The Outbreak That Wasn’t: Liberia’s “Post-Ebola” Moment   
Ever since WHO declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in West Africa in June 2016, the world has wondered when (not if) they would see Ebola again. In May 2017, the virus reemerged from its secret jungle lair, but not before a brief panic in Liberia just a few weeks prior that would briefly […]
          Liberia: Ellen Wants Employment Law Repealed   
[The Capitol Times] President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has requested the timely consideration of the 53rd National Legislature to enact into law "An Act Repealing the Public Employment Law and Amending the Executive Law to create a Civil Service Commission".
          Liberia: Ex-LRA Workers Guilty   
[NEWS] Jurors of Criminal Court 'C' at the Temple of Justice in Monrovia have handed down a guilty verdict against two former employees of the Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA). The ex-employees are Joseph Weeks and Linda Sumowood.
          Liberia: Stop Marginalizing Liberian Businesses   
[NEWS] When He Took office in 1944, one of the first remarkable things President William V.S. Tubman did, was to establish a framework (Open Door Policy) that allowed investors to come and invest in Liberia. In reality, the Open Door Policy was intended to invite foreign investors in Liberia to open businesses in our country with their funds.
          World: General Assembly Approves Appropriation of $6.8 Billion for 14 Peacekeeping Operations in 2017/18   
Source: UN General Assembly
Country: Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Western Sahara, World

GENERAL ASSEMBLY PLENARY
SEVENTY-FIRST, 89TH MEETING (AM)
GA/11927 30 JUNE 2017

Approving the appropriation of $6.80 billion for 14 peacekeeping operations for the 2017/18 fiscal period, the General Assembly today adopted 21 resolutions and one decision contained in reports from its Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary). (See Press Release GA/AB/4239.)

Appropriating funds for peacekeeping operations from 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, the Assembly adopted resolutions on missions in Abyei, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Darfur, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Golan, Haiti, Kosovo, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, South Sudan and Western Sahara.

All texts were adopted without a vote, with the exception of the resolution setting out budgetary arrangements for the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), which it adopted by a recorded vote of 137 in favour to 3 against (Canada, Israel, United States) with no abstentions.

The Assembly also adopted related drafts on the support account for peacekeeping operations, and financing for the account; on the triennial review of the rates and standards for reimbursement to Member States for contingent-owned equipment; and on the United Nations Logistics Base at Brindisi, Italy, and Regional Service Centre in Entebbe, Uganda.

As well, it adopted a resolution on special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and abuse, by which it requested the Secretary-General to immediately inform Member States concerned of allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse, and called upon Member States — including those deploying non-United Nations forces authorized by a Security Council mandate — to investigate such cases, hold perpetrators accountable and repatriate units where there was credible evidence of widespread or systemic sexual exploitation and abuse.

Also adopted was a text on the United Nations financial reports and audited financial statements on peacekeeping missions, as well as the Board of Auditors’ reports on them.

Finally, the Assembly adopted a draft decision by which it deferred, until the second part of its resumed seventy-second session, consideration of reports from the Secretary-General, and related reports from the Advisory Committee, regarding closed peacekeeping missions.

Action on Draft Resolutions

The Assembly took action on the draft resolutions contained in reports from its Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary), which were introduced by Committee Rapporteur Diana Lee (Singapore).

First, it adopted a resolution contained in the budget Committee’s report on financial reports and audited financial statements, and reports of the Board of Auditors (document A/71/702/Add.1), accepting the financial report and audited financial statements of United Nations peacekeeping operations for the period ending 30 June 2016. It endorsed the recommendations in the corresponding reports of the Board and the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ), and asked the Secretary-General to ensure their full implementation. It went on to ask the Secretary-General to indicate an expected time frame for implementation, and to give, in his next report, a full explanation for delays in implementation of the Board’s outstanding recommendations, the root causes of recurring issues and measures to be taken.

It then turned to the report on administrative and budgetary aspects of financing peacekeeping operations (document A/71/708/Add.1), adopting five resolutions contained therein.

First, it adopted resolution I on the financing of the Regional Service Centre in Entebbe, Uganda, by which it approved the amount of $33 million for the maintenance of the Centre for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018.

Then it adopted resolution II on the financing of the United Nations Logistics Base at Brindisi, Italy, by which the Assembly would approve the cost estimates for the Base in the amount of $81 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018.

Next, it adopted resolution III on the support account for peacekeeping operations. By its terms, the Assembly decided to approve the support account requirements of $325.80 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $25.04 million for the enterprise resource planning project, $821,500 for information and systems security and $868,500 for the global service delivery model. It also approved the requirement of 1,357 continuing and 3 new temporary posts, as well as the abolishment, redeployment, reassignment and reclassification of posts, as set out in annex I of the text; and 77 continuing and 3 new general temporary assistance positions and 59 person-months, as set out in annex II, as well as related post and non-post requirements.

The Assembly went on to adopt resolution IV on the triennial review of the rates and standards for reimbursement to Member States for contingent-owned equipment. By doing so, it took note of the report of the 2017 Working Group on Contingent-Owned Equipment and the report of the Secretary-General. It also endorsed the conclusions and recommendations contained in the report of the ACABQ.

Finally, it adopted resolution V on special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. By its terms, the Assembly welcomed the Secretary-General’s determination to fully implement the United Nations policy of zero tolerance for sexual exploitation and abuse, as well as his determination to fully enforce the newly promulgated policy of whistle-blower protection. It requested that he immediately inform Member States concerned of allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse, and called upon Member States — including those deploying non-United Nations forces authorized by a Security Council mandate — to investigate such cases, hold perpetrators accountable and repatriate units where there was credible evidence of widespread or systemic sexual exploitation and abuse.

Turning to reports on peacekeeping missions, the Assembly first adopted a text on financing of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) (document A/71/945), by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for UNISFA the amount of $285.12 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $266.70 million for the maintenance of the Force, $13.49 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations, $3.38 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $1.56 million for the Regional Service Centre.

Turning to a report on financing of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) (document A/71/946), the Assembly decided to appropriate to the Special Account for the Mission $943.77 million from 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $882.80 million for the maintenance of the Mission, $44.65 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations, $11.16 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $5.16 million for the Regional Service Centre.

The Assembly then adopted a text on financing of the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) (document A/71/715/Add.1). By its terms, the Assembly, recalling Security Council resolution 2284 (2016) extending the mission mandate for a final period until 30 June 2017, decided that, for Member States that had fulfilled their financial obligations to the Operation, shall be credited with their respective share of $65.22 million, comprising the unencumbered balance of $48.68 million and $16.54 million of other revenue in respect of the financial period ending 30 June 2016.

It then adopted a resolution on financing of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) (document A/71/947). By its terms, it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for UNFICYP $57.41 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, inclusive of $54.00 million for the maintenance of the Force, $2.73 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $682,900 for the United Nations Logistics Base.

Next, it adopted a report on financing of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) (document A/71/948), appropriating to the Special Account for MONUSCO $1.22 billion for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, inclusive of $1.14 billion for the maintenance of the Mission, $57.74 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations, $14.44 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $6.67 million for the Regional Service Centre.

The Assembly then adopted a resolution contained in the Committee’s report on financing of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) (document A/71/933) by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for that Mission $5.69 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 31 December 2017, including $4.55 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $1.14 million for the United Nations Logistics Base.

Next, the Assembly adopted a resolution on financing of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) (document A/71/950), by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for UNMIK $40.29 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $37.90 million for the maintenance of the Mission, $1.92 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $479,200 for the United Nations Logistics Base.

It then adopted a resolution on financing of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) (document A/71/951). By its terms, it appropriated to the Special Account for UNMIL $116.95 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $110.00 million for the maintenance of the Mission, $5.56 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $1.91 million for the United Nations Logistics Base.

The Assembly also adopted a resolution on financing of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) (document A/71/952), by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for MINUSMA $1.12 billion for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $1.05 billion for the maintenance of the Mission, $53.00 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations, $13.25 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $6.12 million for the Regional Service Centre.

Under its agenda item on financing of the United Nations peacekeeping forces in the Middle East, the Assembly took action on resolutions contained in two reports.

It first adopted a draft on the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) (document A/71/953), by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for the Force the amount of $61.30 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $57.65 million for the maintenance of UNDOF, $2.92 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $729,100 for the United Nations Logistics Base.

The representative of Syria said his delegation had joined consensus on the resolutions on United Nations peacekeeping forces in the Middle East. However, it believed that it was Israel’s responsibility to pay for those Missions.

The Assembly then turned to a resolution contained in the report on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) (document A/71/954).

By a recorded vote of 85 in favour to 3 against (Canada, Israel, United States) with 53 abstentions, the Assembly adopted preambular paragraph 4 and operative paragraphs 4, 5 and 13.

Taking action on the draft resolution as a whole, the Assembly adopted it by a recorded vote of 137 in favour to 3 against (Canada, Israel, United States) with no abstentions.

By its terms, the Assembly decided to appropriate to the Special Account for UNIFIL the amount of $513.53 million, for the period from 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, inclusive of $483.00 million for the maintenance of the Force, $24.43 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $6.11 million for the United Nations Logistics Base.

Also by the draft, the Assembly expressed deep concern that Israel had not complied with previous resolutions on UNIFIL, and requested that the Secretary-General take the measures necessary to ensure the full implementation of their relevant paragraphs.

The Assembly then adopted a resolution on financing of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) (document A/71/955), by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for UNMISS $1.14 billion for the period from 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $1.07 billion for the maintenance of the Mission, $54.16 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $13.54 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $6.26 million for the Regional Service Centre.

The Assembly then adopted the resolution in the report on financing of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) (document A/71/956), by which it decided to appropriate to the Special Account for MINURSO $55.59 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $52.00 million for the maintenance of the Mission, $2.63 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations, $657,600 for the United Nations Logistics Base and $303,800 for the Regional Service Centre.

It then adopted a resolution on financing of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) (document A/71/957), by which it appropriated to the Special Account for UNAMID $33.56 million for the period of 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $24.58 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations and $6.15 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $2.84 million for the Regional Service Centre.

Taking up the report on financing of the activities arising from Security Council resolution 1863 (2009) (document A/71/958), the Assembly decided to appropriate to the Special Account for the United Nations Support Office for the African Union Mission in Somalia (UNSOA) $622.19 million for the period 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018, including $582.00 million for the maintenance of the Office, $29.43 million for the support account for peacekeeping operations, $7.36 million for the United Nations Logistics Base and $3.40 million for the Regional Service Centre.

Finally, acting on the Committee’s report on review of the efficiency of the administration and financial functioning of the United Nations (document A/71/717/Add.2), the Assembly deferred until the second part of its resumed seventy-second session consideration of the reports of the Secretary-General and the ACABQ on closed peacekeeping missions.


          World: Global Weather Hazards Summary, June 30 - July 6, 2017   
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda, World

Heavy rainfall continues over Central America

Africa Weather Hazards

  1. Below-average rainfall since mid-May has led to abnormal dryness across eastern Uganda and southwestern Kenya. Moisture deficits are likely to negatively impact cropping and Pastoral activities.

          Combats de rue dans Monrovia, par Patrick Robert   
Dans les années 1990, le photographe Patrick Robert se rend plusieurs fois à Monrovia, au Liberia. Intéressé depuis toujours par l’actualité de l’Afrique, sa curiosité insatiable lui donne l’envie de comprendre cette guerre civile meurtrière. Les rebelles viennent de libérer les prisons pour renforcer les rangs de leur armée. Il …
          LIBERIA Kettenanhänger aus massiv 925 Silber mit 50 cm Halskette   
37,90 EUR
Halskette Panzer 1,2 mm - 50 cm lang - mit Kettenanh?nger aus der Form der LIBERIA Landkarte aus massiv 925 Sterling Silber!Der Anh?nger ist mit einer gro?en ?se versehen, sodass dieser auch mit einer etwas dickeren Halskette getragen werden kann.Die Anh?nger werden in einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede aus massivem Material hergestellt und selbstverst?ndlich 925 gestempelt!Landkarte : LIBERIAMaterial: massiv 925 Sterling SilberGr??e: ca. 21 mm und 1 mm dickGewicht : ca. 3,4 gOberfl?che: Vorderseite handpoliert und R?ckseite matt geb?rstetHalskette: 50 cm lang, Panzer 1,2 mm mit Federring-VerschlussSonderanfertigungen, wie z.B. ein anderes Land, gr??er oder aus einem anderen Material k?nnen auf Wunsch f?r Sie hergestellt werden. Fragen Sie uns einfach danach! Wir werden Ihnen sicherlich weiter helfen k?nnen!Alle Kettenanh?nger werden direkt nach Ihrer Bestellung von einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede extra f?r Sie angefertigt.Die Abbildungen sind nicht in Originalgr??e - Bitte entnehmen Sie die Gr??e der jeweiligen Produktbeschreibung!

          LIBERIA Kettenanhänger aus massiv 925 Silber   
21,90 EUR
Kettenanh?nger aus 925 Silber LiberiaEin moderner ca. 21 mm gro?er Kettenanh?nger aus der Form der LIBERIA Landkarte aus massiv 925 Sterling Silber!Der Kettenanh?nger ist mit einer gro?en ?se versehen, sodass dieser auch mit einer etwas dickeren Halskette getragen werden kann.Die Anh?nger werden in einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede aus massivem Material hergestellt und selbstverst?ndlich 925 gestempelt!Landkarte: LIBERIAMaterial: massiv 925 Sterling SilberGr??e: ca. 21 mm und 1 mm dickOberfl?che: Vorderseite handpoliert und R?ckseite matt geb?rstetGewicht: ca. 1,6 gSonderanfertigungen, wie z.B. ein anderes Land, gr??er oder aus einem anderen Material k?nnen auf Wunsch f?r Sie hergestellt werden. Fragen Sie uns einfach danach! Wir werden Ihnen sicherlich weiter helfen k?nnen!Alle Kettenanh?nger werden direkt nach Ihrer Bestellung von einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede extra f?r Sie angefertigt.Die Abbildungen sind nicht in Originalgr??e - Bitte entnehmen Sie die Gr??e der jeweiligen Produktbeschreibung!

          LIBERIA Kettenanhänger mit Brillant am Wunschort aus massiv 585 Gold   
258,90 EUR
Kettenanh?nger aus der Form der LIBERIA Landkarte aus massiv 585 Gelbgold mit einem?Brillant an Ihrem Wunschort!Noch pers?nlicher durch den Brillant an Ihrem Wunschort!Der Anh?nger ist mit einer gro?en ?se versehen, sodass dieser auch mit einer etwas dickeren Halskette getragen werden kann.Die Anh?nger werden in einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede aus massivem Material hergestellt und selbstverst?ndlich 585 gestempelt!Landkarte: LIBERIAMaterial: massiv 585 GelbgoldGr??e: ca. 21mm und 1mm dickOberfl?che: Vorderseite handpoliert und R?ckseite matt geb?rstetGewicht: ca. 2,1gBrillant: 0,015ct? W?SI?Bitte teilen Sie uns unbedingt nach Ihrer Bestellung den Wunschort f?r den Brillant aus der Kaufabwicklung unter Bemerkungen oder per Email mit!Sonderanfertigungen, wie z.B. ein anderes Land, gr??er oder aus einem anderen Material k?nnen auf Wunsch f?r Sie hergestellt werden. Fragen Sie uns einfach danach! Wir werden Ihnen sicherlich weiter helfen k?nnen!Alle Kettenanh?nger werden direkt nach Ihrer Bestellung von einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede extra f?r Sie angefertigt.Da es sich hierbei um eine Sonderanfertigung handelt, ist dieser Artikel ausdr?cklich vom R?ckgaberecht ausgeschlossen!Die Abbildungen sind nicht in Originalgr??e - Bitte entnehmen Sie die Gr??e der jeweiligen Produktbeschreibung!

          Liberia: Music Academy to Stage Independence, Peace Festival - AllAfrica.com   
… DopoeThe Liberia National Academy of Music (LINAM) will be staging an … , gives voice lessons and general music education. "The academy also … workshops and seminars, and provides music teachers," he added. The …
          Liberia: Music Academy to Stage Independence, Peace Festival - AllAfrica.com   
… DopoeThe Liberia National Academy of Music (LINAM) will be staging an … , gives voice lessons and general music education. "The academy also … workshops and seminars, and provides music teachers," he added. The …
          Independence of Hayti and Liberia (Sumner)   
Independence of Hayti and Liberia: Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, on the Bill the Authorize the Appointment of Diplomatic Representatives to the Republics of Hayti and Liberia, With the Debate Thereon (Washington: Printed at the Congressional Globe Office, 1862), by Charles Sumner (page images at Florida)
          Trailer: Charlize Theron And Javier Bardem Find Love And War With ‘The Last Face’   
Director Sean Penn has received some of the worst reviews of his career with his latest effort The Last Face, a Liberia set drama headlined by Charlize Theron and Javier Bardem. With a critics rating of 8% on Rotten Tomatoes, this movie is currently available as a DirecTV exclusive and will hit select theaters [...]
          A Libyan ambush, Central Asia’s security wobbles and Mozambique’s loan scandal: The cheat sheet   

All eyes on Libya

It’s been a rollercoaster few weeks for Libya. A spot of good news first: Libya is pumping oil at its highest rate in four years, an important boon for a country that relies heavily on the petroleum industry. Now for a bunch of bad: This week, a convoy from the UN Support Mission in Libya was ambushed and, according to reports, their staff taken at gunpoint. The UN now says its staff are all safely in Tripoli, but the incident is yet another a sign of the chaos in Libya, where multiple forces claim authority and there is heavy fighting in some parts of the country, including Benghazi. The UN has just appointed a new envoy to the country – a former Lebanese minister of culture – a process that took four months, after the US rejected a Palestinian appointee because of his nationality, followed by retaliatory objections to other candidates from Russia and other countries. UNISMIL and various UN agencies have been gradually increasing their presence on the ground in the dangerous country, but this week’s ambush is likely to be a major setback. And with Italy threatening to deny entry to foreign ships docking on its shores – an effort to force its European partners to do more about the massive influx of migrants, mostly coming from Libya – the internal divisions and external debate over Libya make it one to watch. 

