)

ISAIAH 17:1,11-14
1 The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and it shall be a ruinous heap.(DAMASCUS FRYED TO A PULP)
11  In the day shalt thou make thy plant to grow, and in the morning shalt thou make thy seed to flourish: but the harvest shall be a heap in the day of grief and of desperate sorrow.
12  Woe to the multitude of many people, which make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the rushing of nations,(USELESS U.N) that make a rushing like the rushing of mighty waters!
13  The nations shall rush like the rushing of many waters: but God shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far off, and shall be chased as the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like a rolling thing before the whirlwind.
14  And behold at evening tide trouble; and before the morning he is not.(ASSAD KILLED IN OVERNIGHT RAID) This is the portion of them that spoil us,(ISRAEL) and the lot of them that rob us.

AMOS 1:5
5  I will break also the bar of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant from the plain of Aven, and him that holdeth the sceptre from the house of Eden:(IRAQ) and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir,(JORDAN) saith the LORD.(I belive ISIS-DAMASCUS GET NUKED BY ISRAEL)

Nikki Haley‏Verified account @nikkihaley 14h14 hours ago-JUNE 27,17-Any further attacks done to the people of Syria will be blamed on Assad, but also on Russia & Iran who support him killing his own people.

U.S. says it appears Syria planning another chemical weapons attack-[Reuters]-YAHOONEWS-June 26, 2017

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The White House said on Monday it appears the Syrian government is preparing for another chemical weapons attack and it warned Syrian President Bashar al-Assad he and his military would "pay a heavy price" if it conducts such an attack.The White House statement said preparations by Syria were similar to those undertaken before an April 4 chemical attack that killed dozens of civilians and prompted President Donald Trump to order a cruise missile strike on a Syrian air base.Trump ordered the strike on the Shayrat airfield in Syria in April in reaction to what Washington said was a poison gas attack by Assad's government that killed at least 70 people in rebel-held territory. Syria denied it carried out the attack.The strike put Washington in confrontation with Russia, which has advisers in Syria aiding its close ally Assad.U.S. officials at the time called the intervention a "one-off" intended to deter future chemical weapons attacks and not an expansion of the U.S. role in the Syrian war.(Reporting by Eric Beech; Writing by Yara Bayoumy; Editing by Sandra Maler and Paul Tait)

White House says Assad may be preparing chemical attack-[The Canadian Press]-YAHOONEWS-June 26, 2017

WASHINGTON — The White House says it has found "potential" evidence that Syria is preparing for another chemical weapons attack.Press Secretary Sean Spicer issued an ominous statement Monday evening that says the U.S. "has identified potential preparations" for another chemical attack by the Assad government that it says "would likely result in the mass murder of civilians, including innocent children."He says the activities are similar to those made before an April chemical attack. The Trump administration launched missile strikes in retaliation for that attack, which it blamed on Assad.Spicer warns that "if Assad conducts another mass murder attack using chemical weapons, he and his military will pay a heavy price."The White House has provided no immediate evidence to back up its claims.The Associated Press.


12 And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates;(WERE WW3 STARTS IN IRAQ OR SYRIA OR TURKEY) and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.(THE TURKEY ATATURK DAM ON THE EUPHRATES CAN BE SHUT AND DRIED UP ALREADY BY TURKEY)
13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon,(SATAN) and out of the mouth of the beast,(WORLD DICTATOR) and out of the mouth of the false prophet.(FALSE POPE)
14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.(WERE 2 BILLION DIE FROM NUKE WAR)
15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.
16 And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.(ITS AT THIS TIME I BELIEVE WHEN AMERICA GETS NUKED BY RUSSIA ON THE WAY TO THE MIDEAST)

44 But tidings out of the east(CHINA) and out of the north(RUSSIA, MUSLIMS WHATS LEFT FROM WAVE 1) shall trouble him:(EU DICTATOR IN ISRAEL) therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.( 1/3RD OF EARTHS POPULATION)

12 One woe is past; and, behold, there come two woes more hereafter.
13 And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God,
14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four(DEMONIC WAR) angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.(WORLDWIDE WAR)(TURKEY-IRAQ-SYRIA)(EUPHRATES RIVER CONSISTS OF 760 MILES IN TURKEY,440 MILES IN SYRIA AND 660 MILES IN IRAQ)
15 And the four(DEMONIC WAR) angels were loosed,(WORLDWIDE WAR) which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.(1/3 Earths Population die in WW 3 2ND WAVE-2 billion)
16 And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand:(200 MILLION MAN ARMY FROM CHINA AND THE KINGS OF THE EAST) and I heard the number of them.
17 And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone: and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone.(NUCLEAR BOMBS)
18 By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.(NUCLEAR BOMBS)

Focus-China's 16+1 foray into Central and Eastern Europe By Eric Maurice-euobserver

Prague, 26. Jun, 13:27-Half a decade after it was launched, the network of cooperation between China and 16 Central and Eastern European countries has brought uneven economical and political fruits so far.The so-called 16+1 was established in 2012 as Beijing's initiative to cover various issues such as investment, trade, but also culture or education.The group includes 11 EU countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia; and five non-EU countries from the Balkans: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.It fits into China's global strategy to engage new partners in political and economic ties in different formats.Despite having a permanent secretariat, the Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries - the initiative's official name - is more a series of bilateral relationships with no overall coherence, as experts pointed out in discussions at the Prague European Summit conference earlier this month."It's not really a multilateral format," Petr Kratochvil, the director of Prague's Institute of International Relations, told EUobserver."It's more a group of countries that China took to have bilateral ties with. It's mainly Poland and Hungary in terms of investment, and Romania and Serbia for building projects."China's interest in the 16+1 countries is different from one country to another.In the Czech Republic, Kratochvil noted, the Chinese have mainly invested in real estate, a football club - Slavia Prague, which just won the Czech championship - or the media."It's not really the kind of investment the country wants, because it doesn't produce anything," he said.In Budapest, meanwhile, the government announced last week that Hungary and China would soon start to cooperate in the healthcare industry – from making medical equipment to developing biotechnologies.Kratochvil noted that the amount of Chinese investments in the region had remained limited and was concentrated on a few high profile infrastructure projects, such as the Budapest-Belgrade high-speed railway that Chinese companies plan to build.The focus on infrastructure shows that China considers Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) a full part of the One Belt-One Road initiative – an investment and infrastructure plan, spanning from China to the Middle-East and Africa through to Central Asia."Southern and Eastern Europe are a testing ground for the Belt and Road," Anastas Vangeli, from the Polish Academy of Sciences, told EUobserver.He said that 16+1 was more an "experiment" than a "Chinese plan", and that Beijing tries "to see whether this type of diplomacy can help them boost economic relations.""To put it very simply, the whole idea is to find ways to boost the economy outside China, to generate demand for Chinese goods," Vangeli said, adding: "And these are not cheap goods: high speed railways, satellites systems or nuclear technology."Agatha Kratz, from the European Council on Foreign Relations, a London-based think-tank, told EUobserver that: "The first idea was to treat CEE as Asia and Africa.""That was a big shock, they explained that loans for projects that China would build were not going to happen."For Kratz, the success of the 16+1 initiative is to be found on the political side than in the economic side.She pointed out that annual summits between the 17 leaders, usually in Europe, constitute a "formal channel of communication".-A pragmatic question-After five years, the 16+1 format "has shown its limits, but it will continue," Kratz added.For China, the forum is "high-level enough and it helps to understand how best to promote what it can do in Europe".For CEE countries, the summits are "one more bilateral forum, one more way to have meetings with China and explain what they [CEE countries] need from it."For countries that are either part of the EU or willing to join it in the future, the Chinese partnership is "a pragmatic question", Kratochvil insisted.Although some leaders, such as Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban or Czech president Milos Zeman, are supportive of certain Chinese positions – for instance Beijing's territorial claims in the South China Sea – the region is not going to become a Chinese "ally"."The idea of a strategic shift is nonsense," Kratochvil said.


1 PET 5:8
8 Be sober,(NOT DRUGED UP OR ALCOHOLICED) be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:

23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries (DRUGS) were all nations deceived.

21 Neither repented they of their murders,(KILLING) nor of their sorceries (DRUG ADDICTS AND DRUG PUSHERS), nor of their fornication,(SEX OUTSIDE MARRIAGE OR PROSTITUTION FOR MONEY) nor of their thefts.(STEALING)

Myanmar, Thailand incinerate illicit drugs worth $800 million-[Reuters]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

BANGKOK/YANGON (Reuters) - Officials in Myanmar and Thailand burned illegal narcotics worth more than $800 million on Monday to mark the UN day against drug abuse and trafficking.The move came even as authorities struggle to stem the flood of illicit drugs in the region, with Thailand's justice minister last year saying the country's war on drugs was failing.In Thailand's Ayutthaya province, more than 9 tonnes of drugs with a street value of over 20 billion baht ($590 million) went up in smoke including methamphetamines, known locally as "yaba" or "crazy drug", according to police."Currently, we are able to take down a lot of networks, including ... transnational networks bringing drugs into Thailand ... to be shipped to Malaysia and other countries," Sirinya Sitthichai, Secretary-General of the Office of Narcotics Control Board, told reporters in Ayutthaya.In neighboring Myanmar, the police said they destroyed confiscated drugs worth around $217 million.Myanmar remains one of the world's largest producers of illicit drugs, including opium, heroin and methamphetamines. Those narcotics are often smuggled into China.Last year, law makers in Myanmar voiced disappointment over the country's lackluster efforts to tackle the drug problem.The market for methamphetamines has been growing in Southeast Asia, the United Nations has said. It estimates that Southeast Asia's trade in heroin and methamphetamine was worth $31 billion in 2013.(Reporting by Juarawee Kittisilpa in AYUTTHAYA and Aye Win Myint in YANGON; Writing by Amy Sawitta Lefevre; Editing by Joseph Radford)

Pot insider says dispensaries are 'dreaming' if they think they'll be part of legalization framework-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Omar Khan sat down with Matt Galloway on Metro Morning to discuss big questions that have yet to be answered in the federal government's push to develop a legal framework for recreational marijuana sales by July 2018.Khan is former chief of staff to the Ontario health minister and he now works with the marijuana industry as vice president, public affairs of Hill + Knowlton strategies.Questions and answers have been condensed.Matt Galloway: How prepared is this country for legal weed? Omar Khan: I think right now you have a patchwork of readiness. You have provinces like Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick who are fairly well advanced in terms of their thinking. And you have others, like Manitoba and Saskatchewan, who quite frankly are a little bit further behind.MG: What are the big questions that still have to be answered? OK: I think one of the points that's getting less attention is where will one be able to use marijuana. For example, you can walk down a public sidewalk and smoke a cigarette, but you can't walk down the sidewalk and drink a beer. I think that's a conversation that needs to happen.MG: Do you think that people will be allowed to smoke marijuana in parks, if they can't have an open bottle of alcohol there now? OK: There's a lot of evidence that suggests that harm associated with marijuana use is less than that associated with regular alcohol use. So I think it's something that the province of Ontario especially is going to be looking at as they move forward with their strategy.MG: What about the sale issue? OK: Since the government has set a fairly aggressive timeline for legalization — some have said, July 2018 — I think it's going to be very difficult for the government to have an up-and-running, bricks-and-mortar retail operation by this time next year essentially. I think the government is looking at three options: one would be a wholly government-run crown corporation a la LCBO; I think another option would be a heavily regulated system that gives out private licences for retailing; and then, the third option would be what we call a hybrid. Some private licences combined with a government-run system, similar to how beer and wine is distributed in Ontario.MG: Which way do you think they are leaning?OK: I know the Ontario government started looking at this seriously, right after the election of the Trudeau government. I know the attorney general, Yassir Naqvi, is working away feverishly to put together some options for cabinet to consider. I also know the premier is very big on consultation, so I suspect that before any plan is rolled out, there will be a robust public consultation.MG: Can you have robust public consultation and still set up that regulatory body in time? OK: I know they've been working at this hard for a year or so. The timeline's going to be a challenge no doubt. That's why I suspect that if there are going to be public consultations, as I presume there will be, they'll be rolling them out fairly shortly.MG: Is the timeline too tight? OK: It is what it is. Having worked in government, I know that sometimes you have to set a deadline to get everybody working away at achieving a goal. At the end of the day, what's important is that we are going to have legalized adult use of recreational cannabis in this country. And, industry, government, all involved stakeholders need to start working very fast to get this done right.MG: You work with the industry now. What do they want to know? OK: Like members of the public, they are waiting for more information about what the retail distribution model will look like. But I think industry is very interested in sharing some of their expertise when it comes to distribution. There are a lot of players who have a lot of experience dealing with controlled substances. So for example, pharmacies, care centres. I want to give kudos to Mayor Tory who spoke out vigorously against the illegal dispensaries that are out there right now. The one question everyone needs to ask is, where are these people getting their supply? We have 50 licensed producers or marijuana in this country right now.MG: So where are they getting their supply? OK: I don't want to open myself up to defamation. But they're not getting them from the licensed producers because none of them would risk their licence by providing supply illegally.MG: The assumption from many of the illegal dispensaries is that they're going to be part of the new regime.OK: I think they are dreaming in technicolour. There is no way the province of Ontario or any other province is going to give a retail distribution licence to any entity that's involved in criminal activity.MG: Do you really think we'll meet this deadline? OK: The good thing [Finance Minister] Morneau has put out there is that if there's a province that isn't ready with an up-and-running distribution system next year, there will be a fallback, and I suspect that will be online sales.


7 The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

Spain sends reinforcements as fire spreads near wildlife reserve-Agence France-Presse-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Madrid (AFP) - Firefighters were battling Monday to contain a blaze threatening a renowned national park in southern Spain which has already led to the evacuation of some 2,000 people.Authorities were sending additional firefighters to tackle the flames at the Donana Natural Park in southwestern Spain near Huelva, a fire service spokesman told AFP."The flames are not under control, they are spreading," he added, though no injuries have been reported.The blaze comes a week after wildfires killed over 60 people in neighbouring Portugal.Strong winds and scorching heat were complicating efforts to fight the blaze, which broke out Saturday near the town of Moguer, officials said.The fire has not yet hit the neighbouring Donana National Park, which has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1994 and is well known for the extensive biodiversity of its dunes, wetlands and woods."The flames have not reached the national park," the official in charge of the environment with the regional government of Andalusia, Jose Fiscal Lopez, told Spanish public television."A special effort was made during the night on the front which threatened the park the most," he added.The national park is one of Spain's most important wildlife sanctuaries and a popular tourist attraction.It is home to a variety of animals, including endangered species such as the Spanish imperial eagle and the Iberian lynx, a large cat found only in Spain and Portugal.Officials temporarily evacuated a lynx breeding centre on Sunday as a precaution.A female Iberian lynx died at the Acebuche captive breeding centre on Saturday "due to stress" during its capture for evacuation, the centre said in a statement.The other lynxes are "safe and sound", said the mayor of Moguer, Gustavo Cuellar. "Each lynx held in captivity is receiving detailed care."Over 200 firefighters backed by 15 vehicles and seven planes were battling the blaze on Monday morning, emergency services said.The cause remained unknown but Fiscal Lopez said officials were "certain" human activity played a role."It remains to be seen if this was with (criminal) intent or due to negligence," he added.The fire prompted the closure of several roads and the evacuation of some 2,000 people, including guests at camp sites and several hotels.There were no immediate details on how much land had been burned so far.

DANIEL 7:23-24
23 Thus he said, The fourth beast (EU,REVIVED ROME) shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth,(7TH WORLD EMPIRE) which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.(TRADING BLOCKS-10 WORLD REGIONS/TRADE BLOCS)
24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings(10 NATIONS-10 WORLD DIVISION WORLD GOVERNMENT) that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.(EITHER THE EUROPEAN UNION DICTATOR BOOTS 3 COUNTRIES FROM THE EU OR THE DICTATOR TAKES OVER THE WORLD ECONOMY BY CONTROLLING 3 WORLD TRADE BLOCS)

9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.(THE VATICAN IS BUILT ON 7 HILLS OR MOUNTAINS)
11 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.

Heres the scripture 1 week = 7 yrs Genesis 29:27-29
27 Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.
28 And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week:(7 YEARS) and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also.
29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid.

DANIEL 9:26-27
26 And after threescore and two weeks(62X7=434 YEARS+7X7=49 YEARS=TOTAL OF 69 WEEKS OR 483 YRS) shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary;(ROMAN LEADERS DESTROYED THE 2ND TEMPLE) and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.(THERE HAS TO BE 70 WEEKS OR 490 YRS TO FUFILL THE VISION AND PROPHECY OF DAN 9:24).(THE NEXT VERSE IS THAT 7 YR WEEK OR (70TH FINAL WEEK).
27 And he ( THE ROMAN,EU PRESIDENT) shall confirm the covenant (PEACE TREATY) with many for one week:(1X7=7 YEARS) and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,(3 1/2 yrs in TEMPLE ANIMAL SACRIFICES STOPPED) and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

LUKE 2:1-3
1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
2  (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)
3  And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.

Opinion-New initiative could trump the Visegrad Group By Wojciech Przybylski-euobserver

Warsaw, 26. Jun, 17:09-"New Europe" was a term coined by the administration of former US president George W. Bush.When the USA decided to invade Iraq, this term was used to differentiate between – and celebrate – the solidarity of new Nato members compared to the reluctance of the old allies.Since then, the intricacies of European politics – from smaller initiatives to larger regional alliances and even to the inner-workings of the EU itself – have grown considerably.Many wishing to weaken Europe’s position and potential on the global stage try to exploit this division of old vs new, and it is something all leaders on the continent should be wary of.With that still in mind, on 6 July US president Donald Trump will arrive in Warsaw and take part in an assembly of one of these regional alliances, the Three Seas Initiative (TSI) – a meeting of the EU leaders representing Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).The three seas is a reference to the countries situated between the Adriatic, Baltic and Black Seas.The initiative is seen as a major diplomatic triumph of the Polish president, Andrzej Duda, who is also the leader of the TSI and desperate for a win.However, the TSI is just one of many political groupings in the CEE region with a primary focus on influencing EU policy. Other such groupings of more or less importance are the Visegrad Group (V4), Slavkov triangle, Danube Region, Weimar Triangle and Nordic-Baltic cooperation.While their main focus is on fostering cooperation within the EU, such formations are becoming increasingly interesting for external powers such as China (in the so-called 16+1 format) and now the US.Trump’s visit will definitely put a spotlight on the TSI and help this format to continue.TSI members – Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia – pledged in their founding declaration a year ago to foster regional projects in the areas of energy, transportation, digital communication and economic sectors in CEE.However, according to analysts who are advancing the concept, like Bartosz Wisniewski, the head of research office at the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM), the region still has a long way to go when it comes to its economic development.The TSI is meant to complement connectivity between the East and West of Europe, with greater connectivity along the north-south axis, thanks in no small part to the EU's financial contribution.-Not quite quid pro quo-The US has already increased on their military presence in the region, even more so than had been originally promised by the administration of former US president Barack Obama.The LNG (liquid natural gas) terminal in Swinoujscie, Poland – a strategically important facility allowing for more energy independence in the region – has only recently celebrated the arrival of its first transportation from the US and awaits its next shipment from Qatar, and other countries.Justifiably suspicious of their eastern neighbour, Poland will most likely take the opportunity to sup-port the recent sanctions that were proposed by the US Senate last week on contractors for the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) project, as well as other significant Russian businesses.In comparison, both Trump and Hungarian PM Viktor Orban have sought to lift the sanctions on Russia, a sentiment that is also shared today by Austria, a member of the TSI, whose companies are contractors for the NS2.However, according to PISM these differences are fine, as they are neither an attempt to undermine European integration, nor a block to ward off Russia.To the Czechs and Slovaks, the TSI, especially now, might be a little more problematic.While they agree with the goal of north-south connectivity, they are cautious – if not suspicious – of the political dimension.V4 is the most important format to Slovakia, whereas the country treats the TSI more like a one time event.For Slovaks, there is no political content in this grouping. And, beyond that, there is no security component and no political dimension for the country.Czech officials have also expressed reservations towards Poland, a country that, along with Hungary, emphasises the East-West divide. The radicalisation of some V4 members also does not help.Poles automatically reject all ideas from the Western members, a Czech diplomat recently told Gazeta Wyborcza.A member of the Czech ministry of foreign affairs, who was quoted in the same article, went even further, claiming that the idea of a Three Seas Initiative is unacceptable because of its 20th century neo-imperial origin.Such criticism is dismissed by PISM analysts, who underline that despite any apparent differences, Slovakia and Czech Republic will send their representation.Despite many reservations, the obvious champion of the initiative has become the Croatian president, Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic. Allegedly, her personal involvement was of key importance to the US delegation.The TSI clearly goes along with her plans for her LNG terminal in Croatia that will improve gas sup-ply diversification – independent of Russia – and increase energy cooperation in the region.-Needing a pat on the back-It might be too simplistic, but there is the chance that Trump is using the occasion as a slight against German chancellor Angela Merkel and French president Emmanuel Macron.Is this a not-too-subtle comment about how Trump sees future European cooperation? The question needing to be answered by EU leaders will be whether they think Trump is willing to cut off his nose to spite his face.That worries some, who do not believe that the Polish ministry of foreign affairs can handle a diplomatically sensitive visit.Warsaw, already isolated in the EU, may want to be even more confrontational after Trump's visit. This will also not help to reconcile with Brussels, Berlin or Paris.Furthermore, it will not help to build regional solidarity, since the northern and southern neighbours of Poland will not feel like taking part in fist-fights that would complicate relations with their Western partners.No matter how well-intentioned these leaders are in developing ties between their nations, they will all struggling with domestic and regional issues, as well as questionable popular support.It all makes the meeting feel more like the international conference of future political pariahs.Wojciech Przybylski is the editor-in-chief of Visegrad Insight, and chairman of the Res Publica Foundation in Warsaw. His new book ‘Understanding Central Europe’, co-edited with Marcin Moskalewicz, will be published by Routledge in the second half of 2017.

UK visitors set to pay into EU budget after Brexit By Nikolaj Nielsen-june 27,17-euobserver

BRUSSELS, Today, 22:25-British nationals may end up paying into the EU general budget after the UK leaves the European Union.An EU proposal to tighten border security controls for all visa-free travellers sometime in 2020 will be generating cash by demanding fees from holidaymakers. The fees will pay for annual running costs.But an European Commission official on Monday (26 June) said any surplus revenue would also then go to the EU budget and reduce member state contributions.Proposed last November, the Commission's European Travel Information and Authorisation System (Etias), will screen all visa-free travellers before they enter the passport-free Schengen zone of 26 European states."Any accumulated surplus generated by the Etias revenues would in any case revert back to the EU general budget and hence reduce member state contributions," the Commission official told MEPs.A five-year application under the scheme is €5. The fee is small but the UK's total sum in the pot is not insignificant.Brits made 35 million holiday trips to the EU last year alone with around a third going to Spain, followed by France and Greece. Another 5.5 million were business trips.A spokesperson from the UK-based Association of British Travel Agents (Abta) told EUobserver that the UK holiday figures to the EU have increased substantially in the past few years.He noted that 2016 was "an all time record".Abta wants the British government to negotiate an exemption for UK nationals in Etias, noting that "it is in everyone's interest to keep these flows going."The UK government, meanwhile, says it is determined to get the best possible deal for the country.A UK government spokesperson said Etias was just "one of many areas that may need to be addressed as we leave the EU and agree a new partnership."It is also likely to stir up resentment among people who campaigned to leave the EU, given that British nationals may still be footing, albeit indirectly, the EU budget after Brexit.Commission estimates suggest Etias will cost over €200 million to launch and around €85 million to maintain annually. Discussions between the EU institutions have yet to start but the plan is to reach an agreement before the end this year.German Green MEP Jan Philipp Albrecht said the EU would be better off making it easier for people to travel than imposing a new system that not only creates more red tape but also blanket collects personal data."Making it easier for people from countries, which are also democracies, to travel to the European Union and back is a positive thing and we need not to make that more difficult but easier," he said on Monday.EU nationals, for their part, took 10 million holiday trips and some 7 million business trips to the UK in 2016.


EUROPEAN UNION-KING OF WEST-DAN 9:26-27,DAN 7:23-24,DAN 11:40,REV 13:1-10



GENESIS 6:11-13
11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.(WORLD TERRORISM,MURDERS)(HAMAS IN HEBREW IS VIOLENCE)
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence (TERRORISM)(HAMAS) through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

GENESIS 16:11-12
11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her,(HAGAR) Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael;(FATHER OF THE ARAB/MUSLIMS) because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.
12 And he (ISHMAEL-FATHER OF THE ARAB-MUSLIMS) will be a wild (DONKEY-JACKASS) man;(ISLAM IS A FAKE AND DANGEROUS SEX FOR MURDER CULT) his hand will be against every man,(ISLAM HATES EVERYONE) and every man's hand against him;(PROTECTING THEMSELVES FROM BEING BEHEADED) and he (ISHMAEL ARAB/MUSLIM) shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.(LITERAL-THE ARABS LIVE WITH THEIR BRETHERN JEWS)

ISAIAH 14:12-14
12  How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer,(SATAN) son of the morning!(HEBREW-CRECENT MOON-ISLAM) how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13  For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14  I (SATAN HAS EYE TROUBLES) will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.(AND 1/3RD OF THE ANGELS OF HEAVEN FELL WITH SATAN AND BECAME DEMONS)

JOHN 16:2
2 They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.(ISLAM MURDERS IN THE NAME OF MOON GOD ALLAH OF ISLAM)

Before tragedy strikes': Liberals launch centre to prevent homegrown terrorism-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

The federal government has launched a new centre tasked with preventing the radicalization of Canadian young people.A special adviser will be named in the coming months to oversee the local outreach and research projects funded through the Canada Centre for Community Engagement and Prevention of Violence.The centre will have dedicated staff, but will be located within the existing Public Safety Canada space.Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale said Canada must become a world leader in understanding and dealing with radicalization that leads to violence, in order to retain its national character as an open, diverse society that is also safe and secure."The new Canada Centre for Community Engagement and Prevention of Violence will help us do as much as humanly possible to prevent radicalization to violence before tragedy strikes," Goodale said in a statement. "It will support and empower local leaders to develop initiatives that are suited to their community."Last year's budget set aside $35 million over five years and $10 million each year after to combat radicalization and violence in Canada.Ontario Liberal MP Arif Virani, the parliamentary secretary to the minister of heritage (multiculturalism), said the new centre will drive better research, understanding and engagement, with a special focus on youth vulnerable to radicalization. Building up trust relationships and opening lines of communication are critical to combating radicalism at the ground level, he said.-No boundaries to extremist views-The centre will not focus on Islamist extremism alone, but will cover a wide spectrum, because while some attacks are perpetrated by Islamist extremists, others target Muslims, Virani said."When we look at what's happening across the country, radicalization is not endemic to any one group, institution, race or religion," he said. "It doesn't have particular boundaries that are tied to a religion or an ideology. That's very important to keep in mind because that's a situation we need be upfront about in terms of where the threats are coming from and not focusing on any one particular community."In January, six people were killed and 19 others injured in an attack by a gunman at a Quebec CIty mosque.-Domestic acts of terror-Last August, Aaron Driver died in an altercation with police in Strathroy, Ont. RCMP believe he was preparing to carry out a suicide bombing in a public place.That incident came less than two years after Michael Zehaf-Bibeau shot and killed Cpl. Nathan Cirillo while he stood on guard at the National War Memorial, an act the RCMP called terrorism, before making his way to Parliament Hill.Jeremy Littlewood, a terrorism expert at Ottawa's Carleton University, said Canada's domestic terrorism problem is smaller than some of our closest allies, but that doesn't mean there is no danger.Littlewood said it's too early to tell if Canada's approach will work to combat domestic terrorism, but he said it is wise not to target only one group of extremists."Making it one type of terrorism specific, for example, al-Qaeda or ISIS-inspired terrorism, is a recipe for creating fear, suspicion and perpetuating the notion of suspect communities within a population," he said.Littlewood said success will depend partly on sustained funding, and an openness about what is working and what is not.The government is accepting proposals for the Community Resilience Fund as of July 6, 2017, which has $1.4 million available to fund projects in 2018-19. For subsequent years, there will be $7 million for continuing and new projects.Ten projects have already received funding for counter-radicalization work.

Crowd flows, camera coverage being studied to bolster Parliament Hill security-[The Canadian Press]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

OTTAWA — Security officials say they're ready for the throngs set to descend on Parliament Hill for Canada's 150th birthday celebration Saturday.But that doesn't mean federal researchers are done thinking about how to better protect the country's seat of democracy in the months and years ahead.Advisers are gathering data on everything from crowd flows to video-camera placement to ensure both security and openness in the parliamentary precinct.Parliament Hill security is a "tough nut to crack" because of the fine balance between guarding the most important democratic institutions while keeping the grounds open to people, said Rami Youssef of the federal Centre for Security Science, a wing of Defence Research and Development Canada.After a gunman stormed the Hill in October 2014, dying in a hail of bullets in the Hall of Honour, the centre completed two studies. One looked at the physical security of Parliament's Centre Block, while the other delved into procedures for handling visitors and employees in the parliamentary precinct.The most tangible result of the armed assault was creation of the unified Parliamentary Protective Service, drawing together forces from the RCMP, House of Commons and Senate.The centre's researchers need more information before making the next set of recommendations to decision-makers, Youssef said in an interview."The reality is there's a lot of data to be collected, and a lot of data to be studied and analyzed," he said. "We have to go little by little, because they cannot make any drastic changes just overnight."Researchers are interested in the varied nature of the crowds that turn up on Parliament Hill, as well as the ebb and flow of pedestrian traffic at different times of day.Plans were revealed four years ago to boost video-camera coverage of the Hill substantially to guard against possible attacks by detecting abandoned packages, suspicious activity and disturbances.Researchers are studying different types of cameras, their placement and the percentage of visual coverage on the Hill, Youssef said.Work has been focused to date on trying to prevent attacks in the parliamentary precinct but, time permitting, the centre might explore other types of threats and hazards, such as an earthquake or other natural disaster, he added.Many parts of the Hill are undergoing extensive renovations. That could be a welcome opportunity to embed security changes into revamped buildings, Youssef said.The new Parliamentary Protective Service is working with the centre researchers on projects throughout the precinct, but disclosing details of the efforts "would expose operational tactics and measures" that could affect safety, said Melissa Rusk, a spokeswoman for the protective service.Federal officials are also reviewing the mandate of the Government Operations Centre, the focal point for monitoring major national events and emergencies. In addition, they are seeking a new home for the Ottawa-based centre.During the 2014 shooting, the centre lacked computer technicians, food was limited and senior emergency officials weren't in the building, according to internal documents released two years ago. — Follow @JimBronskill on Twitter-Jim Bronskill , The Canadian Press.

3,000 N.L. Muslims gather for Eid celebrations at Jack Byrne Arena-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Muslims in the St. John's area joined with others around the world in celebrating Eid Sunday — the festival that marks the end of the Islamic month of Ramadan.The celebration at Jack Byrne Arena Sunday morning began with prayers and then a meet and greet with tea, coffee, and snacks."After prayer, we had refreshments, and after refreshments they put out some bouncy castles for kids to play on," Reem Abu-Hendi said.The local celebration is huge — about 3,000 Muslims packed the Jack Byrne Arena early Sunday morning."The community at first, was not that large so like the mosque used to accommodate us but now it's really big like 3,000 people in one place, it's amazing," she said."Just to see all the Muslims in one place, it's a great feeling." Abu-Hendi said.Ramadan is a sacred time for Muslims, who believe that it was when the Qur'an — the holy book — was revealed through the prophet Muhammad."It's 30 days but this year it happened to be 29 because of the moon,"  Ayamen Shaawen said.The month, which started this year May 26, includes dawn-to-dusk fasting, and ends with a religious holiday called Eid."We fast from 3 a.m. until 9 p.m. so it's 18 hours a day," Abu-Hendi said.The fasting can be challenging, but that's what makes it worthwhile, she said."Your body just gets adjusted to it, and I would say it's thirst more than hunger, so you can usually go about your daily activities but around 6 p.m.-7 p.m., I'm done," she said.Without food all day, you'd think there might be a lot of cranky people walking around who are "hangry," but Abu-Hendi says it's all about willpower."Ramadan teaches you patience and self-control. If we lose to anger we could break our fast," she said."It's more of a self-discipline thing," Shaawen said.Volunteers who set up the event get up at the crack of dawn to prepare the arena for the 3,000 attendees."It's a big challenge for those who volunteer to organize it. Before we had a smaller community and our mosque was able to accommodate the size of our community but not anymore," said organizer Ayse Sule."It's a team effort," said Moein Shahwan, vice-resident of the Muslim Association of Newfoundland and Labrador."It brings lots of richness to our community and we are proud of it," Sule said.

Relatives of serial killer's victims speak of pain, guilt and anger-[The Canadian Press]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

WOODSTOCK, Ont. — One after another, family and friends of a serial killer's victims described overwhelming guilt, anger and profound sadness when they learned their loved ones had been murdered by an Ontario nurse who was supposed to care for them.And many spoke about their loss of faith in the province's long-term care system, where Elizabeth Wettlaufer was allowed to cast her "shadow of death" over vulnerable seniors for nearly a decade.Wettlaufer was sentenced Monday in a Woodstock, Ont., court to life in prison with no eligibility for parole for 25 years after she pleaded guilty last month to eight counts of first-degree murder, four counts of attempted murder and two counts of aggravated assault.The 50-year-old nurse used insulin trying — and in most cases succeeding  — to kill vulnerable victims in her care at three Ontario long-term care facilities and a private home. Her crimes began in 2007 and didn't stop until she confessed to the killings at a psychiatric hospital in Toronto last fall.Sandy Millard, whose 87-year-old mother, Gladys Jean Millard, was murdered by Wettlaufer in 2011 at Caressant Care in Woodstock, told court about the depression she has fallen into."Finding out she was killed by a huge injection of medication she did not need broke my heart," she said.Her daughter, and Millard's granddaughter, Shannon Emmerton, spoke through tears."I don't know if I will ever truly recover," she said.Patricia Matheson glared at Wettlaufer as she read a statement by her husband, whose mother, Helen Matheson, was killed by the nurse in 2011."I lost my mother for the second time. No funeral this time, just shock, followed by the question why," Jon Matheson wrote. "I placed my mother in a facility I researched never once considering she would be a victim of such a despicable act. I ask why, because she didn't eat all the blueberry pie and ice cream?"The question of why Wettlaufer killed or hurt 14 people loomed large in court. In a lengthy video statement she gave to police last fall, she said she felt a "red surging" well up in her chest that was relieved after she completed a kill. She believed she was an instrument of God at times, but also killed because some residents were too much work, too burdensome.Many others, wracked by guilt, spoke of what-ifs."I simply feel guilty for not being able to protect my father as he had protected me," wrote David Silcox, whose father, James Silcox, was murdered in 2007.Justice Bruce Thomas acknowledged that guilt was the common theme of the 28 victim impact statements filed in court a few weeks ago."It is a complete betrayal of trust when a caregiver does not prolong life, but terminates it," he said. "But you cannot blame yourselves."Thomas described Wettlaufer's "free run" on her nine-year killing spree, with no oversight or even an inkling she had committed such calculated murders."Without her confessions, I am convinced these offences would never have been brought to justice," he said, calling Wettlaufer a "shadow of death that passed over them (the victims) on the night shift where she supervised."Debora Rivers said her grandmother, Mary Zarawinski, hated the nursing home when she first went there. There are a lot of old people here, she told her niece, even though Zarawinski was one of the oldest residents in the facility."She made it nice for everybody there," Rivers said outside court.She also noted that Wettlaufer had described Zarawinski as "'fun and feisty' — and she was.""The woman lived to be 96 years old for God's sake," Rivers said. "We have no way of knowing how long her life might have been," she said. "We were pretty sure she was going to make it to 100 and so was she."For her part, Wettlaufer apologized, crouching in the prisoner's box without looking at anyone."I am truly sorry for the people I injured or murdered," she said in a soft voice."Sorry is much too small a word. I hope that the families can find some peace and healing."Beverly Bertram, who is Wettlaufer's sole living victim, wrote about the physical pain she was in after the nurse injected her with insulin with the intent to kill her."It is really hard to describe, but I knew I was dying," she wrote in her statement. "I was doubled over in pain in my stomach...Just such pain. My whole body hurt...I thought I was screaming, but I was just moaning I guess."Bertram wrote that she has become a recluse since the incident, afraid of everyone, including her own shadow, and has lost all relationships with her family."I truly think sometimes I'd be better off if she did her deed."Shortly after Wettlaufer's sentencing hearing, the province announced it would hold a public inquiry into the murders to ensure a similar tragedy does not happen again.Liam Casey , The Canadian Press.

Demand for Canada 150 flags, brings seamstress out of retirement-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Canada Day is just under a week away and thanks to the demand for flags leading up to the big celebration, one New Brunswick woman has had to put her retirement on hold.Theresa King's basement is full of bright materials and the tools to turn them into something special. Since March, most of King's projects have been paused while she helps her former employer.- Cyclists pedal into New Brunswick for Canada 150 journey - Fredericton's Canada 150 funding largely focused on 'Indigenous reconciliation' "I thought I was going to be retired," King said with a laugh from her seat in front of a sewing machine.After 28 years working for The Flag Store in Thornton, Ont., she moved to Tower Hill, near St. Andrews. King was only given two years before her old boss came calling."The demand for Canadian flags for the 150 has been so dramatic that they have been out of flags forever," King said.So she agreed to help, thinking at first it would only be for a couple of weeks. Her estimate turned out to be off. Way off.Getting into the flag business-"By the time I'm finished, it will be about 2,500, three-foot-by-six-foot Canadian flags that I will have finished."Working from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m., King can put together about 250 flags a week, which despite their complexity, she will tell you is fast.In order to save on the shipping costs, King drove her first shipment of 1,400 flags to Ontario in May.There has been some time for King to enjoy some side projects, like altering a graduation dress, but she said she's happy to help her former colleagues.In her years working for The Flag Store, she said March always meant the beginning of the busy season. But Canada 150 she said, has created demand the store isn't normally accustomed to."Those girls are pretty tired too," King said. "They're just swamped and there just isn't enough time in the day."It isn't just King who is hard at work in the workshop, she enlisted her husband, Doug, to help out too.He'll be the first to tell you that he never planned on getting into the flag business. But after stencilling off bright red maple leafs from cloth, Doug King said the work keeps him out of trouble.While her time is occupied by piecing together red and white material, King will have a little variety in her life this week.-100 and counting-A text from her boss saw rolls of green, gold, and black arrive at her door with a request from the Jamaican consulate."I have 100 to make" she said, "So I can ship them on Wednesday."After being so busy, you would think King planned on taking Canada Day off to enjoy seeing some flags fly. Instead, she said she's only going to take a break to go to the market before getting back to work.With a goal of getting another 1,000 Canadian flags finished by September, she said her next delivery will be her vacation."That'll be my holiday" King said, "A few days off to drive to Ontario and deliver all the flags."

Canadians will soon have a law on how to dispose of mercury-filled light bulbs-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Canadians will soon have guidance from the federal government on how to dispose of mercury-containing light bulbs in an environmentally responsible way.Bill C-238, a new act that sets out rules for a national light bulb disposal strategy, received royal assent on Thursday.The National Strategy for Safe and Environmentally Sound Disposal of Lamps Containing Mercury Act commits the government to identify ways to dispose of mercury-containing light bulbs safely and establish guidelines for facilities that dispose of them, and then promote the program to Canadians.The bill also requires the environment minister to table the national strategy in Parliament within two years of the act receiving royal assent. -No regulations-Dartmouth-Cole Harbour MP Darren Fisher, who introduced the private member's bill, said there were no federal regulations outlining how to dispose of light bulbs."You can take your mercury-bearing light bulb, and you can throw it in your garbage bag and put it to the curb," he said.One regular, 13-watt residential compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) — the curly looking ones that are slowly replacing the traditional, round incandescent bulbs — contains on average 3.5 milligrams of mercury. Energy Star-certified CFLs contain 2.5 milligrams or less. Fluorescent tubes contain up to 12 milligrams.Fisher said about 1,150 kilograms of mercury end up in Canadian landfills each year, and can contaminate the environment.Mercury is also listed as a toxic substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act."So this is an incredibly big issue," he said.Compact fluorescents on the rise-A 2014 federal ban on most residential incandescent bulbs means more Canadians are using compact fluorescent bulbs. A 2014 report from Statistics Canada noted that in 2011, three-quarters of households across the country used at least one CFL bulb.About half the households that used CFLs reported throwing them in the garbage, and Haligonians were the most likely to toss them, with 84 per cent doing so, the report said.-'Piecemeal' approach-Recycling facilities in some municipalities and provinces break CFL bulbs down and recycle about 98 per cent of the components, including the mercury. Some retailers also collect used bulbs to send to recyclers.But Fisher described that as a "piecemeal" approach.He encourages Canadians to recycle their bulbs or simply hold on to them until the new law is developed."If the worst thing you have to do is put them in a cardboard box and leave them in your garage until the strategy comes forward, please do so, because what we'd like to see is no mercury-bearing light bulbs going into our landfills across Canada," said Fisher.

Nine dead after Colombia tourist boat sinks in reservoir-[Reuters]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

BOGOTA (Reuters) - Nine people died and 28 are missing after a multi-decked tourist boat carrying about 170 passengers sank in Colombia's Penol-Guatape reservoir on Sunday during the long holiday weekend, a government official said.Officials did not disclose the cause of the accident and provided few details.Videos posted on social media showed motorboats coming to the aid of passengers on the upper decks as the boat rocked from side to side. Ninety-nine people were rescued, Margarita Moncada, the head of disaster relief for Antioquia province, told journalists."At the moment we have nine people found dead. Another 99 people were rescued immediately and 40 more got out on their own," she said.Survivors on local television reports said they heard a loud noise before the boat began to sink and that not all of them had life jackets. Rescue operations were ongoing.Rescue workers and the air force were helping passengers at the scene, President Juan Manuel Santos said in a Twitter post.The large reservoir, about an hour from the central city of Medellin, is a popular tourist destination.(Reporting by Luis Jaime Acosta and Julia Symmes Cobb; Editing by Richard Chang)


The statue of Glycon unearthed at Tomis, Romania, in 1962; right-hand view (public domain)

A snake with a blond head of hair and the ears of a man would certainly be a marvel – but how much more so would one be that could also speak, and even foretell the futures of those who sought an audience with this wondrous ophidian oracle? All of this and much more – or, quite probably, a great deal less – was Glycon, the Roman Empire's incredible serpentine soothsayer.

In c.105 AD, a very controversial, enigmatic figure was born who would in time come to be known far and wide as Alexander of Abonoteichus, after the small fishing village on the Black Sea's southern coast that was his birthplace. Back in Alexander's time, Abonoteichus was located within the Roman province of Bithynia-Pontus (specifically within Paphlagonia, which was sandwiched between Bithynia and Pontus), but today it is contained within the Asian Turkish province of Kastamonu, and is now named Inebolu.

19th-Century illustration of an African rock python (public domain)

Apparently very handsome and tall with an extremely charismatic personality, Alexander was originally apprenticed to a physician/magician, but after his mentor died Alexander met up with a Byzantine chorus-writer nicknamed Cocconas, and the two spent some time thereafter travelling around together, earning their living as fake magicians, quack doctors, and via other chicanery. Eventually, they reached Pella in Macedonia, and it was here that Glycon was born, so to speak, because this is where they purchased for just a paltry sum of money an extremely large and impressive-looking yet very tame snake (such serpents being commonly for sale in this locality at that time).

It was probably an African rock python Python sebae, as specimens of this very sizeable species (averaging 15.75 ft long but sometimes exceeding 20 ft) were apparently brought back to Rome, because it is depicted in Roman mosaics. Also, fertility-related snake cults had long existed in Macedonia, stretching back at least as far as the 4th Century BC.

Apollo after slaying the serpent dragon Python, engraving by W Wellcome, late 1700s (public domain)

Alexander and Cocconas then journeyed to Chalcedon, a maritime town in Bithyna, where they lost no time in concealing inside its temple to the god Apollo a series of bronze tablets proclaiming that both Apollo and his serpent-associated son Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine and healing, would soon be appearing in Alexander's home village of Abonoteichus. They then contrived for these 'hidden' tablets to be found, and news of the tablets' sensational proclamations swiftly travelled widely, eventually reaching Abonoteichus itself, whose inhabitants promptly began building a temple dedicated to Apollo and Asclepius. It was then, in or around 150 AD, that the partnership of Alexander and Cocconas broke up, with Cocconas electing to stay in Chalcedon and continue producing phoney oracles, whereas Alexander was keen to put the next stage of their original plan into action, and so he duly set off back to Abonoteichus.

Using more fake oracles to proclaim himself as a prophet and healer, Alexander also claimed that his father was none other than Podaleirius, son of Asclepius himself and a legendary healer in his own right. Moreover, as signal proof of this, he arranged for a goose egg that he had 'discovered' inside Abonoteichus's newly-built temple to be publicly opened by him at noon on the following day in the village's marketplace before a crowd of curious but credulous onlookers, promising that a wonder would be revealed that would confirm all that he had alleged. And sure enough, when he opened the egg, a tiny snake emerged (one that supposedly he had subtly inserted inside before overtly 'discovering' the egg in the temple). As snakes were sacred to Asclepius (one common European species, the Aesculapian snake Zamenis longissimus, is actually named after Asclepius's Roman counterpart, Aesculapius), Alexander's grandiose claims were readily accepted by Abonoteichus's simple, unworldly villagers.

Statue of Asclepius and snake, 2nd Century AD, found on the island of Rhodes, Greece (public domain)

As an interesting aside here: Chickens are often infected with parasitic gut-inhabiting worms, including the ascarid roundworm Ascaris lineata, a nematode species that can grow to a few inches in length (a related giant species in humans can grow to over 1 ft in length!). They are often passed out of the bird's gut when it defaecates. Unlike in mammals, however, the bird's gut and its reproductive system share a common external passageway and opening – the cloaca. Sometimes, therefore, an ascarid worm ejected from the gut finds its way into the bird's reproductive system rather than being excreted into the outside world, and moves into the oviduct. Once here, however, it becomes incorporated into the albumen of an egg, inside which it remains alive yet trapped when the egg is laid. But as soon as the egg is broken open to eat by some unsuspecting diner, the worm wriggles its way out of it and inevitably scares the diner, who frequently but mistakenly assumes that this unexpected creature is actually a tiny snake.

I wonder if such a scenario explained the above 'snake-inside-egg' incident involving Alexander? Or could the egg have actually been a genuine snake egg, but passed off to the ingenuous crowd by Alexander as an unshelled, undersized goose egg, perhaps?

Ascaris, a large parasitic nematode (public domain)

But that was not all. Alexander also stated that the baby snake was itself a deity, and that he would therefore be caring for it. After a few days had elapsed with the villagers not setting eyes upon this infant reptilian god, Alexander reappeared, once again thronged by awed spectators, but now only briefly and ensconced within a small dimly-lit shrine inside the temple where viewing conditions were far from ideal. Moreover, this time his huge, fully-grown pet snake from Pella was wrapped around his body, and he glibly announced that the baby serpent deity had miraculously matured directly into adulthood.

Yet even that incredible high-speed transformation was not the most surprising facet of Alexander's outrageous revelation. Instead of possessing a typical snake's head, the head of this remarkable creature apparently resembled that of a man, and sported an abundance of long blond hair sprouting liberally from it, as well as a pair of human ears! Moreover, it could even speak, and in the future would directly voice certain oracles or autophones to temples worshippers seeking guidance. Alexander announced that this astonishing entity was called Glycon, and constituted a new, living, physical manifestation or incarnation of Asclepius.

Two Romanian postage stamps, issued in 1974 and 1994 respectively, depicting the famous statue of Glycon unearthed in 1962 (public domain)

Henceforth, Alexander's reputation, wealth, prestige, influence, and power, derived from his status as a celebrated prophecy-spouting soothsayer and in turn a highly-esteemed personage attracting acclaim and attention from all strata of Roman society, knew no bounds. In particular, the temple that he had established at Abonoteichus (by now a prosperous town) became a focus for fertility-themed worship and offerings by barren women wishing to become pregnant; and also for the very lucrative provision of oracles (always requiring prior receipt of payment). Moreover, Alexander was frequently consulted by public figures of high political standing anxious to solicit his ostensibly Heaven-sent advice regarding significant matters of state. The fact that sometimes his advice was by no means reliable seemed to be conveniently overlooked.

Thus it was, for example, that in 161 AD, Alexander provided a very favourable oracle to Marcus Sedatius Severianus, the Gaul-originating Roman governor of Cappadocia, on the basis of which Severianus put into action his plan to invade Armenia – only for his invasion force, including himself, to be slaughtered by the Parthians. Allegedly, Alexander soon afterwards replaced the official temple record of his oracle with a revised one that was much less favourable.

A sheet of Romania's Glycon-depicting postage stamp issued in 1974, from my own philatelic collection (public domain)

In 166 AD, Alexander provided an oracle verse that was utilised as an amulet and inscribed above the doors of numerous houses throughout the Roman Empire in the hope of warding off the devastating Antonine Plague that had been introduced into the Empire by troops returning home from campaigns in the Near East, and which killed thousands of people every day. Not surprisingly, the amulets had no effect (indeed, it was actually claimed by critics of this futile course of action that households bearing an amulet suffered more plague-induced deaths than those not bearing it!), but Alexander was too powerful by then for his standing to be affected by any such dissension.

Not long after that debacle, the Roman emperor himself, Marcus Aurelius, requested Alexander to send an oracle to his troops on the Danube River during ongoing warfare (168-174 AD) with a Germanic tribe called the Marcomanni. The oracle that Alexander duly sent declared that victory would be achieved if two lions were thrown alive into the Danube. Once again, however, the stark fact that after obeying this unusual command the emperor's army was annihilated there (20,000 Roman soldiers killed, and even the hapless lions clubbed to death) failed to elicit any censure for the unperturbed Alexander, who coolly pointed out that the oracle had not specified which side in the war would achieve success!

Bust of Marcus Aurelius (public domain)

Of course, Alexander was far from being entirely unsuccessful as a prophet, but reputedly his triumphs often involved the use of spies, thugs, and blackmailers to obtain the necessary information upon which to base his oracles. In addition, there were claims that sealed scrolls containing requests for oracles that acolytes presented to him were secretly opened by him using hot needles in order to discover what information they contained and thus devise an oracle in accordance with it. He also benefited from making friends in (very) high places, of which one of the most significant was Publius Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus, a former Roman consul and provincial Roman governor in Asia and Upper Moesia, who declared himself protector of the Glycon oracle. He also provided Alexander with some very high-ranking contacts in Roman society, and he even married Alexander's own daughter.

Not content with merely being an exceptionally famous mystic, meanwhile, Alexander utilised Rutilianus's own eminence to help launch a very spectacular annual three-day festival replete with processions, ceremonies, and re-enactments of various mystical rituals, all held at the temple in Abonoteichus. These were devoted to the celebration of Apollo's birth and that of his son Asclepius, the appearance of Glycon, Alexander's own mother's supposed marriage to Asclepius's son Podaleirius, and even an alleged romance between Alexander himself and the Greek moon goddess Selene that purportedly led to the birth of Alexander's daughter, now the wife of Rutilianus.

Selene the Greek moon goddess, with Phosphoros the Morning Star and Hesperos the Evening Star, depicted on Roman marble altar, 2nd Century AD (public domain)

Alexander even persuaded the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius to change Abonoteichus's name to the much grander-sounding Ionopolis ('Greek city'). In addition, this same emperor and also his successors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius all issued coinage depicting Glycon. Yet despite achieving such successes as these, with savage irony a prediction that he made about himself proved to be singularly inaccurate – just like many that he had predicted for others had been. He prophesied that he would live to the age of 150, but died at only 70 in or around 170 AD, caused by a gangrenous limb. Yet although the cult's leader was no more, the cult itself, and its veneration of Glycon, persisted for at least a further century – having occupied a vast area at its peak of popularity, stretching from the Danube in the west to the Euphrates in the east - before eventually petering out. Having said that, it is nothing if not interesting to note that as recently as the 1970s, belief in a "magical snake" still existed among Turkish locals living in the vicinity of Inebolu (formerly Ionopolis/Abonoteichus).

But how do we know about Alexander and Glycon, almost a millennium after their demise? In fact, only a single primary source for the extraordinary history of the reputedly phoney prophet and his talkative hairy-headed human-eared snake god is known, and it just so happens to be an exceedingly acerbic, hostile account written by an infamously vituperative satirist with a very specific reason for hating Alexander and all that he represented. Needless to say, therefore, one might well be forgiven for wondering whether the entire saga was totally fictitious.

The statue of Glycon unearthed at Tomis, Romania, in 1962; left-hand view (© CristianChirita/Wikipedia – CC BY-SA 3.0 licence)

Happily, however, independent corroboration for the reality of the Glycon cult also exists. This includes not only the survival of some of the afore-mentioned Roman coinage bearing the image (and even the name) of this very singular deified serpent, but also a magnificent marble statue of Glycon, dating from the Severan dynasty (193-235 AD), standing almost 3 ft tall, and in excellent condition. It had been excavated in April 1962 along with various other statuary under the site of a former railway station in Constanta, Romania, formerly the ancient city of Tomis.

So spectacular and unexpected was this ornate Glycon sculpture, now housed at Constanta's Museum of National History and Archaeology, that it featured on a Romanian postage stamp in 1974 (which is what first brought Glycon to my attention, as an enthusiastic stamp collector during my childhood), as well as on a second one issued in 1994, and also on a Romanian 10,000 lei bank note in 1994.

The Romanian 10,000 lei bank note depicting the Glycon statue, issued in 1994 – sample only (Wikipedia/public domain – reproduced here on a strictly non-commercial Fair Use basis only)

Moreover, smaller Glycon statuettes in bronze have been found in Athens too, confirming the cult's spread into and across southwestern Europe. And according to the 2nd-Century-AD Christian philosopher Athenagoras of Athens, writing in his Apology (c.176/177 AD), a statue of Alexander once stood in the forum of Parium, which was a Greek city in Mysia on the Hellespont (now called the Dardanelles). 

Consequently, as there can be no doubt that Glycon, regardless of its true nature, really did exist, should we look more favourably upon its sole primary literary source, even though said source originated from the pen of an inimical satirist? This is where it all becomes much more complex, as will now be seen.

Lucian of Samosata, engraving by William Faithorne, 1600s (public domain)

The source in question is a concise but coruscating essay tersely entitled Alexander the False Prophet, written in Ancient Greek by Lucian of Samosata (Samosata being an ancient Syrian city on the west bank of the Euphrates river). A popular Greek satirist and rhetorician, Lucian was a contemporary of Alexander, and was particularly noted for the scoffing, sarcastic nature of many of his writings. His essay contained the history of Alexander and Glycon that I have summarised here in this present article of mine, but also included many additional claims and suppositions of fraud, lewd behaviour, and other undesirable activities relative to its human and serpentine subjects.

For instance, Lucian confidently asserted that the talking head of Glycon was not this snake's real head (which, he claimed, was kept well hidden under Alexander's armpit), but was instead an artificial construction made from linen and skilfully manipulated by Alexander using a lengthy internal tube composed of conjoined bird windpipes that led out from the false head into a hidden chamber where an assistant spoke words into the tube, thus making it seem as if Glycon were speaking. Lucian further alleged that a series of very fine, attached horse-hairs acted as internal pulleys to make the false head open and close its mouth, and extend and retract its tongue.

Sculpture of Lucian of Samosata, atop an ornamental pillar in the grounds of Nordkirchen Castle, near Münster, Germany (© Mbdortmund/Wikipedia – GFDL 1.2 licence)

Lucian also 'explained' how various of Alexander's correct predictions had been achieved via fraudulent activity. He even alleged that shortly after a somewhat acrimonious meeting with Alexander (in c.162 AD) during which he had tried to trick Alexander and had even attempted (albeit unsuccessfully) to dissuade Rutilianus from marrying the latter's daughter, he had narrowly avoided death during a boat trip when Alexander had supposedly paid the vessel's crew to murder him, only being saved when the captain prevented them from carrying out the heinous deed.

Traditionally, this vicious character assassination of Alexander by Lucian in literary form has tended to be viewed uncritically by those modern-day scholars actually aware of it (with Glycon in particular being among the Roman Empire's least-known figures of interest nowadays). However, all of that changed dramatically in June 2011.

Steve Moore with fellow FT colleagues in 2002 - from left to right, back row to front row: Mark Pilkington,  Paul Sieveking, Bob Rickard, Ian Simmons, Steve Moore, and Owen Whiteoak (© Paul Sieveking)

This very notable volte-face was due to the publication of a fascinating, eye-opening article presenting a very erudite reappraisal of Alexander, Glycon, and their portrayal by their longstanding nemesis Lucian. Appearing in the British monthly periodical Fortean Times (which is devoted to the serious investigation and chronicling of unexplained and controversial phenomena of every conceivable - and inconceivable! – kind), the article was authored by Steve Moore.

Steve was a highly-respected veteran researcher of ancient Asian and European mysteries, as well as one of the original Gang of Fort associated with the founding of Fortean Times itself (originally entitled The News), and his article directly challenged many of Lucian's long-accepted claims.

Opening page of text from Steve Moore's excellent Fortean Times article (© Steve Moore/Fortean Times)

For example, Steve questioned how Lucian could have known any specific details about Alexander's early years, especially those shared with Cocconas, bearing in mind that he, Lucian, had not spent any time alongside the pair to witness anything at first hand, and that Cocconas and Alexander were hardly likely to have informed him (or anyone else, for that matter) what they had been doing if they had truly been engaged in fraudulent activity during that time period, as vehemently asserted by Lucian in his account. Indeed, Steve went even further, by questioning whether Cocconas even existed – after all, there is no mention of him outside Lucian's poisonous diatribe. Might he therefore have been a wholly fictitious character, invented specifically by Lucian in order to cast Alexander's early years in as bad a light as possible?

No less circumspect are Lucian's wholly-unsubstantiated claims of spying, thuggery, blackmail, furtively opening sealed scrolls, and a varied assortment of other equally unpleasant activities attributed by him to Alexander. As for Lucian's once again unconfirmed allegation of almost being murdered by henchmen of Alexander while taking a boat ride, this just so happens to have been a very popular storyline in romantic works of fiction from that time period (and of which Lucian would certainly have been well aware). So it should clearly be viewed with great caution as a supposed statement of fact.

Was Glycon's voice achieved by ventriloquism and its head a glove or sock puppet, i.e. comparable, for instance, with how the famous American entertainer Shari Lewis 'brought to life' Lamb Chop and Charlie Horse? (public domain)

Equally, Steve pointed out that Lucian's bold statements regarding the nature of Glycon's head and speech were mere supposition too. True, the notions that Lucian had put forward regarding the mechanisms by which a fake head could have been secretly operated by Alexander were nothing if not ingenious, but that is all that they were – notions, not facts. No physical evidence or direct eyewitness observations confirming them were presented by Lucian in support of his accusations, it was all speculation (and spiteful speculation at that) on his part, nothing more. Other, much less controversial options also existed but which Lucian never mentioned, such as ventriloquism to make Glycon speak, and a simple glove or sock puppet-like creation to make its fake head move and open its mouth (always assuming of course that a fake head really was present).

Moreover, we only have Lucian's very questionable testimony that Glycon actually talked at all! In fact, it is even possible that Lucian never actually saw Glycon or spoke to anyone who had done so, because, amazingly, his essay makes no mention whatsoever of Glycon's two most remarkable physical features – its human ears and blond hair. Conversely, whereas Lucian claimed that it possessed a human-like head, most of the physical depictions of Glycon currently known (i.e. the various coins and statues noted earlier by me in this article) actually portray it with a long-snouted head that is certainly more pythonesque than humanoid in appearance. If for no other reason than this, therefore, the authentic nature of the content of Lucian's essay clearly should not - can not - be taken in any way for granted.

Glycon portrayed upon a 2nd-Century AD Ionopolis coin (copyright holder unknown, despite considerable searches by me; reproduced here on a strictly non-commercial Fair Use educational basis only)

Returning to the matter of the mobility and loquacity of Glycon's head, it would be very prudent here to quote Steve's take on Lucian's assertions regarding this:

In boasting that he knows how the trick was done, Lucian is plainly covering up the fact that this can only be a matter of conjecture. These conjectures may be very close to the truth; but they remain conjectures, not proof.

Steve also applied this same line of sound reasoning very successfully and convincingly to many other of Lucian's scathing claims masquerading as facts against Alexander. In addition, certain of Alexander's activities that Lucian deemed to be evidence of his fakery – most notably his retreating overnight into an inner, subterranean sanctuary called the adyton, in order to receive his oracles in peaceful solitude via dreams, and then reveal them publicly the following morning - were shown by Steve to be no different from those performed by various soothsayers and oracle-givers who had not been accused of or linked to fraud, such as the very famous, much-revered Oracle of Apollo at Claros, on the coast of Ionia in present-day Anatolia, Turkey.

'Chariot of Apollo', by Gustave Moreau, late 1800s (public domain)

Indeed, there is even a very relevant, present-day parallel, as Steve tellingly revealed in his own article:

The adyton is an underground chamber, and it's now known that withdrawal to a cave or subterranean chamber to obtain visions and mystic revelations was a common practice among Greek seers, being used similarly to a modern sensory deprivation tank.
          After year in Macedonia, Josh Scott hoping to power Team Colorado   
Perhaps predictably, there was a lengthy list of pros and cons to being a stranger in a strange land this past year for Josh Scott.
          Hikers Notice Newborn Kitten In Leaves, Then Realize It’s Actually Europe’s Rarest Wildcat   

Protecting endangered animals can be a difficult business with few rewards. But two employees at the Balkan Lynx Recovery Program just got the biggest reward of their careers. According to Caters, Gjorgi Ivanov and Panajot Chorovski were hiking in the Macedonian mountains when they discovered something astounding — a newborn Balkan lynx. The Balkan lynx is...

The post Hikers Notice Newborn Kitten In Leaves, Then Realize It’s Actually Europe’s Rarest Wildcat appeared first on LittleThings.

          Dietas de régimen para hepáticos   
Recetas para enfermos de hepatitis. Aquí te facilitamos unas cuantas recetas por si sufres la enfermedad de la hepatitis o padeces problemas de hígado. Si bien no son copiosas, te ayudará a mantener y sobrellevar la enfermedad hepática. Recuerda que en ningún caso debes abusar de la sal, y si te es posible, sustitúyela por cualquier  otro condimento para aderezar las comidas. Indistintamente de las recetas que aquí te proponemos te recomendamos que sea tu médico quien te sugiera la dieta más oportuna y adecuada para tu caso concreto.

          Macedonia de la salud (Régimen para hepáticos)   

Dificulta: Sencilla       

Un plátano,
una pera,
dos ciruelas claudias,
un racimo de uvas blancas,
dos almendras,
un bizcocho,
un bote de yogur,
dos cucharadas de mermelada,
una cucharada de azúcar 


Escaldar las almendras para quitarles la piel del interior, pelar los granos de uva y quitarles las semillas, mondar el resto de la fruta y cortarla en rajitas.
Poner en una copa el bizcocho untado con la mermelada y, encima, la fruta espolvoreada con el azúcar.

Cubrir con el yogur.  

          Σχόλιο στο Nα γιατί ο Πούτιν δεν εμπιστεύεται τους τσαρλατάνους που μας κυβερνούν και κάνει παιχνίδι με τον Ερντογάν ! από macedonianancestry   
Reblogged στις <a href="" rel="nofollow">Macedonian Ancestry</a>.
          Rubin, Daniel   
Daniel Rubin is a columnist and The Inquirer's director of social media. Since joining newspaper as a staff writer in 1988, Daniel Rubin has reported from Mayfair to Macedonia, 27 countries in all. He has been the European Correspondent for Knight Ridder Newspapers and for two years he sat at home and wrote Blinq, the paper's first daily blog. Dan began newspaper work in Norfolk and Louisville, Ky., after getting his undergraduate and graduate degrees from Northwestern University. He has lived in all four commonwealths, most recently in Pennsylvania. He teaches urban journalism at the University of Pennsylvania

Email Blinq here. My day job - Inquirer metro columnist - is here.

          Infrangere usturatoare pentru Dacia in Europa League. Lupii galbeni au pierdut pe terenul formatiei Shkendija cu scorul 0 la 3 - VIDEO   
Dacia a jucat in Macedonia si a avut un inceput de meci dezastruos. Deja in minutul 5, un jucator al echipei

          Fantasias sexuales   

El otro día leí en una revista que una de las fantasías sexuales más comunes entre las mujeres es hacer el amor de forma salvaje.

Llegar a casa... que esté tu marido preparando la cena... -bueno, esto por sí solo ya sería una fantasía-, acercarte por detrás, arrancarle el delantal y hacerlo en la mesa de la cocina. Como en la peli esa de "El cartero siempre llama dos veces... " Que,por cierto, con la que tenían allí montada, no me extraña que el tío tuviera que llamar dos veces, y quince!!!
¿Pero ustedes se imaginan esto en la vida real?
Con las piernas colgando, clavándote un tenedor en la nuca, y desollándote la rabadilla con el rallador del pan, y encima, el cartero, venga a llamar:

  • Piiii, correos!! Piiii, correos!! que es para decirle:
  • En eso estamos, pero no nos dejas!!

Estas cosas nos pasan por intentar copiar lo que vemos en las películas.
Por ejemplo, la típica fantasía de mezclar sexo y comida, como en "Nueve semanas y media", con las fresas, el melocotón en almíbar... Vamos a ver: ¿qué es lo que tiene de sexy hacer macedonia encima de tu pareja?
Porque el almíbar tiene una característica muy poco erótica: a los tres minutos se seca ... y se queda como el Loctite.

Claro, en la película cortan,pero a ti te toca irte a la ducha con la cabeza pegada a sus pelillos del pecho, con el culo en pompa y caminando hacia atrás... que parecéis dos siameses.

Él:- Aaaaah, aaaaaah, aaaaah,....!
Y tú:- Pero, Paco, ¿cómo te puede excitar esto, tío?

Otra fantasía muy típica es grabarse en vídeo. A mí me comentó una amiga que lo había hecho, y que daba mucho morbo. Así que lo probé: es supererótico.... hasta que te ves... Él te pone la cinta todo emocionado, y cuando ves dos cuerpos abrazados.. gordos!!!, dices:

  • Paco, te has equivocado de cinta, eso es un combate de sumo.
  • No cariño, somos nosotros, es que la cámara engorda.
  • ¿Que engorda? ¿Y la mesilla de noche por qué no engorda?

  • Otro clásico de las fantasías es hacer el amor en un sitio público.
    Por ejemplo, en un ascensor.

¿Lo han probado? Aquello se mueve más que la madre de Marco. Y para colmo los vecinos no cooperan nada; tú todavía estás en los preliminares y ellos ya superexcitados:

  • Ascensoooooor!!!!

  • Y luego está la fantasía favorita de los tíos: montar un trío con dos tías. Aquí lo que más gracia me hace es cómo intentan
    proponértelo... Te van dejando pistas, con esa sutileza que ellos tienen:

  • Oye, ¿a ti te gustan los tres tenores?

  • Si.
  • ¿Y los tres cerditos?
  • Sííí
  • ¿Y las tres carabelas?
  • Paco, ya está bien. ¿Qué quieres?
  • Yo nada... Oye... Esta cama es muy grande. ¿No? Y tu amiga Loli, muy liberal...

Y aquí ya le dices:

-Paco, yo me conformo con cualquier cosa, pero a mi amiga Loli le gustan los hombres.

Es que es verdad! Si con una sola no pueden, ¿para qué querrán a dos? , Como no sea para fumarse después dos cigarros...

  • Pero la muestra más clara de que las fantasías nunca deberían llevarse a cabo es cuando intentas hacer el amor en la bañera: aquí la fantasía es conseguir hacerlo sin romperte nada.
    Para empezar... erótico no es. El se mete, y se queda encajado en la bañera, con las rodillas en las orejas, y el periscopio intentando asomarse.
    Y va el cachondo y te dice:

-Venga, metete!!

Y claro, como él ha cogido el mejor sitio, a ti te toca poner el culo encima del tapón y que te dé el grifo en la nuca. Y entonces empieza a moverse todo apasionado.Y se monta allí una marejada...!!

Chaf, chaf, chaf...!!

Aquello parece "La tormenta perfecta"... Lo malo es que el que está en la bañera no es George Clooney, es el capitán pescanova. Entonces te dice:

  • Vamos a probar otra postura; ponte tú encima,

En ese momento se sale el tapón y el desagüe te hace ventosa... Y piensas...
"este tío ha organizado un trío sin avisarme". Y cuando te das cuenta de que es el tapón le dices:

  • Que se sale el agua, que se sale el agua!

Y el:

  • No te muevas, busca el tapón...

Tú, tanteando, agarras lo primero que encuentras...

Y él grita:

  • Eso no es el tapón! ¿No ves que hay dos?

En ese momento, ya solo se te ocurre una solución:

  • Cariño, ¿por qué no nos vamos a la cama?.... Pero a dormir ¿eh? Que estoy agotada!"