Au revoir UNOCI

While it’s something to celebrate, the closure today of the UN’s peacekeeping mission in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) has also generated some concerns. Although Cote d’Ivoire is one of Africa’s fastest growing economies, two mutinies this year by disgruntled soldiers suggests it has not fully healed from the 2002-2003 civil war and the post-election violence of 2010-2011. Human Rights Watch has called on the Ivorian government to address the rights issues at the root of past political violence, including the problem of impunity and the need to professionalise its security forces. It also pointed to the incomplete national reconciliation process and continued competition over land as potential flashpoints. With the peacekeepers’ withdrawal, a UN Security Council briefing noted the need for the international community to stay engaged. In a statement to the council, Sweden said the closure of UNOCI meant the “UN presence in the country is facing a ‘financial cliff’. This risks undermining the sustainability of the gains achieved.”

Is Afghanistan pulling Central Asia into chaos?

That’s the question at the heart of this new report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies. While Afghanistan’s downward spiral has been plotted meticulously by journalists and analysts, Central Asian states are often overlooked – to our potential peril, according to CSIS. The report notes that security has taken a nosedive throughout in Afghanistan in the past couple years, but asserts: “In the provinces of Afghanistan adjacent to Central Asia, the security situation has deteriorated even further than in Afghanistan as a whole on average.” That situation presents huge challenges to Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, which could become destabilized by smuggling, Taliban attacks and infiltration by extremists, among other threats. The report suggests some measures Afghanistan and its neighbours can take to mitigate those risks – including sealing borders and negotiating with the Taliban – but of none of them would be easy.

Seven more years

Few African leaders divide international public opinion as much as Rwandan President Paul Kagame, who will run for a third term in office in August, having overwhelmingly won a referendum to change the constitution in 2015. Kagame’s champions see him as the architect of stability and growth in a country where some 20 percent of the population was slaughtered in the 1994 genocide. They point to free basic education for all, the halving of infant and maternal mortality, and the emergence of a vibrant economy as achievements which merit his re-election. Detractors say Kagame’s authoritarian style and intolerance of opposition – some of whose leaders have been killed or disappeared, others accused of the cardinal sin of “genocidal ideology” – is a threat to democracy itself. Further evidence of this came in May, when politicians were told that all social media or online campaign content had to vetted by the National Electoral Commission 48 hours before publication. This rule was shelved a month later in the wake of domestic and international pressure, but the attempt to control the messaging will not be forgotten. Still, Kagame’s re-election is pretty much a foregone conclusion: he won with more than 95 percent in 2003 and 93 percent in 2010. Rwanda’s is one of four key African elections being held this year: the people of Kenya and Angola will also go to the polls in August, while Liberians will follow suit in October.

Did you miss it?

Lifting the lid on a Mozambique’s loan scandal

As scandals go, Mozambique’s $2.2 billion secret loan deal that crashed its economy was pretty bad (See IRIN’s report). But now we’re getting a handle on just how corrupt it all was. The recently-released executive summary of the Kroll audit report suggests that the Privinest Group – which was supposed to supply Mozambique with a tuna fishing fleet and maritime security vessels – overcharged by at least $700 million. For example, fishing boats were invoiced at $22 million each, but Kroll estimates the real price should have been just $2 million. And there’s more. Kroll says that $500 million “remains unaudited and unexplained”, on top of the $700 million overcharge. That’s partly because Privinest as well as the state security service, SISE, local banks and the Ministry of Finance all refused to provide the auditors with information requested. For more on the scandal, for which Mozambicans are being forced to pay the price as the economy totters and social services are scaled back, check out Mozambique News reports & clippings.

The unpromised land

Few places these days can be described as hospitable towards asylum seekers, but in recent years Israel has outdone most other states with its policies of deterrence and detention. Not content with keeping asylum seekers confined to so-called “open” detention facilities like Holot, starting in 2014, the authorities began offering one-way tickets to “safe” third countries in Africa. By the time IRIN reported on these “voluntary” deportations in April 2015, it was already clear that those who accepted the offer to go to Uganda or Rwanda, the two countries that had quietly stepped up to receive Israel’s unwanted asylum seekers, did not fare much better than those who opted to remain at Holot. This week, a year-long investigation into Israel’s “relocation process” by Andrew Green for Foreign Policy revealed that the vast majority of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers who are sent to Uganda and Rwanda from Israel are quickly smuggled into neighbouring countries where they have even less protection and live in undocumented limbo. Meanwhile, Ugandan and Rwandan officials continue to deny having made any agreement with Israel to receive asylum seekers.

Watch out for an upcoming IRIN film – Unwelcome Stranger - about the life of a Sudanese asylum seeker in Israel.

(TOP PHOTO: Two soldiers from forces operating under Libya's Tripoli-based government walking through the deserted streets of Bin Jawad. Tim Wescott/IRIN)

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201501270911460310.jpg News Conflict Politics and Economics This week’s humanitarian outlook IRIN GENEVA Global
          Lab Scientist at Global Vision for Women and Children   
Global Vision for Women and Children is a community Based Organization (CBO), an amended version of Belleh District Women Development Agency established and registered in February 2005 under the Laws of the Republic of Liberia. GOVWAC seeks to address issues that affect women and children in Liberia. Until our amendment in January 2013, we worked in the interest of our rural women, children and communities
          Liberia: Music Academy to Stage Independence, Peace Festival - AllAfrica.com   
… DopoeThe Liberia National Academy of Music (LINAM) will be staging an … , gives voice lessons and general music education. "The academy also … workshops and seminars, and provides music teachers," he added. The …
          Países que já foram governados por ditadores   

® Alemanha (1933-1945)

® Argélia (1965-1994)

® Argentina (1976-1983)

® Áustria (1933-1938), (1938-1945)

® Bangladesh (1975-1979) , (1982-1990) e (1997)

® Bolívia (1971-1985)

® Brasil (1937-1945) e (1964-1985)

® Burkina Faso (1966-1991)

® Burundi (1966-1993)

® República Centro-Africana (1966-1993) e (2003-2005)

® Chile (1973-1989)

® China (1916-1927 ou 1920-1922)

® Colômbia (1953-1957)

® Cuba (1933-1959) e (1959-presente)

® República do Congo (1968-1992)

® República Democrática do Congo (1965-1997)

® República Dominicana (1889-1899) e (1930-1961)

® El Salvador (1931-1979)

® Equador (1972-1979)

® Espanha (1923-1930) e (1939-1975)

® Etiópia (1974-1991)

® Filipinas (1972-1981)

® França (1799-1814) e (1814-1815)

® Guatemala (1970-1985)

® Guiné (1984-1991)

® Guiné Equatorial (1968-1982)

® Haiti (1957-1990)

® Honduras (1963-1974)

® Indonésia (1967-1998)

® Iraque (1958-1968)

® Itália (1922-1943)

® Japão (1932-1945)

® Libéria (1980-1990)

® Madagáscar (1972-1975)

® Mauritânia (1978-1992) e (2005-2007)

® México (1853-1855) e (1876-1910)

® Nicarágua (1967-1979)

®

          Liberia: World Bank Trains Webmasters   
[New Republic] World Bank, Liberia country office has trained over 30 Liberian journalists in web development and management. The five-day intensive training brought together journalists, graphic designers, webmasters, and layout artists at the World Bank country office at the German Embassy outside Monrovia.
          Liberia: World Bank Ends 5-Day Training for 30 Media Webmasters   
[LINA] The World Bank Wednesday concluded a five-day training for 30 webmasters with renewed commitment to conduct more trainings to bridge the capacity gaps in the Liberian media.
          Liberia: World Bank Ends Website Development Training for Media Houses   
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -The World Bank, in partnership with several media institutions, has ended a five day intensive training on website development and management to strengthen and improve the skills of webmasters of various media institutions in the country.
          Liberia: Coffey Says 'Citizen Journalism' Ill Contributor to Society   
[LINA] Press Union of Liberia (PUL) President Charles Coffey has observed that the lack of proper management of citizen journalism has infused lots of new dynamics in the media, raising more questions than answers.
          Liberia: PUL, Internews to Organize Symposium for Talk Show Hosts   
[The Capitol Times] The Press Union of Liberia, in partnership with USAID/ Internews will hold a two-day Talk show host Symposium from Friday, June 30 to Saturday, July 1, 2017, at the Golden Key Hotel, in the King Gray Community, Paynesville.
          Guida alla Cospirazione Globale    

È tornato David Icke
una delle voci più significative della controinformazione

Studioso di storia segreta e cospirazione, famoso giornalista e conferenziere, David Icke è l’autore di famosi bestseller come E la Verità vi renderà liberi Il Segreto più nascosto.

Il suo nuovo libro è La Guida di David Icke alla Cospirazione Globale, 50.000 copie vendute in lingua inglese: un’opera unica e straordinaria. 
Oltre 600 pagine ricche di riferimenti storici, biografici e simbolici. Un capolavoro che connette tutti i punti e rivela i legami nascosti tra personaggi, eventi e tematiche che apparentemente non hanno nulla in comune tra loro, e che dimostra come tutto, alla fine, si ricolleghi perfettamente.

La cospirazione globale con cui si intende imporre uno stato orwelliano, non è pura “teoria”. Al contrario, è un fatto supportato da una serie infinita di prove e, oggi, anche dall’esperienza quotidiana. Una rete di famiglie imparentate tra loro, la cui origine risale alle epoche più remote, sta manipolando gli eventi attraverso i propri politici-fantoccio e personaggi di rappresentanza, prodigandosi per instaurare una tirannia a lungo preparata.

Ma i giorni del loro anonimato sono ormai terminati. David Icke ha fatto luce sul Popolo delle Ombre e ha messo fine a quella segretezza che è così essenziale al loro successo.


Chi siamo? 
Dove ci troviamo? 
Perché il mondo è così com’è?


Solo quando ogni punto sarà stato connesso all’altro, lo stupefacente quadro generale apparirà. E noi non potremo fare altro che rimanere sbalorditi mentre, pagina dopo pagina, Icke ci rivela la verità di ogni cosa, dagli avvenimenti della storia antica all’Internet olografico che governa la nostra realtà.

Questo è il libro che risveglierà la massa, e finalmente rivelerà in modo indubitabile l’incredibile livello di controllo che una forza occulta esercita sull’umanità da migliaia di anni. Il libro mostra come la nostra realtà venga manipolata tramite una conoscenza avanzata ma nascosta, così che noi siamo praticamente schiavi che credono di essere liberi.


Il commento di un lettore

Tutta la storia nel suo insieme è chiaramente e sinteticamente spiegata in modo trasparente e di facile lettura. Vi garantisco che, pur conoscendo benissimo i libri che David ha scritto finora, questo è un concentrato eccellente di tutto il suo lavoro. È l’unico libro che le persone confuse, spaventate e in cerca di risposte devono assolutamente leggere. 
Steve, Lancks, UK


          La Guida di David Icke alla Cospirazione Globale e Come Fermarla    

Studioso di storia segreta e cospirazione, famoso giornalista e conferenziere, David Icke è l’autore di famosi bestseller come E la Verità vi renderà liberi Il Segreto più nascosto.

Il suo nuovo libro è La Guida di David Icke alla Cospirazione Globale, 50.000 copie vendute in lingua inglese: un’opera unica e straordinaria. 
Oltre 600 pagine ricche di riferimenti storici, biografici e simbolici. Un capolavoro che connette tutti i punti e rivela i legami nascosti tra personaggi, eventi e tematiche che apparentemente non hanno nulla in comune tra loro, e che dimostra come tutto, alla fine, si ricolleghi perfettamente.

La cospirazione globale con cui si intende imporre uno stato orwelliano, non è pura “teoria”. Al contrario, è un fatto supportato da una serie infinita di prove e, oggi, anche dall’esperienza quotidiana. Una rete di famiglie imparentate tra loro, la cui origine risale alle epoche più remote, sta manipolando gli eventi attraverso i propri politici-fantoccio e personaggi di rappresentanza, prodigandosi per instaurare una tirannia a lungo preparata.

Ma i giorni del loro anonimato sono ormai terminati. David Icke ha fatto luce sul Popolo delle Ombre e ha messo fine a quella segretezza che è così essenziale al loro successo.


Chi siamo? 
Dove ci troviamo? 
Perché il mondo è così com’è?


Solo quando ogni punto sarà stato connesso all’altro, lo stupefacente quadro generale apparirà. E noi non potremo fare altro che rimanere sbalorditi mentre, pagina dopo pagina, Icke ci rivela la verità di ogni cosa, dagli avvenimenti della storia antica all’Internet olografico che governa la nostra realtà.

Questo è il libro che risveglierà la massa, e finalmente rivelerà in modo indubitabile l’incredibile livello di controllo che una forza occulta esercita sull’umanità da migliaia di anni. Il libro mostra come la nostra realtà venga manipolata tramite una conoscenza avanzata ma nascosta, così che noi siamo praticamente schiavi che credono di essere liberi.


          Batman Director Matt Reeves Teases "Noir-Driven" Film - Collider Movie Talk   
On this episode of Collider Movie Talk (Wednesday, June 28th, 2017) Kristian Harloff, Jeremy Jahns, Perri Nemiroff, Clarke Wolfe, and Stephanie Gray discuss the following: 
 
-First trailer released for Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle
 
-Matt Reeves teases a noir-detective version of ‘The Batman’
 
-Michelle Rodriguez threatens to leave Fast & Furious franchise if female characters don’t improve
 
-Opening This Week – Despicable Me 3, The House
 
-First red-band trailer released for A Bad Moms Christmas 
 
-New trailer released for The Last Face starring Charlize Theron and Javier Bardem
 
-Mail Bag
 
-Live Twitter Questions
 
Sony has released the first Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle trailer. The film centers on four high schoolers who, during their time in detention, come across the ancient, powerful game Jumanji, and are sucked into the game world. Once there, they take on the appearance of avatars played by Dwayne Johnson, Kevin Hart, Karen Gillan, and Jack Black. The movie is directed by Jake Kasdan, with a release date set for later this year on December 22nd.
 
With War for the Planet of the Apes landing in theaters next month, director Matt Reeves has already started making the press rounds for the final chapter in the Apes trilogy. And because it’s Batman, the director is already fielding questions about what we can expect to see from his version of The Dark Knight. Speaking with New Trailer Buzz, Reeves talked a bit about his take on The Batman, teasing something fans have wanted to hear for a very long time – a “World’s Greatest Detective” angle that is “noir-driven.
 
The Fast & Furious movies make a point to say how it’s all about family. But if the recent comments made by franchise star Michelle Rodriguez are to be believed, the family is jeopardy of splitting apart. Taking to her Instagram account to help promote the digital release of the latest installment in the series with The Fate of the Furious, Rodriguez shined a light on an issue she’d like to see resolved before she signs on for the next entry.
 
OPENING THIS WEEK
 
BUY OR SELL
 
STX Entertainment has released the first red-band trailer for A Bad Moms Christman. In the upcoming sequel, the underappreciated moms are fighting back against the pressures of the holiday season, with their lives becoming even more stressful when their own mothers come to visit. The film opens November 3rd and stars Mila Kunis, Kristen Bell, Kathryn Hahn, Jay Hernandez, Cheryl Hines, Peter Gallagher, Justin Hartley, David Walton, Christine Baranski, and Susan Sarandon.
 
A new trailer has been released online for The Last Face. Set in war-torn regions of Africa, The Last Face stars Oscar-winners Charlize Theron and Javier Bardem as a pair of doctors who, across treacherous landscapes in Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Liberia, begin a love affair as they clash over how to save lives and combat the dangerous conditions around them, all while maintaining their relationship. The film is directed by Sean Penn and will be released in select theatres and On Demand on July 28th
 
MAIL BAG
 
LIVE TWITTER QUESTIONS
 
Check out the YouTube Playlist for Awesometacular: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLayt6616lBckuUHPMdwFINi_vcyc-ysnC
 
 
 
As the online source for movies, television, breaking news, incisive content, and imminent trends, Collider Videos is more than an essential destination.
 