          Denmark v FYR Macedonia   
Volleyball - CEV European League Men - 2017-07-01 18:00
Primo giorno della visita in Bulgaria del Prefetto della Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali
Cong. Chiese Orientali
Il Cardinale Leonardo Sandri, Prefetto della Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali, dopo la Santa Messa presso la Cappella della Rappresentanza Pontificia a Sofia, si è recato presso il Palazzo del Consiglio dei Ministri, accompagnato dal Nunzio Apostolico S.E. Mons. Anselmo Pecorari, dove sono stati ricevuti, in rappresentanza del Primo Ministro, dal Vice-Primo Ministro e incaricato della Sicurezza e della Difesa, Dr. Krasimir Karakachanov, con il quale si sono intrattenuti in un colloquio inteso a ringraziare per l'importante ruolo internazionale della Santa Sede, ed insieme dell'importanza del contributo che le religioni possono offrire alla pace e alla riconciliaizione tra i popoli e le nazioni. Nel colloquio si è parimenti auspicato che anche la Chiesa Cattolica possa presto ricevere il pieno riconoscimento da parte delle Autorità dello Stato.
Sua Eminenza si è poi spostato nella residenza patriarcale, ove è stato accolto da Sua Santità Neofit, Patriarca ortodosso di Bulgaria, con il quale c'è stata la possibilità di un lungo colloquio. Il Patriarca ha ricordato la visita di Sua Santità Giovanni Paolo II, durante la quale era egli incaricato dal Santo Sinodo di far parte del comitato di preparazione e accoglienza. E' stata espressa la grande riconoscenza della Chiesa Ortodossa di Bulgaria alla Chiesa Cattolica, per le possibilità offerte ai loro sacerdoti e fedeli in molte nazioni dell'Occidente, in modo da garantire l'assistenza spirituale a più di un milione di bulgari ortodossi fuoriusciti dal Paese in cerca di lavoro. Si sono ricordate in particolare le Chiese di San Paolo alla Regola, a Roma - ove l'apostolo fu tenuto prigioniero prima del martirio - quelle di Barcellona, Segovia, Berlino e molte altre. In questo modo i fedeli non solo possono ricevere il nutrimento spirituale dell'Eucarestia, ma avendo momenti di comunità possono preservare la loro fede messa a rischio dalle sfide sempre più imponenti della secolarizzazione. Il Cardinale Sandri ha espresso la propria condivisione, ricordando il fenomeno di massa dell'emigrazione cui sono sottoposti tanti cristiani del Medio Oriente seguiti dalla Congregazione, per i quali sempre si cerca di organizzare la necessaria assistenza pastorale secondo la tradizione ecclesiale loro propria. Il Prefetto ha confermato la piena disponibilità a collaborare in tutti i campi si rendessero necessari "siamo disposti a darvi il nostro stesso cuore", pur di continuare a intraprendere passi verso la piena unità visibile. Sono stati ricordati i tanti incontri del Santo Padre Francesco con i Patriarchi Ortodossi ed Ortodossi Orientali: Bartolomeo di Costantinopoli, Kirill di Mosca, Ilia di Georgia, Teodoro II di Alessandria, Youhanna X di Antiochia, Tawadros di Alessandria dei copti.. alla lista manca Neofit di Bulgaria, e si spera che possa giungere presto il giorno di questo abbraccio, con la venerazione profonda che il Papa di Roma conserva per i suoi fratelli patriarchi delle antiche e nuove sedi. Tutti questi incontri esprimono la certezza che se ancora facciamo fatica a riconoscerci parte di un'unica Chiesa, tuttavia non possiamo negare di essere già fratelli in Cristo. Il Patriarca ha ricordato la sua presenza alla consacrazione della concattedrale latina di San Giuseppe a Sofia, presieduta dal Cardinale Angelo Sodano. Grande sorpresa e commozione si è ripetuta poi al termine della giornata, quando Sua Santità si è recato al ricevimento organizzato dalla Nunziatura in occasione della tradizionale "Festa del Papa", intrattenendosi con il Cardinale Prefetto e col Nunzio in un altro grande ed intenso colloquio, molto cordiale e fraterno.
Riprendendo il racconto della mattinata, il Cardinale Prefetto si è trasferito nella sede del Grande Muftì di Bulgaria, Dr. Mustafa Hazdid, leader spirituale dei musulmani locali, che sono circa il 14% della popolazione bulgara. Egli ha ringraziato per l'importante visita, e ha sottolineato più volte come siano necessari incontri come quelli odierni, perchè intendono ribadire pubblicamente che le religioni concorrono al bene della società e alla costruzione di ponti di pace e riconciliazione, e non possono essere strumentalizzate per usare violenza, o indottrinare i giovani in visioni ideologiche che li spingano al terrorismo. Il Muftì ha ricordato il rapporto di stima e collaborazione con il Nunzio Apostolico, che in più di una occasione ha partecipato agli Iftar di fine Ramadan.
Il Prefetto ha ringraziato per le parole di accoglienza, ha spiegato le aree di competenza della Congregazione, con una particolare sottolineatura per la realtà del Medio Oriente, rendendo omaggio ai tanti martiri cristiani contemporanei vittime della violenza cieca e del terrorismo, ma anche le migliaia di civili musulmani pure vittime degli scontri, con tanti innocenti, donne e bambini, che pure soffrono. Sua Eminenza ha ricordato le analoghe visite vissute alle comunità musulmane in Siria, prima dello scoppio della Guerra, in Libano, in Iraq, in Kazakhstan, e Azerbajan, e riprendendo i contenuti emersi nel viaggio apostolico in Egitto di Papa Francesco ha evidenziato come i cristiani vogliano essere considerati come cittadini nativi dell'area del Medio Oriente, e come tali rispettati e accolti per costruire insieme il bene comune delle Nazioni ove abitano da secoli.
Sia il Muftì come il Cardinale Sandri hanno sottolineato l'importanza di una educazione autentica delle giovani generazioni, che offra loro le coordinate per interpretare il presente, e un profondo radicamento nei valori umani e religiosi che troppo spesso vengono banalizzati o cancellati per scelte ideologiche dai mezzi di comunicazione o dal pensiero comune da essi condizionato. La religione deve essere accolta come motore di sviluppo della società e non emarginata o fraintesa. Il Cardinale ha ricordato l'espressione "una società senza Dio e che ha paura di Dio è il suicidio dell'uomo", e lo si vede in tanti dibattiti contemporanei sulla vita, la famiglia, la sofferenza e il morire, anche purtroppo in questi giorni in Europa. Sia al Muftì come al Patriarca, tra le altre cose, il Cardinale ha fatto omaggio in anteprima del volume edito dalla Libreria Editrice Vaticana per celebrare i venticinque anni della ripresa delle relazioni diplomatiche tra la Santa Sede e la Bulgaria, caratterizzato dalla visita in Bulgaria nel 2016 del Cardinale Segretario di Stato, Pietro Parolin.
Per pranzo, il Prefetto si è recato presso la Sede dell'Esarcato per i fedeli bizantini, accolto da S.E. Mons. Proykov, Esarca e Presidente della Conferenza Episcopale Interrituale; dalla Macedonia è giunto il Vescovo ed Esarca S.E. Mons. Kiro Stojanov, e dopo una preghiera c'è stato il pranzo insieme ad alcuni sacerdoti, religiosi e laiche consacrate che lavorano a Sofia. Un gruppo più numeroso di loro, con i Padri Cappuccini, gli Assunzionisti, i Resurrezionisti, i Carmelitani, le Religiose di diversi Istituti - tra le quali le Suore della Carità fondate da Santa Teresa di Calcutta - è venuto nel pomeriggio nella Concattedrale Latina di San Giuseppe, ove il Cardinale Prefetto ha iniziato rivolgendo loro un discorso di saluto e incoraggiamento, e fermandosi a riflettere con loro entro un dialogo che ne è seguito, con particolare riferimento alle attività "in uscita" della Chiesa di Bulgaria, l'attenzione a preservare l'unità nella diversità delle espressioni rituali, e infine la grande importanza da dare alle attività ordinarie e straordinarie di pastorale giovanile.
In serata, il ricevimento per la tradizionale "Festa del Papa", al quale, oltre al Patriarca Neofit già citato, hanno preso parte rappresentanti della Chiesa Russo-Ortodossa, Armeno Apostolica, Rappresentanti della Chiesa e della Società Civile Bulgara, oltre ad un nutrito gruppo di Ambasciatori e Diplomatici delle Ambasciate a Sofia.


Indirizzo di saluto del Cardinale Leonardo Sandri, Prefetto della Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali, nell’incontro con i Consacrati e le Consacrate operanti nella città di Sofia - Concattedrale latina di San Giuseppe, venerdì 30 giugno 2017 A.D.
Eccellenza Reverendissima, Mons. Anselmo Pecorari, Nunzio Apostolico,
Eccellenza Reverendissima, Mons. ,, Vescovo di Sofia-Plovdiv,
Eccellenza Reverendissima, Mons. Hristo Proychov, Esarca e Presidente della Conferenza Episcopale Interrituale di Bulgaria,
Sorelle e fratelli nel Signore!
1. Sono lieto di compiere la mia seconda visita, dopo quella del 2010, come Prefetto della Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali in Bulgaria, incontrando tutti voi, che spendete la vostra vita nel servizio pastorale nella capitale di questa grande e antica Nazione. La visitai in qualità di Sostituto della Segreteria di Stato per preparare il viaggio di San Giovanni Paolo II, e accompagnai il Pontefice nella sua visita di quindici anni fa. Affido alla sua intercessione il nostro radunarci qui oggi, insieme a quella di San Giovanni XXIII che iniziò il suo servizio episcopale proprio qui in Bulgaria, nel 1925, in qualità di Delegato Apostolico. Sono due figure grandi nella storia contemporanea, ed entrambi possono illuminare la particolare vocazione ecclesiale della Chiesa di Bulgaria. Essa infatti respira realmente “a due polmoni”, anzitutto perchè la stessa Conferenza Episcopale è interrituale, composta dalle due diocesi latine, Sofia-Plovdiv e Nicopoli, e dall’Esarcato per i fedeli bizantini, e quindi ciascuno di voi deve poter attingere alle risorse del patrimonio spirituale, liturgico e teologico di entrambe le comunità. Non potrebbe essere così del resto, anche perchè in Bulgaria i cattolici sono un piccolo gregge, che vive fianco a fianco ai fratelli e le sorelle della Chiesa Ortodossa, e siamo pertanto chiamati a conoscere la ricchezza e la profondità della tradizione orientale, per continuare ad amare chi vive accanto a noi e insieme a noi testimonia l'unico nome di Cristo.
2. Le radici della fede in questa Nazione sono antiche, ed è giusto che tutti i Bulgari ne siano fieri; in particolare voglio ricordare la presenza e l’opera dei santi fratelli di Tessalonica, Cirillo e Metodio. Erano i tempi della Chiesa che sapeva vivere le differenze nell’armonia dell’unità, e si cercava di avere a cuore sempre l’annuncio del nome di Gesù. Venendo più vicino a noi, il secolo scorso ha visto l’affermarsi di forme di potere politico che hanno imposto una visione materialista ed atea della vita, mentre oggi la mentalità secolarizzata non è meno insidiosa, segnata dalla crisi del rispetto della dignità umana, il decadimento della famiglia, la mancanza di speranza in tanti delle giovani generazioni, la fatica ad accogliere ed integrare l’altro bisognoso. I campi in cui essere missionari sono dunque molteplici: desidero ringraziarvi per le opere che sostenete come sacerdoti diocesani, religiosi e religiose. Vi chiedo di non chiudervi ciascuno nella propria dimensione, ma a sentirvi sempre Chiesa: la mia comunità, il mio ordine religioso, la mia attività di apostolato non sono soltanto mie o della mia congregazione di appartenenza, ma rendono presente il volto di Cristo e della Chiesa che è madre. Questo respiro ecclesiale, cattolico, cioè universale, non può che aiutarci e aiutare le nostre comunità.
3. Dobbiamo interrogarci sul bene che stiamo compiendo, che è tanto, ed è una testimonianza e una provocazione per la società, ma anche su quello che possiamo compiere ancora di più. Le sfide sono tante, ma dobbiamo sempre partire dall’annuncio del Vangelo ai poveri, come criterio prioritario. Mi riferisco anzitutto alla grande povertà interiore, a cui possiamo accostarci con la tenerezza stessa di Gesù: sono le diverse forme di solitudine esistenziale, che può attraversare la vita dei giovani come degli adulti, quando sono privi della luce della speranza. Questo sarà tanto più urgente in un grande città come è la capitale in cui ci troviamo, con alcune presenze cosmopolite, alle quali dovremmo sempre garantire almeno una celebrazione nella loro lingua, o far sì che le realtà educative ed assistenziali, come le scuole, le Università o gli Ospedali possano sempre vedere una presenza ed una testimonianza cristiana.
4. Il Medio Oriente, che vive pagine di storia drammatica per la violenza del terrorismo e la guerra - penso in particolare alla Siria e all’Iraq, ma anche all’Egitto - sta vivendo pagine di martirio che Papa Francesco ha più volte definito come ecumenismo del sangue. Ad esso hanno fatto spesso riferimento il Patriarca Copto-Ortodosso, Sua Santità Tawadros II, come di recente anche Sua Santità Bartolomeo di Costantinopoli nel suo messaggio per la festa dei Santi Pietro e Paolo. La Chiesa Ortodossa di Mosca, con il Patriarca Sua Santità Kirill, è pure impegnata per la difesa dei nostri fratelli cristiani del Medio Oriente. La Bulgaria ha avuto pure i suoi martiri, nel secolo scorso, e penso al Beato Eugenio Bossilkov, Vescovo, e ai tre sacerdoti assunzionisti, ma anche tra i fratelli della Chiesa Ortodossa ci sono stati autentici testimoni che hanno effuso il loro sangue. Sulla comune testimonianza offerta dai martiri di ieri e di oggi, vi chiedo di continuare a sperare nei cammini verso l’unità visibile di tutti i fratelli in Cristo, e vi esorto a valorizzare i tanti gesti piccoli, quotidiani e nascosti che possono consolidare questi passi anche qui in Bulgaria: ogni contesto è particolare, può avere sensibilità più vicine o più lontane, ma non dobbiamo temere che la strada rimanga quella segnata dalla preghiera di Gesù nell’Ultima Cena: Ut unum sint! Che siano una cosa sola, come tu Padre, ed io, siamo una cosa sola!.
5. Altra realtà particolare che ci deve stare a cuore è quella dei giovani, anche in sintonia con quanto il Santo Padre ha chiesto alla Chiesa in preparazione al Sinodo dei Vescovi dedicato proprio a questo tema. Sentano la nostra sollecitudine nei loro confronti, la nostra disponibilità ad ascoltarli, ma anche doniamo loro delle parole coraggiose che li sappiano spronare a mete alte per il loro cammino. Camminiamo al loro fianco, nelle scuole, nelle Università, in altri contesti culturali e sociali, ed educhiamoli a sentirsi pellegrini dell’Assoluto. In modo speciale curiamo ed accompagniamo la preparazione al matrimonio e stiamo vicini alle giovani famiglie, vere piccole chiese domestiche.
6. Per sostenere la presenza e la testimonianza in tutti questi ambiti però, abbiate anzitutto cura di custodire la vostra vocazione e consacrazione: anche ciascuno di noi è tentato dal rischio dell’abitudine, a volte della desolazione rispetto ai risultati della propria opera, o può attraversare un momento di debolezza o stanchezza. Il profeta Isaia invita Israele a “ricordarsi della roccia da cui sei stato tagliato”. Rinnoviamo anche qui, questa sera, la memoria grata per la nostra chiamata, per quel SI che abbiamo pronunciato in risposta al SI di Dio alla nostra vita che ci donava di metterci alla sua sequela. Ogni tempo della vita e della vocazione ha una sua grazia particolare, che si manifesta a volte nella luce e nella gioia profonda interiore, a volte traspare attraverso qualche prova o fatica. Non dimentichiamoci del Signore che ha detto anzitutto ai discepoli: “Io sono con voi, tutti i giorni, sino alla fine del mondo”.
7.E per far questo, al di là dei differenti carismi a cui siamo legati per l’appartenenza a diverse Congregazioni o Istituti Religiosi, oppure nel servizio diocesano, invochiamo la presenza di Maria, che è Madre di Dio e Madre nostra. Ella ci aiuti ad essere padri e madri nello Spirito, a non sentirci sterili ma a custodire la fecondità della nostra scelta di vita. Così, anche attraverso i nostri volti e il nostro servizio, il popolo santo di Dio potrà rallegrarsi della maternità della Chiesa che non cessa di prendersi cura di lui e di introdurlo ai pascoli della vita eterna. Grazie


          TAYLOR, Doris   
TAYLOR, Doris Of Atlanta, passed away June 26, 2017. Services July 1, 1:00 PM, at Macedonia Baptist Church. Hanley-Shelton Funeral Directors,...
          The Siege of Tyre 332 BC   
Episode by BazBattles covers the siege of formidable city of Tyre, most important city-state of Phoenicia. Unlike other Phoenician cities, Tyrians decided to challenge the young Macedonian king and prepared for a long and bitter siege. read more
          "So he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus; but he himself stayed in Asia for a season." - Bible   
"So he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus; but he himself stayed in Asia for a season." - Bible
          What makes Spain's U-21s so good? Experience, talent and opportunity    
Saul continues to impress on both the club and international stages following his hat-trick against Italy. They thought it might never happen again, but 10 days were all it took. When Marco Asensio scored three goals against Macedonia in Spain's first game at the European Under-21 Championship, it was pretty much the best international hat trick anyone had ever seen - and pretty much the best they were ever likely to see. Or so they thought. Just three games later, Saul Niguez scored a hat trick that might have been better. As his third curled inside the post, past keeper Gianluigi Donnarumma, Spain...
          First Six Months of 2017   

Half of the year has already passed by.Time flies really fast specially when you are having fun. What have you been doing?
Well I have done a lot so far. After I came back from my stay in Asia (January-March) and spent a week (last week of March) in Eastern Europe(Kosovo,Macedonia, Bulgaria ,Amsterdam, Edinburgh and Copenhagen) I settled back to domestic bliss by staying in Toronto.So except for a weekend in Iceland I had been in Canada the whole time.
Here is what has been happening on my side for the last 5 months :

          Return values    
This is a tale of two algorithms.

Every now and then, someone publishes a piece of crossover writing that blows me away. Last week, Claudia Lo at Rock Paper Shotgun examined the algorithms behind relationship simulation in the indie game Rimworld by decompiling its code:

The question we're asking is, 'what are the stories that RimWorld is already telling?' Yes, making a game is a lot of work, and maybe these numbers were just thrown in without too much thought as to how they'd influence the game. But what kind of system is being designed, that in order to 'just make it work', you wind up with a system where there will never be bisexual men? Or where all women, across the board, are eight times less likely to initiate romance?

I want to take a moment to admire Lo's writing, which takes a difficult technical subject (bias in object-oriented simulation code) and explains it in a way that's both readable and ultimately damning to its subject. It's a calm dissection of how stereotypes can get encoded (literally!) into entertainment, and even goes out of its way to be generous to the developer. I haven't talked much about games journalism in the last few years, but this is the kind of work I wish I'd thought to do when I was still writing.

In short, Lo notes that the code for Rimworld combines sexuality, gender, age, and emotional modeling in a way that's more than a little unsettling: women in the game are all bisexual and may be attracted to much older partners, while men have a narrower (and notably younger) attraction range. The game also models penalties for rejection, but not for being harassed, which leaves players trying to solve bizarre problems like "attractive lesbians that destroy community morale."

Part of what makes Lo's story interesting is how deeply this particular simulation reflects not just general social biases, but the particular biases of its developer. It took a lot more work to encode a complex, weighted system of asymmetrical attraction than it would to just use the same basic algorithm for everyone. Someone planned this very carefully — in fact, since the developer jumped into the comments on the piece with a pseudoscientific rant about the non-existence of bisexual men, we know that he's thought way too much about it. He's really invested in this view of "how people are," and very upset that anyone would think that it's just the slightest bit unrealistic or ignorant.

Keep that in mind when reading Pro Publica's investigation into Facebook ad preferences, in which advertisers can target ads toward (or against) particular "ethnic affinities" in violation of federal laws against discrimination in housing and other services. "Affinity" is Facebook's term, a way of hiding behind "we're not actually discriminating on race." Even for the blinkered Silicon Valley, it's astonishing that nobody thought about the ways that this could be misapplied.

The existence of these affinities may be confusing, since Facebook never actually asks about your ethnicity when setting up a profile. Instead, it generates this metadata based on some kind of machine-learning process as you use the service. As is typical for Facebook, this is not only a very bad idea, it's also very badly implemented. I know this myself: Facebook thinks I have an ethnic affinity of "African-American (US)," probably because my friend group via Urban Artistry is largely black, even though I am one of the whitest people in America (there doesn't seem to be an "Ethnic Affinity: White" tag, maybe because that's considered the default setting).

Both Facebook and Rimworld are examples of programming real-world bias into technology, but of the two it's probably Facebook that bothers me more. For the game, a developer very intentionally designed this system, and is clear about his reasons for doing so. But in Facebook's case, this behavior is partially emergent, which gives it deniability. There's no source code that we can decompile, either because it's hidden away on Facebook's servers or because it's the output of a long, machine-generated process and even Facebook can't directly "read" it. The only way to discover these problems is indirectly — such as how some news organizations are trying to collect and analyze Facebook's political ads via user reporting tools.

As more and more of the world becomes data-driven, it's easy to see how emergent behavior could reinforce existing biases if not carefully checked and guarded. When the behavior in question is Pokemon Go redlining, maybe it's not such a big deal, but when it becomes housing — or job opportunities, or access/pricing for services — the effects will be far more serious. Class action lawsuits are a reasonable start, but I think it may be time to consider stronger regulation on what personal data companies can maintain and utilize (granted, I don't have any good answers as to what that regulation would look like). After all, it's pretty clear that tech won't regulate itself.

Addendum: on journalism and public policy

I'm posting this the night before Election Day in the USA. Like a lot of newsrooms, The Seattle Times has a strict non-partisan policy for its journalists, so I can tell you to vote (please do! it's important!), but I can't tell you how I think you should vote or how I voted, and I'm discouraged from taking part in public activities that would signal bias, such as caucusing for either party. It's a condition of my employment at the paper.

Here's what I think is funny: in the post above, I lay out a strong but (I think) reasoned argument for public policy around the use of personal data. While I'm not particularly well-sourced compared to the journalists at Pro Publica, I am one of the few people at the Times who can speak knowledgeably about how databases are stored and interact. I can make this argument to you, and feel like it carries some authority behind it.

But I can only make that argument because our political parties do not (yet) have any coherent preference on how personal data should be treated. If, at some point, the use of personal data was to become politicized by one side or another, I'd no longer be free to share this argument with you — the merits of my position wouldn't have changed, nor would my expertise, but I'd no longer be considered "objective" or "unbiased."

The idea that reporters do not have opinions, or can only have opinions as long as the subjects don't matter, seems self-evidently silly to me. Data privacy is a useful thought experiment: in this case, I'm safe as long as the government never gets its act together. If that seems like a terrible way to run the fourth estate — indeed, if this sounds like a recipe for the proliferation of fact-free publishing outlets encouraged by the malicious inattention of Facebook — I can't disagree. But to tie this to my original point, however this election turns out, I think a lot of journalists are going to need to ask themselves some hard questions about the value of "objectivity" in an algorithm-powered media universe.

          The Alchemical Romance of The Fifth Element   

Like The Matrix, the 1997 film The Fifth Element mines the feverishly imaginative world of comic books. But whereas The Matrix derives from Marvel Comics and manga, The Fifth Element draws its visual punch from French comics, formally known as bande desinee (BD), familiar to readers of the American magazine Heavy Metal, which reprints a great deal of comics from Europe. Bande desinee is, like manga, a medium and not a genre. Any number of types of stories are produced, usually in hardcover oversized albums. But the most familiar form of BD to American readers are the kinds of outrageous and decadent science fiction yarns serialized in French magazines like Pilote and Metal Hurlant. These sci-fi stories are characterized by lavish, nearly-baroque art and design, and a narrative sensibility that emphasizes sophomoric nihilism, sadistic violence and decadent sex.

The dizzying visual imagination of the BD sci-fi subculture is mirrored in The Fifth Element . In fact, Besson enlisted one of BD’s premier talents, Jean Giraud, to forge the visual look of the film. Giraud is known to BD readers by his pen names ‘Gir’ and ‘Moebius.’ As Gir, he has drawn the long-running adventures of the Western hero, Lieutenant Blueberry. And as Moebius, he illustrated a large body of science fiction stories, often in collaboration with Alejandro Jodorowsky, the South American filmmaker best known for his films El Topo and Santa Sangre.

Giraud’s own work is also of a distinctly spiritual bent, but defining the precise nature of that spirituality is often elusive. Moebius is (or was) the follower of a French New Age guru named Jean Paul Appel Guery, who changed the course of Moebius’ work from dystopian sci-fi to incredibly opaque new age sci-fi. Moebius has also worked on several sci-fi/fantasy films, including Alien, Willow and The Abyss.

Besson also enlisted the visual talents of another French legend for The Fifth Element. Jean Paul Gaultier, the fashion maestro best known for his work with Madonna, designed many of the sexually-provocative costumes for the film, and gave the film a distinctly decadent and androgynous sheen.

The plot of The Fifth Element. concerns a struggle between the forces of good, here in the form of the alien Mondoshawans and their human accomplices; and the forces of evil, represented by a malevolent Death Star-like planet (known only a “Mister Shadow”) and its alien and human enablers. Gary Oldman, scenery-chewer extraordinaire, plays Zorg, an evil weapons manufacturer who works in concert with the alien Mangalores to help make manifest the destruction of earth by this ultimate Evil.

The Mondoshawans send their champion, the so-called “Supreme Being”, to Earth to help destroy the Ultimate Evil, but the Mangalores shoot down their ship before it can reach the Earth. A salvage team is sent to the crash site (which is on a moon) and a piece of a arm is recovered, which turns out to be from the Supreme Being. The severed limb is brought to Earth and through DNA something-or-other is reconstituted into an intact replication of the supreme one. Happily, it transpires than underneath their bulky and cartoonish armor, the Mondoshawans look like hot, young, naked supermodels. Hence LeeLoo, the reconstructed supreme being, is played by hot, young, naked supermodel Milla Jovovich.

However, LeeLoo freaks out when she is reborn, busts out of her rebirthing chamber and ends up in the care of soldier-turned-cabbie Korben Dallas (played by Bruce Willis). At her urging, Dallas then brings Leeloo to the priest Father Cornelius, played by Ian Holm. Cornelius is part of a hereditary line of priests that do the Mondoshawan’s bidding in protecting the Earth.

What must be done next is to recover the ritual stones symbolizing the four elements and get LeeLoo to Egypt post-haste, in order to perform the ritual that will repel and destroy “Mister Shadow." However, the stones are being kept by an alien chanteuse on a galactic pleasure cruiser halfway across the galaxy. Hence, Dallas, Cornelius and LeeLoo rocket out to the cruiser to recover the stones. Along the way, LeeLoo immerses herself in human lore and language, with the aid of a laptop computer supplied to her by Father Cornelius. The messianic troupe also make the acquaintance of a maniacally-epicene galactic talk show host named Ruby Rhod, played by Chris Tucker.

Along the way they are countered by Zorg and his Mangalores cohorts. All sorts of mayhem ensues, and the alien singer protecting the stones is killed by the Mangalores. As she lays dying, she tells Dallas that the stones are located inside her body, and Dallas must pull them out of her corpse. Zorg is also after the stones, but is ultimately destroyed by a bomb he places on the cruiser (literally ‘hoisted on his own petard’, you might say). Dallas, Cornelius and LeeLoo escape just in the nick of time and return to Earth to perform the ritual.

The trip back seems to be going well until LeeLoo stumbles across the subject of war in her humanities studies. She is so driven to despair by visions of man’s inhumanity to man that she is unable to perform the ritual. The stones are put into place, but the Fifth Element isn’t activated. Cornelius reckons that LeeLoo needs a first hand lesson in the ways of love to ease her despair over man’s barbarism, so he orders Dallas to have a snog with her. Dallas and LeeLoo neck and the Evil Planet something-or -other is destroyed in an orgasmic burst. The film ends as Korben and LeeLoo enjoy a hearty shag in a sarcophagus-type reactor chamber in a Nucleo Lab, as the President of the Earth and a worldwide television audience look on.


Aside from the obvious comic book, action movie and Solar ritual drama motifs, Besson seems to borrow heavily from Alchemical symbolism. Or, more precisely, Jungian interpretation of Alchemical symbolism. That final scene where Korben and LeeLoo copulate in the reactor chamber while the lord of Earth look on is directly taking it cues from three of the pivotal stages of Alchemist’s so-called “Chemical Marriage” process.

As depicted in numerous Alchemical texts like the Mutus Liber, the Chemical Marriage is a process in which the Sun (represented by a king), and the Moon (represented by a queen) are reunited into a single primevel being, the Royal Hermaphrodite, or the Rebis. In some texts the King and Queen copulate in a chamber filled with Mercurial water ( water collected from the morning dew), in others they commingle in a furnace.

Another product of this Royal Copulation is the Lapis, otherwise known as the Philosopher’s Stone. The Philosopher’s Stone is the device the Alchemists beleived could transform base metals into gold. This fabled Stone is now familiar to hundreds of millions of people the world over thanks to the Harry Potter novels.

Alchemy is the most arcane of ancient sciences, and since the Alchemists deliberately obscured their teachings either in wordless books or in arcane symbols, scholars disagree as to their meaning. Was the Chemical Wedding purely symbolic and spiritual, or was it some arcane recounting of an actual process? My vote is for the latter, but no one can say for sure. Carl Jung thought it was a metaphor for a person’s “individuation process” where the two halves of human nature- spiritual and rational- are conjouned.

However much Alchemy is scoffed at today, in many ways it was the forerunner of modern chemistry, and had a huge influence on modern medicine as well. Sir Issac Newton, arguably the most important scientific thinker in history, was obsessed with the alchemical arts. When Sir Issac wasn’t discovering the laws of gravity or inventing calculus or revolutionizing the study of Astronomy, he busied himself amassing England’s largest Alchemical library and conducting Alchemical experiments.

The language of Alchemy is the crux of The Fifth Element. The Alchemists believed that all matter was composed of four fundamental elements- Earth, Air, Water and Fire.

Some historians that the word "Alchemy" itself is derived from Al Khemiya which in turn is derived from Kemet (“the black land”), the name the ancient Egyptians new themselves by. ”Egypt” is a Greek name given to Kemet by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty, and derives from aigis or “shield.”

The etymology of the word “Alchemy” is directly referenced by the location of the Mondoshawan temple in Egypt. And again, the use of the four elements is drawn from Alchemic arts. And the “Fifth Element” is not LeeLoo alone, but the by-product of the Coninunctio, or the Chemical Wedding between Korben and LeeLoo.

Their make-out session overseen by the priests in the Mondoshawan temple was their nuptials, and the episode in the rebirthing chamber was their royal consumation. The kings, queens and princes of the Earth are their to witness their apotheosis, which signifies the supreme status of the Alchemical arts in this ritual drama.

Not surprisingly, this Alchemical ritual drama is rife with Solar imagery. The big baddie, Mister Shadow in the tale is depicted as a Black Sun, a burning orb that gives no light nor heat. In other words, a spiritual force that exists only to serve its own needs, and possesses neither love nor compassion. It is pure, elemental Evil. It’s a sun that gives off light instead of shadow. It’s accomplice, Zorg, is a disciple of Evil. He believes that destruction and warfare are necessary facets of existance, and that personal enrichment is the highest good.

In the Alchemical Wedding drama of The Fifth Element, Korben is the Sun King and LeLoo is the Moon Queen. Leeloo herself represents the prima materia of the Alchemical grail quest.

LeeLoo is reconstructed from a genetic fragment recovered from the Mondoshawan ship, which crashed on a barren and dusty moon. The moon, being traditionally untouched by man, is thereby a source of the prima materia , or the “untouched matter” which the Alchemists sought to transform into gold. The Moon also reflects the Sun, which accounts for the solar touches in LeeLoo’s outfit.

Korben is a depicted as deactivated soldeier from an elite military order. Exactly which order Korben serived is no mystery to those familiar with medieval or military iconography. When we first meet Korben in his small, Spartan apartment we see has a golden trophy adorned with the Templar cross (00:18:27) And in a nod to Horus, Korben’s never-seen mother complains that she has left him 17 messages on his answering machine in the same scene.

Finally, the Mondoshawan priests dress in red and gold robes, and their Egyptian origin and extraterrestrial and godly alliances links them with the Shemsu Hor, the priest kings who ruled Ancient Egypt when the Netjer, or gods, returned to the Heavens. The Shemsu Hor are traditionally believed to be the guardians of the sacred arts, not the least of which is Alchemy.
          Byzantine Iconography οn Mt Athos (Dr. Constantine Cavarnos)   

The Protaton, the Monastery of Vatopedi and the Cretan School

The Holy Mountain has been the great centre of Orthodox art since the fall of Constantinople. But art flourished on Mount Athos much earlier than that, as is shown by some icons and miniatures that have survived the severe vicissitudes through which the Holy Mountain has passed.

Of the older iconographic works, there are the remains of the mosaics in the katholikon1 of the Monastery of Vatopedi. They comprise the following: Christ on a throne flanked on either side by the Holy Virgin and Saint John the Baptist, situated above the central door of the narthex, with an inscription of the eleventh century; the Annunciation of the Holy Virgin, on the wall of the narthex by the side of its central door; and Saint Nicholas, above the smaller, right door of the narthex. These works have the wisdom and the largeness of plan that characterize the mosaics of the eleventh century in general. To the same period belong the two mosaics of the Monastery of Xenophontos, which repre­sent Saint George and Saint Demetrios. These appear to be sections that were removed from the walls of a church once decorated with mosaics and made into portable icons by being glued onto panels. To the period before the fall of Constantinople also belong the mosaics of Saint John the Theologian, in the treasure room of the Monastery of Meg­isti Lavra; the Crucifixion and Saint Anna, at the Monastery of Vatopedi; Saint Nicholas, at the Monastery of Stavronikita; and some others.

The panel icons that belong to this period also are rela­tively few. The more important ones include the many miraculous icons of the Holy Mountain, which are famous throughout the Orthodox world, such as the Panaghia Por­taitissa, at the Monastery of Iviron; the Antiphonetria, at the Monastery of Vatopedi; the Triherousa, at the Monastery of Chilandaxi; the Gorgoepekoos, at the Monastery of Do­cheiariou; and some others of smaller dimensions such as the small diptych icon that represents Christ and the Holy Virgin, known as "Ta Ninia."

In contrast to the small number of mosaics, frescos, and panel icons created before the fall of Constantinople, the miniatures of the manuscripts that go back to that period are numerous.2 Among the more ancient ones are the miniatures of the eleventh-century Psalter at the Monastery of Pantocratoros, the Octateuch at the Monastery of Vatopedi, and the Book of the Gospels at the Monastery of Iviron. These miniatures are rare masterpieces, showing not only extreme patience, for which alone they are admired by many non-experts, but also unsurpassable perfection. Many of them have the perfection and clarity of great mural compositions. In regard to their delicacy, quality, and the nobility of their coloring, they are incomparable and unique.

Of the frescos, the oldest are those in the katholikon of the Monastery of Vatopedi and in the Church of the Pro­taton, at Karyes. Certain remnants, very few and mostly disfigured, such as those in the cell of Ravdouhos near Vatopedi and a few other little chapels belong to an earlier period.

The Protaton

The frescos of the Protaton3 are attributed to the painter Panselenos, whom tradition has made into a fabulous figure. From the style of his work, he appears to have been in his prime in the fourteenth century, and a contemporary of the artists who adorned with paintings certain churches in Ser­bia, such as those at Pee and Studenica, Saint Clement at Ochrida, and others.

In general, the frescos of the Protaton have the character­istics of the works that were made at that period, but they are most clearly distinguishable from other frescos by their monumental breadth and comprehensive simplicity, by their quiet and strong tone, by the simple yet mysterious sweet­ness of the coloring, by a certain special ancient dignity, and especially by the very profound inspiration that emanated from an extraordinarily gifted hand, which colored with a certain free yet most clear quality every line, every brushstroke, and every area. The most simple and archaic elements are combined in a peculiar manner with a certain artistic wisdom and unparalleled knowledge in these works. Vehemence and soberness, the most touching naiveté and the greatest technical keenness, and restful forms and fervor coexist in them. And on top of all this spreads the blessed­ness of piety, whose spiritual fragrance strongly impresses its seal upon the works of Eastern iconography. Panselenos is one of the most original men of art. His work should pre­occupy many in the future.

The Church of the Protáton is like a sacred ark of art. Its oldness and its mysterious dim light, which is diffused in its interior, intensify the impression produced by the frescos, and the visitor is seized by religious awe and feels that he must venerate them, rather than merely look at them as works of art.

On the first strip of this basilica, immediately below the ceiling, the ancestors of Christ4 are painted in two rows, on the right side and on the left, on the long, side walls of the building. These figures, most of them of old men who lived for centuries, instil astonishment and religious awe. These extremely old men and patriarchs are indeed the ancestors of the human race. Their heads are all of unsurpassed mag­nificence, immersed in deep thought; power, piety, and old age are united in these faces. The eyes are deeply set; the cheekbones are strongly protruding; the noses are curved or snubby; the wrinkles are of unspeakable expressiveness; the brows are strong and contracted. Some have long beards; others have round ones; still others have rushlike beards, beards that have turned yellowish, or curly ones. Some have their white hair divided into two parts, others into three, and still others into four parts. Some have long hair, others have curly hair, and a few are bald. Their poses are decorous and hieratic; their movements, imposing yet modest. No­where else have such saints been painted, nor with such art.

On the strip immediately below, events from the life of Christ are painted. These include the Nativity, the Purifica­tion of the Virgin Mary, Twelve-year-old Jesus in theTem­ple, the Baptism, the Transfiguration, the Crucifixion, the Descent into Hades, and the Pentecost. All of them were painted with vigor. There are also some incidents from the life of the Holy Virgin, such as the Birthday Feast of the Holy Virgin and the Presentation of the Holy Virgin. The following are wonderful works of art: The Holy Virgin and Symeon at the Purification,Saint Johnthe Baptist, Christ and the Righteous Men in the Descent into Hades, the Apostles at the Ascension, and the Little Girls at the Presentation of the Holy Virgin.

On the lowest strip military saints, holy and hieratic, are painted. Among the warrior saints the following stand out: Saint Mercurios, Saint Eustathios, and the two saints who both bear the name Theodore. However, the holy ascetics and anchorites are the most wonderful, because Panselenos has imprinted upon them the mystical grandeur of the old men of Orthodoxy. Each head of all these saints seems more marvelous, as one studies it, than the others. Among the saints are Saint Anthony, Saint Euthymios, Saint Ephraim of Syria, Saint Neilos, Saint John Climacos, Saint Maximos the Confessor, Saint Theoktistos, Saint Athanasios of Mount Athos, and Saint Cosmas the Poet. Among the hierarchs, those that stand out are the saints Nicholas, Spyridon, John the Merciful, Dionysius the Areopagite, and Hierotheos.

Of the frescos that adorn the arches, we must note Noah, Moses, Melchizedek, Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah, and Daniel. Most of them are marvelous works, for one who is experi­enced in this art.

Further, let us mention the Reclining One, or Christ as a babe, sleeping, according to the Scriptural statement: "Hav­ing couched, thou slept as a lion."5 This icon has been trum­peted as a masterpiece by some who have visited the Prota­ton, but they had little knowledge of the art of iconography and judged it by their superficial knowledge and sentimental disposition, a point of view that tends to make one extol everything that looks young and rosy, and perhaps casually beautiful. The Reclining One is not one of the more power­ful works of Panselenos; it is listed among his secondary works. We also note the head ofSaint John the Baptist, at the right hand side of the iconostasis, on the wall. This, too, has been greatly praised, but with more justice, since it is indeed full of power and religious spirit.

These precious works of the Protaton are at present in bad condition, and threatened with destruction, which may sud­denly come some day -and other similar works by the hand of Panselenos do not exist anywhere else.6

The Monastery of Vatopedi

Let us now turn to the frescos that adorn the katholikon, or the large church of Vatopedi, one of the most important and largest monasteries of the HolyMountain. These frescos are probably more ancient than those of the Protaton. In power of inspiration and in execution and originality they in some ways surpass those of the Protaton, though they lack the simplicity and breadth of the works of Panselenos. Un­fortunately, they have been disfigured by later repairs. Where they are untouched, the trained eye is astonished by their originality, even though the colors, due to smoke7 and oxi­dation, have reached the monochromic state, which char­acterizes works of later times. The inspiration that sprang from the vigorous personality of the painter who made these frescos gave them extreme clarity; it is like that of a maker of bas-reliefs. Excited figures moving with fervor; austere and vigorous expressions; compositions full of drama; repeated and involved but perfectly unsurpassable folds; buildings of some mythical architecture, variegated by bas­reliefs and ornaments; rare artistic inventions, which do not, however, lapse into empty emphasis; and, above an, a certain tone of deep mystery envelops everything in that unique art, in that initiation-into-the-mysteries effected by painting. Such is the intensity and wealth of this art that it becomes some­what heavy, more closely packed and involved than is re­quisite.

Of the large compositions, the following are notable: the Nativity, the Baptism (though the figure of Christ has been retouched in many places), the Funeral Lamentation, the Entrance intoJerusalem, the Crucifixion, the Descent into Hades, the Ascension, and the Dormition of the Holy Virgin. Of the smaller compositions, the following stand out: the Last Supper, the Washing of the Apostles' Feet, Christ Speaking to the Apostles, the Birthday Feast of the Holy Virgin, the Benediction of the Priests, and above all certain incidents from the Passion, painted in the narthex, of a very sharp and almost painful dramatic intensity, such as the Agony, the Whipping, the Removal of Christ from the Cross, and the Lamentation. Of the isolated figures, we note, among others certain prophets: Habakkuk, Joel, Malachi, Zecha­riah, and Gideon, and also the saints Artémios, Nicetas, Romanós, Próvos, Andronikos, and Tárahos. All have the living character of portraits of the Hellenistic period.

These unique works must in time be cleaned of the addi­tions that have been made, washed, and then studied thor­oughly. They are among the most amazing Byzantine paint­ings, truly a buried treasure.

The Cretan School

The Cretan painters appeared on theHolyMountainabout the sixteenth century and represent Hagiorite icono­graphy proper. The style of this school was later transmitted to all ofGreece, diversified according to the place and the iconographer. Many of the Cretan painters first worked in the monasteries of Meteora, but their mature, works were executed on the HolyMountain.

The leader of this school is considered to be the monk Theophanes. The frescos in the katholikon of the Monastery of Lavra are his works.

The character of these works is vigorous (not weak, as thought by some who do not know the iconography of the East), full of religious heroism and feeling, a reflection of the steadfast spirit of Greek Orthodoxy. The folds of the garments and the flesh look as though they were carved with a chisel; the physiognomies are strong, with a certain sternness in their glances; the gestures and poses are hieratic and at the same time dramatic; the compositions are solid, the coloring is warm and mystical, and the brush strokes are impetuous but made with wise circumspection.

The representations in the dome were destroyed and have been painted again, but the rest of the wall paintings remain almost intact, except for repairs to the background and some secondary details, which do not alter their original character. Episodes from the life of Christ, Saint John the Baptist, and the Holy Virgin cover the walls, the barrel and cross vaults of the church, forming a mystical veil that en­velops the worshiper.

The following compositions are outstanding: the Baptism, the Transfiguration, the Raising of Lazarus, the Entrance into Jerusalem, the Last Supper, the Betrayal, Jesus Being Judged by Pilate, the Crucifixion, the Descent into Hades, Christ Appearing on the Seaof Tiberias, the Pentecost, and certain incidents from the life of the Holy Virgin, especially the Dormition. But the most arresting works of Theophanes are his military saints, a veritable "divine drawing-up in battle-order of the array of the Lord." Nowhere else has the heroic and steadfast, and at the same time melancholy and mystical, spirit of the Eastern Church, which has endured so much suffering, been imprinted with so much power and religious exaltation. These holy chieftains are represented in an impressive array, covered with breastplates, with shields of various forms, with exotic helmets, with long swords, spears, quivers, clubs -in short, with a multitude of arms whose sight reveals clearly to the beholder the turbulent but at the same time heroic character of the period. The faces are ascetic but also warlike, tanned, with big eyes shining with ardor that are fixed on the beholder. In his soul are inscribed forever the forms of these martyr-warriors, who, in the words of the Apostle Paul, did not fight "against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness.'"8 Such are Saint Theodore Teron, Saint Theodore the Army Com­mander, Saint George and Saint Demetrios, Saint Procopios, Saint James the Persian, Saint Mercurios -all of them on foot.

Among the frescos there are also the conventional por­traits of the founder emperors, Nicephoros Phocás and John Tsimiskís.

Above the door of the Church, inside, in one of the corners of the Dormition of the Holy Virgin, the restorer's inscrip­tion is preserved. It ends thus: "Through the hand of Theo­phanes, the monk." The paintings in this church were made in 1535. Earlier and less perfect works by Theophanes are to be found in the small monasteries at Meteora. In some of his compositions he had as prototypes etchings of Italian art, as in the case of the Massacre of the Infants, the Appearance at Emmaus, and the Crucifixion (the guard of soldiers); however, these have been completely assimilated by other elements, thanks to the strong originality of Theophanes.

The wall paintings in the refectory of the Monastery of Lavra were also done by Theophanes and his pupils. And the figures of saints and anchorites -austere works, full of the pulsation of life -occupy a prominent place there. Notable are the saints Neilos, Joasaph, John Damascene, Cosmas the Hymnist, Joannikios, the brothers Theodore and Theophanes Graptos, Ephraim of Syria, Martianos, Athanasios the Athonite, and Kyriakos the Anchorite.

Another Cretan iconographer is Tzórtzis, who painted the katholikon of the Monastery of Dionysiou, in 1547. Other Cretan artists, all anonymous, painted the katholika and refectories of Docheiarlou (1568), Ivíron, and Koutloumou­siou. These works are very important. Their general char­acter is similar to that of the frescos of Lavra, but the de­tails are more hieratic, more formal, more ascetic, and more stern. They are executed with strong religious feeling and much sobriety and contrition. Their formal aspect conceals great excellences and a deep knowledge of technical means. The coloring is simple and very warm; the design is simple and severe; and the general character is doctrinal and mys­tical.

The wall paintings of the Monastery of Dionysiou are made with greater delicacy. Also greater care is given to de­sign than in the frescos of the Monastery of Docheiariou, which are more original and abrupt.

Anthony the Cretan painted the old katholikon of the Monastery of Xenophontos, in 1545. However, his works have been pitifully disfigured by recent repainting.

The wall paintings of the side chapel at the Monastery of Saint Paul (1553), the work of an anonymous painter, are quite remarkable. Although the arrangement, the composi­tion, and the general character of these murals are similar to those of the Cretan iconographers, the execution differs from that of the other frescos of the Cretan school. The colours are lighter, the design is smoother, and the whole work is more personal.

The wall paintings of Molyvocclesia (1537), a small church of a certain cell near Karyes, are also very noteworthy for their exceptional quality, particularly their design, Be­cause of their style, they are attributed to the Cretan school, but the types of composition and the forms are actually a mixture of elements of the Macedonian and the Cretan schools,

Another exceptional group of wall paintings decorates the church of the cell of Saint Procopios (1547).

1. The main church of a monastery.

2 Byzantine iconographers made such miniatures as early as the fourth century.

3The principalchurch of Karycs or the Protaton. the capital of Mount Athos.

4 Forty-two altogether.

5 Genesis 49: 9.

6 This was written in 1949. Recently, the Greek Archeological Service decided to make secure and to clean the frescos of theHolyMountain. The work of restoration at the Protaton is now in its final stage.

7 The smoke of candles and incense.

8 Ephesians 6: 12.

Constantinos Cavarnos, Byzantine Sacred Art, New York: Vantage Press Inc., c 1957.

          Qatar Captain Waiter or Shift Leader- for Civil Defense& Outdoor Catering in Qatar(Urgent)   
Job Extract You should have the same post experience from Hotels or Restaurants or Catering Preferably East and Southeast European (Kosovo Macedonia Georgia Armenia and Azerbaijan) - (good looking and height is 56 above if possible) Must have good English communication skills Willing
          Macedonian prosecutor calls for arrest of former PM Gruevski   
Charges brought against 94 individuals as part of anti-corruption clampdown
          Homestay in Downtown Thessaloniki near Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art   
          La grande paura di piazza San Carlo   
Torino 2 giugno 2017. Ogni anno il due giugno lo Stato italiano festeggia se stesso con parate e cerimonie militari. Gli antimilitaristi si mettono di mezzo per contrastare la retorica nazionalista, l’atrocità bellica messa in mostra tra lustrini e divise tirate a lucido. Il corteo attraversa il centro cittadino con numerose azioni comunicative. Dopo un lungo fronteggiamento con la polizia arriviamo in piazza Castello: i militari hanno chiuso in fretta il loro rito. Siamo qui perché l’Italia è in guerra. Qualcuno ascolta, si avvicina, chiede. I più vengono assorbiti da gelati, bancarelle, artisti di strada, bagni nella fontana di piazza Castello. La guerra c’è, ma è lontana. Non ci riguarda. Non ci tocca. Torino 3 giugno 2017. A Cardiff si disputa la finale di Champion’s League tra Juventus e Real Madrid. In città è un tripudio di vessilli bianconeri, ambulanti con magliette, stendardi, fischietti, tifosi con la sciarpa. La Juve ha perso tutte le sette finali cui è arrivata. Quest’anno potrebbe essere quello del “triplete”: campionato, coppa Italia e coppa dei campioni. Tanti ci sperano. In piazza San Carlo c’è il maxi schermo. L’appuntamento è lì. Finirà con 1527 feriti ufficiali, di cui quattro molto gravi. Mentre scrivo è arrivata la notizia che una delle donne schiacciate dalla folla si è spenta dopo 12 giorni di agonia. Quando il Real chiude la partita infilando il quarto goal alla Juve, piazza San Carlo è ormai in preda al caos, al sangue, alla paura. Io stavo cenando in una trattoria di Barriera. Il televisore trasmetteva il mesto secondo tempo juventino. Esco sul tre a uno. Mentre sono alla cassa la proprietaria dice “in piazza San Carlo c’è uno che spara con il mitra”. Apro internet e leggo di un attacco ai civili. È la serata dell’assalto sul London Bridge e mi convinco che non stia capitando nulla. I tifosi si riversano in strada mesti e silenti. Le voci si moltiplicano: ora si parla di una bomba, anche da giornali e agenzie on line comincia a trapelare che qualcosa di grave stia succedendo. Davanti al gelataio dove mi sono traghettata arriva trafelata una donna con un vistoso taglio sulla gamba, due amici la sorreggono. Siamo a chilometri da piazza San Carlo, ci sono le famigliole con i bimbi, le panchine, la fontanella. Un buon posto per fermarsi, lavare la ferita, chiedere del ghiaccio. Non si fermano: corrono barcollando come se fossero inseguiti. Ma non c’è nessuno. Non c’è mai stato nessuno. Non è successo niente. Nelle due settimane successive si susseguono le ipotesi sulla causa scatenante del panico. Un petardo, una transenna, un falso allarme, i motori dell’impianto di aerazione del parcheggio sotterraneo che ripartono all’improvviso. Serve una ragione che nasconda l’unica verità possibile. Quella che qualcuno sussurra ma i media e le istituzioni tacciono. L’Italia è in guerra. Facciamo un passo indietro. L’Italia è in guerra da molti anni. Su più fronti, interni ed esterni. Il paradigma bellico e la sua cornice propagandistica sono cambiati in modo radicale negli ultimi trent’anni. Il pacifismo degli sconfitti ma “brava gente” è morto da tempo. Una finzione potente ha chiuso in un sarcofago gli orrori coloniali, l’intervento in Spagna e la seconda guerra mondiale. Il sarcofago è ancora chiuso. Quando lo apriranno davvero sarà ormai inerte, come ogni passato che non è divenuto memoria, coscienza collettiva, forza reattiva. Truppe italiane combattono per l’umanità, la giustizia, l’ordine internazionale o per battere il terrorismo, ma la guerra è sempre altrove. Lontana. E lontane, remote, estranee sono le vittime. I media eruttano di tanto in tanto immagini e notizie per offrire il giusto contorno emozionale alle missioni belliche delle truppe tricolori. Si consumano in fretta senza effetti collaterali. Il ripudio della guerra è una frase dell’articolo 11 della Costituzione, quello che nessuno legge per intero e quindi pochi sanno che è l’articolo che stabilisce le condizioni per farla. Poco importa. La notizia che l’Italia è in guerra tarda ad arrivare, come quelle vecchie lettere che il caso faceva perdere nei magazzini delle Poste. Recapitate dopo decenni diventano l’archeologia di un rimpianto e nulla più. In questi anni non sono mancati movimenti di opposizione al militarismo e alle missioni all’estero, ma faticano a permeare il corpo sociale, a divenire il fulcro di un agire che superi la dimensione testimoniale per farsi azione diretta. Eppure la guerra non è solo altrove. A pochi passi dalle nostre case si producono e si testano le armi impiegate nelle guerre di ogni dove. Le usano le truppe italiane nelle missioni di “pace” all’estero, le vendono le industrie italiane ai paesi in guerra. Queste armi hanno ucciso milioni di persone, distrutto città e villaggi, avvelenato irrimediabilmente interi territori. In provincia di Torino l’industria bellica aerospaziale è uno dei settori trainanti, un business che non va mai in crisi. Queste perle della nostra produzione manifatturiera hanno il plauso bipartisan dei Pentastellati al Comune e dei Dem alla Regione. Quest’anno all’Alenia di Caselle Torinese, oltre a costruire un nuovo lotto di cacciabombardieri Eurofighter, faranno anche droni da combattimento. Gli aerei senza pilota che estraniano chi uccide dalla morte che infligge. A migliaia di chilometri di distanza, seduti ad una consolle, misurano, prendono la mira, calcolano la velocità e l’impatto. Come in un video gioco. Solo i morti sono veri. Veri ma con la stessa immaterialità di un film. Ogni giorno qualcuno muore nel Mediterraneo. Nei prossimi mesi ne moriranno di più: il governo ha deciso di mettere sotto controllo le navi dei volontari che assistono i migranti sui barconi. Presto guardia costiera e militari imporranno la loro presenza sulle imbarcazioni. A chi non ci sta verrà vietato di approdare in Italia. Tra i sommersi e i salvati ci sono robusti muri materiali: la guardia costiera, le leggi sull’immigrazione, le prigioni per i senza carte, gli accordi con i paesi di transito per trattenimenti e rimpatri. In quei posti la gente in viaggio viene picchiata, torturata, stuprata, uccisa. I mandanti sono a Roma. Gentiloni, Minniti sono alla consolle: ad ogni click qualcuno muore. Chi promuove guerre in nome dell’umanità paga il governo della Libia, della Turchia, del Niger, del Ciad, perché i profughi vengano respinti e deportati. La guerra è in casa. Nelle strade delle nostre periferie, dove i nemici sono i poveri, gli immigrati, i senza tetto, chi si oppone ad un ordine sociale feroce. Tra sommersi e salvati c’è anche una spessa muraglia simbolica. Noi e loro. Senza quella muraglia sarebbe più facile riconoscere la guerra. In Afganistan, in Iraq, nel Mediterraneo e dietro casa nostra. Magari tra le bancarelle del mercato di Porta Palazzo dove il sangue di un ragazzo senegalese bagna le scarpe e il marciapiede, durante una normale operazione di polizia. È successo proprio a Torino dieci giorni dopo piazza San Carlo. Succede ogni giorno. Qualche volta qualcuno fa un video. La retorica sulla sicurezza alimenta l’identificazione del nemico con il povero, per spezzare la solidarietà tra gli oppressi, affinché non si alleino contro chi li opprime. La retorica della sicurezza alimenta l’immaginario della guerra di civiltà, della paura della Jihad globale, mentre il governo italiano è alleato di paesi che finanziano chi semina il terrore. Criminalizzare migranti e profughi mantiene salda l’illusione che la guerra sia altrove. Governo e opposizione soffiano sul fuoco della guerra tra i poveri come guerra di civiltà. Serve, nel male di vivere quotidiano, a rinforzare la sciocca speranza di stare dalla parte dei salvati. Poi capita il catino infernale di piazza San Carlo. Le istituzioni cittadine e nazionali se la cavano moltiplicando divieti, puntando il dito sui venditori abusivi, blindando le piazze. Un altro pezzo di libertà che vola via nell’afa estiva. Piazza San Carlo è ben altro. Dovremo imparare ad attraversarne lo spazio simbolico e reale se vogliamo che i nostri percorsi contro la guerra, il militarismo, l’estendersi dei meccanismi disciplinari trovino nuovi compagni di strada. Probabilmente non sapremo mai cosa sia successo, quale scintilla abbia innescato le tre grandi ondate di panico, che hanno trasformato il salotto buono di Torino nell’anticamera di Kabul, Aleppo, Baghdad, Mosul… In fondo conta poco, molto poco. Sappiamo però che piazza San Carlo è lo specchio del nostro vivere, di un tempo, dove la guerra, che si finge non ci sia, ha infiltrato l'immaginario, colonizzandolo. Nei prossimi mesi il governo ci ruberà un altro pezzo di libertà, per proteggerci dalla paura di una guerra che non si deve nominare. I semi della paura hanno attecchito nel profondo del corpo sociale. L’uomo con il mitra non c’era, nessuno ha sparato, ma il bilancio è quello di qualsiasi battaglia: morti e feriti. Per anni ci siamo chiesti perché tanti, troppi, si girassero dall’altra parte di fronte agli uccisi, ai bambini annegati, alla gente che nella morsa dell’inverno guadava i torrenti della Macedonia, sfidava il deserto, le bande armate e gli eserciti. Per anni ci siamo chiesti perché si combattessero tante guerre senza significativi movimenti di opposizione. Sebbene qualcosa in più sia successo nell’opposizione alle basi, ai poligoni, agli aeroporti militari, sarebbe inutile nascondersi che spesso le ragioni dell’antimilitarismo sono state rinforzate da lotte ambientali e per la salute. È finito il tempo delle illusioni. Siamo in guerra e questa guerra ha un ampio consenso. È finito anche il tempo dell’ambiguità possibile. Lo hanno capito bene i pentastellati, che dopo anni vissuti pericolosamente sullo spartiacque del razzismo di Stato, hanno fatto una veloce scelta di campo. Sono stati abili, miscelando corruzione e accoglienza. Dopo aver imbarcato e poi sbarcato i peggiori attrezzi di Mafia Capitale, Virginia Raggi si schiera contro il business dell’immigrazione e chiude le porte a profughi e migranti. A Torino Chiara Appendino, sindaca No Tav con nuance ecologista, ha fatto un rimpasto in giunta, nominando assessore all’ambiente Unia, uno che si è fatto le ossa nei comitati per lo sgombero delle baraccopoli rom. A Mirafiori, dove i tetti della vecchia fabbrica sono distese di amianto, potranno dormire sonni tranquilli. Il governo aveva battuto tutti d’anticipo, con le nuove leggi sull’immigrazione e la sicurezza urbana. Fanno leva sulla paura per stringere le maglie del controllo, moltiplicare i dispositivi disciplinari, creare nuove prigioni. Piazza San Carlo rappresenta uno spartiacque. Dal 3 giugno sappiamo che la paura ha spinto nella propria rete il pallone. Un autogol. Peccato non fosse un gioco. Qualcuno, dall’interno della piazza ha osservato e poi scritto dell’incapacità di riconoscersi nell’altro, nel governare collettivamente la paura. Al di là di qualche episodio di solidarietà, il panico ha avuto la meglio su tutto. Il governo della paura è la scommessa dei cacciatori di poltrone di ogni colore. Una partita che giocano con determinata ferocia. Torino 12 giugno 2017. Al mercato via Porpora un uomo di mezza età ha rifiutato un volantino sulla campagna fascista contro le baraccopoli rom, dicendo “Devono bruciare vivi. Tutti.” È calmo, freddo, distante. Nonostante l’afa un brivido mi scende lungo la schiena. Attraversare e comprendere la paura è necessario per sconfiggerla, per impedire che si trasformi in altra violenza, in pogrom, in baracche che bruciano, in blocchi stradali per fermare una dozzina di profughe. In plauso per la polizia che massacra un ragazzo africano. Quando si muore di nulla, diventa più semplice uccidere per nulla. O, peggio, firmare una delega in bianco agli imprenditori politici del terrore. La strada è in salita. Ma nella cassetta degli attrezzi dei movimenti di opposizione sociale si sono sedimentate pratiche e saperi capaci di spingere in direzione opposta e contraria la paura. Aprire le piazze, moltiplicare le reti di mutuo appoggio, far crescere nelle periferie luoghi di incontro, scambio conoscenza, opportunità di lotta è una scommessa forte ma necessaria. La paura può cambiare di campo. Le ragioni di chi punta su una società di liber* ed eguali sempre più devono farsi pratica quotidiana. Non è un gioco facile. Ma è l’unico che vale la pena giocare. Maria Matteo (quest'articolo è uscito sull'ultimo numero di Arivista)
          Leaving Macedonia - and coming back   

During the last years, thousands of Roma left Macedonia in search for a better life in North-Western Europe. All of those Roma who applied for political asylum have been sent back, though, by Dutch, German, Belgian and Swedish authorities. The European Commission even threatened to turn back the visa-free status for all Macedonians and Serbians, which is in place since the end of 2009. 


Read more - in German - about the situation of the returned Roma in Macedonia in Freitag, on page 7.

Mazedonien Juni 2011.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 6.9 MB

          Getting to Macedonia   

Thessaloniki/Skopje – So close, and still so far away. Try getting to the Macedonian capital Skopje these days from Thessaloniki,. the capital of Greek Macedonia. I did it, today, and it was a classical travellers´ hassle.


Greece is undergoing a serious crisis these days. Therefore, the Greek railways suspended all international train departures to Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Turkey at the beginning of this year. I read about it, and foolish as I am, I expected there there would be some sort of alternative transport. A bus, for example. But no way. The Greek railways does not offer any other transport. They do not care either. Nor does KTEL, the Greek state bus company.


So if you want to get from Greek Macedonia to Macedonian Macedonia, you´re on yuor own. Good luck! Here`s my travel advice: first take a local bus to Polikastro in Northern Greece. Then take a taxi to the Greek-Macedonian border. Walk across the border. Take a taxi on the Macedonian side to Gevgelija. And then, finally, take a stone-age train to Skopje. All in all, the 260 kilometers will cost something like 40 Euros this way. The trip takes roughly seven hours. Extra bonus: you will immediately have a pretty good impression about the state of unification between the two Macedonias......


          Submission for the Universal Periodic Review of Serbia   


Human Rights Watch’s key human rights concerns on Serbia are reflected in the 2017 World Report chapter on Serbia. Accountability for war crimes is hampered by slow progress on prosecutions. Concerns over freedom of the media continue amid repeated threats against journalists and failure by authorities to investigate cases of threats and violence against investigative reporters. Roma also face discrimination, as do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Members of these communities face threats, discrimination and harassment. The situation for refugees, asylum seekers, and IDPs remains a concern, particularly inadequate asylum procedures, pushbacks, and limited capacity of reception centres. Moving children with disabilities out of institutions and into family-like environments has been a limited and slow process.

In light of the serious human rights concerns that persist in Kosovo, scrutiny by international human rights bodies is vital. We therefore urge the Human Rights Council to ensure that Kosovo is subject to the Universal Periodic Review process and other human rights monitoring in an appropriate and robust fashion. Our concerns on the human rights situation in Kosovo are available on our website:


1.Treatment of Migrants and Asylum seekers

While Serbia has seen a significant decrease in the number of asylum seekers and other migrants arriving since 2016, there continue to be serious obstacles to accessing protection and humane treatment including for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. There are credible reports of on-going summary returns of asylum seekers from Serbia to Macedonia.

According to the UNHCR, partner organizations and the Serbian Commissariat for Refugees and Migration there were 6,600 asylum seekers, refugees and other migrants in Serbia at the time of writing.

According to the Serbian Ministry of Interior’s Asylum Office, 2,922 individuals expressed intentions to seek asylum in the Republic of Serbia in the first five months of 2017. Most are Syrians, Afghans, Iraqis and Pakistanis. Asylum seekers are housed in overcrowded camps and often in unsuitable mixed accommodation with single males, families, single women and unaccompanied children sharing living space.

In 2012, Serbia accepted a recommendation to “Take all necessary measures to ensure the improvement of socio-economic conditions of refugees and internally displaced persons.” Yet, as of June 9, 2017, Serbia had not granted anyone the status of a refugee. In 2016, Serbia granted refugee status to only 19 asylum seekers and subsidiary protection to 23. In addition to low recognition rates, and problems registering asylum claims, there are significant backlogs in the country’s asylum procedure with thousands of pending claims.

During the first five months of 2017, the Ministry of Interior registered 46 unaccompanied children in Serbia, from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Serbia lacks formal age assessment procedures for unaccompanied children, putting older children at risk of being treated as adults instead of receiving child protection. Only three institutions exist in Serbia for unaccompanied children and have a total of 32 places. Other unaccompanied children stay in temporary shelters known as “refugee aid centers” together with unrelated adults or open reception centers, where in some cases unaccompanied children can be accommodated separately from unrelated adults. The number of unaccompanied children is, based on the observations of our researchers, likely much higher than the officially reported 46.

Progress in finding durable solutions for refugees and internally displaces persons (IDPs) from the Balkan wars living in Serbia was insignificant. According to UNHCR, as of June 2017, there were 29,414 refugees in Serbia, 20,334 from Croatia and 9,080 from Bosnia and Herzegovina while the Serbian government recorded 203,000 internally displaced people from Kosovo.

In an April 2015 report, Human Rights Watch interviewed migrants and asylum seekers who described violent assaults, threats, insults, and extortion, denial of the required special protection for unaccompanied children, and summary returns to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. There is credible evidence that summary returns from Serbia to Macedonia continue. Serbian authorities have not taken adequate steps to address halt these abuses.


  • Issue clear guidance to police officers that they should treat asylum seekers and migrants with respect and in a manner consistent with Serbia’s human rights obligations, in particular the prohibitions on ill-treatment and non-refoulement, and ensure access to asylum procedures in Serbia;
  • Ensure that anyone who expresses a wish to apply for asylum should have a meaningful opportunity to register their asylum claim and present their case;
  • Ensure humane and suitable conditions for asylum seekers and migrants accommodated in asylum facilities across Serbia, with special attention given to vulnerable groups, including families with children, unaccompanied children, single women, older persons and people with medical conditions and/or disabilities;
  • Issue clear guidance to police officers to provide unaccompanied children with special attention and care as required by domestic and international law.


  1. Lack of Accountability for War Crimes

Despite accepting recommendations to take all necessary measures to end to impunity by prosecuting alleged perpetrators in accordance with international standards, war crimes prosecutions in Serbia are hampered by a lack of political support, resources or staff at the Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor and inadequate witness support.

Since the establishment of the War Crimes Prosecution Office in 2003, 110 judgments have been issued: 75 convictions and 37 acquittals. But few high-ranking officials have been prosecuted for war crimes in Serbian courts.

Despite the war crimes strategy adopted by the government in February 2016, which sets out criteria for prioritizing cases and commitment to prosecute high-ranking officials suspected of war crimes, progress appears to have stalled. Between January 2017 and June 2017, the War Crimes Prosecutor’s Office issued only 1 indictment against 1 person. During the same period, no one was convicted or acquitted by the first instance court for war crimes and two persons were acquitted at the appeals stage.

The most notable example of the lack of progress in war crimes accountability is the failure to bring charges in relation to the organized removal of more than 900 Albanian bodies from Kosovo to Serbia in 1999 and their reburial in mass graves, including on the grounds of a police training center. Some of the people allegedly involved in this crime were named in 2011 by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in its judgment against Serbian police chief Vlastimir Đorđević but, to date, no one has been indicted.

Another case involves the apparent execution in custody of three U.S. citizens – the brothers Ylli, Agron, and Mehmet Bytyqi – who were arrested in Serbia in June 1999, transferred to a police training center, and killed in July 1999. Despite assurances in June 2015 to US State Department officials by then Serbian Prime Minister Vucic that there would be progress in the case, no one has been brought to justice for this crime.

In June 2017, ICTY President Carmel Agius asked the UN Security Council to ensure that three members of the Serbian Radical Party, indicted for contempt of court, are extradited to the Tribunal. So far Serbian authorities have not obliged. During its previous UPR, Serbia accepted the recommendation to continue its cooperation with the ICTY and to ensure that other perpetrators are prosecuted in domestic courts in accordance with international standards.


  • Ensure greater efficiency in war crimes investigations and prosecutions, particularly against higher ranking military and police officials who may bear command responsibility;
  • Ensure an effective investigation into the 1999 transfer of bodies of hundreds of ethnic Albanians from Kosovo to Serbia; investigations should include the persons named in the 2011 ICTY decision against Vlastimir Đorđević;
  • Ensure an effective investigation into the apparent extrajudicial executions of the three Bytyqi brothers, including responsible commanders;
  • Ensure that the three indicted persons in the contempt case of Jojić et al. are extradited to the ICTY.


3.Restrictions on Media Freedom

Human Rights Watch research in Serbia shows that journalists and other media workers operate in a hostile environment where threats, smear campaigns and political interference with their work is commonplace. Media freedom is a critical precondition for the development of a democratic society, as well as a condition of closer ties to the European Union.

The Independent Journalists’ Association of Serbia (NUNS) registered 69 incidents against journalists in 2016, and 40 in the first six months of 2017. The incidents in 2017 included 3 physical assaults, 12 verbal threats and 25 incidents involving pressure.

The work of a national commission established to investigate the murders of three prominent journalists, Slavko Curuvija in 1999, Dada Vujasinovic in 1994, and Milan Pantic in 2001, has made limited progress. The widow of Slavko Curuvija has criticized the slow progress of the trial against four state security officials suspected of alleged involvement in her husband’s murder. The deaths of the remaining two journalists remained unsolved. In 2012, Serbia rejected a recommendation to establish an “International Commission for Investigation of Murders of Journalists”.

Government officials and pro-government media have repeatedly criticized independent news organizations. The former Prime Minister Vucic, now President, was quoted in 2015 criticizing the Balkans Investigative Reporting Network as liars funded by the EU to speak against the Serbian government.

In research carried out in 2015 and updated in 2016, Human Rights Watch found that journalists in Serbia face physical attacks and threats, including death threats, as a result of reporting on sensitive issues including war crimes and government corruption. The state response to attacks and threats against journalists appears to be weak, despite accepting recommendations during their previous UPR to create a climate in which journalists are able to report on sensitive issues without fear or harassment and reprisal.


  • Publicly and unequivocally condemn all attacks against journalists and media outlets carried out in retaliation for their work and ensure swift and thorough investigations into all such incidents;
  • Conduct prompt, effective, impartial, and thorough investigations into all attacks and threats against journalists and media outlets, including cybercrimes, and bring prosecutions as appropriate.


4.Treatment of Minorities

During the second cycle UPR, Serbia accepted all recommendations received relating to the treatment of minorities, including one recommendation to “Enforce legal safeguards to ensure fair and equal access to housing, education, employment and government services for Romani individuals and protection against arbitrary, forcible evictions and displacement from their homes or temporary residences”. Yet, Roma often live in informal squalid settlements lacking basic services such as schools, health care, water and proper sewage. Roma in such informal settlements are also vulnerable to forced evictions without offers for adequate alternative accommodation. Segregated education remains a problem, with Romani children often attending mainstream schools in separate classes and are overrepresented in schools for children with special needs.


  • Ensure procedural safeguards and adequate alternative accommodation in cases of forced evictions of Roma;
  • Ensure that everyone in Serbia, regardless of ethnicity, age, or employment status can access public services, including healthcare and education;
  • End segregation of Romani children in mainstream schools and ensure that all children are provided quality education in an inclusive setting.


5.Disability Rights

Human Rights Watch documented in its 2016 report ‘It Is My Dream To Leave This Place’: Children with Disabilities in Serbian Institutions that hundreds of children with disabilities in Serbia live in state institutions where they are likely to experience neglect and isolation, have no privacy and have little or no access to education. They also may be given inappropriate medication, and may not be allowed to make their own decisions even when they become adults. The majority of these children have at least one living parent, but given the dearth of community-based services, parents often do not have the support they need to care for their child with a disability. Instead, parents may be advised by health professionals to give up on their child with a disability.

Human Rights Watch research found that some young women with disabilities who live in institutions experienced invasive medical interventions without their free and informed consent, but rather based on the consent of their guardian. The interventions included the insertion of intrauterine devices (for birth control), administration of pap smear tests (Papanicolaou test, a screening procedure for cervical cancer) and termination of pregnancy. According to institution staff interviewed by Human Rights Watch, anaesthesia was used in every case so that the women would not resist the interventions. 

Despite accepting all recommendations on the topic of disability rights during both previous UPR cycles, in April 2016, the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities expressed deep concerns about the number of children and adults with disabilities living in institutions and about the poor living conditions in institutions in Serbia. The committee urged Serbia to deinstitutionalize people with disabilities and to ensure access to inclusive and quality education. The committee also called on Serbia to replace its guardianship system and ensure all people with disabilities have access to services and support in the community of their own choice and preference.

In February 2017, the UN Committee on the Rights of Child adopted concluding observations on Serbia and urged the government to “urgently reduce placement of children under the age of 3 in residential care institutions, including those with disabilities, and expedite the placement in family-based care.” The Committee further raised concerns about segregation, neglect, limited privacy, exclusion from education and play, forced and inappropriate medical treatment that children with disabilities experience in orphanages in Serbia. The Committee urged Serbia to end such practices and to make sure children with disabilities are safe and have the right to live with their families or in other family-like environments.  

Human Rights Watch is concerned that the Serbian government continues to invest in institutionalization despite ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009. This despite the fact that Serbia accepted a recommendation in 2012 to “Consolidate the constitutional and legislative framework to prevent discrimination against persons with disabilities”.  In March 2014 and in April 2016, Serbia opened two newly built institutions for children and young people with disabilities. It cost the Serbian government 66 million Serbian dinars (or 600,000 EUROS) to build one of the two facilities. 

As of June 2017, the Serbian government has not yet adopted a de-institutionalization plan or followed up with other previously expressed commitments to transition people from institutions into community-based living arrangements.  According to UNICEF and local activists, Serbia has yet to take steps to end neglect of children living in institutions and hold those responsible for treatment of children to account. In a phone conversation with the Serbian Ministry of Education in March 2017, a representative of the Ministry told Human Rights Watch that no concrete steps have been taken to ensure children with disabilities who live in institutions have access to education.


  • Protect children and young people with disabilities in institutions from harm and abuse;
  • Provide necessary support and services to move children and adults with disabilities from institutions to communities, in line with Article 19 of the CRPD;
  • Ensure all children and young people with disabilities enjoy their right to an inclusive, quality education, on an equal basis with others, in line with Article 24 of the CRPD;
  • Protect the right to legal capacity and supported decision-making for persons with disabilities, in conformity with Article 12 of the CRPD.
  • Ensure persons with disabilities enjoy their right to health, including the right to free and informed consent to medical treatment, is respected.



          Car rental Thessaloniki - Airport - Macedonia [SKG], Greece   
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          Bulgarian fans accused of "insulting Macedonia" block road   
Fans of Bulgarian football club Botev on Thursday for several hours blocked the Kumanovo-Kriva Palanka road in northeastern Macedonia. Beta is reporting that they did this "dissatisfied because the police wanted to bring them in for insulting the Macedonian state."
          Vintage Leather Jewelry Trinket Box with Hinged Lid and Blue Silk Lining Made in Yugoslavia by EitherOrFinds   

14.00 USD

This is a lovely vintage leather jewelry or trinket box, which was made decades ago in Yugoslavia, now broken up into the countries of Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia and Kosovo.