Visit Collider: http://collider.com
 
Follow them on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/Collider
 
SUBSCRIBE TO THE SCHMOES YOUTUBE CHANNEL HERE: https://www.youtube.com/user/schmoesknow
 
Collider Show Schedule:
 
MONDAY: TV Talk | http://bit.ly/29BR7Yi 
 
TUESDAY: Heroes | http://bit.ly/29F4Job
 
Team Schmoedown | http://bit.ly/29C2iRV 
 
WEDNESDAY: Nightmares | http://bit.ly/29BQUV3 
 
THURSDAY: Jedi Council | http://bit.ly/29v5wVi 
 
FRIDAY: Schmoedown | http://bit.ly/29C2iRV 
 
SATURDAY: Mailbag | http://bit.ly/29UsKsd 
 
Behind the Scenes/Bloopers | http://bit.ly/2kuLuyI
 
SUNDAY: Mailbag | http://bit.ly/29UsKsd
 
Crash Course | http://bit.ly/2l66Dkv
 
MOVIE TALK: Every week day | http://bit.ly/29BRtOO

          Re: Another day, another opinion piece overselling breastfeeding   

I agree. Teachers and experienced caregivers too. But she is none of these things, yet decides to make her first major published column about how breastfeeding moms in Liberia aren't parenting right. Someday she'll probably regret this--at least I hope so.


          Encouraging Whistleblower Legislation in West African States   
The Economic Community of West African States’, or ECOWAS, recently held a weeklong anti-corruption meeting in Monrovia, Liberia. Attendees included 13 West African countries, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Arms, and international partners. As Tunde Ajisomo, ECOWAS ambassador to Liberia noted, “Fighting corruption is everybody’s business, but we need to put in place appropriate legislation.” Ajisomo also underscored...… Continue Reading
          December 2015 Highlights   
Editor-in-chief Shawn Kennedy and Clinical Editor Betsy Todd present the highlights of the December issue of the American Journal of Nursing. This month’s cover features nurse Elie Kasindi Kabululu caring for a patient at Centre Médical Evangélique in Nyankunde, Beni, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our first CE, “Inside an Ebola Treatment Unit: A Nurse’s Report,” describes the author’s experiences working with MSF at an Ebola treatment unit in Liberia for five weeks, outlines the practices and teams involved, and aims to convey a sense of what it’s like to work during an Ebola outbreak and to put a human face on this devastating epidemic. Our second CE, “Incorporating Acupressure into Nursing Practice,” discusses potential clinical indications for the use of acupressure, describes the technique, explains how to evaluate patient outcomes, and suggests how future research into this integrative intervention might be improved. In “Cultivating Quality: Original Research: Implementation of an Early Mobility Program in an ICU,” the authors recount how an early mobilization program at a community hospital contributed to fewer delirium days and improvements in patient outcomes, sedation levels, and functional status. Finally, “iNurse: Nurses and the Migration to Electronic Health Records” presents the challenges and benefits of using electronic health records and provides tips for adapting to EHR systems. In addition, there’s News, Reflections, Drug Watch, Art of Nursing, and more.
          The Revolution in Transatlantic Affairs   

The year 2001 could have been an eye-opener but the West, too traumatized by the Islamist attack on America, failed to notice an equally important, if less spectacular, development: the creation by China of a coalition, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, including Russia and Central Asia as members, Iran as a silent partner, and India and Pakistan as observers. It took another five years for Western foreign policy experts to realize that this emerging SCO was, for all practical purposes, an OPEC with nukes, which had the potential to develop, over time, into a full-fledged "NATO of the East."

At the NATO summit in Riga in November 2006, a little-noticed transatlantic revolution of sorts finally occurred when the Atlantic Alliance acknowledged that it would have to "go global" in order to remain relevant. Divided, America and Europe will fall; united, they can retain the lead. But all manners of "going global" are not equal, and the coming globalization of NATO is as much full of promises as it is fraught with perils.

Some will argue that, with 50,000 troops present in three continents today, NATO is in essence already global. Others will counter that the story of this halfhearted, haphazard globalization reads at times like a tale told by an idiot, full of rhetorical fog and bureaucratic friction, and signifying nothing more than "flight forward" or "muddling through." In fact, in the post-Cold War period, NATO's desire to have its cake (collective defense) and eat it too (collective security) has created a certain conceptual confusion.2

As a political organization, the Alliance rushed to invoke Article 5 within twenty-four hours of 9/11; as a military organization, NATO turned out to be as ill-prepared to do counterinsurgency in Afghanistan as the U.S. military in Iraq. It would be a mistake, however, to claim that NATO's credibility is at stake in Afghanistan. Afghanistan may have been the graveyard of empires in the past, but it won't be the graveyard of the Alliance -- for a simple reason already pointed out by one European observer:

When the territorial integrity of one of its members is threatened by an attack, NATO cannot afford to lose. It would sacrifice its credibility as an alliance. . . . But in stabilization operations the existence of NATO is not threatened. Here NATO can afford to fail without losing its credibility as an alliance. . . . There are, thus, fundamental differences between collective defense credibility and stabilization credibility. To lump them together or to blur the distinction between the two, shows a lack of understanding for the very nature of such interventions. The consequences of getting stuck in hopeless operations as well as holding NATO's authority and standing hostage to fortune is doubly dangerous. The UN, the institution with the widest experience in post-conflict stabilization to date, has never made these operations a test for its credibility. NATO needs to do likewise.3

If the Alliance survived a debacle of the magnitude of Suez in 1956, it can withstand anything. The main danger for NATO therefore is not military failure or even a Suez-like temporary political meltdown, but something more insidious. Over time, what an ill-conceived globalization of NATO could lead to is the transformation of the tactical coalition that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization currently is into a strategic "NATO of the East" while at the same time perverting the Atlantic Alliance into, so to speak, a "SEATO of the West" -- namely, a make-believe alliance with no viable strategy (because a conventional military configuration is irrelevant when the threats are of the asymmetric variety) and no coherent policy (because the interests of the global members are simply too heterogeneous to ever converge.)

The Long War promises to be a thinking man's war. As a full-fledged Alliance, NATO possesses the kind of staying power that mere ad hoc coalitions cannot deliver; but NATO still has to come to terms with the fact that thinking power will matter more than fighting power. If NATO is to avoid the twofold danger of the SCO becoming a NATO of the East while NATO becomes a mere SEATO of the West, the Alliance will have first of all to downgrade its "toolbox" dimension and beef up its "think-tank" dimension.

The revolution in strategic affairs

Ever since the 1999 intervention in Kosovo, NATO has been eager to prove that it stands for more than "No Action, Talk Only." But the adoption by the Alliance of the Marge Simpson doctrine ("Are we gonna just stand there like the French, or are we gonna do something?") has proved to be no substitute for a new strategic concept. Kosovo itself, waged in no small part to maintain the credibility of the Alliance, ended up paradoxically weakening NATO's credibility and the mutual bad blood afterwards constituted the single most important underlying reason of the 2003 near-death experience over Iraq.

By the time of the 2006 NATO Riga summit, two eminent Americans argued in no uncertain terms in favor of a re-invention of the Alliance: "It is time to stop pretending that everything is fine in Brussels and Mons. NATO will never generate the political impetus and leadership to reinvent itself unless we face that truth and openly debate what this Alliance can and should become. . . . NATO leaders have thus far demonstrated neither the vision nor the political will to reinvent the Alliance."4

Strong words, to be sure, but perhaps the wrong diagnostic: to the extent that there is indeed a danger of NATO drifting into irrelevance, it is due not so much to an absence of philosophical vision and/or political will as to a deficit of strategic literacy on the part of NATO leaders and cheerleaders.

On the American side, there is certainly no shortage of will and vision. Our two authors themselves were instrumental in forcing Europeans to look beyond Brussels sandbox politics and leading the drive for a successful enlargement of NATO. In the process of preaching a gospel of "broader and farther is always better," though, they elevated enlargement to the rank of a Kantian categorical imperative and by the same token lost sight of the Hobbesian iron law known in the jargon of political science as the security dilemma. Simply put: however defensive in intent, any actor's move to increase its security always runs the risk of being perceived as an offensive move by another actor.5

As Vladimir Putin reminded the West in a very Russian way in his Munich speech earlier this year, one state's idea of "projecting stability" is another's idea of "exporting subversion." Enlargement has been a bold move that played a critical (and often underappreciated) role in the successful transition to democracy of the former captive Europe, but for every action there is a reaction, and the gradual enlargement of NATO to the East has been the main cause of Russia's gradual rapprochement with China. A bold move today would be to acknowledge that, for a host of reasons, this process has reached diminishing returns, and that projecting stability should from now on be achieved at less cost through other means, be it security cooperation or global partnerships.

If Americans these days tend to have forgotten something as basic as the security dilemma, Europeans for their part have serious difficulties remembering something equally basic that they used to perform with undeniable virtuosity: coercive diplomacy. Be it with Iraq yesterday or Iran today, an astounding percentage of the allegedly sophisticated EU elites have the hardest time grasping what any American redneck knows intuitively: namely, that the collective threat to use force is still the best way to avoid having recourse to actual force. Fifty years of increasing focus on intra-EU politics has led EU elites to mistake "multi-level governance" (read: horse-trading by capitals in Brussels) for the whole of statecraft. But genuine diplomacy always rests on the implicit threat to use force, and the EU mantra about force as last resort should logically lead Europeans to view coercive diplomacy as their preferred weapon.6

Iraq, to be sure, was in many ways sui generis. Iran, by contrast, should be a no-brainer, since a nuclear Iran would lead to nuclear proliferation throughout the Middle East all the way to Algeria. Were coercive diplomacy to fail, then, as Senator McCain put it, there would still be one thing worse than military intervention in Iran -- a nuclear Iran.

This question of "strategic literacy" of NATO leaders cannot be overemphasized at a time when NATO allies are elaborating a new (i.e., post 9/11) strategic concept. The task promises to be a daunting one if only because, since the end of the Cold War, the very concept of "strategy" has become increasingly problematic in the West -- in no small part because the concept of the "West" itself is no longer self-evident.7

Forget the "Americans are from Mars, Europeans from Venus" mantra that gave the Brussels Eurocracy the vapors in the summer of 2002.8 Though the slogan captured well a moment of transatlantic relations, over time this mantra has obscured the issue. The truth is, for the past 15 years, and on both sides of the Atlantic, there have been two major attempts underway to get rid of the strategy problematique altogether.

In the civilian world, politicians and bureaucrats have robbed the concept of "strategy" of any meaning by systematically using it interchangeably with "policy." Academics and think-tankers, for their part, have chosen to blow out of proportion a Revolution in Security Affairs in which "the dividing lines between hard and soft, civil and military security are rapidly dissolving, requiring far more flexibility and causing much confusion as allies and partners have disagreed significantly about how to manage such complexity." This supposed Revolution has been used as a pretext to dissolve the concept of "strategy" in the catch-all notion of "security," the concept of "national security" itself in a nebulous "human security," and last but not least, the concept of grand strategy into that of global governance -- whatever that may mean.9

Within the military, the concept of "strategy" has not fared much better. The post-Cold War era has witnessed a surreal debate between the disciples of Clausewitz, who invariably confuse strategy with the operational level of war, and the supporters of the supposed Revolution in Military Affairs reducing war to "targeting and shooting," and whose network-centric paradigm leads to a tacticization of strategy.10

Between the shock-and-awe slogans of the military Mars, and the human security fairy tales of the civilian Venus, Strategy in the West has been MIA for too long. Since the real Revolution in Strategic Affairs happens to be a non-Western affair, NATO leaders will have to start by learning the new grammar and logic of the kind of unrestricted warfare elaborated by the Chinese and the fourth-generation warfare practiced by Islamists.11

As U.S. NATO Ambassador Victoria Nuland argued, "if the divisive debate over Iraq taught us one thing, it is that NATO must be the place where we talk about all the issues affecting our future -- the Middle East, Iraq, North Korea, China, Iran, just to name a few." The North Atlantic Council has recently broadened its range of consultations to include global issues ranging from energy security to transnational terrorism. But increased consultation, in and of itself, will not mechanically lead to better conceptualization. Enhancing the strategic literacy of NATO's stakeholders should be the logical prerequisite to a debate about the future NATO strategic concept.

The SCO as NATO peer competitor?

In the past hundred years, the instrumentalization of Islam has been a recurrent temptation on the part of every rising power, be it Wilhemine Germany or Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany or Soviet Russia, not to mention America itself. As the latest rising power, China itself would not be immune to that temptation even if it were energy self-sufficient. The fact that China's energy needs are huge guarantees that the constitution of a Sino-Islamic axis is for Beijing not just a tactical option, but a strategic necessity.12

While the pivotal states of this strategy appear to be Pakistan, Iran, and (more recently) Saudi Arabia, the geopolitical situation of Iran puts it in a class by itself, as the most precious proxy in China's "indirect approach" against American primacy. It is therefore no surprise to learn that China is using Iran as a conduit for the delivery of arms to both Iraqi and Afghan insurgents, and providing Iran itself the kind of small boats needed to conduct attacks against commercial shipping or the U.S. Navy in the Persian Gulf.13

If the instrumentalization of Islam constitutes the geographical axis of China's grand strategy, the functional axis is -- or ought to be -- of equal interest to NATO, since it consists in the artful combination of space power, sea power, and soft power.

Space power. While lending support to Russia's ludicrous posturing on NATO missile defense, China is experimenting with antisatellite weapons -- a disturbing trend given the reliance of modern military (especially navies) on space power.

Sea power. A hundred years after Theodore Roosevelt sent his Great While Fleet around the world to signal the emergence of a new great power, China is rediscovering the writings of Admiral Mahan on the importance of sea power in history and dreaming of a Great White Fleet of its own. Against the backdrop of an ever-shrinking U.S. Navy (more on that later), China is transforming itself as a maritime superpower at such high speed that Western analysts estimate it could become the world's leading naval power by 2020.

Last but not least, soft power. On the military side, China is focusing on developing security cooperation within the ASEAN Regional Forum framework with the intent of marginalizing America. On the civilian side, China is peddling "Asian values" from Africa to Eurasia and from Latin America to Southeast Asia. For the past six years, China has been promoting autocracy through soft power while America has been promoting democracy through hard power, and the verdict is in: China today has a more positive image worldwide than America.14

Russia's relation to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and its expectations, are of an altogether different nature. On the surface, to be sure, China and Russia appear to be the two main pillars of the SCO. Economically and militarily, the two countries' relation is, for the time being at least, one of genuine complementarity. But while the SCO constitutes the core of China's Islamic strategy, it is for Russia a tactical option to both manage the rise of China in Eurasia and to gain leverage over the West.15

Unlike China, Russia is energy self-sufficient; and unlike China's Confucianism, Russia's Eurasianism actually comes in two opposite versions: one pro-West and anti-Islam; the other pro-Islam and anti-West. American Putin-bashers would do well to realize that the Putin regime clearly favors the former version --- which may not be the case for his successor. Putin's Russia is a mystery wrapped in an enigma only for those caught in a 15-year time warp. In a nutshell: While Yelstin's choice of an alleged Polish model of transition in 1992 resulted, by 1999, in 38 percent of the population living below the poverty line, Putin's reorientation toward a Chinese model has since created an annual growth rate of 6 percent for Russia -- and a 70 percent approval rating for Putin. Having taken considerable domestic risks by siding with America after 9/11, Putin, for the past 5 years, has received nothing in return -- other than a seemingly endless enlargement of NATO in his own backyard.

Now that Russia is rich with oil money and has paid its debts to the West, what Russia wants from the West is respect.16 Russia's nuisance capacity should not be underestimated, even though threats to withdraw from the CFE Treaty, or to turn the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) into a "natural gas OPEC," are intended primarily for domestic consumption and to signal that NATO has enlarged far enough.

Unlike China, Russia is not a rising power. Russian hearts and mind are still up for grabs, though, and there are three reasons why it would be grossly irresponsible to alienate Russia gratuitously. In the short term, Russia's support is critical to solve (militarily or not) the Iranian question; in the middle-term, Russia has considerable leverage over Europe, with much bigger sticks and carrots than America's, and the risk of a creeping Finlandization of Europe is real were America to indulge in brinkmanship; in the long term, the West would have nothing to gain were Russia, against its best interest, to upgrade its relations to the SCO from the tactical to the strategic level.