The leather has been expertly cut and pieced together in an unusual abstract floral design. Primarily created in beige or off white leather, it is laced around the outside with green leather, with other design colors of blue, green, and wheat gold leather.

Hinged and lined with blue silk, it measures 6-1/2 by 6 by 2.

Although there are some signs of use, the box is in very good condition and ready for whatever jewelry or trinkets you'd like it to contain.

          Se vende - Infantil Niñas Carter's Rosa Naranja Vestido sin... - Subasta   
Lomo de San Pedro 35489, España
Excluye: Samoa, Samoa Americana, Nueva Caledonia, Tuvalu, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Islas Cook, Niue, Islas Marshall, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Wallis y Futuna, Polinesia Francesa, Nauru, Islas Salomón, Guam, Tonga, Micronesia, Fiji, Palau, Macedonia, San Marino, Moldavia, Andorra, Albania, Vaticano, Montenegro, Svalbard y Jan Mayen, Bielorrusia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Haití, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Antillas Neerlandesas, Panamá, República Dominicana, San Vicente y las ...

          Funny Macedonian Murti Fucking A Local Girl While His Friend Is Taping And Making Fun Of Them   
Watch Funny Macedonian Murti Fucking A Local Girl While His Friend Is Taping And Making Fun Of Them at - old school free sex video tube.
          Leeds battling Champions League regulars for 17-goal attacker – reliable journalist   

30th June, 2017, 1:55 PMBy Danny Wright Leeds are keeping close tabs on Macedonian international Ezgjan Alioski, according to a reliable journalist. Radio Yorkshire commentator Joe Rawson claimed on his personal Twitter account that the FC Lugano attacker is a “target” of the Whites and didn’t train with his Swiss employers on Friday. #lufc target Ezgjan […]

The post Leeds battling Champions League regulars for 17-goal attacker – reliable journalist appeared first on Football Insider.

          Ţările din Europa cu capitalele lor   
           Europa Sudică  ( Mediteraneană )  -Portugalia ( Lisabona ) -Spania ( Madrid ) -Italia ( Roma ) -San Marino ( San Marino ) -Andorra ( Andorra la Vella ) -Croaţia ( Zagreb ) -Bosnia şi Herţegovina ( Sarajevo ) -Macedonia ( Skopje ) -Albania ( Tirana ) -Malta ( Valleta […]
          Greece through the ages   
A historical
and socio-political overview

Greece is a new country although it has a very rich ancient past. It is righteously considered the cradle of Western civilization and the birth place of democracy, science, free-thought, philosophy, drama, and politics but not as a united, sovereign country. When we refer to ancient Greece, we have to make sure that we refer to the autonomous Greek city-states such as Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, the Ionian city-states, Macedonia, etc that not only they did not constitute a united country but also engaged in competition and warfare among them. Let’s bring to mind the Peloponnesian War for example (Athens against Sparta).
So, Greece’s ancient past is the ancient past of the independent Greek city states and not the past of a united country. The religion, the mythological references and some cultural elements were common among the various city states but this doesn’t mean that there was a unified, sovereign country despite the Olympic Games where all the Greek city-states participated. Furthermore, although some general cultural elements were common, there were severe differences in the social institutions and the politics among those city-states...
          [Ticker] Macedonia's special prosecutor indicts former PM   

Macedonia's special prosecutor charged 94 people in connection with an illegal wiretapping scandal that led to the fall of the previous government, prosecutor Katica Janeva announced Thursday. Those charged include former prime minister Nikola Gruevski and high-ranking officials, local media reported.

          FYR Macedonia U20 vs Poland U20, Jul 01, 2017 – Live Stream, Score, Prediction   
Friendly International Basketball, Macedonia U20 – Poland U20, Saturday, 12:00 pm ET Short Preview Poland U20 could have advantage in physics – more days for rest in last days. In this match Poland U20 is at the top. Recently, the team did not play each other. Prediction (the most likely outcome according to the bookmakers): […]
          Brexit Bollocks    

            A common complaint about the referendum debate from so-called “ordinary voters” is that while soothsayers and their opinions are many, facts are depressingly thin on the ground. In default of facts, the public is bombarded with unverifiable assertions whose reliability tends to be in inverse proportion to the confidence with which they are expressed. Some of the most forceful of these are manifestly untrue and routinely take the form of histrionic tantrums and insults - humorous and otherwise - directed at opponents. Bombast and fury, notably from advocates of the ‘Leave’ campaign, occupy the sound waves and headlines, elbowing out rational argument and well-researched analysis.  Boris Johnson’s scatological quip about the government’s referendum leaflet, for example, tells us less about the quality of the document than about the puerile humour of a man who, by some accounts, is using ‘Vote Leave’ as part of a plan to replace the current occupant of Number 10. If he succeeds, he will be the first overt buffoon ever to lead the country. Ambition, cold calculation of personal or corporate advantage seem more present among the ‘Outers’ than concern for the country’s future.
            By contrast, the ‘Remain’ campaign seems oddly low-key - probably because it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to be passionately angry about advocating “no change”. Yeats’ unforgettable lines come to mind:
“the best lack all conviction, while the worst
Are full of passionate intensity.”
            Not that we should in any sense admit the current UK prime minister into the ranks of “the best”. He is, as Anthony Barnett describes in his excellent piece, an inveterate dissembler, a callow purveyor of untruths. But with respect to the referendum, the arguments for ‘Remain’ put forward by Cameron’s team - and by Corbyn’s for that matter - give the impression at least of appealing to our intellect rather than to crude emotion.
            What is lacking so far in the ‘Remain’ camp is any sign that the manifest absurdities of  prominent ‘Out’ campaigners like Johnson are being subjected to scrutiny. So here is a taste of what such scrutiny might reveal.
            Among Johnson’s recent pronouncements is a claim that President Obama is a hypocrite for recommending that the UK remain in the EU (with a concomitant loss of sovereignty) when the US wouldn’t dream of sharing its own sovereignty with any other nation. That Johnson feels free to voice such an offensive insult suggests that he will say anything to advance his case regardless of whether it is fair, true, or an appropriate way of referring to a foreign head of state prior to a visit to this country.  This is embarrassing enough; but even worse is that his remark is patently untrue.  When, in 1994, the US government entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), it surrendered a substantial degree of autonomy, as did the co-signatories Canada and Mexico. A complex and substantial range of NAFTA rules and regulations governs trade and investment between the three countries, a fact that has given rise to unease in some quarters at the loss of sovereignty supposedly involved.
            The idea that trading arrangements in the modern world are free of political consequences is, to borrow one of Johnson’s favoured epithets, piffle. All such agreements involve releasing control over some aspects of national economic life in return for expected advantages. Whether these involve a fundamental loss of sovereignty, rather than a reversible one, is another matter. ‘Leave’ campaigners are fond of pointing out with declamatory relish the percentage of UK laws now made in Brussels (a Farage speciality), and that various desirable initiatives of the UK government are stymied by EU regulation. What they overlook is that the UK parliament remains sovereign in law and that while, on joining the European Community (as it then was) in 1972, it agreed to acknowledge the supremacy of European law, it could not and cannot bind its successors. Like other EU members, the UK can repudiate existing EU legislation or refuse to sign up to new legislation with which it disagrees. As I have signalled in a previous piece, other EU members have a decidedly pick-and-choose attitude towards EU legislation; and the idea that the UK lacks this element of discretion is, to borrow once more from Johnson, bunkum.
            One of the ‘Leave’ campaign’s most outspoken storm-troopers is Daniel Hannan who, despite his distaste for the EU, is an elected MEP with a right therefore to enjoy the associated perquisites. A curious reversal of Groucho Marx’s refusal to join a club willing to accept him is Hannan’s adherence to a club that he evidently feels should have no members at all - not UK ones at any rate.
            As readers wearing armour plate can verify for themselves, Hannan has assembled  what he doubtless considers to be an imposing armoury of munitions against ‘Remainers’ and everything they stand for; and he expresses himself with the frightening self-confidence of someone for whom doubt is an alien concept, and facts are discardable or subject to revision if they fail to correspond with his vision. 
            An anti-EU article by Hannan in The Spectator  offers a summary of his views. He begins by telling readers that: “… the migration and euro crises are deepening, and Britain is being dragged into them.”  As an exercise in misrepresentation this could hardly be bettered. Given that the UK has not adopted the common currency, the euro troubles to which Hannan refers can only affect the UK indirectly through commerce; and since no one is advocating a cessation of trade with the EU, the issue is irrelevant to the case for or against Brexit. More sinister is Hannan’s reference to migration because it directs our attention, as he doubtless intends, to the refugees flooding into southern Europe from various conflicts in the Middle East, North Africa and elsewhere. Their numbers certainly qualify the phenomenon as a crisis, but it is not one created by the EU. If responsibility lies anywhere beyond the conflicting parties themselves, it is with foreign powers that have interpreted their role on the world’s stage as a right to meddle, to bomb, to invade, and to sell arms to those regions, with scant regard for the consequences.
            Hannan’s migration comment slides neatly over the UK’s own role in fomenting the migration crisis: the wreckage of Iraq that gave rise to ISIS, a dithering intervention in Syria, military adventurism in Afghanistan, Cameron’s pathetic failure to keep his promises on Libya, and so on. The inference is that we can and should close our eyes  and borders to the refugee problems facing Greece and Italy, and instead pursue a policy like those of Hungary, Macedonia and now Austria aimed at keeping out unwelcome hordes.  If Europe is descending into what may be the kind nationalism that we saw prior to WWII, then the EU project may come to an end anyway - not for the reasons cited by Johnson and Hannan, but because of a dispiriting failure to exercise the common solidarity that, in a globalised and increasingly volatile world, is critical to our well-being.
            What of the accusation that Brussels obliges the UK (and presumably all the other members) to accept unwelcome regulation? Here is Hannan comparing Swiss “liberty” with EU regulatory oppression:
“Zurich doesn’t need to worry about the expensive and sometimes downright malicious EU regulations that menace London: the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive, the short-selling ban, the bonus cap, the Financial Transactions Tax.”
Describing the EU as “malicious”, and its activities as a “menace” to London anthropomorphises it as a villainous creature intent on doing us down. Since Hannan offers a list of malign EU initiatives, let’s take a look at them. The Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD) represents an attempt to limit systemic risk in the “alternatives investment” market, such as hedge funds and derivatives, that are widely considered to have contributed to the global downturn of 2008. Despite coming into force in 2011, only a handful of EU members have bothered to ratify it - the UK being one of them. No one forced the hand of government to sign up, and given the havoc wreaked on the world economy by out-of-control financial speculation, the menace would seem  to be not in Brussels but in the minds of those who wish to allow fund managers to carry on as before. One can only wonder at the reason why Hannan thinks the AIFMD threatens our well-being.
            The short-selling ban is a piece of legislation designed - like the AIFMD -  to foster financial stability in the light of lessons learned in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis, and it contains exemptions available to all member states; while the cap on (bankers’) bonuses - at an almost grotesque maximum of 200% of pay - seems so absurdly innocuous that to cite it as an example of EU maliciousness is either perverse or simply weird. Finally the Financial Transactions Tax is an initiative of the European Commission in which fully half of the EU members - including the UK - have opted not to participate.
            In summary, Hannan’s terrifying examples of EU malevolence turn out to be neither terrifying, foolish, oppressive, malevolent, or even obligatory.
            Turning to the cost of EU membership, Hannan refers to an obscure paper by “Professor  Herman Matthijs of the Free University of Brussels” in which figures are given for national contributions to the EU budget. Hannan’s complaint is that Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, which are non-EU members, only contribute €50, €107 and €68 respectively per capita, while the UK has to pay €229. What he fails to point out, either because the message is inconvenient or because of his own ignorance (he incorrectly describes Professor Matthijs as the only available source) is that the UK’s net per capita contribution after rebate and financial support deductions is not €229 but €118, equivalent to 2.5 pence per day.  By contrast, France pays €176 per capita, Germany €270, Belgium €302, and Netherlands a whopping €504 [1]. Of the twelve EU countries that make positive net contributions to the EU, only Ireland, Spain and Luxembourg pay less per capita than the UK.
              The UK’s position as a net contributor to the EU budget roughly corresponds to the country’s relative wealth per capita. This may come as a shock to those who have become accustomed to hearing - notably from ‘Leave’ campaigners - that the UK economy is the fifth largest in the world. Absolute size is far from being a reflection of economic success, and in Europe, the UK lies in tenth position in terms of GDP per capita behind Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Sweden. Where the country stands proud is not in relative wealth but in achieving the rank of Europe’s most unequal country.
            Hannan’s peroration in his Spectator article borders on the delusional. In scratching around for evidence of how we could happily go it alone, he quotes the following from disgraced Icelandic Prime Minister Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson:
 “Iceland is much better off outside the EU. Unemployment is minimal, purchasing power has never been higher, and we have control over our own legal framework, currency and natural resources.” 
            Some might consider this comment to be a damned cheek as well as misleading. Iceland is the country that had to be bailed out by EU countries (plus Norway) when it went bust; and it adheres to virtually the entire EU framework - including the “Schengen” open-border arrangement from which the UK is exempt.
            On the BBC’s Today Programme, MP John Redwood, another ‘Leave” proponent, saw fit to trash the recent  Treasury analysis of the consequences of Brexit, before confidently affirming that “we will be better off out”.  He then excused the ‘Leave’ campaign’s lack of supporting data for this view with a stunning  piece of rhetorical self-contradiction: “Who knows what’s going to happen?”;  a question to which presumably the only possible reply is that of Voltaire’s potty anti-hero Dr Pangloss: “All is for the best…”
            Rhetoric rather than information is the ‘Leave’ campaign’s main weapon; and its case rests largely on arousing sentiments of nationalism, on appeals to emotion and to certitudes whose validity on inspection seeps away like sand through a sieve.
            Writing in 1934, Stefan Zweig presciently identified the difficulty as well as the fundamental  nobility of the European ideal:
            “The European idea is is not a primary emotion like patriotism or ethnicity;….it is not the product of spontaneous fervour, but the slow-ripened fruit of a more elevated way of thinking….the egoism of nationalism will always cut more keenly through to the average man than the altruism of the European ideal because it is always easier to be aware…..of one’s own kind than of one’s neighbour….If we cannot arouse enthusiasm for our idea (of European unity) in the heart and blood of our peoples, our effort will be in vain, for never in the history of change has the intellectual sphere and that of patient reflection ever triumphed.” [2]
            His warning went unheeded, with all the ensuing consequences. Former Greek finance minister, Yanis Varoufakis, speaks in similar terms in a recent interview with Owen Jones of The Guardian.  His message: we need to bond across borders if we are to avoid a descent into xenophobia, racism and ultra-nationalism.
            Perhaps, in the end, we just need to glance back at the last century, and learn.

[1] Net figures for 2014. Source: Laissez Faire
[2] Stefan  Zweig, The Unification of Europe in “Messages from a Lost World”, Pushkin Press, London.

Note: This piece first appeared in

          FYR Macedonia U20 v Poland U20   
European Basketball - Youth International Friendly - 2017-07-01 17:00
          Plan de Emergencias   
Oficina del Rector. Por designación directa de la autoridadDecanato de. Se designarán lugares como Centros de Operaciones y, desde los cuales el Comité de Operaciones deactivará el correspondiente Plan de Emergencia.
Toda acción, medida u operación de respuesta a emergencias será ejecutada
desde la
nominadora, serán igualmente responsables las oficinas del
Respuestas de Emergencia
Emergencias (COE)
como coordinará y dirigirá las actividades necesarias para la implantación del
Comité de Emergencia Institucional (CEI)
El Comité de Emergencia Institucional del Recinto estará compuesto por los
decanos o sus representantes, por funcionarios en posiciones claves dentro de
los decanatos y por los miembros del Comité de Operaciones de Emergencias.
La función de este comité es coordinar los preparativos y actividades que se
deben llevar a cabo en caso de emergencia, en las diferentes áreas de trabajo
bajo su decanato, activar sus respectivos planes de emergencia y divulgar la
información de los planes de operaciones de emergencia entre los empleados.
Grupos de Apoyo Interno
Los grupos de apoyo interno estarán compuestos por el personal del
Departamento de Edificios y Terrenos, Guardia Universitaria, la Coalición de
Enfermería para Comunidades en Desastre (CONCID), Directores y por el
personal asignado en los Planes de Emergencia de cada departamento u

La constitucion de 1961

  • La Constitución de 1961 estaba dividida en cuatro partes.
El preámbulo donde se invoca la protección de Dios y se exalta al Libertador Simon Bolivar y a los "grandes servidores de la patria".
La parte dogmática en la cual se establecen como pilares la democracia, la independencia y el carácter de forma federal del Estado venezolano, entre otros;
La parte orgánica, que constaba de doce títulos para un total de 252 artículos;
y las disposiciones transitorias compuestas por 23 disposiciones.
  • Sólo se reconocía como idioma oficial el castellano
  • El Estado venezolano se divide en: Estados, el Distrito Federal, Territorios Federales y las Dependencias Federales.
  • Los Estados se dividen en Distritos y estos en Municipios.
  • No existía la doble nacionalidad, por lo tanto el venezolano que obtuviese otra nacionalidad perdía automáticamente la nacionalidad venezolana.
  • Por primera vez en la historia constitucional venezolana no se hace mención al nombre o número de Estados que componen el país, para evitar hacer reformas constitucionales respecto a éste tema y regirlo por medio de una Ley Orgánica de división político-territorial.
--ese más allá posible-- ha de ser un instrumento decisivo para proyectar las visiones, el entusiasmo y las conductas mucho más lejos de lo que aportan los magros instrumentos del presente. La recreación de la utopía está a la orden del día. Pero ella no será mera especulación. Como siempre, guardará relaciones con el entorno humano en que se produce, y con sus necesidades. Mas ahora enfrenta la sagacidad, los recursos y la acción intencionada de los opresores, por una parte, y por otra debe engarzar las vivencias y los sueños, satisfacer el espíritu y el protagonismo de los que hasta ayer eran masa pasiva o telón de fondo. Retomemos a José Martí, este proveedor de futuro, sempiterno subversivo, para guiarnos bien contra todas las colonizaciones, incluidas las espirituales que pretenden hacernos cómplices de la dominación. Para volver a interpretar el mundo desde nuestra América y para prefigurar su porvenir, siempre con afán de cambio, como hizo él, ahora que deben multiplicarse los intérpretes y ser muchos millones los actores que conozcan y asuman las interpretaciones. Es urgente recuperar la iniciativa intelectual. En realidad el pensamiento sólo es válido si logra elevarse sobre sus condiciones de producción, y será más fructífero si es capaz de influir sobre ellas

GUAYANA Y SU AUTOPIALa guerra de guerrillas es una táctica militar de conflictos armados consistente en hostigar al enemigo en su propio terreno con destacamentos irregulares y mediante ataques rápidos y sorpresivos, voladuras de instalaciones, puentes y caminos o secuestros de armas y provisiones. Se utiliza con frecuencia en situaciones de guerra asimétrica que, gracias a su movilidad, a su fácil dispersión en pequeños grupos y a su habilidad para desaparecer entre la población civil, resultan muy difíciles de neutralizar. Algunas clasificaciones de conflictos, como la utilizada por el Departamento de Defensa de Estados Unidos, dividen las guerras según varios criterios, entre ellos el del tipo del enemigo a combatir. Siguiendo este criterio los conflictos armados pueden agruparse en Conflictos de Alta Intensidad o guerras convencionales (aquellas donde el enemigo es otro ejército, mejor o peor armado que el propio, pero ejército con cuarteles, centros de mando y territorio que defender), Conflictos de Media Intensidad o guerra de guerrillas (los realizados por grupos paramilitares sostenidos, pobremente armados, pero que controlan ciertas regiones de difícil acceso y con el apoyo tácito de la población directa o por los poderes electos a través de sus ejércitos) y por último los Conflictos de Baja Intensidad y también podría establecerse cierto grado de paralelismo con los movimientos terroristas (realizada por pequeños grupos que no controlan territorio y a veces son apoyados por una parte de la población -matanzas indiscriminadas contra la población civil- o por el contrario por una amplia mayoría contra los poderes establecidos, fuerzas del orden público, etc. o combinado).
En los ejércitos modernos, estos ataques son llamados "operaciones de comandos" si los realizan tropas regulares. El comando es un soldado o un grupo de soldados entrenados y armados en un ejército regular que realiza operaciones de comando audaces acciones en campo enemigo. Los guerrilleros también pueden actuar en relación con el ejército regular; pero son, normalmente milicias integradas por los civiles.

Las Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) fueron la organización guerrillera creada por el Partido Comunista de Venezuela (PCV) en 1962, para dar forma a los nacientes grupos rebeldes que empezaban a operar en el país para derrocar por la fuerza al gobierno de Rómulo Betancourt. Según el ex oficial de la inteligencia cubana Ulises Estrada, la creación de las FALN se enmarcó en una política de apoyo de Fidel Castro a los movimientos armados de Latinoamérica.

Exactamente, porque hay "movimientos insurgentes" pacíficos, es que el nombre original es el más correcto, "movimientos guerrilleros", pero si gustas puedes dejar el de "insurgentes armados". Las formaciones paramilitares y contrainsurgentes, corresponden a otro fenómeno. Pueden estar toda clase de insurgentes de izquierda o derecha (como los Contra de Nicaragua), incluso aquellos sin ideología definida como los hay. Pero organizaciones paramilitares ilegales, organizadas desde las propias filas de algunos ejércitos (o policía), para combatir la insurgencia no puede estar en la misma categoría, pues no se rebelan o levantan contra nada, al contrario, nacen para defender el Estado. Si bien, Palestina no es un Estado reconocido oficialmente por la comunidad internacional, si es un Estado en formación que controla una porción de territorio, y por ende lo correcto es señalar que dichos grupos pertenecen al Territorio Palestino y no al israelí. Poner a Yugoslavia y Serbia juntos es como poner a la España de Franco y luego a la España contemporánea (o en el caso de Francia a la 4° y 5° Republicas), pues una es la sucesora de la otra, a diferencia de Croacia, Eslovenia, Macedonia, Bosnia y Montenegro, Serbia nunca se independizó de nada, solo cambio de nombre. Poner la bandera en el objetivo, es innecesario y honestamente se ve bastante desordenado. En general, creo debiera señalarse el estado (con bandera incluida) que actualmente controla el territorio en el cual funciona, o funcionó dicho movimiento. Si no, se tiende a la confusión. Imagina en una lista de ciudades si pusieramos todos los estados que la han controlado, que pasaría con Vilna o Danzig, por ejemplo. Saludos--Jcestepario (discusión) 16:58 24 ene 2009 (UTC)

Antes de la llegada de los europeos, la región de la actual GUAYANA fue habitada por tribus arawak y caribes, quienes la llamaron Guayana, que significa "tierra de muchas aguas".
Los holandeses comenzaron a explorar e instalarse en Guyana a finales del siglo XVI, seguido de los ingleses. Ambos comenzaron a comerciar con los pueblos amerindios en el alto. La Compañía Holandesa de las Indias Occidentales estableció una fortaleza en Kyk-over-al en 1616-1621 en lo que ellos llamaron el Condado de Essequibo. Tentativas de asentarse en el interior fracasaron, y los europeos se establecieron en la costa a mediados de los años 1700, donde crearon plantaciones trabajadas por esclavos africanos. Las cosechas principales eran el café, el algodón, y el azúcar, convirtiéndose éste en la cosecha principal. La calidad del suelo era pobre, pese a todo. Los esclavos, conducidos por Cuffy, (el héroe nacional de Guyana), se sublevaron en 1763 en lo que se conoció como la rebelión de los esclavos de Berbice. Los holandeses se establecieron en Guayana en el siglo XVI, pero su control terminó cuando los británicos se conviertieron en los gobernadores de facto en 1796. Las colonias de Esequibo, Demerara, y Berbice fueron cedidas oficialmente al Reino Unido en el tratado Anglo-Holandés de 1814 y en el Congreso de Viena en 1815. En 1831 se consolidaron como Guayana Británica.
Seguido de la abolición
Fonteras de la Guayana Británica en 1896.
 de la esclavitud en 1834, miles de trabajadores contratados fueron traídos a Guyana para reemplazar a los esclavos en las plantaciones de caña de azúcar, principalmente de la India, pero también de Portugal y China. Algunos sostienen que la población de hoy, donde hay dos tipos de guayaneses, los que son derivados de los esclavos africanos (afro-guyaneses), y aquellos que derivan de los sirvientes indios contratados (indoguyaneses). No obstante, la cultura guayanesa es homogénea en muchas formas, debido a la historia compartida, el matrimonio mixto, y otros factores.


          In True Citizen Science Fashion, Crowdsourcing a Bibliography   
Record of the first bibliography can be traced back to the Ancient Library of Alexandria. The former Macedonian general Ptolemy I Soter, who was a successor to Alexander the Great, founded the library. The library
          Casino Brango Exclusive July $150 Freeroll Tournament   

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          Eurovision Round Up: Semi-Final 2   

And time for Semi Number 2. The last half get their chance to shine... and try to get their way into the wonder that is the Eurovision Grand Final.

Will they be as interesting as last night's? Let's find out.

A big welcome to Eurodance and its entry in this year's contest. And a big hello to the newest gay icons Euroband. Nothing says camp more than two blond singers, one with a set of knockers and the other wearing too much eye makeup. Throw in the dance moves for drag queens and the pink and black outfits and we've got Mardi Gras set. As for the song... let's dance. Perfectly Eurovision.
Dix points

Oh Charlotte. A bad start. You need to hit the right notes. Luckily it came back... and one of the biggest favourites of the Contest was done well. It's nice to see Charlotte has been keeping the Swedish plastic surgery industry in the black since her last appearance in Eurovision. Another example of perfect Eurovision pop. And it surely deserves a chance in the Final.
Douze points

Those crazy Turks. People still fight over whether they're actually in Europe or not. But would they fight over this song? Stick standard soft rock. Nothing too exciting. Lots of lighting effects to help it. And crazy facial expressions from the lead singer. Not really a fan... but will Europe embrace rock this year? We'll have to find out.
Sept points

Finally, the Ukrainians have resorted to sex to get points. And they've done a good job at it. Big points for the lead singer who kept her composure even with the tiny piece of material she was wearing as a so-called dress, and extra points for the hot Ukrainian boys locked up in boxes. Another wonderful Eurovision pop song, perfect to rock on to in any state, in any location. Go the Ukrainies!
Douze points

From the excesses of Europop to the stillness of a Lithuanian man wearing tight, tight, tight leather pants singing in English. There's something about his voice I really don't like. It sounds as though he's talking as well as singing - a Denis Walter who's doing more of the talking thing. It sounds as though he's trying too hard. I'm not sure it's too appealing. Stick to Lithuanian.
Trois points

A 16 year old has infiltrated Eurovision. Aren't you supposed to be drunk to perform though? How does that work? Obviously it's legal for her. What's not legal is the song. And the cape. What was she thinking? The song is a mixup of all sorts of things - bit of rock, bit of pop, bit of ballad - and nothing really pulls it together. It's distressing. And then that cape is really something. Obviously she thinks she's Superman... but not even he can save her.
Cinq points

After years of not hearing it, Italian has finally come back to Eurovision. But by the bloody useless Italians? No - the Swiss. And quite a handsome man singing it as well. The crowd love him and I do too. It's really a nice song and this one could do well. Unlike the huge boobs of the backup singers, this song actually moved quite well from the slower reflection to the more rock/pop part. Unfortunately poor Paolo couldn't quite get the notes he was after. That by itself might ruin the chances.
Dix points

Czech Republic
Falling off notes seems to be a common theme tonight, which is quite sad. This poor woman did no better, especially when she started sounding like a man. Luckily for any men listening, they could tune out and just watch the backup dancers in their tiny bikini type costumes. Nothing better than a bit of flange flopping around for entertainment. Quite a possible Euro dance hit here, but it's just not doing anything for me. It got a bit boring after the first 30 seconds. Blah.
Cinq points

Shiny disco balls. And shiny disco kittens. Pity about the Belorussian singer. I hope they all don't look like that and enjoy wearing those very tight leather pants. It seems Lucrezia and De stade has been supplying the Eurovision contestants with their clothing this year. They must've also been supplying Belarus with choreography - that whole sex, bondage, pushing down thing... not pretty. The song. Nothing all that exciting.
Six points

Another welcome to The Wiggles to this year's Contest. Captain Feathersword has been cloned and thrown into Latvia to be devoured for Eurovision. I think this would be an excellent song for children to learn so they know all about pirates. It seems to be very correct, right down to the clothes worn. If I was the audience, I'd be shit scared of them. At least these guys would have an excuse for wearing tight, tight leather pants.
Sept points

The best thing about Eurovision is that it lets those who have left their mother country still connect in some way to it. Croatia has wonderfully thought about these people and given us a stage of old men, exactly the type of Croatians who are dispersed around the world. The one problem about this song is a cute factor - a 75 year old rapper is going to get cute votes. Bastard. You either have to be a small child or a crazy old man to get cute votes these days. Ripped off.
Sept points

I always enjoy a big feather fan, especially when held by a woman whose suspenders are showing. She does want the DJ to take her away, but with the fires that are springing up around the stage I think the DJ's going to have to stop, drop and roll first. A fun song, but could've been done differently. I don't know... it was good... but something was missing. Enjoyable in any case.
Huit points

Hello Simon. Do you want to come to Australia? I like the way you use your mic stand. And I like this song. I can guarantee that there will be people singing the chorus over and over... until they forget it.. and then hear someone else singing it. Thank god Simon was able to sing this one properly. I think Dicko would've enjoyed his stage presence. I wonder what Marcia would've moaned? Come on Simon, come over and we'll stay together 'All night long...'
Dix points

2008's token disabled person is here and it's nice that an up-and-coming ex-Soviet country is the one to provide it. I'm not sure the black zombies are really all that helpful when you're trying to sing about peace. Neither is singing like a man and not making it all that helpful, as it does not bring peace to my ears to hear it. Extra point for the huge hair from the backup singer.
Six points

This song sounds more like a late-90s Irish entry... but with a different slant on the pronunciation of English. The woman looks like a fish that's in the process of being cleaned out. The dress could've been far better. But the song's nice. I'll give her points for the song. She was very confident about it too. Pleasurable.
Sept points

The Maltese have a history of poor song choice - not this year. A sure-fire favourite thanks to the Eurodance and quite attractive woman (apparently they do exist in Malta). The song itself, Vodka, really makes no sense but it sounds like fun even though it's sung in English. If I was drunk, I'd be jumping around to this one for sure. Whether it will do well in the final is unknown, but it's a certainty to get in.
Dix points

This one's getting points exclusively based on the good looking Cypriot men in sparkling suits. Bugger the woman or her Victorian intial costume or the song in general. These boys could dance, play with fabric, be a staircase, sing, lift things... they would have to be the stars of the performance. And look, OK, the song was alright too but in the end, it's the boys who count.
Huit points

Macedonian rapping, in English, is something you don't often get a chance to experience. There's obviously a reason for that. It's unfortunate that the main rapper is wearing clothes and has bad hair. Bad hair is also a curse for the singer. She does a good job at the singing bit though. That's quite impressive. It's a boppy song and quite appropriate for Eurovision. I like it.
Dix points

Quite a big sound from quite a big lady. Someone needs to tell her that her hair colour doesn't help her squishy face and that her lipstick doesn't actually have to match her hair. The song itself is a memorable one and the drums near the end, doing that whole marching thing, does help it quite a bit. I'm a bit of a fan of this one. Would it do well Europe-wide? Quite possibly.
Huit points

That's it. All the semi-finalists have had their time in the spotlight and now it's time to see who gets a chance to sing for glory tomorrow. My choice?

Hello Belgrade. Hello Europe. My selection for the final, in no particular order, is:
1. Sweden
2. Ukraine
3. Malta
4. Denmark
5. Iceland
6. Switzerland
7. Macedonia
8. Bulgaria
9. Cyprus
10. Portugal

And the real results... Iceland, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, Albania, Latvia, Croatia, Denmark, Georgia and Portugal.

Only five out of ten, and a few 'certainties' who weren't actually there. Bugger. However, its the big night tomorrow night on SBS at 7:30pm and I'll be predicting my top three as well as previewing the five songs that are already in the Final tomorrow.

Bring on Eurovision!

          Rome's Mediterranean Empire   
Rome's Mediterranean EmpireBooks 41-45 and the Periochae

By Livy

£12.99   27 Aug 2009   Paperback   Oxford University Press

The Third Macedonian War ended the kingdom created by Philip II and Alexander the Great and was a crucial step in Rome's dominance of the Mediterranean. Livy's narrative is also a moral study of the individuals involved. This edition includes the Periochae, later summaries of Livy's original 142-book history.

          Cleopatra Was Egyptian – Shock News!   

Wow, breaking news brought to us by the BBC reveals that Cleopatra was, wait for it, of african descent! It seems that the in-depth research of the 1963 blockbuster Cleopatra was wrong and the queen of Egypt was not actually a white caucasian but was native to Eqgypt. Amazing claims like this needs some fantastic research. Fortunately the headline news on the BBC rewards us:

Cleopatra, the last Egyptian Pharaoh, renowned for her beauty, was part African, says a BBC team which believes it has found her sister’s tomb.

Wow. Knock me down with a feather. It gets better:

But remains of the queen’s sister Princess Arsinoe, found in Ephesus, Turkey, indicate that her mother had an “African” skeleton.
Experts have described the results as “a real sensation.”

Amazing. An African skeleton… How could Liz Taylor have got it so wrong only 45 years ago. Do we need to re-cast and re-film an entire generation of epic movies? Next you will be telling me Jesus wasn’t a tall, blue eyed, blonde haired Caucasian.

Actually, I cant keep it up. This is mind numbingly insane.

First off: Who is actually surprised that Egypt is in Africa? Seriously, anyone? This is a news item that basically says “Egyptian Queen is part African.” Is it really that quiet a news day? (no). This is the Online BBC news that ignored seven hours of riots and petrol bombs in Lurgan, Northern Ireland (despite coverage being in the newspapers). This is the online BBC news that is regularly a day behind unfolding events. It is obviously wasting too much time writing copy for the department of the BLOODY OBVIOUS.

Secondly: No one is disputing Cleopatra’s lineage coming from Alexander’s generals and being predominantly Greek. However, the idea that this remained purely Greek (Macedonian?) after the first generation is simply batshit insane. Yes there was a huge amount of inbreeding, and most royal marriages were with Greek nobles, but over 250 years without allowing locals into the bloodline is unlikely. That would have been news worthy.

Thirdly: In my limited archaological knowledge, WTF does “african bones” mean? Is this 19th century casual racism where its thought that the darkies have a different genetic makeup to us “white people?”  What on Earth is there about the bones that make them “african” rather than Egyptian or Greek? Seriously, WTF!

There has been some reluctance of late for this blog to attack the blinding madness that the BBC is pushing out, mainly because it puts us in the same camp as the Daily Wail, but this is a step too far.

The BBC has seriously lost any sense of what is, or isnt, news. This is thinly veiled advertising for a BBC program of dubious merit. Shame on the BBC and I want them to refund what ever portion of my licence fee went towards this drivel.

          Rev. Steve Eason: Time to leave, teach other clergy what he's learned in Charlotte   

Scandal. Burnout. Illness. Division.

Those are the reasons you hear most these days when a senior pastor exits a big church before reaching retirement age.

But the Rev. Steve Eason says his decision to leave Myers Park Presbyterian Church next April is a “good news story.”

“No hidden agenda,” Eason, 60, told me after emailing his decision to the church’s 4,700 members this week. “Nothing is wrong here at the church. It’s not a story of burnout. This change is coming out of a position of strength and gratitude.”

After 12 years of leading one of Charlotte’s most prominent – and most generous – churches, Eason said he’s being called to take what he’s learned and share it with other clergy.

As director of consulting services with Atlanta-based Macedonian Ministries, he’ll teach, coach and organize workshops for ministers of various denominations.

It’s a group that desperately needs more support in an age when men and women of the cloth are called on to be there 24/7 for others.

“We’re in a situation where clergy are dropping out of this profession at an alarming rate,” Eason said. “Or not going into it at all.”

So Eason will try to pass along to his next flock – a group ranging from Catholic priests to Pentecostal preachers – what he’s learned about preaching, empowering lay people and more.