The current demonization of Russia in some American quarters is thus incomprehensible, unless one keeps in mind the particular conceit of democracies at war that Kennan, following Tocqueville, pointed out long ago: "There is nothing in nature more egocentrical than the embattled democracy. It soon becomes the victim of its own propaganda. It then tends to attach to its own cause an absolute value which distorts its own vision of everything else. . . . People who have got themselves into this frame of mind have little understanding for the issues of any contest other than the one in which they are involved."17

This tunnel vision, and the incapacity to distinguish between the essential and the peripheral, is all the more surprising when it comes from the neoconservative side. Among the new generation of neocons, many seem to have forgotten the lessons of the older generation, as captured in Jeanne Kirkpatrick's celebrated 1979 essay on "Dictatorships and Double Standards." Simply put: when all is said and done, there is a difference in kind between totalitarianism and authoritarianism. If Islamist totalitarianism is the main enemy, as the neocons rightly claim, then it follows logically that Russian authoritarianism, however unpalatable to democratic sensibilities, is something we can live with. In that respect, the arch-realist Kissinger is paradoxically closer to Kirkpatrick than some of today's neocons in arguing:

Russia may be tempted to pursue tactical rapprochement with China. But any meaningful strategic rapprochement with China would move Russia further away from the United States and into a position of dependence on Chinese support. This would run counter to the strategic realities Russia faces on its far-eastern border, given the decline in its population and negative demographic trends. We cannot be fixated by things that are in the power of Russia and China to do. The wise American policy is to establish close relations with both Russia and China. And we should conduct it on the basis that whenever possible there should always be at least equal if not greater incentives or prospect of risks to cooperate with the United States than with each other.18

Similarly, a wise NATO policy should always make sure that NATO-Russia security cooperation is always stronger than Russia-China security cooperation. By the same token, and given the always-possible energy Finlandization of Europe, a wise NATO policy should make sure that the NATO-Russia Council always remains one step ahead of the EU-Russia Permanent Council.19

The Great Game and the Long War

One thing is certain: the Great Game and the Long War will be the two global and generational challenges confronting the West in the next 30 years. While the two challenges at times overlap, they remain analytically distinct. Attempts to conflate the two challenges with a new geopolitical concept like "Greater Middle East" risk confusing the issues. The Great Game? While the West remains fixated on the continental dimension, the East shows more lucidity in giving as much importance to the maritime dimension (more on that later). The Long War? Due to mass migration, the sociopolitical umma no longer coincides with the geopolitical Dar al-Islam.20

So much for the Greater Middle East, then. When all is said and done, globalization has not so much led to the "spiritualization of borders" (as the flute-players would have it) as to the partial "virtualization of geopolitics." The Great Game and the Long War are global and generational, but the geopolitics of oil, of Islamic banking, of Islamic media, etc. only partly overlap, and the geopolitical mapping required is a multi-level mapping including both the real and the virtual worlds.

One of the unfortunate consequences of the globalization theology of the 1990s has been the withering away of geopolitical thinking in the West. This eclipse of geopolitics is not totally negative, to be sure, for as one pundit put it, "few modern ideologies are as whimsically all-encompassing, as romantically obscure, as intellectually sloppy, and as likely to start a third world war as the theory of 'geopolitics.'"21

Yet, globalization theology itself has proven even more intellectual sloppy than the theories of geopolitics. And while the West thought it could do away with geopolitics altogether, the foreign policies of Turkey, Russia, China, and other players were becoming increasingly shaped by distinctive geopolitical visions based less on theories than on memories (with often a tenuous link to historical reality). Thus in Turkey, memories of the Silk Road were the main driving forces in Ankara's turn away from pro-Western Kemalism and toward neo-Ottomanism. In China, a country that had traditionally viewed itself as a quintessential continental power, it is the rediscovery of the short-lived maritime adventures of Admiral Zheng He (the Chinese Columbus) and the awareness of missed opportunities, coupled with the revival of Admiral Mahan's navalist theories, that were being invoked to mobilize public opinion around the idea of turning China into a maritime superpower. Intellectually sloppy or not, these representations have real effects in the foreign policies of non-Western nations. The West can ignore them only at its own peril.

In the West itself, the current fixation of America on Central Asia and of Europe on the Middle East -- the closest thing to a "Western" geopolitical vision -- is based on two flawed premises. To put it crudely: Americans believe that Caspian Sea oil is the key to success in the Great Game; Europeans are convinced that the resolution of the Palestinian question holds the key to victory in the Long War.

Talk about intellectual sloppiness: Warnings about a Caspian mirage were already common among energy experts a decade ago, and time has only made them more relevant: "The current fixation with the Caspian Basin's alleged resource bonanza is exaggerating the region's commercial and strategic significance, distorting US foreign policy calculations and raising the risk of unnecessary contention with other actors, particularly Russia and Iran. . . . Russian analysts could be forgiven for construing US/NATO policies as encirclement from the West through open-ended NATO expansion. . . . The myth [of Central Asia and the Caucasus as a region of independent democracies buoyed by new-found oil wealth and part of an expanding "Euro-Atlantic community"] is diverting policy-makers from a far more profound geopolitical challenge to energy security in the twenty-first century: the rising dependence of Asian nations on Persian Gulf oil. . . . It might be wise to ponder how comfortable China will be in relying on the US Navy to defend the sea-lanes through which its Persian Gulf oil must pass."22

Ten years later, it is clear that just as NATO enlargement to the East has sent Russia into the arms of China, Western energetico-military forays in Central Asia have led China, in turn, to increase its activities in the backyards of Europe (Africa) and America (from Cuba to Panama and Venezuela). America's fixation on Central Asia has been based on probable reserves, which were then contrasted to proven reserves in Persian Gulf, though never with probable reserves offshore worldwide. Since Caspian Sea oil now seems to combine all the problems associated with landlocked transportation and offshore extraction, not to mention geopolitical entanglements, it may be time for a reappraisal.

If American fixation on Central Asia is questionable, European fixation on the Palestinian question as the panacea of the Greater Middle East is downright irrational. As Edward Luttwak pointed out recently: "Yes, it would be nice if Israelis and Palestinians could settle their differences, but it would do little or nothing to calm the other conflicts in the Middle East from Algeria to Iraq, or to stop Muslim-Hindu violence in Kashmir, Muslim-Christian violence in Indonesia and the Philippines, Muslim-Buddhist violence in Thailand, Muslim-animist violence in Sudan, Muslim-Igbo violence in Nigeria, Muslim-Moscovite violence in Chechnya, or the different varieties of inter-Muslim violence."

This European fixation is all the more irrational in that as far as the proverbial Arab Street is concerned, the resolution of the Palestinian question ranks only seventh in importance, way behind the usual bread-and-butter issues (employment, health, corruption, education, and even combating extremism and protecting civil rights). And who can blame Ali Six-Pack for his lack of interest? Unlike the Kurds, who have proven capable of self-government, Palestinian leaders have never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity, as the saying holds. The pathetic clash between Fatahland and Hamastan is today leading many Palestinians themselves to reconsider the long-abandoned possibility of forming a confederation with Jordan. It is time for Europeans to realize that, as Joseph Joffe demonstrated in a seminal article, "far from creating tensions, Israel actually contains more antagonisms than it causes" -- though of course you would never know it, since Israeli public diplomacy is nonexistent.23

Flawed premises aside, there is another, more pedestrian reason why the closing of the transatlantic mind is particularly pronounced within NATO. As the Alliance underwent a gradual transformation from collective defense to collective security, this functional broadening focused on the continental dimension led to a neglect of the maritime dimension and thus to transatlantic tunnel vision.

During the Cold War, the Atlantic Alliance had two geographic pillars: the Brussels-based Allied Command-Europe (ACE) for continental affairs, the Norfolk-based Allied Command-Atlantic (ACLANT) for maritime affairs. From 1991 to 2001, the maritime dimension, once identified with the Atlantic, became confined to the Mediterranean (Operation Sharp Guard). Yet, despite the shrinking of the maritime dimension at the operational level, ACLANT continued, at the intellectual level, to deliver outside-the-box, yet topical thinking on issues like "Multinational Naval Cooperation and Foreign Policy into the 21st Century."24

The real change occurred with the 2002 Prague Summit's decision to transform these two geographical pillars into functional pillars: Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT). The transformation of the geographical ACLANT into a functional ACT did more than marginalize the maritime dimension; it also brought the wrong transformation to the fore. NATO-ACT being twinned with the U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), the Alliance, in the name of interoperability, soon adopted all the shibboleths of the RMA: network-centric warfare, information dominance, the change from threat-based planning to capabilities-based planning which can only aggravate the idea of the Alliance as a "toolbox," and last but not least, the religion of jointness itself, whose unintended effect was to downplay the specificity and autonomy of navies when it comes to constabulary and diplomatic missions.

The whole RMA folklore was introduced to NATO right at the time when, in Iraq and Afghanistan, its limits were becoming too obvious to ignore. The Pentagon is today trying to find a better balance between Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) and Culture-Centric Warfare (CCW), and one would hope that ACT will quickly NATO-ize the lessons learned in theater.

In and of itself, though, this rebalancing will not bring the kind of maritime domain awareness that is so crucial for an understanding of both the Great Game and the Long War. Outside the Anglo-Saxon world, to be sure, Western policymakers and opinion leaders have rarely been literate when it comes to naval strategy. Though this is not the place for a comprehensive tour d'horizon of the military, political, diplomatic, and constabulary uses of seapower25, basic "maritime domain awareness" is necessary when discussing the future globalization of NATO.

On the military side, the importance of the maritime dimension begins with the fact that, for all the talk about airlift capabilities, 90 percent of military lift remains sealift. But what is more noteworthy about the post-Cold War period is the fact that the decline of "maritime domain awareness" within the Atlantic Alliance took place precisely at the time when globalization was significantly increasing the importance of the maritime dimension on the commercial side (85 percent of world trade volume and 60 percent of oil and gas travels by sea) and of maritime security, all too often confused with -- and reduced to -- maritime safety.

It is hard to imagine a "Global NATO" -- in whatever shape or form -- that would continue to ignore the global commons the way today's NATO does. It is time for NATO's maritime commitment to match its continental commitment. To put it only half in jest: Either NATO will go out to sea, or it will go out of business.

The new Rimland

NATO was created as the political-military expression of the containment doctrine. While the father of the doctrine was diplomat George Kennan, the godfather of containment was geopolitician Nicholas Spykman. During World War II Spykman had challenged the centrality of the concept of the "Heartland" developed a generation earlier by Halford Mackinder (against Mahan's sea power thesis), and focused instead on what he called the "Rimland," by which he meant essentially continental countries with a maritime facade.

As Spykman defined it, the Rimland "functions as a vast buffer zone of conflict between sea power and land power. Looking in both directions, it must function amphibiously and defend itself on land and sea." On this geopolitical foundation laid by Spykman, Kennan simply built a chronopolitical strategy of containment, which would pay off 50 years later (much later than initially anticipated by Kennan).

In 1904, Mackinder had made the grandiose pronouncement: "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; who rules the Heartland commands the World Island; who rules the World Island commands the World." The Cold War was to prove Mackinder wrong and Spykman right: For 50 years, the Soviet Heartland did rule Eastern Europe; if it fails to command the world, it's because it failed to rule what really matters, i.e., the Rimland.

Throughout the Cold War, then, it is the concept of Rimland which provided the geopolitical underpinnings for a grand strategy of containment and its security architecture, of which NATO constituted only one pillar (arguably the most important) along with SEATO and CENTO. Today, the Soviet Union is gone and, against all odds, NATO is still around. True, today's NATO is not your father's NATO, but equally true, today's Rimland is not your father's Rimland -- and it is not clear that today's NATO has fully grasped all the implications of the sea-change.

Today's Rimland is a 400-mile wide amphibious area. In contrast to 1904, the Heartland today is an empty shell, and not just because of Russia's demographic decline. In China, the population is deserting the Heartland and moving to the coast. Worldwide, today's Rimland is both leaner and meaner than a century ago; no longer the "buffer zone of conflict" described by Mackinder or Spykman, this overpopulated Rimland, with 4 billion people living within 200-mile wide coastlands, is the "epicenter of all conflicts."

Should NATO care? As a military alliance, NATO cannot afford to ignore the increasing covergence of littoral warfare, amphibious warfare and urban warfare -- an issue to which the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps are devoting increasing attention. As a security organization, NATO's reasons for caring should be based on a recent report produced by the Center for Naval Analyses entitled "National Security and the Threat of Climate Change," describing a number of not exactly rosy scenarios regarding the political-military consequences of rising sea levels in the next 30 years. The hard security consequences of soft-power issues: This is the kind of outside-the-box thinking that NATO should itself promote.26

Equally interesting is the other phenomenon happening on the new Rimland: the so-called territorialization of the seas. The belated implementation, in the 1990s, of the 1982 Law of the Sea (UNLOS) and in particular of the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), has had over time unintended effects. Due to the existence of more than one hundred EEZs, 32 percent of the ocean is today under some sort of national jurisdiction. We are talking an area of 28 million square miles, i.e. four times the size of Russia (America's EEZ itself is two-thirds the size of the continental United States and accounts for 30 percent of the U.S. oil production).

The process of territorialization of the seas has been twofold: the "enlarging" of territorial waters from 12 miles to 200 miles, but also the "deepening" of territorialization. Twenty years ago, offshore wells were being drilled in just a few hundred feet of water; with ever-improving technology, prospecting then moved to deep water (i.e. beyond 1,300 feet) and more recently still to "ultra-deep" drilling under as much as 10,000 feet, with dramatic consequences for some countries like Brazil, who went from quasi-total dependence on foreign oil to quasi-total independence.

For all the post-Cold War talk about the decline of the state, there is at least one domain where the state is in expansion, and it is the sea. And for all the talk about a Great Game in Central Asia, it is worth keeping in mind that more than 30 percent of the world's oil and 50 percent of the world's natural gas is produced offshore. The percentage is greater still when moving from proven reserves (i.e., 90 percent certainty) to probable reserves (50 percent certainty). Add to that the fact that 60 percent of the world's oil and gas is transported by sea, and in the end, it is hard to deny that command of the high seas will matter just as much as control of the Heartland.

A little-noticed global chasm is occurring today in terms of geopolitics: As the center of gravity of world history is shifting from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the Western mind, traditionally maritime, is rapidly closing itself to anything other than continental matters, while the Asian mind, traditionally continental, is becoming increasingly maritime in outlook.

In the East, a region lacking a security regime analogous to NATO, the lack of clarity of the law of the sea regarding such issues as military and intelligence-gathering activities in the EEZs of other countries, and the competing claims for territorial waters and seabeds, has become a game increasingly fraught with dangers. The best known example is the Spratly Islands, one hundred or so islands scattered over an area the size of France, said to hold more oil than Kuwait, and situated right in the middle of one of the busiest sea lanes, used by 300 ships a day. The Islands are claimed in part or totality by no fewer than 17 countries, and five of them (including China) actually have small military forces on these otherwise uninhabited islands.

Unlike the legendary Great Game between England and Russia throughout the nineteenth century, the current Great Game at sea involved more than two players: America and China, the two greatest oil consumers, but also Japan and India, Malaysia and Indonesia, and other countries. This multiplicity of actors gives the seaborne Great Game a greater unpredictability. And unlike the slow moving Great Game in Central Asia in the nineteenth century, which resembles a leisurely game of chess, today's Great Game in the Asian Sea at times is more like Russian roulette, in that "incidents at sea" -- like the October 2006 close encounter of a Chinese sub with the USS Kitty Hawk -- have the potential to trigger unintended and unpleasant developments quickly.

The Great Game at sea is too complex to be examined in detail here. Suffice it to say that if in terms of transportation, the true identity of the players takes forever to sort out (the nationalities of the owner, the crew, the flag, the cargo), there is a clear trend in the nationalization of oil companies when it comes to production: "The percentage of the world's oil reserves held by publicly traded international oil companies (IOCs) has declined, while the percentage held by state-owned national oil companies (NOCs) has increased. Currently, 72 percent of the world's proven oil reserves are held by NOC's [the majority of which are Russian and Chinese]."27

Should NATO care? When you put together the territorialization of the seas and the nationalization of oil companies, the Great Game at sea becomes worth examining (e.g., the 2006 decision of the Cuban regime to hire Chinese NOCs for offshore drilling -- 45 miles off the coast of Florida). China's interest in Cuba, Panama, and Venezuela shows that the "string of pearls" strategy of China goes beyond the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea and the Gulf of Guinea, extending into the Western Hemisphere all the way to America's Caribbean backyard. Since Chinese NOCs are present in 50 countries and play with different rules than regular international oil companies, one would think that the geopolitics of the NOCs could be a suitable topic of discussion in the NAC.

For now, the Great Game at sea affects the Pacific more than the Atlantic, and as such has not directly affected NATO. But it certainly affects NATO's new global partners (Australia and Japan, Korea and New Zealand), who all happen to be maritime powers in the Pacific, and this is something that NATO will have to factor in when deciding the nature of its relationship with non-Atlantic powers. Global partnerships will have to be a two-way street, or there will be no global partnership.

In that respect, it is worth remembering that, in its day, SEATO included non-Asian countries like the UK and France, whose threat perceptions over time evolved differently from those of Australia and New Zealand (not to mention Thailand or the Philippines), and eventually SEATO went the way of the dodo.28 Therefore, when talking about NATO's global partners, one cannot avoid raising SEATO-related issues: Do allies and would-be partner nations have the same threat perceptions? What kind of "added value" will the concept of global partnership offer not only to the former, but also to the latter? In what ways can global partners become a force multiplier for the Atlantic Alliance, and in what way can it lead instead to an "entangling alliance"?

New perils, then, but also new promises. The maritime dimension is an opportunity for European allies to go beyond the "EU sandbox" and play a global role at relatively little cost, if only because public opinion will always find a maritime commitment more palatable than a continental one. For many allies like Norway and Greece, a greater maritime commitment on the part of NATO would also be a way to display niche capabilities (it's not as if the U.S. Navy had a surplus of mine-sweepers) that they don't necessarily possess in land operations. Last but not least, for a country like France, a middle-sized power as a land power but a maritime superpower of sorts (the third largest EEZ in the world thanks to its South Pacific possessions), a greater maritime commitment would be a way to maintain a leadership position. When it comes to NATO, to be sure, France, since 1958, has never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity. With Chirac and Villepin gone, however, it may well be that France will no longer confuse History with histrionics, and volonte de puissance with capacite de nuisance.

The Great Game at sea is only beginning. However fanciful they may be given the current international legal regime, Putin's claim in June 2007 to a chunk of the North Pole holding twice the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia gives an idea of the challenges ahead as global warming increases the areas available for offshore drilling.

The Long War at sea

The maritime dimension is as important for the Long War as it is for the Great Game. Before the attack on the Twin Towers, the attack on the USS Cole gave the West an idea of what asymmetric warfare can accomplish (17 sailors killed and $250 million worth of repairs for a terrorist operation that cost $40,000 to launch). That asymmetric warfare at sea shows great promise has not been lost on the jihadists who, when all is said and done, are less interested in restoring a caliphate (a goal they know is beyond their reach) than in making the West bleed to death economically.

Nine million containers enter U.S. ports each year, and 80 percent of U.S. port facilities these days are owned by foreign companies. It is estimated that the detonation of a 10-to-20 kiloton nuclear weapon in a container would cause a disruption of trade valued at $100 billion to $300 billion, property damage of $50 billion to $500 billion, and the loss of 50,000 to 1 million lives. A mere dirty bomb smuggled in a container would kill very few people, but the disruption would cost $58 billion and it would take 19 days for ports to resume normal operations and 92 days to stabilize the container backlog -- by which time the disruption could well spawn a recession.

The trauma caused by two planes crashing into the Twin Towers has made us forget that al Qaeda and its associates have a maritime strategy more sophisticated than blowing up the USS Cole. Before his arrest, the man responsible for the Cole attack himself had undertaken preparation to attack shipping in the Mediterranean with a four pronged-strategy: "ramming, blowing up medium-size ships near other vessels or at ports, attacking large vessels such as supertankers from the air by using explosive laden small aircraft, and attacking vessels with underwater demolition teams using limpet mines or with suicide bombers. During his interrogation, Nashiri revealed that if warships became too difficult to approach, tourist ships could be targeted. The cruise ship industry, which in the U.S. alone carries nearly seven million passengers every year, is facing this new threat."29

Eighty percent of world trade travels by sea, and 60 percent of the world's oil is shipped by about 4,000 tankers: "Were terrorist pirates to hijack a large bulk carrier or oil tanker, sail it into one of the chokepoints, and scuttle it to block the sea-lane, the consequences for the world economy would be severe: a spike in oil prices, an increase in the cost of shipping due to the need to use alternate routes, congestion in sea-lanes and ports, more expensive maritime insurance, and probable environmental disaster. Worse yet would be several such attacks happening simultaneously in multiple locations worldwide."30

A rogue nuclear missile on Paris or Berlin is decidedly more unlikely in the next five years than the hijacking and sinking of a couple of supertankers in the Strait of Gibraltar or the Bosphorus. The latter, in particular, is less than a mile wide in some areas, and 10 percent of the 50,000 ships that pass through it each year are tankers carrying Russian and Caspian oil.

In the Turkish strait in 1996, the nine pro-Chechen gunmen who hijacked a Turkish ferry and held 255 passengers hostage for three days had first considered the possibility of sabotaging one of the two suspension bridges with explosives to bring down the bridge and close shipping traffic. The worst case scenario, now that the Russian Duma has passed a bill to transport 20,000 tons of nuclear waste through the straits in the next ten years, is the possibility of one of these tankers being hijacked in the vicinity of Istanbul, a city of 12 million inhabitants. It is expected that traffic on the Bosphorus will be 50 percent higher in 2010 than it was in 2005, and so will the opportunities to create catastrophic mischief.

NATO military planners and civilian policymakers continue to think in terms of nation-states and regional "areas of operation," whereas, as the navy community knows full well, maritime threats are more often than not nonstate and transregional in nature. But terrorist networks are genuinely transnational: the Sri Lankan LTTE not only owned and operated a fleet of ten ocean-going freighters flying Panamian, Honduran, and Liberian flags, it also hijacked commercial vessels carrying weapons to reroute them to the Tamil Tigers. In 1994, the LTTE shipped 50 metric tons of TNT on board one of its own freighters operated by a front company from a Ukrainian Black Sea port via the Turkish Straits to Sri Lanka.

NATO is today paying less attention to potential maritime threats affecting its own civilian populations than to making the non-Western world safe for democracy (or sharia, since the jury is still out). If NATO wants to survive another 30 years, it will have to focus a little more on the concerns of its own population.

Global NATO, thousand ship navy

In the 1990s, some foreign policy analysts called on the United States to adopt a policy known as "offshore balancing." Succinctly put, "offshore balancing is predicated on the assumption that attempting to maintain U.S. hegemony is self-defeating because it will provoke other states to combine in opposition to the United States, and result in a futile depletion of the United States' relative power, thereby leaving it worse off than if it accommodated multipolarity."31 Whether such an offshore balancing is still possible or desirable for the U.S. in a post-9/11 environment is highly debatable. But a maritime globalization of NATO could become, for the Alliance itself, the continuation of "offshore balancing" by other means. Its main merit would be to constitute a hedging strategy of sorts against the SCO.

China is emerging as a maritime superpower as quickly as America itself (not to mention the UK) is declining as a naval power, to the point where China could become the leading naval power by 2020. The Russian Navy, which until now was a pale shadow of Gorshkov's navy (since 1991, the number of submarines has declined from 317 to 61 and of surface ships from 967 to 186) has announced plans to build a class of four new aircraft carriers in 2013-14, with initial service to begin in 201732. One would do well to remember that it took hardly more than a decade during the Cold War for Russia, the quintessential land power, to develop a formidable navy. In 20 years, we could realistically see a China/Russia-led SCO that is hegemonic not only on land but at sea. As counterintuitive as it may be at first, NATO would be wise to consider the possibility of making maritime cooperation the centerpiece of NATO-Russia security cooperation.

Maritime operations are of course not foreign to NATO. In the 1990s, Operation Sharp Guard constituted a dress rehearsal of sorts for Operation Active Endeavor after 9/11. In 2003, OAE was expanded functionally and geographically to cover the whole Mediterranean and ended up including some Mediterranean Dialogue countries as well as Russia and Ukraine. Many NATO allies participate in the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), and it is no coincidence that the former head of Joint Forces-Naples, Admiral Mullen (the current chief of naval operations and JCS chairman-designate), is the one who developed the concept of the "Thousand Ship Navy" (TSN), which is today the talk of the U.S. Navy.

Though globalization has increased the importance of maritime affairs, there has been both a relative and an absolute decline of U.S. seapower, with a U.S. Navy today at its lowest level in the post-World War II era. For the first time in 20 years, the U.S. is in the process of drafting a new maritime strategy, but with a considerably reduced force that went from 600 to fewer than 300 ships, and with new responsibilities in terms of nonmilitary maritime security. Hence the concept of the Thousand Ship Navy, which is meant to create a global maritime partnership with foreign navies.33

TSN is much more than an attempt to make a virtue of necessity. The Thousand Ship Navy -- the "Great White Fleet" of the twenty-first century -- represents a revolution in military affairs in that the concept raises the "network-centric" paradigm established by Admiral Cebrowsky from the domain of strategy (Network-Centric Warfare) to that of security (Global Maritime Partnership). In the process, it brings back a much-needed balance between techno-centric and culture-centric skills as components of success. Just as important, the TSN concept also represents a revolution in diplomatic affairs, in that a global maritime partnership would go beyond the traditional military-to-military contacts and, as Admiral Mullen points out, would unite "maritime forces, port operators, commercial shippers, and international, governmental and nongovernmental agencies to address mutual concerns."

As the Proliferation Security Initiative in Asia shows, though, this twenty-first- century naval diplomacy presents formidable challenges in terms of redefinitions of "sovereignty." Though the TSN concept is still a work in progress, it is worth noting that naval representatives from 72 countries have already taken part in the first symposium on the subject. NATO would do well to examine if the indirect approach of "going global" through a Thousand Ship Navy path is not also the best way to avoid making self-defeating waves in Asia.

Strategic considerations aside, there is an additional reason for Global NATO to get associated with the Thousand Ship Navy. Hard as it is to remember today, there was a time when NATO captured the imagination of Western audiences: Until the mid-sixties, in fact, the prospect of an Atlantic Union was seen in Europe as the wave of the future, while the idea of a European Union was associated mainly with coal, steel, and the standardization of electric plugs.34 Today, hard as they try, the 700 million people of the West can't really bring themselves to get exited when the "deliverables" of NATO Summits amount to -- the purchase of three C-17s? If that is NATO's level of ambition these days, no wonder that even the EU is beginning to look good. NATO will require nothing less than a Thousand Ship Navy if it is to recapture the imagination of public opinion.

NATO and the rise of UN-istan

Two organizations emerged in short succession from the 1941 Atlantic Charter: the United Nations in 1945 and, when the UN proved ineffective in a Cold War context, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. For the next 50 years, NATO's role in waging and winning the Cold War was as central as that of the UN was marginal.

In the early days of the post Cold War, there were, on both sides of the Atlantic, great hopes that the UN could finally play the role it was initially designed for. A former ambassador to the UN, the elder Bush in particular hoped to make the UN the cornerstone of a New World Order. In Europe as well, as the EU was toying with the idea of transforming itself from an Europe-espace to an Europe-puissance, many thought that an EU military force could constitute the military arm of the UN, and that the EU, in turn, could use the UN as a force multiplier to provide a "counterweight" to the US.

The fixation of EU elites on this idea led them to overlook the various scandals that marred the UN throughout the 1990s (from the Rwanda genocide to the Iraq oil-for-food program). More important, there is great reluctance on the part of EU public opinion at large to acknowledge the fact that, in the process of enlarging 54 members in 1945 to 184 in 1993, the UN's initial goals have been perverted.

Once the embodiment of Western ideals, the UN has turned into a lean, mean anti-West machine. Though European publics no longer have any illusion today about a Europe-puissance, they still retain a surprisingly boy-scoutish view of the UN, one that no longer corresponds to reality. European public opinion saw nothing wrong, for instance, in the recent establishment of an International Criminal Court that would give its prosecutor the power of a grand inquisitor, in part because they are not aware of the politicization of the UN (and of the potential use of the ICC as an anti-Western weapon), but also in part because, over the years, they have resigned themselves to the creeping judicial and technocratic imperialism pursued at home by the EU Court of Justice and the EU Commission.

If, against all odds, the European public has a more positive image of the UN than of NATO, it is for a simple reason: When it comes to strategic communication, today's NATO is your grandfather's NATO. Meanwhile, over the years, the UN has turned itself into a slick, global propaganda machine.

In that respect, the UN's main achievement since 1949 has been the transformation of a once-peripheral issue into a global Passion Play. Though the number of refugees throughout the world were millions after 1945 (and 15 million more with the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947), the UN decided to focus quasi-exclusively on the 700,000 refugees of the 1948 Israeli-Arab war. For these Palestinian Arabs, the UN created not only a specific agency (UNRWA) but a unique, and Orwellian, definition of "refugees" carefully designed to maintain the issue forever alive.35

Twenty years later came a new development. The demagogic UNESCO projects about a New World Information and Communication Order did not disappear when the US and the UK left the organization in protest and UNESCO, as a result, lost one fourth of its budget. The NWICO project was simply quietly transferred from Paris to New York, from UNESCO headquarters to UN headquarters. Over the years, the UN-New York developed its radio and TV station and its global network of 60 centers. It has provided "training" to Third World journalists (with a particular predilection for Palestinians) and built both a formal and informal media empire on which the sun never sets. By 1998, the UN spent a greater share of its budget on self-promotion and propaganda through its Department of Public Information (5.37 percent) than on Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs (4.96 percent) or International Justice and Law (2.10 percent).

At the same time that it was becoming a major player in the propaganda game, the UN inside was gradually turning into a "lawfare" machine against the West. As Joshua Muravchik explains: "In the General Assembly, the Arabs have a unique leverage with which they can make the UN say whatever they want (except in the Security Council where the US veto has prevented that). The 22-nation Arab League constitutes a decisive bloc within the 56-nation Organization of the Islamic Conference [OIC], which is decisive in turn in the 115-nation Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which constitute nearly two-thirds of the UN and is the organization's main bloc."

The OIC, it will be remembered, was created by Saudi Arabia in 1969 as a weapon against the Egypt-led Arab League in the ongoing Arab Cold Wars. In recent years, under the leadership of the OIC, the UN has turned into UN-istan:

The OIC is silent on putting the blame for the slaughter of innocent Muslim pilgrims precisely where it belongs -- on other Muslims. Instead, the OIC squanders most of its energy condemning the West for defaming Islam whenever terrorism is in any way linked with adherents of their religion. . . . While as a group they pay less than 3 percent of the regular annual budget of the United Nations, they have managed to exercise an outsized amount of influence in the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies over how the UN deals with such issues as Palestine, terrorism and human rights and terrorism. Next on their agenda is a permanent Islam seat on the Security Council. Iran has already been designated as the OIC's preferred candidate for election to the Security Council in 2008. . . . In short, the Organization of the Islamic Conference bloc has been able to manipulate the UN's machinery to turn the liberal vocabulary of racism, oppression, genocide, tolerance and multiculturalism against the critics of reactionary Islam.

How delusional is the OIC today? So delusional that, at its May 2007 summit, the 56 foreign ministers agreed that the "greatest form of terrorism" in the world today is -- Islamophobia! The same OIC is the main force behind the election of Iran as vice-chairman of the Disarmament Commission, the presence of representatives of the worst dictatorship on the planet in the UN Human Rights Committee, not to mention the attempt, following the Danish cartoon affair, to make the UN recognize "blasphemy" as a crime.

In this ongoing weaponization of the UN against the West, China has not remained passive: beyond the OIC and NAM proper, the largest group in the UN happens to be the "G-77 + China," i.e., 132 countries representing 69 percent of UN members. China's UN dues may be 2 percent of the UN budget, but Chinese activism in the past decade has spectacularly increased in recent years.36 It is reportedly under Chinese pressure that the US was evicted from the Human Rights Commission in 2001 to make room for Arab dictatorships.

While the UN was sinking in global parochialism, NATO has gone global geographically (50,000 troops deployed now on three continents) and functionally (broadening of political consultations in the NAC). It is also beginning to go global in its cooperation with non-Atlantic partners like Japan to Australia.

In some American and European quarters, this globalization of NATO has led some observers to assert rather boldly that "NATO's next move must be to open its membership to any democratic state in the world that is willing and able to contribute to the fulfillment of NATO's new responsibilities."37 But to add four or five global partners is one thing, to add the 88 countries recognized as democracies by Freedom House is quite another. The necessary, if not sufficient, condition for turning NATO into a UN of democracies would be to change the flawed images of the UN and NATO that European publics currently have. That said, this long-term scenario of NATO as a UN of democracies cannot be ruled out given the ongoing deconstruction of the Tower of Babble by China and the OIC.

With the possible emergence of a NATO Security Providers Forum consisting of the leading contributors, three key questions are likely to keep the Allies busy in the coming years. What would happen with the four NATO Partners who are also SCO members in the event the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council was to be disbanded in favor of a Security Providers Forum. What will be the nature of the articulation between the North Atlantic Council, the Security Providers Forum, and the NATO-Russia Council? Has the time come for NATO to adopt an EU-style, "variable geometry" decision-making process? At the same time, the debate on the future Global NATO should not be limited to these organizational matters.

The Western-inspired international legal order is today under assault at the UN; at the same time, an obsolete Law of Armed Conflict is preventing the West from defending itself on the ground. As a military organization, NATO should today articulate a "Counter-Lawfare" doctrine for the sake of intellectual interoperability. As a security organization, NATO should not wait until it has become a full-fledged UN of Democracies to start elaborating a New Law of Armed Conflict adapted to the realities of post-modern warfare.38 Last but not least, the Alliance should take strategic communication more seriously and make better use of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly (information) and the NATO Defense College (education).

If the Atlantic alliance is to genuinely "go global," it will have to achieve a better balance between "toolbox" and "think tank" and to focus more than has been the case so far on increased strategic literacy, broader situational awareness, and state-of-the art strategic communication.