He’ll take his leave from a Charlotte house of worship that’s now the biggest Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) church in North Carolina and the fourth largest in the country. 

It’s one that’s blessed with enviable demographics: The largest age group at Myers Park Presbyterian, Eason said, is those between 30 and 40. That means young families with kids – a good predictor of growth into the future.

And it has deep pockets: members include developer Johnny Harris, former Bank of America CFO (and now top Carlyle Group executive) Jim Hance, and the Belks, the department store family.

But it’s also a church that gives in a big way: Under Eason’s leadership, it completed a $30 million capital campaign, then spent $11 million on everything from affordable housing in Grier Heights, a low-income neighborhood in Charlotte, to clean water projects in Malawi and the Congo.

“It’s a great witness for a church to make in this culture,” Eason said. “We didn’t raise that to spend it all on ourselves. I’m proud how mission-minded this church is.”

Eason also likes how Myers Park Presbyterian has weathered the intra-denominational battle over ordaining gays and lesbians – a change that prompted some big conservative churches to leave the PC (USA).

“We have conservatives, moderates and liberals, and they all end up together at the Communion table,” he said of his Charlotte church. “We disagree on things, but we don’t fragment and fight. … My job has been to not polarize the congregation.”

Eason will be around for seven more months, long enough, he said, to pastor his Charlotte flock through one more Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.

But the grieving has begun. Eason said he’s already gotten “a flood of affirming emails.”

The good feelings are mutual. “You have taught me so much,” Eason told members, “that I now can share with others.”

I’ll leave the last words to evangelist-author Leighton Ford, who’s been attending Myers Park Presbyterian with his wife, Jean (Billy Graham’s sister) for 20-plus years.

“He’s going to be terribly missed,” Ford said. “He’s loved. And the gift he’s given us – the clear, compelling preaching of Christ – has drawn in so many people.”

-- Tim Funk

          Skopski Festival 2013 - MP3 Free Download (Makedonija)   
As we promised in our last 2013 Skopski Festival post, here are the free MP3 songs from this Macedonian music event. We share the winning songs ("Ce Te Cekam Jas" (1st, by Lambe Alabakovski), "Tesko Bez Tebe" (2nd, by Tamara Todevska) and "Ako Me Boli" (3rd, by Dimitar Andonovski), but also some of the others. Skopski Festival 2013 - Download Free MP3 Songs Free MP3 songs from Skopje Fest 2013. Click on the links to download the music files... - Lambe Alabakovski - Ce Te Chekam Jas - Tamara Todevska - Teshko Bez Tebe - Dimitar Andonovski - Ako Me Boli NOTE: All songs were shared online for free. Thanks to the organizer of the event (MRT/MTV), and the music artists for the MP3 files.
          Skopski Festival 2013 - Skopje Music Fest (Macedonian Music Songs)   
Skopski Festival 2013 is one of the many editions of the biggest and oldest festival of popular music in Republic of Macedonia. In this post we will share some facts about 2013 Skopje Festival, names of the winners... Some Facts of Skopski Festival 2013 (Skopje Music Fest) - Organizer: MRT/MTV - Macedonian Radio and Television - Date: November 12, 2013 - Location: Macedonian Opera and Ballet, Skopje, Macedonia - Songs performed: 20 new songs - Music guests: Goran Karan (Croatia) and Igor Cukrov (Croatia) Winners - Skopski Festival 2013 The winners at Skopski Festival 2013... Main prizes (according to Macedonian audience): - 1st - Lambe Alabakovski - Ce Te Chekam Jas - 2nd - Tamara Todevska - Teshko Bez Tebe - 3rd - Dimitar Andonovski - Ako Me Boli Other prizes: - Lifetime achievement prize: Ljubomir Brandjolica Skopje Music Fest - Download Free MP3s We will share the winning songs of "Skopski Festival 2013" with you, as soon as the music artists put the MP3 files of the songs online. Stay tuned. UPDATE: We shared few songs from 2013 Skopje Fest. Download the MP3s... ===>> Skopski Festival 2013 - MP3 Free Download .
          Makfest 2013 - Macedonian Music - Download Free MP3 Songs   
The 28th edition of Makfest, Macedonian music festival of modern pop-rock songs, was organized at "Aco Shopov" cultural center in the city of Stip (Macedonia). In this article we will post some festival facts, names of the winners, and free MP3 music for download. Makfest 2013 Facts - Motto of the festival: "Back To The Roots" (Vracanje Na Korenite) - Semifinals: one, at 11th of October - Final night: 12th of October - Songs performed: 24 new songs (18 in the finals) - Music guests: Wil Nelemans (The Netherlands) and "Sha-Sha" band (Bulgaria) - Location: Shtip, Republic of Macedonia Winners - Makfest 2013 Music Festival The winners at Makfest 2013... Main prizes, according to audience: - 1st - Aleksandra Janeva - Vrati Mi Go Sonceto - 2nd - Marija Bunda - Ne Me Poznavash - 3rd - Martinijan Kirilovski - Kako Da Te Ukradam Other prizes: - Best vocal performance (interpretation): Aleksandra Janeva for "Vrati Mi Go Sonceto" (Music and lyrics by Risto Samardziev, arrangement by Vladimir Dojchinovski-Dojchin) - Best music arrangement: Aleksandar Masevski for "Za Kraj" (by Igor Mitrovic) - Most listened song from Makfest 2012 to Makfest 2013 (in the last 365 days): "Gotovo E" (by Robert Bilbilov and Igor Dzambazov, performed by Tamara Todevska) - Best lyrics: Ognen Nedelkovski - Best debut: Panche Iliev Makfest 2013 - Makedonska Muzika - Download Free MP3s So far none of the songs from "Makfest 2013" were shared online. We plan to share at least the winning songs, as soon as they become available as MP3s. More Free Macedonian Music For Download Lot of articles at DeeJay Blog are related to Macedonian music. Some of them promote and share free MP3 songs of Macedonian artists. Check the link below for free mp3 downloads, including songs from Makfest 2012... - Link: Download Free Macedonian Music MP3s (Besplatna Makedonska Muzika) .
          Lambe Alabakovski - Na Veligden - Free MP3 Download - Lyrics, Tekst, Video   
This is article about the song "Na Veligden" covered by Lambe Alabakovski, Macedonian pop music artist. The original artist that sings this song is Dzina Papas - Dzoksi. Below you can find: free MP3 download link, lyrics / tekst, and video of "Na Veligden" ("At Easter"). Lambe Alabakovski - Na Veligden - Free MP3 Download Follow the link to download the song "Na Veligden" by Lambe Alabakovski... - Link: Lambe Alabakovski - Na Veligden (3,56 MB) Lambe Alabakovski - Na Veligden - LYRICS / TEKST / Text Na Veligden sum se zaljubil Na toj golem den hristijanski Ajde Boze ti mi pomogni Kazi kade da ja najdam Ajde Boze ti mi pomogni Kazi kade da ja najdam. Tolku narod jas ne sum videl Shto na Velgden se nasobral Mili Boze ti mi pomogni Kazi kade da ja najdam Mili Boze ti mi pomogni Kazi kade da ja najdam. Gajdi sega neka odeknat Odovde pa se do neboto Jas so pesna Ve povikuvam Taka nea ce ja najdeme. Ej, moj narode Makedonski Segde kade shto si naselen Ljubov bozja se ce pobedi Seta nadez pak ce voskresne Tuka najsilno so vekovi Dzvonat crkvite Makedonski. Jas so pesna Ve povikuvam Sakam nea da ja najdeme. Jas so pesna Ve povikuvam Taka nea ce ja najdeme. Lambe Alabakovski - Na Veligden - VIDEO Video for the song "Na Veligden" by Lambe Alabakovski. How do you like this version of "Na Veligden" by Lambe Alabakovski Is it better than the original by Dzina Papas - Dzoksi Leave your thoughts below...
          Skopje in Winter (Gerald Siegel)   

Apartment complex on Vasil Gorgev (Skopje),
where Gerald and Jennifer Semple Siegel lived during the 2004-2005 academic year.

Skopje in winter
Wears gray.
I leave the cement block of our building
And walk through icy puddles to the iron block
of the konteneri by the corner of the orphanage.

Here the cats of Skopje
Rule. My tossed trash bag trespasses
Into their feral empire as they
Scatter in protest, leaping lightly over
The open lid and fleeing into the shrouding noon twilight.

On a bare patch of mud and flattened grass
Ahead of me, behind the shelter of the orphanage wall,
Four old men, the Roma, huddle around their trash fire,
Smoking, drinking--grizzled shadows against winter mist.
A passing bus showers them in sleet.

On the sidewalk, passersby weave through the maze
Of parked cars, pulling back from the sooty sides.
Overhead, wisps of light contend with low clouds.
Skopje in winter
Wears gray.


(Gerald Siegel, Professor of English at York College of Pennsylvania and American Literature specialist, was a Fulbright Scholar in the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 1988-89 and in Macedonia in 2004-2005. He was also awarded a Fulbright to Belgium in Spring 1997.)


I am an American who has spent significant time in Macedonia.

Anyone who has had the fortune to live in this beautiful country knows that Macedonia and its rich literature and arts will remain forever engraved in one's mind and soul.

This site will be dedicated to the literature and arts of Macedonia, my second home away from home.

Please check back often; if you are Macedonian, either in Macedonia or living abroad, and are interested in becoming a team member of this blog, please e-mail me.

Jennifer Semple Siegel
          Rubén Blanco, Jonny y Denis Suárez, subcampeones de Europa con la Selección Española sub-21   
Rubén Blanco, Jonny y Denis Suárez fueron los representantes de A Madroa en el Europeo sub-21
En el día de ayer, la Selección Española sub-21 se proclamó subcampeona de la Fase Final del XXI Campeonato de Europa sub-21, un Europeo que tuvo lugar en Polonia. La Rojita, tras superar la fase de clasificación, se enfrentó en la competición a Macedonia, Portugal, Serbia, Italia y a Alemania en la final. En el encuentro disputado en el día de ayer, el combinado español cayó derrotado por la mínima (1-0) ante el encuentro germano.

Tres fueron los representantes de A Madroa en el Europeo sub-21: el guardameta Rubén Blanco, el lateral Jonny Castro y el centrocampista Denis Suárez. De entre todos ellos, el guardameta de Mos fue el único que no tuvo minutos, condicionado por las lesiones que sufrió esta temporada.

En el polo opuesto estuvo Jonny, que fue una de las bazas de Albert Celades en los encuentros de mayor entidad. Así, fue titular en los duelos ante Portugal, Italia y Alemania, sumando un total de 230 minutos a lo largo del Europeo.

Menor protagonismo tuvo Denis Suárez. El de Salceda de Caselas fue titular ante Macedonia y Serbia y gozó de minutos ante Portugal e Italia. Además, anotó el gol de la victoria por la mínima ante Serbia, disputando 196 minutos en toda la competición.

De esta forma, a pesar de terminar en segunda posición, la Selección Española sigue siendo el segundo equipo más laureado del torneo, sumando un total de cuatro entorchados (1986, 1998, 2011 y 2013). Por su parte, Alemania sumó el segundo trofeo a su palmarés continental, tras ser campeona por primera vez en el año 2009.

Publicado por Redacción

          Casino Brango Exclusive July $150 Freeroll Tournament   

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          ANTONIΟS C.V.   
ANTONIΟS             (  D. PANAGOPOULOS  )   
TEL.+ 2103828604                                                                                             

           Born in Athens in 1957  
          Studied music, mechanical engineering, decoration, structural practices, and painting.
1980: He was selected by the Athens School of Fine Arts as an exceptional talent 
                1981: Scholarship for the Yannis Tsarouchis workshop –the 4 colors of antiquity – at the Ionian Center of
                         Studies at Chios.
               1981 and 1984:He attended free courses of Plastic Arts at the Athens Architectural School by the sculptor
               1988: City of Athens award for large building surfaces painting.
                         He has worked in the theatre, the cinema, and the advertisement, while at the same time, 
               he was researching  and studying the behavior of the materials in space and time. 
              From 1984, he has been working on his project   ESPACE DE MEMOIRE  – ΓΑΙΑ  ΜΝΗΜΗΣ

Selected Solo Exhibitions:One  Man Shows

                2015:   National Hellenic Research Foundation

2014 :  Oplostasio  Technis      cur. Dimitris Alithinos , Athens
2005:    Psychiko Municipal Gallery     cur. Eugenia Alexaki , Athens
1989:    ATHENAEUM Art Gallery , Athens
1989:    HYDRONETTA  Gallery ,  Hydra
1987:    AEOLOS  Art  Gallery , Athens
1986:    G    Gallery, Athens
1984:    DADA Art Gallery, Athens
1982:    N.PHILADELPHIA’S  Municipal Gallery, Athens
1981:    OBELIX Gallery, Athens

   Selected Group Exhibitions

                2017:   ART IN THE ARCHIVE  The Historical Archives of the Pireaus Bank Group Cultural Foundation

                             cur. L.Karapidaki

2017:   The Athens University History Mueum           cur. Irini Savvani 

                2016:   ART ATHINA 2016 ( guest artist ) cur. M. Stefanidis

                2016:   National Hellenic Research Foundationiraeus 

                2015:   ART ARCHIVES  Museum Kresów  Poland   cur. L.Karapidaki

2015:   TECHNOHOROS Art Gallery: PREADEXHIBITION- Fotolio &Typicon S.A   cur. L.Karapidaki 
2011:     MMM Art  : Medana Art Project  -  Slovenia
2010:     Kappatos Art Gallery: Artists Support Curators - AICA HELLAS
2009:    The Human Figure in art, City of Athens, Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece
2005:    Kappatos Art Gallery:  VISIONS Macedonia Palace  -  Thessaloniki 
              -  Imperial Hotel  -  Athens      cur . Irini Savvani
2004:    ATHINA  BY ART  - AICA HELLAS    cur. Irini Savvani 
2002:    BIENNIAL OF  CETINIE IV : RECONSTRUCTIONS cur. Katerina Koskina.
2001:    MONTH OF VISUAL ARTS, City of Athens , Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece
1998:    CITY OF ATHENS:  Colour - Poetry – Light  -  CITY OF HYGOUMENITSA:  THESPROTICA  98
1995:    Ghasi D7,  Athens
1993:    ROSTAND Art Gallery,   cur. Efi Strousa,    Athens
1993:    RHODES ART  SITE – Rhodes  cur. Efi Strousa 
1992:    For Cavafis Museum in Egypt, Athens -
             For the Armenians,Cultural Center City of Athens - 
             For peace, University of Athens
1990:    Diecidue Gallery: Different Opinion , Milan
1988:    AEOLOS  Art  Gallery and C.E.J. and Regione Oggi , Athens
1987:    Engonopoulos Art Gallery end La spond Gallery and Magazine , Athens
1987:    AEOLOS  Art  Gallery , Athens
1987:    Engonopoulos  Art Gallery,  Athens
1986:    For the earth quake’s victims of  Kalamata Ministry of New Generation ,Athens
1986:    F technodromes ,   F Gallery , Athens                                                                                
1984 :   PHOEBUS  Piraeus Cultural Center .
1983:    Engonopoulos  Art Gallery,  Athens
1983:    A Congress of Artistic Education . Athens  Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece
1982:    New Chalkidona’s Municipal Gallery, Athens
1982:    150 new young artists for the E .U. , Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece, ATHENS  CONSERVATORY

          cevdet erek - davul (cd)   
]]>Ahead of his representing Turkey at 2017's Venice Biennale, Subtext presents Istanbul-based Cevdet Erek's first full-length album Davul. The title refers to the instrument performed by Erek, a large drum with many names, common from Eastern Europe to the Middle East, known variably as a daouli (Greek), tapan (Macedonian), dahol (Kurdish), or tabl (Arabic), to cite a few. Erek plays the drum with his own unusual method, utilizing a large soft mallet alongside various smaller implements to beat and distort the skin of the drum, tuned lower than normal, taking advantage of being able to walk around the studio or installation spaces with the instrument. Erek acquired the drum from a Roma musician, and proceeded to play it in private for years where he developed this new textural approach, integrating the instrument into his A Room of Rhythms installation piece at Istanbul Biennial in 2015. Comprising extracts culled from hours of solo drum improvisations recorded over two days in Berlin, Davul features no editing or overdubbing. At times Erek describes "playing to get the negative and aggressive away from inside of me, hoping that I could do the same for the other people surrounding me." He refers to a shamanic history of healing rituals -- although the davul is most commonly used for weddings, dances, and celebrations. "Of course the aesthetics of dark electronics and noise that I've been exposed to for decades informs the overall feel as well," adds Erek. Over seven improvised pieces, Erek conjures a massive variety of uncharacteristic sounds and colors from the drum, from deep scrapes and grinds to heavy rubs and drones, creating complex rhythms. Experimentation with rhythm, meter, and silence has always been at the core of what Erek does -- from his work as a conceptual artist, presenting work at the likes of dOCUMENTA, to decades as the drummer in Turkish experimental rock band Nekropsi -- but Davul is his purest statement-of-intent to date; a raw and hypnotic exploration of flow and dynamics. Cevdet Erek was born in Istanbul in 1974, where he would initially study Architecture. Originally formed in 1989, Erek has also been the longtime drummer with Turkish experimental music stalwarts, Nekropsi. Erek has also worked on sound and music for film, most recently contributing original music and sound design to Emin Alper's 2015 film Frenzy (SUB 017LP, 2016). ]]>
          Intel Behind Trump's Syria Attack Questioned – Consortiumnews - Consortium News   

Consortium News

Intel Behind Trump's Syria Attack Questioned – Consortiumnews
Consortium News
Exclusive: The mainstream media is so hostile to challenges to its groupthinks that famed journalist Seymour Hersh had to take his take-down of President ...
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          Serbian police find 10 illegal migrants in truck   

Serbian police rescued 10 illegal migrants from a sealed truck that was retained at the Serbia-Macedonia border, Belgrade electronic media outlets have reported.

          New Generated List Of Free Elite Proxy Servers   
Here is a list of new generated Elite Proxy just for your usage. Like I said before when I dropped a fresh list of Free Google Proxy Servers , I told you that this proxies can be used to surf the internet anonymously and also can help you access unblock popular sites such like YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter.

Elite proxies are regarded as the most secured of all the proxy servers. They help to make sure that your IP can't be determined easily or not at all. They are referred to high anonymous proxy which makes your system look the same as a non-proxied system there by providing the best security for your system.
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          Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch   
Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch

Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch has a smart download logic accelerator that features intelligent dynamic file segmentation and safe multipart downloading technology to accelerate your downloads. Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch update 18 September 2013, unlike other download accelerators and managers that segment files before downloading starts, Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch segments downloaded files dynamically during download process.

Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch reuses available connections without additional connect and login stages to achieve better acceleration performance. Internet Download Manager supports proxy servers, ftp and http protocols, firewalls, redirects, cookies, authorization, MP3 audio and MPEG video content processing. IDM integrates seamlessly into Microsoft Internet Explorer, zhonreturn, Netscape, MSN Explorer, AOL, Opera, Mozilla, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Firebird, Avant Browser, MyIE2, and all other popular browsers to automatically handle your downloads. You can also drag and drop files, or use Internet Download Manager from command line.Internet Download Manager can dial your modem.

Main Features of Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch:
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  • Built-in Scheduler. Internet Download Manager can connect to the Internet at a set time, download the files you want, disconnect, or shut down your computer when it’s done.
  • IDM includes web site spider and grabber. IDM downloads all required files that are specified with filters from web sites, for example all pictures from a web site, or subsets of web sites, or complete web sites for offline browsing. It’s possible to schedule multiple grabber projects to run them once at a specified time, stop them at a specified time, or run periodically to synchronize changes.
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Download : here

          Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch   
Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch

Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch has a smart download logic accelerator that features intelligent dynamic file segmentation and safe multipart downloading technology to accelerate your downloads. Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch update 16 September 2013, unlike other download accelerators and managers that segment files before downloading starts, Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch segments downloaded files dynamically during download process.
Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch reuses available connections without additional connect and login stages to achieve better acceleration performance. Internet Download Manager supports proxy servers, ftp and http protocols, firewalls, redirects, cookies, authorization, MP3 audio and MPEG video content processing. IDM integrates seamlessly into Microsoft Internet Explorer, zhonreturn, Netscape, MSN Explorer, AOL, Opera, Mozilla, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Firebird, Avant Browser, MyIE2, and all other popular browsers to automatically handle your downloads. You can also drag and drop files, or use Internet Download Manager from command line.Internet Download Manager can dial your modem.

Main Features of Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 10 Full With Patch:
  • All popular browsers and applications are supported! Internet Download Manager has been tested with the following browsers: Internet Explorer, MSN Explorer, AOL, Netscape Communicator, Netscape 6, Netscape 7, Mozilla, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Firebird, Opera, NetCaptor, UltraBrowser, Slim Browser, Avant Browser, MyIE2, Optimal Desktop, Ace Explorer, Advanced Browser, 27 Tools-in-1 Wichio Browser, WindowSurfer, 550 Access Browser, FineBrowser Freeware, Kopassa Browser, Fast Browser Pro, Enigma Browser, GoSuRF, K-Meleon, Smart Explorer, The Off By One Web Browser, Smartalec Voyager, CrystalPort AppCapture, The Family Browser, XANA Web Browser, Bluto, AutoSurf, 32bit Web Browser, BrowseMan, WrestlingBrowser, Eminem Browser, UltraBrowser, Cygsoft LDAP Browser, and Net M@nager. Internet Download Manager supports all versions of popular browsers, and can be integrated into any 3rd party Internet applications.
  • Easy downloading with one click. When you click on a download link in a browser, IDM will take over the download and accelerate it. IDM supports HTTP, FTP, HTTPS and MMS protocols.
  • Download Speed Acceleration. Internet Download Manager can accelerate downloads by up to 5 times due to its intelligent dynamic file segmentation technology. Unlike other download managers and accelerators Internet Download Manager segments downloaded files dynamically during download process and reuses available connections without additional connect and login stages to achieve best acceleration performance.
  • Download Resume. Internet Download Manager will resume unfinished download from the place where they left off.
  • YouTube grabber. Internet Download Manager can grab FLV videos from popular sites like YouTube, MySpaceTV, and Google Video.
  • Simple installation wizard. Quick and easy installation program will make necessary settings for you, and check your connection at the end to ensure trouble free installation of Internet Download Manager.
  • Drag and Drop. You may simply drag and drop links to IDM, and drag and drop downloaded files out of Internet Download Manager.
  • Automatic Antivirus checking. Antivirus checking makes your downloads free from viruses and trojans.
  • Advanced Browser Integration. When enabled, the feature can be used to catch any download from any application. None of download managers have this feature.
  • Built-in Scheduler. Internet Download Manager can connect to the Internet at a set time, download the files you want, disconnect, or shut down your computer when it’s done.
  • IDM includes web site spider and grabber. IDM downloads all required files that are specified with filters from web sites, for example all pictures from a web site, or subsets of web sites, or complete web sites for offline browsing. It’s possible to schedule multiple grabber projects to run them once at a specified time, stop them at a specified time, or run periodically to synchronize changes.
  • IDM supports many types of proxy servers. For example, IDM works with Microsoft ISA, and FTP proxy servers.
  • IDM supports main authentication protocols: Basic, Negotiate, NTLM, and Keberos. Thus IDM can access many Internet and proxy servers using login name and password.
  • Download All feature. IDM can add all downloads linked to the current page. It’s easy to download multiple files with this feature.
  • Customizable Interface. You may choose the order, and what buttons and columns appear on the main IDM window.
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Download : here

          SBS Podcasting Macedonian   
          Comment on Full Match: Belgium vs Italy – Friendly by Cristian Vieri   
Could you please upload the Turkey vs Macedonia match from today? Thank you!!
          Even the ancient Greeks thought their best days were behind them   

A Greek flag flutters by a statue of ancient Greek philosopher Socrates in central Athens March 18, 2015. REUTERS/Yannis BehrakisThomson Reuters

This May, Greece’s parliament passed yet another austerity bill in the hopes of securing more European debt relief.

For nearly seven and a half years, creditors have held the country in an economic stranglehold. Along the way, they’ve offered a series of lessons in adding insult to injury.

Political cartoons abroad portray Greeks as lazy, corrupt and fiscally reckless.

Comedy sketches call upon the Olympian gods to lampoon the Greek people for childish irresponsibility.

Politicians and media outlets alike regularly play off a version of the same old trope: the Greeks were great once, but today they’re a far cry from their ancestors. In the European West, after all, nostalgia for the marble-white Greece of Thucydides, Sophocles and Socrates runs deep.

That nostalgia sometimes comes packaged in accusation. In February 2010, Germany’s FOCUS magazine notoriously featured a doctored image of the Venus de Milo — one arm restored, flipping the bird — with the headline ‘Fraudsters in the Euro Family’.

One article, titled ‘2,000 Years of Decline’, pronounced: ‘The modern Greeks prove their dissimilarity to their ancestors almost daily. The country that gave rise to Socrates and Plato, Myron and Phidias, Pindar and Sophocles, Pythagoras and Thucydides, today has no significant poets, composers, artists or philosophers.’

That stereotype long predates the current crisis. A half century before that issue of FOCUS, in the hit film Never on Sunday (1960), the director Jules Dassin played the part of the American tourist Homer Thrace, a man who has journeyed to Greece in search of its ancient philosophers.

Disillusioned within hours of disembarking, he interrogates a prostitute named Ilya (played by Melina Mercouri) about what has gone wrong: ‘No society ever reached the heights that were attained by ancient Greece! It was the cradle of culture. It was a happy country. What happened? What made it fall?’

But was there ever such a Greek Golden Age? When, exactly, was Greece great? In fact, nostalgia for a lost greatness can be found in the so-called Golden Age itself. Even in the mid-fifth century BCE, Athenians were already looking back with longing.

A few decades earlier, Athenian citizen-soldiers had helped to rout the Persian invaders of Greece. Throughout antiquity, those warriors would be revered as Athens’ Greatest Generation. Its most celebrated icons were the Marathonomachai, who fought and defeated the Persian troops in the 490 BCE Battle of Marathon (the playwright Aeschylus was one of them). Not long after their victory, the Greeks began to think that they would never stack up to the glories of the past.

Greek Persian_duelWikimedia Commons

Sixty-six years after that battle — the same stretch of time that separates us from 1951 — the Athenian playwright Aristophanes entered The Knights in one of his city’s drama festivals. The play is a satire of contemporary politics; in it, the Athenian people are personified as a cranky, half-deaf old man named Demos, who is caught in the thrall of a greedy and manipulative politician.

Toward the end of the play, Demos undergoes a complete off-stage transformation and re-emerges rejuvenated, as glorious as he had been in the days of Miltiades and Aristides — two generals of the Persian Wars. A chorus declares his deeds ‘worthy of the city and its monument at Marathon’.

AristophanesWikimedia CommonsAristophanes’ comedy marked a flight of fancy, but it was also in some ways representative of a ‘comedy of nostalgia’ that was popular at Athenian theatre festivals — the city’s most important occasions for communal gathering and reflection — during the era of the Peloponnesian War.

A decade or so after The Knights, another playwright, named Eupolis, staged his own nostalgia-tinged comedy called The Demes.

That play survives only in fragments, but in it four great Athenian leaders of the past — Miltiades and Aristides again, along with Solon and Pericles — were resurrected and brought back to Athens (some politicians today would be only too happy to see the same kind of miracle for the Second World War generals Douglas MacArthur and George Patton).

Not long before the Peloponnesian War ended, Aristophanes used a similar premise for another new comedy of his own. In his wildly popular play The Frogs, Dionysus, god of theatre, descends into the underworld in the hopes of retrieving a dead tragedian who will serve as counsellor to the war-weary city. Athenians were already longing to make their city great again while Socrates and Sophocles still lived.

The evidence for nostalgia only intensifies in the 4th century BCE, when Athens found itself in a drastically weakened political position. Orators and politicians called on their fellow citizens to make Athens great again by rebuilding the old maritime empire.

Not long after those attempts failed, a new empire gained ground in the Mediterranean. As Macedonian imperial ambition came to threaten Athenian sovereignty, Athenians became even more focused on trumpeting the glories of their past.

But those glories also weighed on the city’s living. The tragedian Astydamas complained how impossible it was to compete with the great tragedians of old. The orator Demosthenes insisted that it was unfair for him to be compared with legendary Athenian speech-givers of the past. He charged his fellow Athenians with parading their city’s decadence, claiming that they spent too much money on festivals and not enough on the military — they were, he effectively argued, lazy, corrupt and fiscally reckless when compared to Athenians of old.

Surprisingly enough, then, the idea that Greece ‘just ain’t what it used to be’ originated in classical Athens. Like many other classical Athenian ideas, it has also had remarkable staying power. Now, however, the inimitable ancestors in question are no longer the Athenian Marathonomachai, but rather the ‘ancient Greeks’ as an imagined whole. This is one lesson from classical Athens that often goes overlooked: once a society has proclaimed its own decline, compelling new chapters of greatness become all the more difficult to write.


NOW WATCH: JIM ROGERS: The worst crash in our lifetime is coming

          Φεύγει ο καύσωνας και έρχονται βροχές   

-Τρίτη μέρα γερού καύσωνα σε όλη τη χώρα αλλά από Δευτέρα ο καιρός θα αλλάξει κατά πολύ. 
-Δείτε πότε θα "δροσιστούμε". 
-Η θερμοκρασία αναλυτικά ανά περιοχή.
Για τρίτη μέρα σαρώνει τη χώρα ένας από τους χειρότερους καύσωνες των τελευταίων 15 ετών. Στην Αθήνα η θερμοκρασία άγγιξε το μεσημέρι τους 42 βαθμούς, ενώ στη Σπάρτη και το Ηράκλειο έφτασε στους 44. Την Κυριακή τόσο στην Αθήνα, όσο και στην υπόλοιπη Ελλάδα, η θερμοκρασία θα φτάσει τους 42 βαθμούς Κελσίου.
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Παρόλα αυτά, μένει να κάνουμε λίγη υπομονή ακόμη καθώς από Δευτέρα θα δροσίσει. Μάλιστα, από την Τρίτη και μετά θα έχουμε συννεφιά και πιθανότητα βροχής κατά τόπους.
Αναλυτικότερα η πρόβλεψη του καιρού για τις ερχόμενες ημέρες. Επιλέξτε κάτω από την πρόγνωση την περιοχή που θέλετε, για να δείτε αναλυτικά τι καιρό θα κάνει:


Καιρός: Στα βόρεια νεφώσεις παροδικά αυξημένες με σποραδικές βροχές και καταιγίδες κυρίως στην κεντρική, την ανατολική Μακεδονία και τη Θράκη. Εξασθένηση των φαινομένων από το απόγευμα και από τα δυτικά. Στα υπόλοιπα γενικά αίθριος με τοπικές νεφώσεις στα ηπειρωτικά τις μεσημβρινές και απογευματινές ώρες.
Άνεμοι: δυτικοί βορειοδυτικοί 4 με 6 και βαθμιαία από τα δυτικά τοπικά 7 μποφόρ.
Θερμοκρασία: σε σημαντική πτώση.


Καιρός: Στα βόρεια λίγες νεφώσεις παροδικά αυξημένες με πιθανότητα τοπικών όμβρων. Στα υπόλοιπα γενικά αίθριος με τοπικές νεφώσεις στα ηπειρωτικά τις μεσημβρινές και απογευματινές ώρες.
Άνεμοι: από βόρειες διευθύνσεις 4 με 6 και στο Αιγαίο πρόσκαιρα τοπικά 7 μποφόρ.
Θερμοκρασία: σε περαιτέρω μικρή πτώση. Θα κυμανθεί σε κανονικά επίπεδα.


Καιρός: γενικά αίθριος. Τοπικές νεφώσεις στα ηπειρωτικά τις μεσημβρινές και απογευματινές ώρες με πιθανότητα μεμονωμένων όμβρων στα κεντρικά και βόρεια κυρίως ορεινά.
Άνεμοι: στα δυτικά μεταβλητοί ασθενείς και βαθμιαία δυτικοί 4 μποφόρ. Στα ανατολικά από βόρειες διευθύνσεις 4 με 6 και στο Αιγαίο τοπικά 7 μποφόρ.
Θερμοκρασία: χωρίς αξιόλογη μεταβολή.

          30 de zile cu Sfântul Matei – Ziua a cincea – Capitolul 15   
Ieri am avut răgazul să citesc capitolul 15 din evanghelia scrisă de Sfântul Apostol Matei. Încerc acum să punctez câteva repere care au rămas vii în suflet. Am avut ca ajutor și călăuză tâlcuirile Sfântului Teofilact (a trăit în Macedonia, la sfârșitul secolului al XI-lea). Geografic capitolul al XV-lea începe în Galileea, pe lângă Ghenizaret […]
          Bush urges independence for Kosovo   
By JENNIFER LOVEN, Associated Press Writer 6 minutes ago
TIRANA, Albania - President Bush, getting a hero's welcome as the first American president to visit this Balkan nation, said Sunday that there cannot be endless dialogue about achieving independence for neighboring Kosovo.

"Sooner rather than later you've got to say `Enough's enough. Kosovo's independent,'" Bush said during a news conference with the prime minister of this tiny, impoverished country.

Bush's press for statehood was aimed at Russia and others that object to Kosovo's independence. Standing alongside Prime Minister Sali Berisha, Bush said any extension of talks on Kosovo must have "certain independence" as the goal.

In response to Albania's push for NATO membership, Bush said additional political and military reforms were needed before that could be considered — something the country's leaders said they understood.

"We are determined to take any decision, pass any law and undertake any reform to make Albania appropriate to receive the invitation" to join the western military alliance, Berisha said.

When Bush arrived to begin his brief visit, the hills overlooking the capital boomed as military cannons fired a 21-gun salute, and thousands gathered in a downtown square on a brilliantly sunny day to see him and first lady Laura Bush.

Huge banners proclaimed "Proud to be Partners" and billboards said "President Bush in Albania Making History." Red-white-and-blue paper top hats with stars on top were passed out to well-wishers.

"It is a bright day today when in our land there came the greatest and most distinguished friend we have had in all our times, the president of the U.S.A., leader of the free world," Berisha said.

Albania also issued three postage stamps with Bush's picture and the Statue of Liberty, and renamed a street in front of parliament in his honor.

Bush said he was proud to be the first sitting American president to visit. "I love to come to countries that are working hard to establish institutions necessary for democracies to survive," he said.

The issue of independence for the Serbian province of Kosovo is another issue on which the U.S. and Russia disagree.

Russia, an ally of Serbia, contends independence for Kosovo would set a dangerous precedent for the world's other breakaway regions. Serbia also opposes statehood for Kosovo, which it sees as the heart of its historic homeland.

The U.S. and key European countries that support Kosovo independence are trying to narrow differences with Russia over the future of Kosovo, which has been administered by the U.N. since a 1999 war between Serb forces and ethnic Albanian rebels. The U.N. Security Council is divided over the issue.

Last month, the U.S. and European nations introduced a revised U.N. resolution supporting independence for Kosovo under international supervision, but it was immediately rejected by Russia — which hinted it would veto the measure.

The new draft addressed Russia's concern that Kosovo's multiethnic character is preserved, but left out Russia's main proposal for new negotiations between the province's majority ethnic Albanians, who demand independence, and its minority Serbs, who want to remain part of Serbia.

"I happen to believe it's important to push the process along," Bush said. "The time is now. ... Secretary (of State Condoleezza) Rice will be moving hard to see if we can't reach an agreement. If not, we're going to have to move. Independence is the goal."

Russia also opposes NATO's spread into eastern Europe, and is concerned about the prospect that its neighbors Ukraine and Georgia may be brought into the western military alliance.

Berisha said 93 percent of his country's people support NATO membership for Albania.

Bush said he commended Berisha on Albania's progress on reforming its defense forces and meeting performance-based standards required for membership. "I look forward to welcoming you sometime into NATO," he said.

But he said additional political and military reforms were needed, along with more progress in fighting organized crime and corruption. Berisha said he understood and is committed to making the changes.

"I said, 'We're committed to help you,'" Bush said.

In saluting Albania's democracy, Bush praised it as a country that has "cast off the shackles of a very oppressive society and is now showing the world what's possible."

During the visit, Bush met with Albanian President Alfred Moisiu and greeted troops who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Albania recently decided to triple its deployment in Afghanistan to 140 troops. It also has about 120 troops in Iraq — a presence that Moisiu says will not end as long as Americans are engaged there.