History on the move again

Two hundred years ago, Napoleon Bonaparte, who knew a thing or two about epochal change, remarked: "When China awakens, the world will tremble." China is awakening, all right, and promoting worldwide authoritarianism all the more successfully that the spectacle of Western democracies lately has not been exactly edifying. If the Chinese promotion of "Asian values" has a global, rather than regional, historical significance, it is because Confucius today speaks with a very strong German accent: that of Carl Schmitt. While Western pundits were enrolling Kojève for their musing on the "end of history," the Chinese were translating nine books by Schmitt to philosophically buttress their return in history. The future of liberal authoritarianism has never looked brighter.39

The return of China alone would be enough to make the West "live in interesting times." To make things even more interesting, Islam too is back, this time in the form of a totalitarianism which manages to combine an ideological comprehensiveness (Salafism) unseen since Communism and an existential nihilism (jihadism) worthy of Nazism. A generation ago, the post-Vatican II Catholic world finally espoused the 20th century, and the Church went on to play a critical role in the collapse of communism; meanwhile, under the increasing influence of Wahhabism, the Muslim world was going in the opposite direction, and this great leap backward brought them back to the 14th century.40 If the Saudi caliphate does not soon undertake its own Vatican II, chances are the Muslim world will never make it back to the 21st century.

It is time for the Transatlantic chattering class to realize that there is a time for problematizing, and a time for strategizing -- and that its first order of business should be to stop mistaking a simple transatlantic time lag for a metaphysical problem. In the wake of 9/11, there was an extreme disconnect between an America that had just experienced its first continental aggression since the "second war of independence" (the war of 1812) and a Europe convinced that the then-imminent opening of the Brussels constitutional convention was, if not the beginning of universal peace, at least the world's most important event since the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.

Hence the temptation in certain quarters to reify this temporary disconnect into a Mars/Venus gap. But the most cursory examination of twentieth-century history shows that transatlantic time lags have always been the rule rather than the exception. The First World War began in 1914, the U.S. only joined in 1917. The Second World War began in 1939, the U.S. only joined in 1942. The Cold War began in 1947, and it took Europe a full two years to give up the temptation of neutrality and side with the U.S. Since the Long War is of an asymmetric kind, it is no surprise if it took longer than usual for America and Europe to synchronize their chronopolitica

          United – $366: Seattle – Liberia, Costa Rica. Roundtrip, including all Taxes   
A good sale to the Guanacaste province of Costa Rica. Availability is limited. Here are some practical travel tips to Costa Rica. Costa Rica is one of the countries with active cases of Zika virus transmission. Please read up on it at the Center for Disease Control if you are planning to go. Sample Travel Date: […]

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          Unusual Berber trouble in Moroocco. Al Qaeda suspected. Jacques Neriah, @JerusalemCenter @ELALUSA Report w/Malcolm Hoenlein @Conf_of_pres.   
06-29-2017 (Photo: ) http://JohnBatchelorShow.com/contact http://JohnBatchelorShow.com/schedules Twitter: @BatchelorShow Unusual Berber trouble in Moroocco. Al Qaeda suspected. Jacques Neriah, @JerusalemCenter @ELALUSA Report w/Malcolm Hoenlein @Conf_of_pres. Domestic tensions in Morocco are brewing; unrest and protests have been noted in the northern part of the Kingdom, and the regime is unable to control the situation and calm the passions. In many ways, events in Morocco since late October are a reminder of those that preceded the ousting of the Tunisian President Zein El-Abidine Ben Ali in 2011 and launched the “Arab Spring.” The surface calm in Morocco was broken by a harrowing incident on October 28, 2016, in the northern town of Al-Hoceima on Morocco’s Mediterranean coast. The police threw Mouhcine Fikri’s whole fish catch into the bin of a waste truck. The fishmonger tried to save his catch and jumped into the waste bin. He was crushed to death by the grinder. Protests began in the coastal town of Al-Hoceima but very quickly spread to other northern cities such as Nador and even in Morocco’s main cities – Rabat, Casablanca, and Tangier. According to Moroccan authorities, more than 1,600 Moroccans have joined the ranks of the jihadists in Syria, Libya, and Iraq, and 200 to 240 out of that number have returned either to Morocco or European countries. The Kingdom has embarked on a special religious education program aimed at neutralizing all extremist interpretations of the Koran. King Mohammad VI instructed the ministry of education to remove from schoolbooks all references to jihad. The Moroccan press reported that King Mohammed VI decided not to attend the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) meeting in Monrovia on June 4, 2017, because he was reluctant to meet Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu who had been invited by the President of Liberia to address the forum. King Mohammed, it was reported, thought he would be the only speaker at the gathering. However, that is a very dubious explanation for the king’s absence especially since Morocco has been very active during the past year lobbying to regain its position in the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and never missed a forum to recruit African members to support its candidacy. The fact is that the domestic tensions in Morocco are brewing; unrest and protests have been noted in the northern part of the Kingdom, and the regime is unable to control the situation and calm down the passions. In many ways, events in Morocco since late October are a reminder of those that preceded the ousting of the Tunisian President Zein El-Abidine Ben Ali in 2011. On December 17, 2010, the police of a small, forgotten, and deprived town called Sidi Bouzid in southern Tunisia confiscated the scales of a 26 years-old street vendor, Mohammad Bouazizi, under the false claim he had infringed upon the law by illegally selling vegetables at a mobile stand. In truth, Bouazizi had refused to pay a bribe to the police. Adding insult to injury, it was reported that a policewoman hit him in the face and insulted his deceased father. In the aftermath, Bouazizi was banned from the provincial government building to file a complaint. Outraged by his public humiliation, Bouazizi poured kerosene on himself and set himself ablaze in front of the governor’s house.1 This was the beginning of what was then named “the Arab Spring.” The wave of popular protest ultimately led to the demise of the Ben Ali regime in Tunisia and his escape to Saudi Arabia. The protest wave did not spare other regimes such as Libya, Egypt, Syria, and others. In some countries, the wave transformed into a tsunami and brought down well-established regimes such as Egypt’s Mubarak, Libya’s Qaddafi while in others it became a prelude to civil wars in Syria and Iraq. The shockwave was felt in all Arab countries. Still, most of them survived at the price of ceding power to the opposition and i...
          RIU HOTELS & RESORTS — UP TO $100 OFF + RESORT COUPONS   
HAVE IT ALL - Riu Republica, Punta Cana, Dominican Republic

RIU HOTELS & RESORTS — UP TO $100 OFF + RESORT COUPONS**

Plan a getaway across the globe with RIU Hotels & Resorts. With all-inclusive, adults-only and family-friendly hotel options in Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America, your vacation will be as unique as you.

Book your flight and resort getaway now, and save up to $100 per booking:

  • $25 on vacations of $1,000-$2,000
  • $70 on vacations of $2,001-$3,000 
  • $100 on vacations of $3,001 or more

In addition, take advantage of up to $2,100 in resort coupons at select properties.**

Traveling with 10 or more people? Delta Vacations offers special rates and services for groups. Contact our Customer Engagement Center or your travel agent for more information.

Preferred Pick: Gold

Delta Vacations gives you more ways to rack up miles and earn toward your Medallion® Status. SkyMiles® Members earn 3,000 bonus miles per person, in addition to credited flight miles, with a flight and RIU Hotels & Resorts package.

**Minimum night stays, select travel dates and other restrictions may apply. See Hotel-Provided Offer Terms and Conditions for details.

$909*
per person
includes flight + 4 nights
all-inclusive hotel + taxes

No-Surprise
Pricing

Our prices include all flight and hotel taxes
More ›

Promo Code: DV31093
Book By: July 31, 2017
Travel Between: July 3, 2017 – January 31, 2018
Price Found:
June 26, 2017

Questions? Please call 1-800-800-1504
or contact your travel agent.

*Sample Price: This offer is available from hundreds of origin cities, but this price, which reflects the offer, is based on travel between Atlanta and Montego Bay, staying at the Riu Negril in Negril. Price is per person, based on double occupancy and select Monday departures and Friday returns, September 18 – 22, 2017, and is subject to change. Additional restrictions and baggage charges may apply. See Terms and Conditions for details.

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Vacations Include:

  • Round-trip air transportation
  • Choice of accommodations
  • Hotel taxes
  • Round-trip transfers between airport and hotel in select destinations
  • Luggage handling at select hotels
  • Assistance of a local representative while in destination
  • 24/7 access to our Destination Help Center

RIU Hotels & Resorts’ All-Inclusive Vacations Include:

  • All meals, snacks and beverages
  • A wide variety of daily activities
  • Exchange privileges (only at select resorts)
  • Regularly replenished in-room minibar and liquor dispenser
  • Use of in-room safe and complimentary use of beach towels
  • Nightly entertainment
  • Complimentary Wi-Fi in all public areas of the hotel

Hotel Highlights

RIU Hotels & Resorts

With fantastic destinations in Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America, RIU Hotels & Resorts offer an extensive all-inclusive program, complete with lively activities and watersports, spacious accommodations, in-room minibars, delectable dining and an abundance of amenities.

These resorts cater to friends, couples and families of all ages. Friends and couples can relax on complimentary loungers by the beach or join in poolside games, while kids enjoy RiuLand — an activity and entertainment program for kids 4-12 years old — plus children’s pools at select properties.

RIU Hotels & Resorts also include exchange privileges at select resorts, allowing you to double the fun.

Featured Properties:


Riu Palace Tropical Bay

Riu Palace Tropical Bay

A splendid, Victorian-style property, this all-inclusive resort features a spectacular lobby, magnificent gardens, a varied selection of restaurants and lounges, lively entertainment and an array of activities and sports for the active spirit. The complex includes two fresh-water swimming pools, a solaRium terrace, wellness center and a vast beach for relaxing to the sounds of the ocean.




Riu Republica

Riu Republica – Adults Only

Riu Republica is an all-inclusive, adults-only property located on a pristine stretch of white-sand beach, surrounded by inviting Caribbean landscape. This hotel features great amenities, such as two large infinity pools, a gym, a wellness center, daily and nightly entertainment, a variety of gourmet restaurants and a nightclub featuring live music and shows.

 




Riu Palace St. Martin

Riu Palace St. Martin

In the picturesque village of Anse Marcel, all-inclusive Riu Palace St. Martin sits on a secluded cove, leading to a half-moon beach that opens to the sea. Highlights include a variety of daytime and evening activities, the largest pool on the island, onsite marina, close proximity to a nature preserve, Orient Beach and the Village of Grand Case.

 

All Properties:

CANCUN, MEXICO
Riu Cancun
Riu Caribe
Riu Palace Las Americas – Adults Only
Riu Palace Peninsula

LOS CABOS, MEXICO
Riu Palace Cabo San Lucas 
Riu Santa Fe

MAZATLAN, MEXICO
Riu Emerald Bay

RIVIERA MAYA, MEXICO
Riu Lupita
Riu Palace Mexico
Riu Palace Riviera Maya
Riu Playacar
Riu Tequila
Riu Yucatan

RIVIERA NAYARIT, MEXICO
Riu Jalisco
Riu Palace Pacifico
Riu Vallarta

PUERTO PLATA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Riu Bachata
Riu Merengue

PUNTA CANA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Riu Bambu
Riu Naiboa
Riu Palace Bavaro
Riu Palace Macao – Adults only
Riu Palace Punta Cana
Riu Republica – Adults only

MONTEGO BAY, JAMAICA
Riu Montego Bay
Riu Palace Jamaica – Adults only
Riu Reggae – Adults only

NEGRIL, JAMAICA
Riu Negril
Riu Palace Tropical Bay

OCHO RIOS, JAMAICA
Riu Ocho Rios

NASSAU, BAHAMAS
Riu Palace Paradise Island

LIBERIA, COSTA RICA
Riu Guanacaste
Riu Palace Costa Rica

PALM BEACH, ARUBA
Riu Palace Antillas – Adults Only
Riu Palace Aruba

ANSE MARCEL, ST. MARTIN
Riu Palace St. Martin

PLAYA BLANCA, PANAMA
Riu Playa Blanca

 

Service may be operated by Delta Air Lines®; the Delta Connection® carriers: Compass Airlines, Endeavor Air, Inc., ExpressJet Airlines, Inc., GoJet Airlines, Island Air, Shuttle America and SkyWest and Delta Shuttle® carriers: Shuttle America and Compass Airlines; SkyTeam partners: Aeromexico® or codeshare partners: Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aerolitoral dba Aeromexico Connect, Aeromar, Bahamasair, Gol, SwiftAir, WestJet, and WestJet Encore.

Pricing Terms and Conditions

*Price is per person, based on double occupancy at Riu Negril in Negril, between Atlanta and Montego Bay. Monday departures and Friday returns via connecting service on Delta and certain Delta codeshare partners, and is valid for specific travel dates September 18 – 22, 2017. Advance purchase requirements vary. Other travel days and dates and accommodations are available at other prices. May require travel on specific flights or times; blackout dates may apply.

For travel from the United States/Canada/Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands to Mexico City, Guadalajara, Leon, Monterrey (Mexico), Guatemala City, San Pedro Sula, Tegucigalpa, Managua, Panama City (Panama), Santo Domingo, Santiago (Dominican Republic), Port Au Prince, El Salvador (except as otherwise noted in this rule) and for travel between/within Mexico/Central America (excluding US/Canada to/from El Salvador) and the Caribbean, $40 USD/CAD1 fee for second checked bag. For travel from the United States/Canada/Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands to El Salvador, $30 USD/CAD1 fee for second checked bag. For travel from the United States/Canada/Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands to Bermuda, the Caribbean (except flights to/from Dominican Republic, Guyana and Haiti) and Mexico (excluding Mexico City, Guadalajara, Leon and Monterrey), $25 USD/CAD1 fee for first checked bag (except flights to/from Dominican Republic, Guyana, and Haiti) and $40 USD/CAD1 fee for second checked bag. For tickets on or after January 26, 2017 for travel between the U.S., Canada or Mexico and Guatemala City (GUA), Managua (MGA), San Pedro Sula (SAP) and Tegucigalpa (TGU) (except Los Angeles to Guatemala City), 25 USD/CAD1 for the first checked bag and 100 USD, 120 CAD1 or 85 EUR1 fee for second checked bag. For travel between Los Angeles and Guatemala City, no fee for the first checked bag.

Allowances subject to size/weight limits. Contact a Delta agent or see Excess Baggage for details.
 
1: CAD or EUR amounts will be charged when exiting Canada or Europe, respectively.

Price is not retroactive, and is subject to availability. Price does not include any applicable hotel/resort fees or departure taxes collected by hotel/resort/airport at destination. Does not apply to groups of 10 or more people. Must be purchased through Delta Vacations. Standard Terms and Conditions apply, and are provided online during the booking process for consumers or in the ‘Resource Center’ for travel agents; other restrictions may apply. Prices, fees, rules and offers are subject to change without notice. Not responsible for errors or omissions.

Offer Terms and Conditions

  • Purchase any Delta Vacations flight and RIU Hotels & Resorts package from any Delta Vacations origin in the U.S. or Canada to Mexico, the Caribbean or Central America, June 30 – July 31, 2017, for travel July 3, 2017 – January 31, 2018.
  • At time of reservation, you must refer to promotional code DV31093.
  • Offer is valid on reservations that include a minimum of one flight on Delta Air Lines, Hawaiian Airlines, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Air France, Alitalia, Island Air, Bahamasair, Aeromexico, Virgin Australia International, Virgin Atlantic, China Southern, WestJet and/or their codeshare partners; reservations that include only flights on other airlines do not qualify.
  • The hotel discount is based on the standard room charges of each of the participating hotels in Mexico, the Caribbean or Central America.
  • Participating hotels include: Mexico: Cancun — Riu Cancun, Riu Caribe, Riu Palace Las Americas and Riu Palace Peninsula; Los Cabos — Riu Palace Cabo San Lucas and Riu Santa Fe; Mazatlan — Riu Emerald Bay; Riviera Maya — Riu Lupita, Riu Palace Mexico, Riu Palace Riviera Maya, Riu Playacar, Riu Tequila and Riu Yucatan; Riviera Nayarit — Riu Jalisco, Riu Palace Pacifico and Riu Vallarta. Dominican Republic: Puerto Plata — Riu Bachata and Riu Merengue; Punta Cana — Riu Bambu, Riu Naiboa, Riu Palace Bavaro, Riu Palace Macao, Riu Palace Punta Cana and Riu Republica. Jamaica: Montego Bay — Riu Montego Bay, Riu Palace Jamaica and Riu Reggae; Negril — Riu Negril and Riu Palace Tropical Bay; Ocho Rios — Riu Ocho Rios. Bahamas: Nassau — Riu Palace Paradise Island. Costa Rica: Liberia — Riu Guanacaste and Riu Palace Costa Rica. Aruba: Palm Beach — Riu Palace Antillas and Riu Palace Aruba. St. Martin: Anse Marcel — Riu Palace St. Martin. Panama: Playa Blanca — Riu Playa Blanca.
  • Minimum 3-night hotel stay required.
  • Minimum package purchase of $1,000 per booking is required. Package purchase includes flight and hotel; or flight, hotel and car rental, plus any optional activities.
  • Discount is $25 on bookings of $1,000-$2,000; $70 on bookings of $2,001-$3,000; and $100 on bookings of $3,001 or more.
  • Maximum discount is $100 per booking; discount is a percentage of each eligible land component.
  • Additional baggage charges for checked luggage may apply, as well as any applicable hotel/resort fees or departure taxes collected by hotel/resort/airport at destination.
  • Discount is not applicable to airfare; Ski, Dive or Globus family of brands including Globus, Cosmos, Monograms and Avalon packages; for groups of 10 or more and is not retroactive.
  • Must be purchased through Delta Vacations.
  • Discount applies to qualified passengers only. Children staying free in room do not qualify for discount.
  • Discount will recalculate if modifications are made to the booking.
  • No refunds will be issued toward offer. Offer has no cash value. Offer void if qualifying booking is canceled.
  • Programs and availability may vary. Delta Vacations flight reservations may be made up to 331 days in advance of flight departure.
  • Delta Vacations must issue all airline tickets.
  • Standard Terms and Conditions apply and are outlined during the booking process; other restrictions may apply.
  • Delta Vacations is the final authority on the interpretation of these rules and reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions without prior notice.
  • Delta Vacations is managed, operated and marketed by MLT Vacations.
  • All SkyMiles Program rules apply. To review the rules, please visit delta.com/memberguide. Delta Vacations airfares will earn Medallion Qualification Dollars (MQDs – U.S.-based members only) based on fare class and distance flown. Bonus miles do not count towards Medallion Status or Million Miler™ Status. Offers void where prohibited by law. Offers subject to change without notice. Other restrictions may apply.

Redemption Instructions
Promotional code will always be validated and appropriate discount will be deducted if terms and conditions are met.

  • Via the Internet:
    Enter promotional code DV31093 in the Promo Code/eCertificate box on the Booking page.

  • Via Reservations or Travel Agent:
    At time of reservation, you must refer to promotional code DV31093.

Hotel-Provided Offer Terms and Conditions
Resort Credits

    • Riu Bachata: 
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $700 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $1,000 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Bambu:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $1,300 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $2,100 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Merengue:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $700 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $1,000 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Montego Bay:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $460 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $590 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Naiboa:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $1,300 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $2,100 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Negril:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $460 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $590 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Ocho Rios:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $460 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $590 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Palace Antillas:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $500 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $600 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Palace Aruba:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $500 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $600 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Palace Bavaro:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $1,300 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $2,100 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Palace Costa Rica:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $900 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 or more nights to receive $1,400 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Palace Jamaica:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $460 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $590 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Palace Macao:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $1,300 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $2,100 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Palace Paradise:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $700 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $900 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Palace Punta Cana:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $1,300 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $2,100 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Palace St. Martin:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $600 in resort coupons.
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $700 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Playa Blanca:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $350 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $450 in resort coupons.
    • Riu Reggae:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $460 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $590 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Republica:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $1,300 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $2,100 in resort coupons. 
    • Riu Palace Tropical Bay:
      • Stay 4-6 nights to receive $460 in resort coupons. 
      • Stay 7 nights or longer to receive $590 in resort coupons.
  • 2,100 in resort coupons include:
    • $180 credit towards Europcar includes one coupon of $30 per day, per room, to be used on economy car rentals.
    • $50 in credits towards The Studio Photography includes 1 coupon for the Sea Package per Service. Sea Package includes 40 minutes with a professional photographer at one location on the hotel property, 25 Photos in a CD, and 1 print photo 16x8.
    • $240 credit in Renova Spa treatments includes two coupons of $35 for Renova Spa massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $25 for hot-stone, cure-stress massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for aromatherapy massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for body wrap, two coupons of $15 for spa pedicure and two coupons of $15 for wash + dry + hair mask.
    • $190 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $50 for PADI open-water diver, two coupons of $15 for sailing lesson and two coupons of $30 for PADI discover scuba diving course.
    • $140 in credits at Diamante Casino includes one coupon of $10 per person, per night. Valid for match play only.
    • $1,140 in credits at Punta Blanca Golf Club includes six coupon of $95 per golf round, per person. Included is round-trip transfer from the hotel to Punta Blanca Golf Club, 18 holes golf round, practice balls, electric golf car, water, soda and cold towel at the end of the tee time.
    • $200 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
  • $1,300 in resort coupons include:
    • $90 credit towards Europcar includes one coupon of $30 per day, per room, to be used on economy car rentals.
    • $50 in credits towards The Studio Photography includes 1 coupon for the Sea Package per Service. Sea Package includes 40 minutes with a professional photographer at one location on the hotel property, 25 Photos in a CD, and 1 print photo 16x8.
    • $240 credit in Renova Spa treatments includes two coupons of $35 for Renova Spa massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $25 for hot-stone, cure-stress massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for aromatherapy massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for body wrap, two coupons of $15 for spa pedicure and two coupons of $15 for wash + dry + hair mask.
    • $190 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $50 for PADI open-water diver, two coupons of $15 for sailing lesson and two coupons of $30 for PADI discover scuba diving course.
    • $80 in credits at Diamante Casino includes one coupon of $10 per person, per night. Valid for match play only.
    • $570 in credits at Punta Blanca Golf Club includes six coupons of $95 per golf round, per person. Included is round-trip transfer from the hotel to Punta Blanca Golf Club, 18 holes golf round, practice balls, electric golf car, water, soda and cold towel at the end of the tee time.
    • $100 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
  • $1,000 in resort coupons include:
    • $240 credit in Renova Spa treatments includes two coupons of $35 for Renova Spa massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $25 for hot-stone, cure-stress massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for aromatherapy massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for body wrap of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for spa pedicure and two coupons for deep cleansing facial of 50 minutes or more.
    • $150 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $60 for PADI open-water diver, two coupons of $10 for PADI discover scuba diving and two coupons of $5 for sail/windsurf lesson.
    • $240 in credits at Playa Dorada Golf Club valid one coupon per person, per golf round. Eight coupons apply. $12 for tee time and $3 for golf car rental. Additional charge applies for government taxes. Caddy is mandatory.
    • $200 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
    • $180 credit toward Europcar includes one coupon of $30 per day, per room, to be used on economy car rentals.
  • $900 in resort coupons include:
    • $220 credit toward Renova Spa Treatments.
    • $210 toward purchases at Scuba Caribe.
    • $80 in credits at the Maunaloa Casino.
    • $300 in credits at the Vista Ridge Golf & Country Club.
    • $100 in credits toward Weddings by Riu.
    • $15 in credits at Thrifty Rent - a – Car.
  • $700 in resort coupons include:
    • $240 credit in Renova Spa treatments includes two coupons of $35 for Renova Spa massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $25 for hot-stone, cure-stress massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for aromatherapy massage of 50 minutes or more, two coupons of $15 for body wrap, two coupons of $15 for spa pedicure and two coupons of $15 for deep-cleansing facial of 50 minutes or more.
    • $150 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $60 for PADI open-water diver, two coupons of $10 for PADI discover scuba diving and two coupons of $5 for sail/windsurf lesson.
    • $120 in credits at Playa Dorada Golf Club valid one coupon per person, per golf round. Eight coupons apply. $12 for tee time and $3 for golf car rental. Additional charge applies for government taxes. Caddy is mandatory.
    • $100 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
    • $90 credit towards Europcar includes one coupon of $30 per day, per room, to be used on economy car rentals.
  • $600 in resort coupons include:
    • $200 credit in Renova Spa Treatments includes two coupons of $30 for Renova combination, two coupons of $25 for special facial treatments of 50 minutes, two coupons of $20 for body wrap, two coupons of $15 for stress-cure massage of 80 minutes and two coupons of $10 for spa pedicure.
    • $180 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $50 for PADI open-water course, two coupons of $20 for Starlite dinner cruise and wet 'n’ wild full-day tour, two coupons of $10 for beach and cave tour and two coupons of $10 for brunch cruise.
    • $20 in credits at Cool Casino includes two coupons of $10 per room, per stay. Valid to play in slot machines and table games.
    • $200 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
  • $590 in resort coupons include:
    • $190 credit at Renova Spa includes two coupons of $35 for Renova Signature treatments, two coupons of $15 for the weekly special, two coupons of $15 for body scrub and massage, two coupons of $15 for aromatherapy massage and two coupons of $15 for deep-tissue massage of 50 minutes.
    • $150 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $60 for PADI open-water dive and two coupons of $15 for PADI discover scuba diving.
    • $200 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied towardsRoyal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
    • $20-$50 credit toward Thrifty Rent a Car: One coupon of $20 for car rentals from 1-3 days and one coupon of $50 for car rentals for 4 days or longer. Coupons are per room, per stay. Limited to one coupon per rental.
  • $500 in resort coupons include:
    • $200 credit in Renova Spa treatments includes two coupons of $30 for Renova combination, two coupons of $25 for special facial treatments of 50 minutes, two coupons of $20 for body wrap, two coupons of $15 for stress-cure massage of 80 minutes and two coupons of $10 for spa pedicure.
    • $180 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $50 for PADI open-water course, two coupons of $20 for Starlite dinner cruise and wet 'n’ wild full-day tour, two coupons of $10 for beach and cave tour and two coupons of $10 for brunch cruise.
    • $20 in credits at Cool Casino includes two coupons of $10 per room, per stay. Valid to play in slot machines and table games.
    • $100 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
  • $460 in resort coupons include:
    • $190 credit at Renova Spa includes two coupons of $35 for Renova Signature treatments, two coupons of $15 for the weekly special, two coupons of $15 for body scrub and massage, two coupons of $15 for aromatherapy massage and two coupons of $15 for deep-tissue massage of 50 minutes.
    • $150 credit toward purchase at Scuba Caribe includes two coupons of $60 for PADI open-water dive and two coupons of $15 for PADI discover scuba diving.
    • $100 credit toward Weddings by RIU applied toward Royal & Caprice Wedding packages. Limited to one coupon per wedding. Applies only for wedding packages paid directly at the hotel. Coupons cannot be used with prepaid weddings.
    • $20-$50 credit toward Thrifty Rent a Car: One coupon of $20 for car rentals from 1-3 days and one coupon of $50 for car rentals for 4 days or longer. Coupons are per room, per stay. Limited to one coupon per rental.
  • $450 in resort coupons include:
    • $40 in credits toward Renova Spa treatments.
    • $180 in credits toward purchases at Scuba Caribe.
    • $200 in credits toward Wedding by RIU, $20 in credits toward Dollar Rent - a - Car.
    • $25 in credits toward Photoshow Panama Photography.
    • $20 in credits toward Gift Shop.
  • $350 in resort coupons include:
    • $40 in credits toward Renova Spa treatments
    • $180 in credits toward purchases at Scuba Caribe.
    • $100 in credits toward Wedding by RIU, $20 in credits toward Dollar Rent - a - Car.
    • $25 in credits toward Photoshow Panama Photography.
    • $20 in credits toward Gift Shop.
  • Guests will receive coupons upon check-in. The total of coupons are per room, per stay, based on double occupancy for guests 21 years and older, and limited to one coupon per service, per person. Resort coupons are non-transferable, non-cumulative, non-refundable, non-combinable, and cannot be used for future stays. Resort coupons can be used as a discount only for selected services. Coupons cannot be exchanged for cash. This promotion is subject to availability and can change without notice.

MLT31093_DVC


          AMRESORTS COLLECTION — $100 OFF + RESORT COUPONS**   
NEXT-LEVEL VACATIONS - Secrets Maroma Beach Riviera Cancun

AMRESORTS COLLECTION — $100 OFF + RESORT COUPONS**

Discover Next Level Luxury®, an evolution of the all-inclusive experience, only available at Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts and Secrets, Breathless, Dreams, Now and Sunscape Resorts & Spas.

Save $100 per booking on flight and hotel packages of four nights or longer. Plus, take advantage of up to $400 in resort coupons at select resorts.**

Preferred Pick: Gold

Delta Vacations gives you more ways to rack up miles and earn toward your Medallion® Status. SkyMiles® Members earn up to 7,500 bonus miles per person, in addition to credited flight miles, with a flight and Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts, Secrets, Breathless, Dreams, Now or Sunscape Resorts & Spa package.

Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts are also a part of Delta Vacations Luxury. Upgrade to a luxury vacation package to enjoy flights in first class, VIP transfers and much more.

**Minimum night stays, select travel dates and other restrictions may apply. See Hotel-Provided Offer Terms and Conditions for details.

$1,385*
per person
iincludes flight + 4 nights all-inclusive hotel + taxes

No-Surprise
Pricing

Our prices include all flight and hotel taxes
More ›

Promo Code: DV31096
Book By: July 31, 2017
Travel Between: July 1, 2017 – January 31, 2018
Price Found:
June 21, 2017

Questions? Please call 1-800-800-1504
or contact your travel agent.

*Sample Price: This offer is available from hundreds of origin cities, but this price, which reflects the offer, is based on travel between Minneapolis/St. Paul and Montego Bay, staying in a Preferred Club Junior Suite Double room at the Secrets St. James Montego Bay. Price is per person, based on double occupancy and select Sunday departures and Thursday returns, October 8 – 12, 2017, and is subject to change. Additional restrictions and baggage charges may apply. See Terms and Conditions for details.

Amresorts logo

Vacations Include:

  • Roundtrip air transportation
  • Choice of accommodations
  • Hotel taxes
  • Round-trip transfers between airport and hotel in select destinations
  • Luggage handling at select hotels
  • Maid and/or bellman gratuities
  • Assistance of a local representative while in destination
  • 24/7 access to our Destination Help Center

The Endless Privileges® Experience at Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts includes:

  • Luxurious, oceanfront suites
  • Concierge and 24-hour front desk services
  • No check-in or check-out time, based on availability
  • Handmade beach bag
  • Daily breakfast, lunch and dinner gourmet dining options, with an assortment of organic food and beverage selections
  • Complimentary cocktails and specialty beverages from a variety of domestic and international top-shelf spirits
  • 24-hour, private, in-suite dining
  • Maid services three times each day
  • Fresh bottle of Champagne and daily basket of fruit
  • Welcome bottle of rum or tequila
  • Complimentary unlimited worldwide calls
  • Complimentary 24-hour laundry service
  • Relaxing 20-minute massage per guest at select resorts
  • Access to sauna, steam room and whirlpool
  • Daily afternoon teatime featuring live-plant tea infusions
  • Fitness center with a full range of equipment
  • Daily exercise and fitness activities

The Unlimited-Luxury® Experience at Secrets, Breathless, Dreams and Now Resorts & Spas includes:

  • Limitless access to gourmet a la carte dining options
    without reservations required
  • Unlimited international and domestic top-shelf spirits
  • Unlimited natural fruit juices and soft drinks
  • 24-hour room and concierge services
  • Pool and beach wait service
  • Daily refreshed minibar with soft drinks, juice,
    bottled water and beer
  • Daily maid service
  • Endless daytime activities and live nightly entertainment
  • Theme parties, oceanfront bars and entertainment venues
  • No wristbands required
  • All taxes and gratuities
  • Free Wi-Fi and free international calling to the U.S., Canada and local landlines with Unlimited Connectivity, which also allows guests to view the schedules of all events, activities and restaurants at the resort, plus learn about local destinations, excursions and much more at select properties*

The Unlimited-Fun® Experience at Sunscape Resort & Spas includes:

  • 24-hour access to food and beverage options including
    kid-friendly menu options
  • In-room minibar fully stocked with soft drinks, juice,
    bottled water and beer
  • Buffet and a la carte restaurants without reservations required
  • Bars and lounges serving international and domestic
    brand beverages
  • Unlimited fruit juices, soft drinks and snacks
  • Endless daily land and water activities for all ages
  • Live music and local entertainment
  • Explorer’s Club for kids 3 to 12 years old, with daily supervised activity programs
  • No wristbands required
  • All taxes and gratuities included

*Available at select properties.

Hotel Highlights

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Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts

Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts are boutique havens representing the highest level of pampering. Characterized by unequaled romantic and holistic experiences, these resorts combine socially responsible practices, expressive architecture and exceptional service in natural and enriching environments.

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Secrets Resorts & Spas

Secrets Resorts & Spas offer adults an extra measure of romance and sensuality in exquisite, luxurious beachfront settings. Guests immerse themselves in Unlimited-Luxury®, where everything is included.

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Breathless Resorts & Spas

Welcome to the party! Breathless Resorts & Spas offer adults-only, oceanfront vacation experiences in spectacular beachfront settings for the sophisticated and social traveler.

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Dreams Resorts & Spas

Dreams Resorts & Spas offer a high level of luxury for couples and couples with children, in ideal beachfront settings. Spacious rooms and suites, graciously appointed and luxuriously equipped, provide a picture-perfect vacation experience with welcoming service and romantic inclusions.

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Now Resorts & Spas

Now Resorts & Spas offer vibrant beachfront settings in Mexico and the Caribbean, perfect for multigenerational travel, families with teens and tweens, as well as couples and friends. Guests enjoy a family-friendly, modern vacation experience, where play and party are just steps away from peace and quiet.