Bush also had lunch with the prime ministers of Albania, Macedonia and Croatia, which hope to join NATO next year.
          EU urges Serbia to cooperate with U.N. effort to resolve status for Kosovo   
The European Union urged Serbia on Wednesday to "take a constructive approach" in negotiating the future of its breakaway Kosovo province and said it must cooperate with the U.N.'s war crimes tribunal if it wants closer ties with the EU.Serbia and its Balkan neighbors must also do more to tackle corruption and step up political and reforms needed to prepare them for eventual EU membership, according to the EU's annual progress reports on the prospects of would-be EU members."I trust that Serbian citizens as well as political leaders now focus less on the nationalist past and more on the European future, that's best for Serbia, that's best for the western Balkans," EU Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn told reporters after the release of the EU reports."On Kosovo, we expect Serbia to take a constructive approach," he added.The EU's report on Serbia reiterated that steps toward eventual membership were suspended until Serbia proves it is fully cooperating with the U.N. war crimes tribunal and hands over top war crimes suspect Gen. Ratko Mladic.The report said the EU was also concerned over Serbia's new constitution, warning it did not fully guarantee judges' independence. It also called on Belgrade to intensify its fight against corruption and ensure full civilian control over its armed forces.On Kosovo, the EU report acknowledged that the focus on the sensitive status negotiations led by the U.N. "has delayed significant reform efforts."It said the province's administration "remains weak, affecting the rule of law," adding that judicial bodies there have made "little progress" in civil and criminal justice.Separate reports were also released on Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania.On Croatia already opened entry talks with the EU last year and hopes to join in 2009. However, the report said there was "considerable scope" for improving the nation's judicial system and its fight against corruption. It also called on Zagreb to ensure better protection of minorities and to solve its border dispute with EU member Slovenia.Croatia's President Stipe Mesic said the critical report on his country showed it had to follow through on reforms. "It is easy to pass the laws, but it is much harder to implement them," he said in Zagreb. "It all depends on us."The EU warned Macedonia over its problems with corruption. It said reforms must go faster, if wants to get a starting date for membership talks.
Fútbol, el Orgullo, el Tour, un sábado muy movido en la televisión
          I monumenti più strani, il Makedonium di Kruševo in Macedonia   
Gli interni del Makedonium. La rivolta di Ilinden–Preobrazhenie dell'agosto del 1903, ricorda la sollevazione delle comunità montante a cavallo tra la Bulgaria e l'attuale Macedonia, contro i...
          I monasteri del canyon di Matka in Macedonia   
Le frontiere si aprono, i collegamenti si fanno sempre più facili, e destinazioni, un tempo esotiche perché difficilmente raggiungibili (almeno per noi turisti normali), si aggiungono al ventaglio...
          La statua di Alessandro Magno a Skopje in Video   
La statua di Alessandro Magno, in sella al mitico Bucefalo, è stata installata ieri nella piazza principale di Skopje, la capitale della Macedonia. La statua in bronzo, realizzata in Italia, alta...
          Da Treviso in Macedonia con la Wizz Air   
Wizz Air collegherà Skopje, la capitale della Macedonia (o Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia per non dar adito alla polemica sul nome con la Grecia), con l'aeroporto di Treviso Sant'Angelo.Il...
          Tra bizantini ed ottomani, a Skopje in Macedonia   
Skopje, torre di avvistamento ai confini dell'antico regno macedone, crocevia di genti, sospesa tra la Mezzaluna e la Croce, sta vivendo un forte risveglio economico e turistico, tanto che la CNN gli...
          Verso mete insolite: la Macedonia   
Stanchi delle solite mete, dei soliti Caraibi, del solito resort in Mar Rosso? Ecco allora una meta insolita a cui dedicare qualche giorno delle prossime vacanze, sicuri di ottenere l'attenzione dei...
          Global Spirit Market to 2021 Market Report; Launched via   

Market Research Reports, Inc. has announced the addition of “Global Spirit Market to 2021” research report to their website

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/29/2017 -- This publication enables readers the critical perspectives to be able to evaluate the world market for spirits. The publication provides the market size, growth and forecasts at the global level as well as for the following countries:

Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, China, Colombia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vietnam

The market data covers the years 2010-2021. The major questions answered in this comprehensive publication include:
What is the global market size for spirits?
What is the spirit market size in different countries around the world?
Are the markets growing or decreasing?
How are the markets divided into different kinds of products?
How are different product groups developing?
How are the markets forecast to develop in the future?

The market information includes the total market size for spirits as well as the market size and trends for the following kinds of products:
Other spirits

The publication is designed for companies who want to gain a comprehensive perspective on the global spirit market. This publication makes it easy to compare across different countries and product groups to be able to find new market opportunities and make more profitable business decisions.

Please visit this link for more details:

For related reports please visit: Spirit Market Research Reports

Find all Alcoholic Beverages Reports at:

About Market Research Reports, Inc.
Market Research Reports® Inc. is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements:

For more information on this press release visit:

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
Market Research Reports, Inc.
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty

          Global Sanitary and Household Paper Market to 2021 Market Report; Launched via   

Market Research Reports, Inc. has announced the addition of “Global Sanitary and Household Paper Market to 2021” research report to their website

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/29/2017 -- This publication enables readers the critical perspectives to be able to evaluate the world market for sanitary and household paper. The publication provides the market size, growth and forecasts at the global level as well as for the following countries:
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen

The market data covers the years 2010-2021. The major questions answered in this comprehensive publication include:
What is the global market size for sanitary and household paper?
What is the sanitary and household paper market size in different countries around the world?
Are the markets growing or decreasing?
How are the markets divided into different kinds of products?
How are different product groups developing?
How are the markets forecast to develop in the future?

The market information includes the total market size for sanitary and household paper as well as the market size and trends for the following kinds of products:
Tampons, diapers and other sanitary paper
Paper tissues and handkerchiefs
Paper tablecloths and serviettes
Toilet paper
Other sanitary and household paper

The publication is designed for companies who want to gain a comprehensive perspective on the global sanitary and household paper market. This publication makes it easy to compare across different countries and product groups to be able to find new market opportunities and make more profitable business decisions.

Please visit this link for more details:

Find all Consumer and Retail Reports at:

Related Report;

Global Wallpaper Market to 2021 - Visit at -

About Market Research Reports, Inc.
Market Research Reports® Inc. is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements:

For more information on this press release visit:

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
Market Research Reports, Inc.
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty

          Terminos Informaticos   
1- ¿Qué es Software?
Bajo esta definición, el concepto de software va más allá de los programas de cómputo en sus distintos estados: código fuente, binario o ejecutable; también su documentación, datos a procesar e información de usuario es parte del software: es decir, abarca todo lo intangible, todo lo “no físico” relacionado.
El término «software» fue usado por primera vez en este sentido por John W. Tukey en 1957. En las ciencias de la computación y la ingeniería de software, el software es toda la información procesada por los sistemas informáticos: programas y datos. El concepto de leer diferentes secuencias de instrucciones desde la memoria de un dispositivo para controlar los cálculos fue introducido por Charles Babbage como parte de su máquina diferencial. La teoría que forma la base de la mayor parte del software moderno fue propuesta por vez primera por Alan Turing en su ensayo de 1936, “Los números computables”, con una aplicación al problema de decisión.
2- Diferencias entre Programa y Software.
Programa es una secuencia de instrucciones que se le da a una computadora para que haga determinadas cosas, hay programas que van desde lo más simple hasta los muy complejos, un programa que te pregunte tu nombre y te dé una respuesta ya se puede considerar como programa. Y software es aquello que es intangible, lo que no puedes tocar, es la parte lógica de un programa, entre el software están videos, imágenes, sonidos, textos, bases de datos, etc.
3- Evolución del Programa.
Los programas de computación nacen en 1950 junto con el diseño de las primeras computadoras y estaban escritos en lenguaje de máquina. Es decir, estaban formados por una sucesión de instrucciones, cada una de las cuales era un grupo de 1’s y 0’s. El usuario codificaba estos 1’s y 0’s directamente usando interruptores pare codificar cada instrucción. Posteriormente, fue creada la primera máquina que habría de funcionar con un programa almacenado en 1943. Esta máquina recibió el nombre de EDSAC y fue fabricada en la Universidad de Cambridge. Sus autores Wilker, Wheeler y Gill fueron también los primeros en elaborar un texto de programación. Los programas almacenados diferían de los anteriores en que la sucesión de instrucciones se codificaban en una cinta de papel mediante perforaciones. La cinta era leída por la computadora y de esta manera si el usuario deseaba ejecutar el programa una segunda vez, no tenia que codificarla nuevamente, sino que solo alimentaba la cinta.
El codificar en lenguaje de maquina resultaba difícil para el usuario; así que se comenzaron a desarrollar programas en lenguaje de máquina que interpretaban instrucciones inteligibles pare la mayoría de los usuarios y que eran traducidos a lenguajes de máquina. A este tipo de programas se les denomino lenguajes de “alto nivel”, mismos que subsisten hasta la fecha.
En 1951, surge la primera computadora disponible comercialmente a gran escala, la UNIVAC I, la cual estaba diseñada para ser fácilmente programada en su propio código. Era una maquina decimal alfanumérica con instrucciones mnemónicas fáciles de recordar y utilizar. La aparición de las computadoras en el ámbito comercial es crucial en la historia de los lenguajes, ya que entonces se vuelve importante la facilidad de programación y la posibilidad de transportar programas. A partir de aquí comienzan a surgir una serie de lenguajes de programación cada vez más lejanos al lenguaje de máquina y más cercanos al usuario.
Por ejemplo, la UNIVAC I de 1951 tiene los lenguajes AT3 y B-0 que tuvieron gran influencia en el diseño de otros lenguajes de maquina más avanzados como son el FORTRAN y el COBOL respectivamente, ambos de difusión mundial.
En la segunda mitad de la década de los 50’s y basados en las ideas de los lenguajes anteriores, surge con gran rapidez la primera generación de lenguajes de “alto nivel”, mismos que siguen vigentes veinticinco años después. Dichos lenguajes son:
1. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslating) resultado de un proyecto encabezado por John Backus y que llevo 25 años hombre esfuerzo. Se utiliza principalmente pare resolver problemas científicos y técnicos. En ocasiones, sin embargo, se emplea en aplicaciones comerciales.
2. ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language; lenguaje algorítmico) se desarrollo con el propósito de contaron un lenguaje común pare diversas computadoras. Este lenguaje se parece al FORTRAN y es de aplicación particular en los problemas matemáticos y numéricos, Este lenguaje es popular en las universidades, y en la actualidad es utilizado en los Estados Unidos pare fines pedagógicos y la comunicación de algoritmos.
3. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) el propósito de este lenguaje es el de contar con un lenguaje que resultara común pare las diversas computadoras en el mercado para el procesamiento de información comercial. Es un lenguaje que se utiliza principalmente para la programación de problemas de proceso de datos comerciales, por su naturaleza descriptiva y su adaptabilidad pare resolver los problemas de proceso de ficheros que entraña el proceso de datos comerciales.

4- Lenguaje Maquina.
Los circuitos microprogramables son sistemas digitales, lo que significa que trabajan con dos únicos niveles de tensión. Dichos niveles, por abstracción, se simbolizan con el cero, 0, y el uno, 1, por eso el lenguaje de máquina sólo utiliza dichos signos. Esto permite el empleo de las teorías del álgebra booleana y del sistema binario en el diseño de este tipo de circuitos y en su programación.
Una visión típica de la arquitectura de computadores como una serie de capas de abstracción: hardware, firmware, ensamblador, kernel, sistema operativo y aplicaciones
Claude Elwood Shannon, en su Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, y con sus experiencias en redes de conmutación, sentó las bases para la aplicación del álgebra de Boole a las redes de conmutación.
Una red de conmutación es un circuito de interruptores eléctricos que al cumplir ciertas combinaciones booleanas con las variables de entrada, define el estado de la salida. Este concepto es el núcleo de las puertas lógicas, las cuales son, por su parte, los ladrillos con que se construyen sistemas lógicos cada vez más complejos.
Shannon utilizaba el relé como dispositivo físico de conmutación en sus redes. El relé, a igual que una lámpara eléctrica, posee dos estados: 1 ó 0, esto es, está activado, encendida, o está desactivado, apagada.
5- Lenguaje Ensamblador.
El lenguaje ensamblador es un tipo de lenguaje de bajo nivel utilizado para escribir programas informáticos, y constituye la representación más directa del código máquina específico para cada arquitectura de computadoras legible por un programador.
Fue usado ampliamente en el pasado para el desarrollo de software, pero actualmente sólo se utiliza en contadas ocasiones, especialmente cuando se requiere la manipulación directa del hardware o se pretenden rendimientos inusuales de los equipos.
6- Lenguaje de Programación.
Un lenguaje de programación es un lenguaje que puede ser utilizado para controlar el comportamiento de una máquina, particularmente una computadora. Consiste en un conjunto de símbolos y reglas sintácticas y semánticas que definen su estructura y el significado de sus elementos y expresiones.
Aunque muchas veces se usa lenguaje de programación y lenguaje informático como si fuesen sinónimos, no tiene por qué ser así, ya que los lenguajes informáticos engloban a los lenguajes de programación y a otros más, como, por ejemplo, el HTML (lenguaje para el marcado de páginas web).
Un lenguaje de programación permite a uno o más programadores especificar de manera precisa: sobre qué datos una computadora debe operar, cómo deben ser estos almacenados, transmitidos y qué acciones debe tomar bajo una variada gama de circunstancias. Todo esto, a través de un lenguaje que intenta estar relativamente próximo al lenguaje humano o natural, tal como sucede con el lenguaje Léxico. Una característica relevante de los lenguajes de programación es precisamente que más de un programador puedan tener un conjunto común de instrucciones que puedan ser comprendidas entre ellos para realizar la construcción del programa de forma colaborativa.

7- Herramientas de Programación.
Las herramientas de programación, son aquellas que permiten realizar aplicativos, programas, rutinas, utilitarios y sistemas para que la parte física del computador u ordenador, funcione y pueda producir resultados.
Hoy día existen múltiples herramientas de programación en el mercado, tanto para analistas expertos como para analistas inexpertos.
8- Lenguaje Orientado a Objetos.
Se le llama así a cualquier lenguaje de programación que implemente los conceptos definidos por la programación orientada a objetos.
Cabe notar que los conceptos definidos en la programación orientada a objetos no son una condición sino que son para definir que un lenguaje es orientado a objetos. Existen conceptos que pueden estar ausentes en un lenguaje dado y sin embargo, no invalidar su definición como lenguaje orientado a objetos.
Quizás las condiciones mínimas necesarias las provee el formalismo que modeliza mejor las propiedades de un sistema orientado a objetos: los tipos de datos abstractos.
9- Encapsulación.
En programación modular, y más específicamente en programación orientada a objetos, se denomina encapsulamiento al ocultamiento del estado, es decir, de los datos miembro, de un objeto de manera que sólo se puede cambiar mediante las operaciones definidas para ese objeto.
Cada objeto está aislado del exterior, es un módulo natural, y la aplicación entera se reduce a un agregado o rompecabezas de objetos. El aislamiento protege a los datos asociados a un objeto contra su modificación por quien no tenga derecho a acceder a ellos, eliminando efectos secundarios e interacciones.
De esta forma el usuario de la clase puede obviar la implementación de los métodos y propiedades para concentrarse sólo en cómo usarlos. Por otro lado se evita que el usuario pueda cambiar su estado de maneras imprevistas e incontroladas.

10- Análisis y Diseño Orientado a Objetos.
Análisis y diseño orientado a objetos (ADOO) es un enfoque de la ingeniería de software que modela un sistema como un grupo de objetos que interactúan entre sí. Este enfoque representa un dominio en términos de conceptos compuestos por verbos y sustantivos, clasificados de acuerdo a su dependencia funcional.
En éste método de análisis y diseño se crea un conjunto de modelos utilizando una notación acordada como, por ejemplo, el lenguaje únificado de modelado (UML). ADOO aplica técnicas de modelado de objetos para analizar los requerimientos para un contexto - por ejemplo, un sistema de negocio, un conjunto de módulos de software - y para diseñar una solución para mejorar los procesos involucrados. No está restringido al diseño de programas de computadora, sino que cubre sistemas enteros de distinto tipo. Las metodologías de análisis y diseño más modernas son casos de uso guiados a través de requerimientos, diseño, implementación, pruebas, y despliegue.
El lenguaje unificado de modelado se ha vuelto el lenguaje de modelado estándar usado en análisis y diseño orientado a objetos.
11- Interfaz del Usuario.
La interfaz de usuario es la forma en que los usuarios pueden comunicarse con una computadora, y comprende todos los puntos de contacto entre el usuario y el equipo. Sus principales funciones son:
Manipulación de archivos y directorios
Herramientas de desarrollo de aplicaciones
Comunicación con otros sistemas
Información de estado
Configuración de la propia interfaz y entorno
Intercambio de datos entre aplicaciones
Control de acceso
Sistema de ayuda interactivo.
12- Lenguaje Poliformico.
El polimorfismo es la presencia de dos o más variantes heredables para una misma característica que coexisten dentro de una población. Esta característica puede ser apreciable tanto a nivel morfológico, como el número de cerdas en Drosophila melanogaster (mosca común de la fruta), como a nivel molecular, tal es el caso de las alozimas.
13- Polimorfismo.
Polimorfismo es la presencia de dos o más variantes heredables para una misma característica que coexisten dentro de una población. Esta característica puede ser apreciable tanto a nivel morfológico, como el número de cerdas en Drosophila melanogaster (mosca común de la fruta), como a nivel molecular, tal es el caso de las alozimas.
14- Gestión de Proyectos Orientados a Objetos.
Las técnicas modernas de gestión de proyectos de software se pueden dividir e as siguientes actividades:
• Establecimiento de un marco de proceso común para el proyecto.
• Uso del marco y de métricas históricas.
• Especificación de productos de trabajo y avances.
• Definición de puntos de comprobación.
• Gestión de los cambios que ocurren invariablemente.
• Seguimiento.
Para aplicar estas actividades hay que tomar en cuenta que todas hay que enfocarlas usando un modelo propio.
Marco de proceso común para OO. (Orientado a objeto)
Este tópico define un enfoque organizativo para el desarrollo y mantenimiento del software. Identifica el paradigma de Ing. De software aplicado para construir y mantener software. Tiene la cualidad de ser adaptable, de forma que cumpla con las necesidades individuales del equipo de proyecto.
Para el desarrollo de proyectos de esta naturaleza no se pueden aplicar modelos lineales (ciclo de vida), sino que es necesario aplicar un modelo que contemple un desarrollo iterativo. Iterativo significa que el software evolucione a través de un número de ciclos. El software OO debe ser evolutivo por naturaleza. Existen autores que sugieren un modelo recursivo/paralelo para el desarrollo orientado a objeto.
15- Productividad de Programación.
La productividad de programación se refiera al rendimiento de un programador en un proyecto de programación, este tipo de productividad se mide por las horas que el programador aplica a la programación del proyecto, comparado por la evolución del programa en sí.
16- Tiempo de Programación.
El tiempo de desarrollo del proyecto es indefinido, puede mantenerse durante el período que se considere necesario, la ventaja que tiene es que se pueden involucrar distintas comunidades donantes y receptoras, el objetivo inicial sería lograr la capacitación de los mediadores en los aspectos técnicos necesarios para llegar a una instalación de computadores con software Libre.
17- Cantidad de Código.
Es la medición del tamaño en líneas de código, generalmente se utiliza en programación lineal y en lenguajes de programación antiguos.
18- Protocolo.
Protocolo de red o también Protocolo de Comunicación es el conjunto de reglas que especifican el intercambio de datos u órdenes durante la comunicación entre las entidades que forman parte de una red.

19- ¿Quién es George Boole?
George Boole, (2 de noviembre de 1815 - 8 de diciembre de 1864) fue un matemático y filósofo irlandés.
Como inventor del álgebra de Boole, la base de la aritmética computacional moderna, Boole es considerado como uno de los fundadores del campo de las Ciencias de la Computación. En 1854 publicó “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought” en él desarrollaba un sistema de reglas que le permitía expresar, manipular y simplificar, problemas lógicos y filosóficos cuyos argumentos admiten dos estados (verdadero o falso) por procedimientos matemáticos.
20- ¿Quién es Norbert Wiener?
Norbert Wiener (26 de noviembre de 1894, Columbia, Missouri - 18 de marzo de 1964, Estocolmo, Suecia) fue un matemático estadounidense, conocido como el fundador de la cibernética. Acuñó el término en su libro Cibernética o el control y comunicación en animales y máquinas, publicado en 1948.
Su padre, Leo Wiener, fue profesor en lenguas eslavas en la Universidad de Harvard. Norbert se educó en casa hasta los siete años, edad a la que empezó a asistir al colegio, pero durante poco tiempo. Siguió con sus estudios en casa hasta que volvió al colegio en 1903, graduándose en el instituto de Ayer en 1906.
En septiembre de 1906, a la edad de once años, ingresó en la Universidad Tufts para estudiar matemáticas. Se licenció en 1909 y entró en Harvard. En Harvard estudió zoología, pero en 1910 se trasladó a la Universidad de Cornell para empezar estudios superiores en filosofía. Volvió a Harvard al año siguiente para continuar sus estudios de filosofía. Wiener obtuvo el doctorado por Harvard en 1912 con una tesis que versaba sobre lógica matemática.
21- API
Una API (del inglés Application Programming Interface - Interfaz de Programación de Aplicaciones) es el conjunto de funciones y procedimientos (o métodos si se refiere a programación orientada a objetos) que ofrece cierta biblioteca para ser utilizado por otro software como una capa de abstracción.
22- Aristóteles
Aristóteles (en griego clásico Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs; Estagira, Macedonia 384 a. C. – Calcis Eubea, Grecia 322 a. C.) es uno de los más grandes filósofos de la antigüedad y acaso de la historia de la filosofía occidental. Fue precursor de la anatomía y la biología y un creador de la taxonomía.

23- Lógica
La Lógica es un término que deriva del griego “Λογικός” (logikê-logikós), que a su vez es “λόγος” (logos), que significa razón.1
Se considera que Aristóteles fue el que fundó la Lógica como Propedéutica, herramienta básica para todas las Ciencias.2
La Lógica es una ciencia formal. Esto quiere decir que no tiene contenido, porque estudia las formas válidas de inferencia.3
La lógica tradicional se basaba en el silogismo como razonamiento basado en el juicio categórico aristotélico. Hoy día la lógica utiliza como unidad básica la proposición y las reglas de inferencia en la argumentación discursiva.4
24- Lógica de Aristóteles.
Como su nombre lo indica, el padre de la lógica aristotélica es el filosofo griego Aristóteles; primer pensador en formalizar el sistema lógico de tan acertada manera que sus propuestas han trascendido hasta nuestros días. Aristóteles planteó sus ideas en varias obras, para difundir su conocimiento sobre las leyes del razonamiento, argumentando que estas eran vitales para adentrarse en el mundo de la filosofía.
La lógica aristotélica supone que la mente reproduce sólo la realidad, la existencia de las cosas tal y como son, por ello es una ciencia objetiva que se dedica a estudiar conceptos, desglosándolos en predicables y predicamentos. La lógica analiza juicios y formas de razonamiento y su manera de expresar resultados es el silogismo o razonamiento deductivo categórico. Concepto: Este representa un objeto en la mente del hombre de manera que no pueda ser afectado por los sentidos, la memoria o la mente. Un concepto tiene comprensión (características del objeto) y extensión (hace alusión la cantidad de sujetos a los que el concepto puede aplicarse). Cucharón (siglo III d.c.), en los que se clasifican los conceptos estableciendo entre ellos una relación de jerarquía y subordinación, de mayor a menor extensión.
La que es conocida como lógica clásica (o tradicional) fue enunciada primeramente por Aristóteles, quien elaboró leyes para un correcto razonamiento silogístico. Un silogismo es una proposición hecha de una de estas cuatro afirmaciones posibles: “Todo A es B” (universal afirmativo), “Nada de A es B” (universal negativo), “Algo de A es B” (particular afirmativo) o “Algo de A no es B” (particular negativo). Las letras sustituyen a palabras comunes como “perro”, “animal de cuatro patas” o ‘cosa viviente’, llamadas “términos” del silogismo. Un silogismo bien formulado consta de dos premisas y una conclusión, debiendo tener cada premisa un término en común con la conclusión y un segundo término relacionado con la otra premisa. En lógica clásica se formulan reglas por las que todos los silogismos bien construidos se identifican como formas válidas o no válidas de argumentación.
25- Lógica Difusa
La lógica borrosa o difusa se basa en lo relativo de lo observado. Este tipo de lógica toma dos valores aleatorios, pero contextualizados y referidos entre sí. Así, por ejemplo, una persona que mida 2 metros es claramente una persona alta, si previamente se ha tomado el valor de persona baja y se ha establecido en 1 metro. Ambos valores están contextualizados a personas y referidos a una medida métrica lineal.
26- OLAP
OLAP es el acrónimo en inglés de procesamiento analítico en línea (On-Line Analytical Processing). Es una solución utilizada en el campo de la llamada Inteligencia empresarial (o Business Intelligence) cuyo objetivo es agilizar la consulta de grandes cantidades de datos. Para ello utiliza estructuras multidimensionales (o Cubos OLAP) que contienen datos resumidos de grandes Bases de Datos o Sistemas Transaccionales (OLTP). Se usa en informes de negocios de ventas, marketing, informes de dirección, minería de datos y áreas similares.
La razón de usar OLAP para las consultas es la velocidad de respuesta. Una base de datos relacional almacena entidades en tablas discretas si han sido normalizadas. Esta estructura es buena en un sistema OLTP pero para las complejas consultas multitabla es relativamente lenta. Un modelo mejor para búsquedas, aunque peor desde el punto de vista operativo, es una base de datos multidimensional.
La principal característica que potencia a OLAP, es que es lo más rápido a la hora de ejecutar sentencias SQL de tipo SELECT, en contraposición con OLTP que es la mejor opción para operaciones de tipo INSERT, UPDATE Y DELETE.
27- Trivial
En matemática, el término trivial se usa frecuentemente para los objetos (por ejemplo, cuerpos o espacios topológicos) que tienen una estructura muy simple. Para los no matemáticos, son a veces más difíciles de visualizar o entender que otros objetos más complicados.
Algunos ejemplos incluyen:
conjunto vacío - el conjunto que no contiene elementos
grupo trivial - el grupo matemático que contiene solo el elemento identidad
También, trivial se refiere a soluciones (a una ecuación) que tienen una estructura muy simple, pero que por completitud no pueden ser ignoradas. Estas soluciones se denominan soluciones triviales. Por ejemplo, considérese la ecuación diferencial.

28- Digital
Se dice que una señal es digital cuando las magnitudes de la misma se representan a través de valores discretos en lugar de variables continuas. Por ejemplo, el interruptor de la luz sólo puede tomar dos valores o estados: abierto o cerrado, o la misma lámpara: encendida o apagada (véase circuito de conmutación).
Los sistemas digitales, como por ejemplo el ordenador, usan lógica de dos estados representados por dos niveles de tensión eléctrica, uno alto, H y otro bajo, L (de High y Low, respectivamente, en inglés). Por abstracción, dichos estados se sustituyen por ceros y unos, lo que facilita la aplicación de la lógica y la aritmética binaria. Si el nivel alto se representa por 1 y el bajo por 0, se habla de lógica positiva y en caso contrario de lógica negativa.
Cabe mencionar que además de los niveles, en una señal digital están las transiciones de alto a bajo o de bajo a alto, denominadas flanco de subida o de bajada, respectivamente. En la siguiente figura se muestra una señal digital donde se identifican los niveles y los flancos.

Señal digital: 1) Nivel bajo, 2) Nivel alto, 3) Flanco de subida y 4) Flanco de bajada.
Es conveniente aclarar que, a pesar de que en los ejemplos señalados el término digital se ha relacionado siempre con dispositivos binarios, no significa que digital y binario sean términos intercambiables. Por ejemplo, si nos fijamos en el código Morse, veremos que en él se utilizan, para el envío de mensajes por telégrafo eléctrico, cinco estados digitales que son:
punto, raya, espacio corto (entre letras), espacio medio (entre palabras) y espacio largo (entre frases)
Referido a un aparato o instrumento de medida, decimos que es digital cuando el resultado de la medida se representa en un visualizador mediante números (dígitos) en lugar de hacerlo mediante la posición de una aguja, o cualquier otro indicador, en una escala
29- Análogo
Se refiere a las magnitudes o valores que varían con el tiempo en forma continua (distancia, temperatura, velocidad, voltaje, frecuencia, amplitud, etc.) y pueden representarse en forma de ondas.
Las computadoras emplean lo digital y, por lo tanto, si entra información analógica, se debe convertir; este es el caso de la conexión a Internet por Dial up, donde un módem convierte la señal analógica (el sonido) en digital.
30- Neurona.
La neurona es uno de los tipos de las células nerviosas que se encuentran por todo el cuerpo; son el elemento fundamental de la estructura del sistema nervioso. Son células excitables especializadas en la recepción de estímulos y conducción del impulso nervioso. Una neurona está formada por un cuerpo celular y diferentes prolongaciones. Está encargada principalmente de trasmitir el flujo nervioso. Un cerebro humano contiene aproximadamente 100.000 millones1 de neuronas (1011). Las neuronas se hallan en el encéfalo, la médula espinal y los ganglios nerviosos; forman una red de contacto en todo el cuerpo. Se unen entre ellas a través de una unión discontinua llamada sinapsis. Si dicha sinapsis ocurre por contacto físico se trata de una sinapsis eléctrica, y si es a través de una hendidura, se le llama sinapsis química.
31- Claude Elwood Slawnon
Claude Elwood Shannon (30 de abril de 1916, Michigan - 24 de febrero de 2001), ingeniero eléctrico y matemático, recordado como “el padre de la teoría de la información”.
32- Algebra Booleana.
Álgebra de Boole (también llamada Retículas booleanas) en informática y matemática, son estructuras algebraicas que rigorizan las operaciones lógicas Y, O y NO, así como el conjunto de operaciones unión, intersección y complemento.
Se denomina así en honor a George Boole, matemático inglés que fue el primero en definirla como parte de un sistema lógico a mediados del siglo XIX. Específicamente, el álgebra de Boole fue un intento de utilizar las técnicas algebraicas para tratar expresiones de la lógica proposicional. En la actualidad, el álgebra de Boole se aplica de forma generalizada en el ámbito del diseño electrónico. Claude Shannon fue el primero en aplicarla en el diseño de circuitos de conmutación eléctrica biestables, en 1938.
33- Lenguaje de Alto Nivel
Los lenguajes de programación de alto nivel se caracterizan por expresar los algoritmos de una manera adecuada a la capacidad cognitiva humana, en lugar de a la capacidad ejecutora de las máquinas. En los primeros lenguajes de alto nivel la limitación era que se orientaban a un área específica y sus instrucciones requerían de una sintaxis predefinida. Se clasifican como lenguajes procedimentales. Otra limitación de los lenguajes de alto nivel es que se requiere de ciertos conocimientos de programación para realizar las secuencias de instrucciones lógicas. Los lenguajes de muy alto nivel se crearon para que el usuario común pudiese solucionar tal problema de procesamiento de datos de una manera más fácil y rápida.
La programación en un lenguaje de bajo nivel como el lenguaje de la máquina o el lenguaje simbólico tiene ciertas ventajas:
Mayor adaptación al equipo.
Posibilidad de obtener la máxima velocidad con mínimo uso de memoria.
Pero también tiene importantes inconvenientes:
Imposibilidad de escribir código independiente de la máquina.
Mayor dificultad en la programación y en la comprensión de los programas.
Por esta razón, a finales de los años 1950 surgió un nuevo tipo de lenguajes de programación que evitaba estos inconvenientes, a costa de ceder un poco en las ventajas. Estos lenguajes se llaman “de tercera generación” o “de alto nivel”, en contraposición a los “de bajo nivel” o “de nivel próximo a la máquina”.
34- Lenguaje de Bajo Nivel.
Un lenguaje de programación de bajo nivel es el que proporciona poca o ninguna abstracción del microprocesador de un ordenador. Consecuentemente es fácilmente trasladado a lenguaje de máquina.
La palabra “bajo” no implica que el lenguaje sea inferior a un lenguaje de alto nivel; se refiere a la reducida abstracción entre el lenguaje y el hardware.
35- Ciencia Real
Una prueba segura de cualquier afirmación verdaderamente científica es su capacidad de predecir el futuro: de decir qué sucederá bajo circunstancias dadas. Cuando se la somete a medidas válidas y objetivas de predicción, la pseudociencia no obtiene mejores resultados que la mera adivinación, en contraste con la ciencia real. Piense en la historia tal como la predijo la astrología, comparada con la gravedad y la certeza experimental y verificable de la ley del cuadrado inverso.
36- Ciencia Fisión
La ciencia ficción (también fue conocida en su origen como literatura de anticipación) es la denominación popular con que se conoce a uno de los géneros derivados de la literatura de ficción (junto con la literatura fantástica y la narrativa de terror). Nacida como subgénero literario distinguido en la década de 1920 (aunque hay obras reconocibles muy anteriores) y exportada posteriormente a otros medios, el más notable de ellos el cinematográfico, gozó de un gran auge en la segunda mitad del siglo XX debido al interés popular acerca del futuro que despertó el espectacular avance tanto científico como tecnológico alcanzado durante esos años.
Entre los estudiosos del género no se ha podido llegar a un consenso amplio sobre una definición formal, siendo éste un tema de gran controversia. En general se considera ciencia ficción a los cuentos o historias que versan sobre el impacto que producen los avances científicos, tecnológicos, sociales o culturales, presentes o futuros, sobre la sociedad o los individuos.
37- Inteligencia Artificial
Se denomina inteligencia artificial a la rama de la informática que desarrolla procesos que imitan a la inteligencia de los seres vivos. La principal aplicación de esta ciencia es la creación de máquinas para la automatización de tareas que requieran un comportamiento inteligente.
Algunos ejemplos se encuentran en el área de control de sistemas, planificación automática, la habilidad de responder a diagnósticos y a consultas de los consumidores, reconocimiento de escritura, reconocimiento del habla y reconocimiento de patrones. Los sistemas de IA actualmente son parte de la rutina en campos como economía, medicina, ingeniería y la milicia, y se ha usado en gran variedad de aplicaciones de software, juegos de estrategia como ajedrez de computador y otros videojuegos.
El matemático sudafricano, Seymour Papert, es considerado pionero en esta ciencia
38- Programas Tradicionales
Los programas tradicionales se denominan a todas aquellas aplicaciones que los usuarios normales utilizan, tales como paquete para oficinas, email, en general todo lo que se denomina programas de utilería.
39- Generación de los Programas.
Los equipos (el hardware) han pasado por cuatro generaciones, de las que las tres primeras (ordenadores con válvulas, transistores y circuitos integrados) están muy claras, la cuarta (circuitos integrados a gran escala) es más discutible.
Algo parecido ha ocurrido con la programación de los ordenadores (el software), que se realiza en lenguajes que suelen clasificarse en cinco generaciones, de las que las tres primeras son evidentes, mientras no todo el mundo está de acuerdo en las otras dos. Estas generaciones no coincidieron exactamente en el tiempo con las de hardware, pero sí de forma aproximada, y son las siguientes:
Primera generación Los primeros ordenadores se programaban directamente en código binario, que puede representarse mediante secuencias de ceros y unos sistema binario. Cada modelo de ordenador tiene su propio código, por esa razón se llama lenguaje de máquina.

Segunda generación Los lenguajes simbólicos, asimismo propios de la máquina, simplifican la escritura de las instrucciones y las hacen más legibles.

Tercera generación Los lenguajes de alto nivel sustituyen las instrucciones simbólicas por códigos independientes de la máquina, parecidas al lenguaje humano o al de las Matemáticas.

Cuarta generación Se ha dado este nombre a ciertas herramientas que permiten construir aplicaciones sencillas combinando piezas prefabricadas. Hoy se piensa que estas herramientas no son, propiamente hablando, lenguajes. Algunos proponen reservar el nombre de cuarta generación para la programación orientada a objetos.
Quinta generación Se llama así a veces a los lenguajes de la inteligencia artificial, aunque con el fracaso del proyecto japonés de la quinta generación el nombre ha caído en desuso.
40- Que es Case.
Las herramientas CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering, Ingeniería de Software Asistida por Ordenador) son diversas aplicaciones informáticas destinadas a aumentar la productividad en el desarrollo de software reduciendo el coste de las mismas en términos de tiempo y de dinero. Estas herramientas nos pueden ayudar en todos los aspectos del ciclo de vida de desarrollo del software en tareas como el proceso de realizar un diseño del proyecto, calculo de costes, implementación de parte del código automáticamente con el diseño dado, compilación automática, documentación o detección de errores entre otras.
41- Programas Compactadores.
Son programas que permiten comprimir o compactar un archivo y/o descomprimirlo o descompactarlo . El objeto de estos programas es reducir el tamaño de los archivos que se transmiten o se transportan en disquetes, al reducir su tamaño se reduce también el tiempo de conexión. Este software se basa en el algoritmo de compresión ZIP, que ya se usaba antes del windows con programas como PKZIP y PKUNZIP.

Muchos archivos en la Web están Compactados. Y es Fundamental para el acarreo de grandes volúmenes de información que pueden viajar “zipeados” en lugar de ocupar demasiado tamaño en su formato original. Entre las ventajas que posee esta la de ser posible su uso como herramienta para ejecutar y realizar BACKUPS de archivos y productos, la opción de utilizar claves de seguridad para que solo quienes estén autorizados puedan descompactar y acceder a los datos comprimidos.
42- Lenguaje SQL
El Lenguaje de consulta estructurado (SQL [/esekuele/ en español, /ɛskjuːˈɛl / en inglés] Structured Query Language ) es un lenguaje declarativo de acceso a bases de datos relacionales que permite especificar diversos tipos de operaciones sobre las mismas. Una de sus características es el manejo del álgebra y el cálculo relacional permitiendo lanzar consultas con el fin de recuperar -de una forma sencilla- información de interés de una base de datos, así como también hacer cambios sobre la misma. Es un lenguaje de cuarta generación (4GL).

Como principio, el Diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española define interfaz como una palabra derivada del término inglés “interface”(superficie de contacto) y la define de la siguiente manera: 1. f. Inform. Conexión física y funcional entre dos aparatos o sistemas independientes.
Por confusión con el término anglosajón “interfazear”, “interfasear”, “interfacear” suele utilizarse en muchos manuales de motherboard, pero no debe tomarse esto como correcto ya que existe una palabra muy simple de referencia de este artículo.
43- ABI
En los programas informáticos, un interfaz de aplicación binaria (ABI) describe el bajo nivel de interfaz entre un programa de aplicación y el sistema operativo, o la interfaz entre una aplicación y sus bibliotecas, o que entre los componentes de una aplicación. Un ABI es similar a una interfaz de programación de aplicaciones (API), sin embargo, este último define una interfaz de código fuente. [1] En pocas palabras, abis permitir la compatibilidad binaria, mientras que las API de permitir la compatibilidad de código fuente.
44- Loger Susana Catherine

45- OLP
OLP (Open License Program) lo cual es un programa de licenciamiento por volumen en el cual una empresa puede adquirir sus licencias con un solo contrato, entre estos programas esta el Open Business y Open Value.
46- OLTP
OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) es un tipo de procesamiento de transacciones a través de una red de computadoras. Algunos tipos de aplicaciones OLTP pueden ser banca electrónica, procesamiento de pedidos o comercio electrónico. Es un programa que facilita y administra aplicaciones transaccionales, usualmente para data entry y transacciones en empresas, incluyendo bancos, aerolíneas, etc.
47- Data Ware House
Es un repositorio de datos de muy fácil acceso, alimentado de numerosas fuentes, transformadas en grupos de información sobre temas específicos de negocios, para permitir nuevas consultas, análisis, reportador y decisiones.
48- Data Monts
Los Data Marts son las bases de datos locales o departamentales basadas en subconjuntos de la información contenida en el Data Warehouse central o maestro.
49- Lisp
Lisp es el segundo lenguaje de programación, después de Fortran, de alto nivel. Lisp es de tipo declarativo y fue creado en 1958 por John McCarthy y sus colaboradores en el MIT.

Top World News Now                 
March 3, 2013

United States
Obama Pardons 17 Felons, First in His Second Term
DHS built domestic surveillance tech into Predator drones
'Hundreds of thousands' of documents captured with Osama bin Laden, but only 17 released
Michigan governor moves to appoint emergency manager in Detroit
Pentagon Plans to Ask for Base Closures 
Thousands of Soldiers to Leave Europe
U.S. lawmakers question military aid to Egypt, citing concerns about Israel
US factory work is returning, but the industry has changed
'Anonymous' Hacker Explains Why He Fled The US
Among Most Polluted in US, NYC Area Awaits Cleanup
US Budget Cuts Force Yellowstone to Delay Opening
Obama signs sequester bill
Obama moves a step closer to approval of Keystone pipeline
Navy Building a Drone Base in Sunny Malibu

Ukrainian leader, fresh from EU talks, to meet Putin
Russian Arms Trade Czar Says "War" Declared on Weapon Supplies to Syria
Russian demonstrators rally in support of U.S. adoption ban
Moscow Police to Probe Alleged Rally Payment Scam
Moscow Mayor says no to more mosques in the city
Opposition’s ‘Social March’ Fizzles Out in Moscow
Uzbek National Shot Dead in Moscow
Putin, Obama stress cooperation, pledge to 'avoid deterioration' in relations
Russia presses for extradition of fugitive banker
Ukrainian President: Gas contract with Russia is killing us
Putin Signals Russia Can Be More Flexible on Syria
Putin says Russia should listen to French arguments on Syria, over vodka
Russians commend Putin's performance, believe he can keep election promises

Islands Dispute: China Warns Japan Ahead Of Legislative Session
A push for change in China as new leaders take the helm
China's reform roadmap gets clearer
China "fully prepared" for currency war
China divided on TV 'execution parade': judicial resolve or crude voyeurism
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Kills 12 in Chinese Coal Mine
Spill in China Underlines Environmental Concerns
China's fourth space launch center to be in use in two years
Xi Jinping taking on corruption in China
Premier Li Keqiang, as Hu Jintao protege, may be outgunned on policy
China calls for decreased tension on Korean Peninsula
5 Tibetans, mostly Buddhist monks, arrested for inciting self-immolations
Darkness at noon as worst dust storm in months mixes with morning smog
China's First Aircraft Carrier on Way to Permanent Base at Qingdao in North

United Kingdom
Cameron: UK 'can transform Africa' with G8
Cameron Vows To Stay The Course
Cameron buries hatchet with Plebgate MP Andrew Mitchell - and offers him £250,000 EU job
Government fights Europe over air pollution reduction
EU banker pay cap 'threatens thousands of British jobs'
Revealed: One in four of UK's top companies pay no tax
Banker Andrei Borodin granted asylum in Britain after fleeing Russia
UK Explorer: Green Campaigning Has Failed
UK commits £88m to Chilean telescope 'as big as all existing ones put together'
Paedophile ring leader, Colin Peters, linked to Barnes scandal
Cameron vows to defend UK banks

European Union
Hundreds of thousands march against austerity in Portugal
Italy paralysed as Grillo plots exit route from euro
Italian newcomer Grillo predicts collapse in six months
Italy President Napolitano calls for realism after vote
Greek military prepares for mass repression
1000s hold anti-austerity demo in Greece
At least 22 people hurt in Macedonia ethnic protests over new defense minister
Mass layoffs at Caterpillar in Belgium
Dark Rumblings Of A Coup D'État In Spain
Spain Delays Catalunya Banc Auction
Spain overturns Islamic face veil ban
Thousands march in Portugal to protest austerity

Germany Blasted for Role in Europe's Crisis
German states rail against 'stupid' wealth transfers
Italian president says Germany must give EU recovery a boost
Germany Debates Fracking as Energy Costs Rise
Bitter feud divides family of Germany's reunification leader
Racism in German military mirrors society
Germany discovers toxin in animal fodder
Angela Merkel Wishes Bulgaria's Borissov Quick Recovery
Merkel cabinet lowers bars to German labor market
Kerry praises Germany's 'exemplary leadership' in Europe
Italian president scraps meeting with German opposition leader over "clown" remarks

Hollande leads tributes to 'a great figure' and resistance fighter
As France's Mali mission grows, so does terror threat from homegrown militants inside France
France considers marijuana-based drug
France will not reach 2015 disabled access target
Paris seeks alternative to 75% tax
France-Qatar tensions rise over Mali war, Tunisia
Hollande juggles trade, human rights in Moscow
Hollande to Talk Syria Settlement With Putin
Kerry holds talks on Mali with French leadership
War For Global Energy Supremacy-World War III
Al-Qaeda leader behind Algeria gas plant hostage massacre killed in Mali
US Seeks to Confirm Report of Terror Leader's Death
Syria: Fierce Clashes in Provincial Capital Raqqa
Assad Forces Take Aleppo Village, Reopening Supply Line
Syrian President Assad Blasts British Government
Iran Says Syria’s Assad to Run for 2014 Election
How Does the U.S. Mark Unidentified Men in Pakistan and Yemen as Drone Targets?
Syrian Rebels Angry Over US Aid: ‘Only Thing We Want Is Weapons’

Insight Into Today’s News
Billionaires Continue To Dump Stocks
G20 issues empty declaration against currency wars
Norway Enters The Currency Wars
The Second-Mortgage Shell Game
The Last Liberal Branch of Government
US/NATO occupation of Afghanistan unraveling
Goodbye? We’ve Lost Who We Are?
US Schools Go Into Full Prison Mode
Hornady Addresses Ammo Shortage: We’re working 24/7
US Media Yet Again Conceals Newsworthy Government Secrets

Netanyahu secretly visited Jordan to discuss peace with Palestinians
Netanyahu gets two more weeks to form Israel coalition
3 Syrian Mortars Land in Southern Golan Heights
Gaza Border: Senior Officer's Vehicle Hit by Gunshots
New coalition will have to freeze construction outside settlement blocs
Tissue tests planned for Israelis in Gaza who want to cross border
Palestinian PM evacuated from West Bank after Israeli soldiers fire teargas at protesters
Sequestration: Israel Could ‘Gradually’ Lose $500 Million in US Aid
Netanyahu blasts Erdogan's 'dark and libelous' criticism of Zionism

Scud Missile Fired in Syria Lands Near Iraqi Village
Bombs Kill at Least 22 in Iraqi Capital
Erdoğan: Islamophobia, anti-Semitism same
Turkey's Difficult Choice in Palestine, Israel
Erdogan Calls for More Support for Syrian Opposition
Kurdish leader 'outlines' Turkey peace plan
More Military Arrests in Turkey For 'Feb. 28 Process'
Turkey Provides Schools for Syrian Refugee Children
Iraq budget stalemate deepens over Kurd oil payments
Iraq continues to allow Iranian overflights to Syria

John Kerry visits Egypt as dozens injured in violent protests
Kerry urges Egypt to take difficult economic steps; opposition figures skip meetings
Protesters Demand Armed Forces Intervention in Cairo
Ex-member: Muslim Brotherhood has secret societies in 80 nations, including U.S.
Bahrain Activist Zainab Al-Khawaja Sentenced to Jail
176 Protesters Held in Saudi Arabia
Qatar's Influence in Egypt Runs Deeper Than Its Pockets
Morsi criticized for reaction to tragedy
Parties who boycotted Morsi's national dialogue invited to send suggestions
Opposition refuse to stand in Egypt's parliamentary elections

Ahmadinejad: National dialogue only way to end Syria crisis
Ahmadinejad: West's war against Iran media doomed to failure  
Ahmadinejad to Visit Pakistan This Month to Inaugurate IP Gas Pipeline Construction
Threatening Iran Won't Help in Nuclear Talks, Envoy Says
Seized Chinese Weapons Raise Concerns on Iran
Head Of Iran's Qods Force Suggests Assad Is Vulnerable
Sanction-Hit Iran Fears Unrest as New Elections Near
Khamenei tells Zardari pipeline must advance despite US opposition
Ahmadinejad Aide’s Candidacy a Challenge to Iran’s Theocratic Status Quo
Ahmadinejad, Zardari Stress Expansion of Iran-Pakistan Ties

Hugo Chavez undergoing chemotherapy
VP Maduro: Capriles Seeks Destabilization in Venezuela
Venezuela decries "absurd" rumors over Chavez death
Maduro: Chavez ‘battling’ for his life
Rumours swirl as Chavez stays out of sight
Former envoy claims Venezuela's Chavez is dead
Venezuela government denies rumours about Chavez
Venezuelans hold demo in support of Chavez
Student demonstration dispersed by authorities in Venezuela
FARC: Colombia government to blame for coffee strike

Brazil to get its first nuclear subs
Rousseff Meets Nigerian Leader for Trade Talks
Brazil's Unemployment Rises More Than Forecast in January
Prosecutors investigate spying charges against consortium building dam in Brazil
Brazil turns to Catholic Church to quash crack epidemic
Brazil Wind Developers May Be Required to Build New Power Lines
No one is safe from Argentina's drug war
Modern Slavery Rears its Ugly Head in Chile
Chilean Navy Saves 25 Stranded Whales, 20 Die
Peru says American couple found; family wants 'proof of life'

Nieto Says Justice Will Be Done in Union Boss’s Case
Six Bodies Found in Mexico, Including Teenage Boy Earlier Arrested for Murder
Mexican Daily Hit by Third Attack This Week
Army Kills 4 Gunmen in Northern Mexico
Two Police Gunned Down in Guatemala
Fire hits big Mexico City marketplace
Pena Nieto enacts major education reform
Powerful head of Mexico teachers union is arrested
Mexico to Launch New Police Force Later This Year

Cuba Dissident’s Daughter Says Dad’s Death Was No Accident
Cuban Dissidents Hope to Build Mass Organization
A post-Castro Cuba
Chavez Congratulates Raul Castro on Re-Election
Castro Retirement News Prompts Tepid Response In Miami
Transition now seen as underway in Cuba
Cooperatives Could Save Cuban Socialism
South African medical students in Cuba may be deported
No ease for Cuba from US state sponsor of terrorism list

United Nations
U.N. Security Council asks for report on possible Mali peacekeepers
Ban Tones Down Criticism of Rwanda Over Congo Claims
UN chief says Iran should gain world confidence over its disputed atomic plan
Libya to ask U.N. to lift arms embargo
UN Removes Osama bin Laden From Sanctions List
Emir of Ansar Dine added to US, UN
          Orientador socioeducativo - Data Final: 06/05/2013   

Local: São Paulo - SP
Data Final: 06/05/2013

Descrição: O Centro Comunitário e Recreativo Jardim Macedônia seleciona orientador socioeducativo para atuar em Centro para Criança e Adolescente, no Capão Redondo, na zona sul de São Paulo.


Ensino médio completo, preferencialmente cursando superior em pedagogia e/ou afins, residir preferencialmente na região de Capão Redondo ou na zona sul da cidade de São Paulo e experiência anterior com crianças e adolescentes. 

As atribuições da vaga contemplam: orientar e acompanhar crianças na faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos com atividades socioeducativas; planejar e executar atividades deste segmento; e conduzir atividades tais como rodas de conversa, brincadeiras dirigidas e de lazer em atividades internas e externas, entre outras. 

Carga horária: 40 horas semanais, sendo das 07h30 às 16h30. 

Tipo de contrato: CLT. 

Remuneração: R$ 1.204,17. É oferecida refeição no local. 

Interessados podem enviar currículo, aos cuidados de Gabriela e/ou Marilene, para o e-mail:

Local: São Paulo - SP

          1812.10.25 - The Capture of H.M.S. Macedonian by the American frigate United States off Madeira - Derek George Montague Gardner   

1812.10.25 - The Capture of H.M.S. Macedonian - Derek George Montague Gardner_zpsyjnmk3a6.jpg
1812.10.25 - The Capture of H.M.S. Macedonian by the American frigate United States off Madeira - Derek George Montague Gardner - 1812.10.25 - The Capture of H.M.S. Macedonian - Derek George Montague Gardner_zpsyjnmk3a6.jpg

El combate entre el USS United States y el HMS Macedonian es una batalla naval librada el 25 de Octubre de 1812, durante la Guerra Anglo-americana de 1812, que enfrentó al Imperio Británico y a los Estados Unidos. El navío americano USS United States estaba mandado por Stephen Decatur quien salió victorioso de una larga sangrienta batalla contra el HMS Macedonian bajo el mandode John Surman Carden. El HMS Macedonian fue el primer navío de guerra británico llevado a un puerto americano después de su captura.

          Fresno VA Medical Center's Nurse of the Year   

Meet Doca Merdjanoska from Macedonia, one of VA's top nurses. Our continuing series of outstanding VA employees features a surgical department nurse at the Fresno VA Medical Center. Read the full story

Doca Merdjanoska, surgical department nurse at the VA Central California Health
          Le Grandi Battaglie di Alessandro Magno   

Fino alle soglie dei tempi moderni, e in alcuni casi anche in seguito, qualunque generale che aspirasse a lasciare una traccia di sé nella Storia si è posto come modello Alessandro Magno. Il sovrano macedone fu un conquistatore impareggiabile, in grado di costituire in soli otto anni un impero che andava dalla Grecia a l’odierno Pakistan; uno stratega raffinato, capace di allestire campagne ed eserciti di un’efficienza straordinaria; un tattico lucido e brillante, sempre consapevole dei punti deboli del nemico; un generale imbattuto, determinato a superare ogni sfida e ogni prova, tanto più se essa era ritenuta un ostacolo insormontabile dagli altri; e, soprattutto, un condottiero di inarrivabile coraggio, sempre in prima fila in battaglia e sotto gli spalti di una roccaforte nemica, colpito, ferito e vicino alla morte decine di volte ma in grado, col suo esempio, di caricare i propri uomini come nessun altro comandante. Ma quanta parte ebbero nelle sue vittorie le innovazioni e le conquiste di suo padre, Filippo II di Macedonia, la debolezza di un impero in decadenza come quello persiano, e infine la fortuna, che gli permise di uscire vivo, seppur malconcio, da tutte le più temerarie azioni belliche? Questo libro racconta le imprese di Alessandro depurandole dalla incredibile mole di leggende fiorite sul suo conto dopo la sua prematura morte, analizzando, oltre agli strumenti e alle capacità che gli consentirono di diventare il più grande condottiero di tutti i tempi, i limiti e i difetti della sua condotta.

          bellingcat - Will Get Fooled Again - Seymour Hersh, Welt, and the ... - bellingcat   


bellingcat - Will Get Fooled Again - Seymour Hersh, Welt, and the ...
On June 25th 2017 the German newspaper, Welt, published the latest piece by Seymour Hersh, countering the “mainstream” narrative around the April 4th 2017 ...
Intel Behind Trump's Syria Attack Questioned – ConsortiumnewsConsortium News
MINA Breaking News - Hersh: Trump launched strike on Syria based ...MINA

all 4 news articles »

          Arte sobre las instituciones del arte en el MNAV   
_Témpano. El problema de lo institucional. Cruces entre Europa del Este y el Río de la Plata_ se titula la muestra del Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Montevideo (Macmo) que se encuentra en el Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales (MNAV) hasta el 30 de julio. La exposición reúne un conjunto de obras que pueden englobarse bajo el género de “crítica institucional”, es decir, arte que se dedica a criticar las instituciones del arte; a disputar la política interna del mundo de la creación, circulación y venta del arte. “Como se sabe, sólo un porcentaje mínimo de la masa de un témpano es visible sobre la superficie del agua: la mayor parte está sumergida”. _Témpano_ se ocupa de las instituciones artísticas buscando, mediante diversas estrategias y métodos, “revelar lo que se oculta, nombrar lo que se silencia, demostrar lo contingente, histórico e interesado de aquello que se da por sentado, inmutable y sin ideología”, dice el desplegable de la exposición. El témpano es, entonces, una metáfora de las instituciones, pero también de las prácticas artísticas, las relaciones y condiciones de producción en ese terreno. Acompañando el carácter autorreflexivo que signa los campos y disciplinas en la posmodernidad, la crítica institucional pone de manifiesto que el mundo del arte está en disputa, y que en esa batalla se juegan no sólo aspectos simbólicos, sino también económicos, políticos, ideológicos, nacionales e internacionales. El tema es una de las obsesiones del Macmo –que se define como un “espacio de ensayos provisorios de modelos, estrategias y formas de pensar en torno al arte contemporáneo”– y de sus impulsoras, Agustina Rodríguez y Eugenia González, conocidas por ser creadoras de la obra _Variables_, que, saboteando el proceso de selección de jurados para el Premio Nacional de Artes Visuales –González se hizo elegir como jurado por artistas/obras inexistentes– sacudió la empantuflada escena del arte uruguayo en 2010. Por ese entonces, ambas ya ponían en tensión los procesos por los que debe pasar un artista para ser incluido en el mundo del arte, así como los abusos e intereses institucionales que la mayoría de las veces quedan debajo del agua. Desde su inauguración en 2014, el Macmo ha explorado diferentes modos de poner en cuestión las lógicas de producción artística y reproducción cultural, como en el caso del laboratorio _[El museo es una escuela]( "")_ o del intento –poco exitoso, dado el silencio absoluto que se cernió sobre su convocatoria– de emular en Uruguay el proyecto de ArtLeaks, consistente en crear un [banco de denuncias de abusos institucionales en el mundo del arte]( ""). “El iceberg flota y viaja y se estanca, se derrite y se despedaza, choca contra otros témpanos, con los continentes e islas y con diversos objetos flotantes. Su tamaño cambia, y también su peligrosidad para las embarcaciones, que desarrollan técnicas para no correr la misma suerte del _Titanic_. Así, las prácticas artísticas que abordan las instituciones en sí mismas y su institucionalidad, y por tanto, sus relaciones con la creación artística, con la industria cultural, el mercado, el poder político, la economía, la ideología, las transformaciones sociales y las historias del arte, se desarrollan en determinado tiempo y lugar; son efectivas o inútiles; rasguñan, dañan o hunden las instituciones; son destruidas o evitadas por ellas; pierden eficacia, se paralizan, son sustituidas por otras; siguen determinados patrones, modelos y tipologías. Las instituciones se adaptan a ellas, las fagocitan y las utilizan para actualizarse y transformarse”. Así como hay política sobre la política, filosofía sobre la filosofía, ciencia sobre la ciencia, hay arte sobre el arte. Las obras exhibidas en _Témpano_ tienen en cuenta dos mapas: el temático, ya mencionado, y el geográfico, ya que la propuesta busca replicar en el Río de la Plata la investigación _Inside Out - Not So White Cube_ (Del revés - Cubo no tan blanco) de Alenka Gregori , curadora eslovena, y Suzana Milevska, teórica del arte macedonia. Se encuentran así artistas de Europa Central y del Este –donde vive Francisco Tomsich, uno de los curadores de la muestra e integrante del Macmo– con otros rioplatenses, mostrando que, aunque hay especificidades locales, también hay problemas globales que reúnen las preocupaciones de creadores en diversos países de la ex Yugoslavia –Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croacia, Eslovenia, Macedonia, Serbia– y otros ex integrantes del “bloque socialista” –Bulgaria, Rumania– pero también en Austria, Argentina y Uruguay. Los artistas y grupos que integran la muestra son ArtLeaks, Azra Akšamija, Aldo Baroffio y Soledad Bettoni, Carlos Capelán, Graciela Carnevale, Andreas Fogarasi, Liljana Gjuzelova y Sašo Stanojkovik, Hungry Artists Foundation, Jusuf Hadžifejzovi , Lea Lublin, Dalibor Martinis, Paula Massarutti, Ivan Moudov, Dan Perjovschi, Lia Perjovschi, Tadej Poga ar, Mariana Telleria, Pablo Uribe y Leonello Zambon. Aunque hay algunos contemporáneos, especialmente los rioplatenses, la mayoría de las obras fueron creadas en los años 70, y esto habla no sólo del carácter histórico de esta vertiente estético-política, sino también del singular contexto en el que surgió (en plena Guerra Fría y cuando en ambos bandos se intensificaban los conflictos internos). Quizá la necesidad de criticar al arte se agudiza en los lugares y momentos en los que también se siente la urgencia de criticar y denunciar sus contextos. Y quizá empezar hablando del mundo propio sea una vía para hablar del mundo. La crítica institucional mezcla un arte de ideas y una desesperación del arte por tocar la vida, o por mostrar el modo en que la vida y sus agentes perforan todo el tiempo al arte. No busca la belleza estética o la innovación técnica, sino denunciar situaciones relacionadas con la automatización en que han entrado las formas de producción y exhibición del arte, sus economías especulativas y sus modos capitalistas de moverse, la sumisión y los egos en juego, y las políticas culturales y curatoriales que pasan lejos de la consideración de las obras. En la muestra –curada por el equipo del Macmo con la colaboración de Laura Outeda, May Puchet, Mauricio Rodríguez y Cecilia Sánchez– pueden verse obras en las que los creadores han decidido colgar sus cuadros mirando a la pared, encerrar al público en la sala de exposición, o criticar –habiendo sido elegidos– los criterios de selección de una muestra, o a la institución que las acoge; muestras que esconden dinero entre las obras que luego venden para recuperarlo, y obras cuya observación el propio artista, vestido de guardia, se dedica a obstaculizar; arte que visita las miserias del arte, o que hace visibles a los trabajadores detrás de las exposiciones; obras que parasitan otras obras, cubren de negro un museo, cuentan historias o archivan diálogos como si fueran obras; bibliografías mostradas como obras. ¿Puede el arte criticar al arte desde dentro? Mientras _Témpano_ lo intenta desde el corazón de la institucionalidad artística uruguaya –nada menos que el MNAV– recuerdo la provocación del teórico de la danza Ramsay Burt, quien señala: “Los ataques vanguardistas al arte son ataques a la única institución sobre la cual los artistas tienen alguna influencia”. Puede ser que eso tenga algo de cierto y que estas tentativas sean comidas por el circuito de consumo, poder y mercantilización que domina el arte y sus actuales procesos de inclusión/exclusión. El riesgo existe, y también la apuesta a despertar en los visitantes –y por qué no, en los directores– de museos ciertas inquietudes respecto de la pretensión de neutralidad ideológica o política del arte contemporáneo. Quizá. Al igual que el capitalismo, el mundo del arte devora todo lo que pretende atacarlo. Lo cierto es que después de toda ingesta viene el momento de la digestión, y es entonces que muestras como esta pueden patearle el hígado.
          ¿Por qué Diosas?   
Salvo excepciones, las mujeres del este de Europa (generalmente de raza eslava, mezcla entre europeo y asiático) son bellísimas, altas, esbeltas, piernas de escándalo, excelentes amantes... perfectas para adorar.
Este blog irá dedicado a ellas, a las mejores mujeres del mundo, las del este de Europa
Son Diosas porque son mujeres muy femeninas y de una belleza extraordinaria además de cultas y grandes amantes, son mujeres dulces, comprometidas, luchadoras, amantes del teatro y la literatura... Hoy en día, tras la caída del regimen soviético, tenemos la suerte de verlas pasear por nuestras calles, tenemos la posibilidad de conocer a alguna y de que se convierta en nuestra esposa/compañera. Tratándola y mimándola como se merecen (están acostumbradas a la frialdad y rudeza del hombre eslavo) seremos los hombres más felices del mundo.
En este blog iré recogiendo las fotografias de las mujeres del este de Europa más famosas y bellas del panorama internacional.

(haz click en las imágenes para verlas a tamaño completo)

Países que son parte de la llamada Europa del este

República Checa, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, Croacia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Moldavia, Hungria, Ucrania, Bielorusia, Polonia, Lituania, Letonia, Estonia, y la Federación Rusa

          Katarina Ivanovska   
Katarina Ivanovska nació el 18 de agosto de 1988 en Skopje (Macedonia). Mide 1'80 y sus medidas son 85-60-89.

(haz click en las imágenes para verlas a tamaño completo)

          Macedonia's Trump Spammers Fear Golden Age Is Over   
Sinisa Jakov Marusic, BI
The spammers from the little Macedonian town of Veles - who gained cash and notoriety for promoting fake news about Donald Trump - fear their lucrative business is fading away.
          Fleurons Macedonian Tomb   

from bat400: A view into the main chamber taken from the tomb entrance. The huge marble door that would have shut the antechamber from the main chamber lies where it fell back into the tomb. The exposure of the photo has been pushed and shows much more detail than I was able to see at the time, including details of the stone sarcophagus (on the right,) and that the interior walls are painted. The color of this photo has not been manipulated - only the exposure. Photo by bat400, May 2017.
          Fleurons Macedonian Tomb   

from bat400: The tympanum has a fresco with a reclining couple, interpreted as Hades and Persephone. The colors are vivid and bright although there is damage to the surface. Photo by bat400, May 2017.
          Fleurons Macedonian Tomb   

from bat400: The front face the tomb. Unlike the larger Krisis Tomb nearby, the Fleurons Tomb is free standing in the front and its roof structure was intact enough for this reconstruction. You can stand and view the tomb from directly in front of the entrance, and see through the antechamber and into the main chamber from that vantage point. You are not allowed to enter past the front. Photo by bat400, May 2017.
          Krisis Macedonian Tomb   

from bat400: A detail of the decoration above a row of doric columns. The figures in relief depict Greeks battling Persians. Photo by bat400, May 2017.
          Krisis Macedonian Tomb   

from bat400: The face of the tomb. Note that supporting scaffolding remains inside the tomb, but has been removed from the exterior. Photo by bat400, May 2017.
          Re: Debunking Christianity: Christians Don't Believe Their Own Bible, The Key Question Revealed.   

Don the Hapless Camper

"Did you read my response to the question "what is God?" The essence of God is being, Spirit (as opposed to physical and material), eternal, transcendent, etc. Note the "Spirit" part. Because God is not physical he is not visible. "

Neither you nor anyone else gets to define their particular "god" into existence.
It doesn't work that way.
And if your "god" is invisible and you are created in the image of that "god"....why aren't you invisible?

"He has appeared to some such as Moses and Gideon, but that was a theophany."

Allegedly and allegedly.
And there is only third hand hearsay for either allegation.

"The same is true of hearing God. Though some have heard a sound, the primary way God speaks is not by way of a sound hearable by physical ears."

Rather convenient, no?
You do understand that our minds are full of recordings of conversations and sermons, do you not?
That means you can't be sure that inner voice is "god".


< "How can you be certain you weren't hallucinating?" >

"One way is that God speaks to us a message that is coherent with what he says to others."

Now that is funny, Don.
The way you tell that the voice you hear is the voice of "god" is if what is said agrees with your unique raft of tribal cultural baggage?
Seriously, dude?
Surely you understand that even among the Abrahamic religions that baggage is going to be vastly different.

"That means one person who has heard God (or read what he has spoken in the past) will not find that God speaks in contradiction to what God has spoken to others."

I know what you mean. It just seems like ridiculous nonsense to me.
How can you be sure previous pronouncements were from your "god"? How could you possibly guard against confirmation bias and group realities reinforcement?

"Paul even says that "two or three prophets should speak, and the others should weigh carefully what is said." (1 Corinthians 14:29) That means what someone reports as a message given by God should be judged by others who have heard God speak. If there is a contradiction, the message should not be considered as from God."

IOW, those who agree with Paul and his group reality are to be regarded as factual manifestations?
And you don't have any trouble with your logic here, Don?

"The same is true of larger message of God spoken through prophets or apostles. If I hear something contrary to that message, then it is not from God."

Do you know what the penalty was for false prophecy, Don?
What you have is just the winners in the prophecy lottery collected and edited.

"For example, when Paul hears in a dream a man of Macedonia saying come to Macedonia and help us, Paul can credit that message as from God because it does not conflict with the message to go into all the world and preach the gospel."

Paging Christopher Walken's SNL "Trivial Psychic".

"In practice, however, a person learns to recognize the voice of God just as we learn to recognize the voice of someone close to us whom we hear speak regularly."

I'm calling BS on that one, dude.
Again, how can you tell this inner voice from confirmation bias and wish fulfillment?
I don't think you can.

When I was very young I thought I was hearing the voice of "god". Then I realized it was my father's voice repeating religious dogma.
I think you experience something similar.

"That is the reason Abraham accepted God's command to go and sacrifice Isaac. Abraham had many years of hearing God's voice. This particular message seemed contrary to what he knew of God, but the voice was the same. As it turned out, God had a purpose in commanding Abraham to sacrifice his son; it was both to make the point that human sacrifice was NOT God's will and that God would provide an acceptable sacrifice in a ram."

You believe that particular crock is not metaphorical, Don?
What kind of a monster would demand such a pantomime.

"Ask almost any person who has heard God speak, and you'll find that they know when God speaks and when they are substituting their own ideas for God's."

I have no doubt they think that. All of them-of every religious persuasion-even those that disagree with pretty much everything you believe, Don.
Why are those that hear your "god" special in that regard?

< "This "god" says different things to different people, not only among disparate religions but even to members of your own tribe." >

"I am not sure how you would know."

Simply by comparing what they report and noting the contradictions.
How many times in the last 1,300 years have the apocalypse been predicted by people who claim your "god" spoke to them?
Give me a number.
Remember in your reading the conflict between Paul and the Jerusalem church regarding what "god" said about following the jewish laws (including circumcision)? Your little test would not have helped at all in that case nor in many others.

"There is no doubt that many claim to hear God. But that does not make it so. "

Now we're getting somewhere......
How do you personally know which group you are in?
If they can be deceived in this manner, why can't you?

"Test it by the proven message that God has spoken. "

You don't have any "proven" messages. You only have allegations and Texas Marksman "prophecies"{.


Again, that "test" is an open invitation to indulge in confirmation bias and wish fulfillment delusions and little more.
Agreement with your particular tribe's cultural baggage is not an adequate test of veracity.

"Use that as your true north, and I don't think you'll find that the divergent messages pass the test."

That is babble, Don.
Most of the people on the planet don't accept your judeo/islamic/ christian writings as being from any "god" or even supernatural in origin.

You should ask better of yourself and for yourself if you're going to base your entire life on something so flimsy.

          Re: Debunking Christianity: Christians Don't Believe Their Own Bible, The Key Question Revealed.   

We've been through this before, Don.

Yes we have. And the answer is still the same.

Did you actually see this "god"?

Did you read my response to the question "what is God?" The essence of God is being, Spirit (as opposed to physical and material), eternal, transcendent, etc. Note the "Spirit" part. Because God is not physical he is not visible. He has appeared to some such as Moses and Gideon, but that was a theophany.

The same is true of hearing God. Though some have heard a sound, the primary way God speaks is not by way of a sound hearable by physical ears.

How can you be certain you weren't hallucinating?

One way is that God speaks to us a message that is coherent with what he says to others. That means one person who has heard God (or read what he has spoken in the past) will not find that God speaks in contradiction to what God has spoken to others.

Paul even says that "two or three prophets should speak, and the others should weigh carefully what is said." (1 Corinthians 14:29) That means what someone reports as a message given by God should be judged by others who have heard God speak. If there is a contradiction, the message should not be considered as from God.

The same is true of larger message of God spoken through prophets or apostles. If I hear something contrary to that message, then it is not from God.

For example, when Paul hears in a dream a man of Macedonia saying come to Macedonia and help us, Paul can credit that message as from God because it does not conflict with the message to go into all the world and preach the gospel.

In practice, however, a person learns to recognize the voice of God just as we learn to recognize the voice of someone close to us whom we hear speak regularly.

That is the reason Abraham accepted God's command to go and sacrifice Isaac. Abraham had many years of hearing God's voice. This particular message seemed contrary to what he knew of God, but the voice was the same. As it turned out, God had a purpose in commanding Abraham to sacrifice his son; it was both to make the point that human sacrifice was NOT God's will and that God would provide an acceptable sacrifice in a ram.

Ask almost any person who has heard God speak, and you'll find that they know when God speaks and when they are substituting their own ideas for God's.

This "god" says different things to different people, not only among disparate religions but even to members of your own tribe.

I am not sure how you would know. There is no doubt that many claim to hear God. But that does not make it so. Test it by the proven message that God has spoken. Use that as your true north, and I don't think you'll find that the divergent messages pass the test.

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          Production Machine Operator   
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          For sale - Michael Kors Brown Saffiano Jet Set Travel Medium... - Auction   

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          For sale - Michael Kors Luggage Brown Saffiano Jet Set Travel... - Auction   
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          Casino Brango Exclusive July $150 Freeroll Tournament   

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          bellingcat - Will Get Fooled Again - Seymour Hersh, Welt, and the ... - bellingcat   


bellingcat - Will Get Fooled Again - Seymour Hersh, Welt, and the ...
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