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Sunscape Resorts & Spas

Sunscape Resorts & Spas offer fun-filled, worry-free, family-friendly vacations without wristbands for families, friends, singles and couples. Guests will experience the convenience of Unlimited-Fun® — where everything is included — paired with a vibrant atmosphere and friendly service.

Service may be operated by Delta Air Lines®; the Delta Connection® carriers: Compass Airlines, Endeavor Air, Inc., ExpressJet Airlines, Inc., GoJet Airlines, Island Air, Shuttle America and SkyWest and Delta Shuttle® carriers: Shuttle America and Compass Airlines; SkyTeam partners: Aeromexico® or codeshare partners: Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aerolitoral dba Aeromexico Connect, Aeromar, Bahamasair, Gol, SwiftAir, WestJet, and WestJet Encore.

Pricing Terms and Conditions

*Price is per person, based on double occupancy in a Preferred Club Junior Suite Double room at Secrets St. James Montego Bay, between Minneapolis/St. Paul and Montego Bay. Sunday departures and Thursday returns via connecting service on Delta and certain Delta codeshare partners, and is valid for specific travel dates October 8 – 12, 2017. Advance purchase requirements vary. Other travel days and dates and accommodations are available at other prices. May require travel on specific flights or times; blackout dates may apply.

For travel from the United States/Canada/Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands to Mexico City, Guadalajara, Leon, Monterrey (Mexico), Guatemala City, San Pedro Sula, Tegucigalpa, Managua, Panama City (Panama), Santo Domingo, Santiago (Dominican Republic), Port Au Prince, El Salvador (except as otherwise noted in this rule) and for travel between/within Mexico/Central America (excluding US/Canada to/from El Salvador) and the Caribbean, $40 USD/CAD1 fee for second checked bag. For travel from the United States/Canada/Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands to El Salvador, $30 USD/CAD1 fee for second checked bag. For travel from the United States/Canada/Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands to Bermuda, the Caribbean (except flights to/from Dominican Republic, Guyana and Haiti) and Mexico (excluding Mexico City, Guadalajara, Leon and Monterrey), $25 USD/CAD1 fee for first checked bag (except flights to/from Dominican Republic, Guyana, and Haiti) and $40 USD/CAD1 fee for second checked bag. For tickets on or after January 26, 2017 for travel between the U.S., Canada or Mexico and Guatemala City (GUA), Managua (MGA), San Pedro Sula (SAP) and Tegucigalpa (TGU) (except Los Angeles to Guatemala City), 25 USD/CAD1 for the first checked bag and 100 USD, 120 CAD1 or 85 EUR1 fee for second checked bag. For travel between Los Angeles and Guatemala City, no fee for the first checked bag.

Allowances subject to size/weight limits. Contact a Delta agent or see Excess Baggage for details.
 
1: CAD or EUR amounts will be charged when exiting Canada or Europe, respectively.

Price is not retroactive, and is subject to availability. Price does not include any applicable hotel/resort fees or departure taxes collected by hotel/resort/airport at destination. Does not apply to groups of 10 or more people. Must be purchased through Delta Vacations. Standard Terms and Conditions apply, and are provided online during the booking process for consumers or in the ‘Resource Center’ for travel agents; other restrictions may apply. Prices, fees, rules and offers are subject to change without notice. Not responsible for errors or omissions.

Offer Terms and Conditions

  • Purchase any Delta Vacations flight and AMResorts Collection package from any Delta Vacations origin in the U.S. or Canada to Mexico, the Caribbean or Central America, June 29 – July 31, 2017, for travel July 1, 2017 – January 31, 2018.
  • At time of reservation, you must refer to promotional code DV31096.
  • Offer is valid on reservations that include a minimum of one flight on Delta Air Lines, Hawaiian Airlines, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Air France, Alitalia, Island Air, Bahamasair, Aeromexico, Virgin Australia International, Virgin Atlantic, China Southern, WestJet and/or their codeshare partners; reservations that include only flights on other airlines do not qualify.
  • The hotel discount is based on the standard room charges of each of the participating hotels in Mexico, the Caribbean or Central America.
  • Participating hotels include: Mexico: Cancun — Zoëtry Villa Rolandi Isla Mujeres Cancun, Secrets Playa Mujeres Golf & Spa Resort, Secrets The Vine Cancun, Dreams Playa Mujeres Golf & Spa Resort and Dreams Sands Cancun Resort & Spa; Cozumel — Secrets Aura Cozumel and Sunscape Sabor Cozumel; Huatulco — Secrets Huatulco Resort & Spa and Dreams Huatulco Resort & Spa; Ixtapa — Sunscape Dorado Pacifico Ixtapa; Los Cabos — Secrets Puerto Los Cabos Golf & Spa Resort, Breathless Cabo San Lucas Resort & Spa and Dreams Los Cabos Suites Golf Resort & Spa; Puerto Vallarta — Secrets Vallarta Bay Puerto Vallarta, Now Amber Puerto Vallarta and Sunscape Puerto Vallarta Resort & Spa; Riviera Maya — Zoëtry Paraiso de la Bonita, Secrets Akumal Riviera Maya, Secrets Capri Riviera Cancun, Secrets Maroma Beach Riviera Cancun, Secrets Silversands Riviera Cancun, Breathless Riviera Cancun, Dreams Puerto Aventuras Resort & Spa, Dreams Riviera Cancun Resort & Spa, Dreams Tulum Resort & Spa, Now Jade Riviera Cancun and Now Sapphire Riviera Cancun; Riviera Nayarit — Dreams Villamagna Nuevo Vallarta. Dominican Republic: La Romana — Dreams Dominicus La Romana and Dreams La Romana Resort & Spa; Puerto Plata — Sunscape Puerto Plata; Punta Cana — Zoëtry Agua Punta Cana, Secrets Cap Cana Resort & Spa, Secrets Royal Beach, Breathless Punta Cana Resort & Spa, Dreams Palm Beach Punta Cana, Dreams Punta Cana Resort & Spa, Now Garden Punta Cana, Now Larimar Punta Cana, Now Onyx Punta Cana, Sunscape Bávaro Beach Punta Cana and Sunscape Dominican Beach Punta Cana. Costa Rica: Liberia — Secrets Papagayo Costa Rica and Dreams Las Mareas Costa Rica. Jamaica: Montego Bay — Zoëtry Montego Bay, Secrets St. James Montego Bay, Secrets Wild Orchid Montego Bay, Breathless Montego Bay Resort & Spa, Sunscape Cove Montego Bay and Sunscape Splash Montego Bay. Panama: Playa Bonita — Dreams Delight Playa Bonita Panama.
  • Minimum 4-night hotel stay required.
  • Discount is $100 on bookings of four nights or longer.
  • Maximum discount is $100 per booking; discount is a percentage of each eligible land component.
  • Additional baggage charges for checked luggage may apply, as well as any applicable hotel/resort fees or departure taxes collected by hotel/resort/airport at destination.
  • Discount is not applicable to airfare; Ski, Dive or Globus family of brands including Globus, Cosmos, Monograms and Avalon packages; for groups of 10 or more and is not retroactive.
  • Must be purchased through Delta Vacations.
  • Discount applies to qualified passengers only. Children staying free in room do not qualify for discount.
  • Discount will recalculate if modifications are made to the booking.
  • No refunds will be issued toward offer. Offer has no cash value. Offer void if qualifying booking is canceled.
  • Programs and availability may vary. Delta Vacations flight reservations may be made up to 331 days in advance of flight departure.
  • Delta Vacations must issue all airline tickets.
  • Standard Terms and Conditions apply and are outlined during the booking process; other restrictions may apply.
  • Delta Vacations is the final authority on the interpretation of these rules and reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions without prior notice.
  • Delta Vacations is managed, operated and marketed by MLT Vacations.
  • All SkyMiles Program rules apply. To review the rules, please visit delta.com/memberguide.
  • Delta Vacations airfares will earn Medallion Qualification Dollars (MQDs – U.S.-based members only) based on fare class and distance flown. Bonus miles do not count towards Medallion Status or Million Miler™ Status. Offers void where prohibited by law. Offers subject to change without notice. Other restrictions may apply.
  • TA: -2% points.

Redemption Instructions
Promotional code will always be validated and appropriate discount will be deducted if terms and conditions are met.

  • Via the Internet:
    Enter promotional code DV31096 in the Promo Code/eCertificate box on the Booking page.

  • Via Reservations or Travel Agent:
    At time of reservation, you must refer to promotional code DV31096.

Hotel-Provided Offer Terms and Conditions

Resort Coupons

    • Receive either $200 or $400 in resort coupons based on the room category booked.
    • Run of House room types do not receive any amount of resort coupons.
    • $400 in resort coupons broken down as follows: $200 toward spa services (four coupons of $40 and two of $20); $120 toward a romantic dinner (two coupons of $40 and two of $20); $80 toward bottles of wine at any of the restaurants (eight coupons of $10). Inclusions are subject to change without notice, and coupons have no cash value. Restrictions may apply.
    • $200 in resort coupons broken down as follows: $100 toward spa services (two coupons of $40 and one coupon of $20); $60 toward romantic dining (one $40 coupon and one $20 coupon may be combined); $40 toward bottles of wine at any of the restaurants (four coupons of $10). Only one coupon can be redeemed per spa treatment. Coupons of $10 cannot be combined. Therefore one $10 coupon can be applied toward one bottle of wine.
    • Resort coupons cannot be applied toward the following items: beauty salon services, spa product purchases, telephone charges, dolphin experiences, gift shop purchases, boutique purchases, Internet service, marina services, dive shop, medical services, car rentals and travel agency services. Resort coupons must be redeemed at the time of reservation or service. Resort coupons do not hold any cash or commercial value, are not refundable and nontransferable. They are not applicable for tips, taxes, private functions and/or special events, such as Christmas and New Year's Gala dinners. Resort coupons are not accumulative, and cannot be combined with any other promotion or special offer including, but not limited to, spa treatment discounts. They are only valid during the original stay, and cannot be deducted upon check-out. This entire offer is based on availability, and can be modified or closed out at any time prior to booking.
    • Zoëtry Wellness & Spa Resorts:

        • Zoëtry Agua Punta Cana: $400 in resorts coupons: Ocean Front Junior Suite Deluxe. $200 in resort coupons: all other room categories.
        • Zoëtry Paraiso de la Bonita: $400 in resorts coupons: Two Bedroom Ocean Front Master Suite with Terrace, Romance Ocean Front Lover Suite and Two Bedroom Ocean Front Master Suite with Plunge Pool. $200 in resort coupons: all other room categories.
        • Zoëtry Villa Rolandi Isla Mujeres Cancun: $400 in resort credits: Junior Suite Superior Oceanfront. $200 in resort credits: all other room categories.

      Secrets Resorts & Spas:

        • Secrets Akumal Riviera Maya: $400 in resort coupons: Master or Preferred Club room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Aura Cozumel: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Capri Riviera Cancun: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Ocean View room category and higher. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Maroma Beach Riviera Cancun: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Papagayo Costa Rica: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Bungalow Suite Ocean Front View or Preferred Club Bungalow Suite Ocean View room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Playa Mujeres Golf & Spa Resort: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Puerto Los Cabos Golf & Spa Resort: $400 in resort coupons in Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean Front, Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View or Preferred Club Junior Suite Swim-Out Ocean View room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Royal Beach: $400 in resort coupons in Preferred Club Junior Suite Tropical View, Preferred Club Junior Suite Pool View, Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View or Preferred Club Master Suite Ocean Front room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets St. James Montego Bay: $400 in resort coupons in the Preferred Club Junior Suite room category. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Silversands Riviera Cancun: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets The Vine Cancun: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View or higher room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Vallarta Bay Puerto Vallarta: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Garden View, Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View, Preferred Club Junior Suite Swim-Out, Preferred Club Master Suite Ocean Front, Preferred Club Master Suite Swim-Out Garden View or Preferred Club Master Suite Swim-Out Ocean Front room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Wild Orchid Montego Bay: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Secrets Huatulco Resort & Spa: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean Front, Preferred Club Junior Suite Swim Out and Preferred One Bedroom Swim-Out categories. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.

      Breathless Resorts & Spas:

        • Breathless Cabo San Lucas Resort & Spa: $400 in resort coupons: xhale Club Master One Bedroom Suite, xhale Club Master Suite Marina View, xhale Club Romance Suite Marina View or xhale Club Suite Marina View room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Breathless Montego Bay Resort & Spa: $400 in resort coupons: xhale Club Junior Suite Swim-Up, xhale Club Master Suite King Ocean View, xhale Club Master Suite King Swim-Up Garden View, xhale Club Ocean View or xhale Club Presidential Suite King Ocean View room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Breathless Punta Cana Resort & Spa: $400 in resort coupons: xhale Club Junior Suite Partial Ocean View, xhale Club Junior Suite Pool View, xhale Club Junior Suite Swim-Up or xhale Club Master Suite Ocean Front View room categories. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.

      Dreams Resorts & Spas:

        • Dreams Huatulco Resort & Spa: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Ocean Front Double, Preferred Club Deluxe Ocean Front King, Preferred Club Junior Suite with Jacuzzi Double and Preferred Club Junior Suite Jacuzzi King. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Las Mareas Costa Rica: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Tropical View, Preferred Club Junior Suite Oceanview and Preferred Club Junior Suite Swim-out Tropical View. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams La Romana Resort & Spa: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Garden View, Preferred Club Partial Ocean View, Preferred Club Honeymoon Suite Garden View and Preferred Club Honeymoon Suite Ocean Front. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Dominicus La Romana: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Tropical View, Preferred Club Deluxe Swim Up, Preferred Club Suite Tropical View, Preferred Club Swim Up Suite Tropical View, Preferred Club Spa Suite Partial Ocean View, Preferred Club Master Suite Ocean View Preferred Club Master Suite Swim Up Tropical View, Preferred Club Governor Tropical View, Preferred Club Governor Ocean View, Preferred Club Presidential Ocean View, Two Bedroom Family Suite Tropical View and Three Bedroom Family Suite Tropical View. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Los Cabos Suites Golf Resort & Spa: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View, Preferred Club Luxury One Bedroom, Preferred Club One Bedroom Suite Ocean View, Preferred Club Family Master Two Bedroom Suite Ocean Front and Preferred Club Presidential Suite Two Bedroom Ocean Front. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Palm Beach Punta Cana: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Tropical View, Preferred Club Deluxe Ocean View, Preferred Club Deluxe Jacuzzi Tropical View, Preferred Club Deluxe Jacuzzi Ocean View, Preferred Club Honeymoon Suite Jacuzzi Tropical View and Preferred Club Honeymoon Suite Jacuzzi Ocean View. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Puerto Aventuras Resort & Spa: $400 resort coupons: Honeymoon Jacuzzi Ocean View, Preferred Club Marina View Double, Preferred Club Marina View King, Preferred Club Ocean View Double, Preferred Club Ocean View King, Preferred Club Family Suite Ocean View, Preferred Club Master Suite, Honeymoon Jacuzzi Dolphin View King, Preferred Dolphin View King and Preferred Dolphin View Double. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Punta Cana Resort & Spa: $400 in resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Tropical View, Preferred Club Deluxe Tropical View Family Room, Preferred Club Junior Suite and Preferred Club Honeymoon Suite. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Riviera Cancun Resort & Spa: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Ocean View King, Preferred Club Ocean View Double, Preferred Club Ocean View Pool Front King, Preferred Club Ocean View Pool Front Double, Preferred Club with Plunge Pool King, Preferred Club with Plunge Pool Double, Preferred Club Oceanfront Honeymoon Suite and Preferred Club Oceanfront Master Suite. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Tulum Resort & Spa: $400 resort coupons: Deluxe Ocean View room and higher. $200 in resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Villamagna Nuevo Vallarta: $400 resort coupons: Junior Suite Preferred Club Ocean View. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Dreams Delight Playa Bonita Panama: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Ocean View and higher. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.

      Now Resorts & Spas:

        • Now Amber Puerto Vallarta: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Garden View (King), Preferred Club Junior Suite Garden View (Double), Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View (King), Preferred Club Junior Suite Ocean View (Double), Preferred Club Junior Suite Swim-Out (King), Preferred Club Junior Suite Swim-Out (Double), Preferred Club Master Suite Swim-Out Garden View, Preferred Club Master Suite Ocean Front and Preferred Club Master Suite Swim-Out Ocean Front. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Now Jade Riviera Cancun: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Suite Ocean View (Double), Preferred Club Suite Ocean View (King), Preferred Club Suite Oceanfront (King), Preferred Club Suite Oceanfront (Double) and Preferred Club Governor Suite Oceanfront. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Now Larimar Punta Cana: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Deluxe Tropical View (King), Preferred Club Deluxe Tropical View (Double), Preferred Club Deluxe Pool View (King), Preferred Club Deluxe Pool View (Double), Preferred Club Deluxe Partial Ocean View (King), Preferred Club Deluxe Partial Ocean View (Double) and Preferred Club Master Suite Ocean Front View (King). $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Now Sapphire Riviera Cancun: $400 resort coupons: Preferred Club Junior Suite Tropical View (Double), Preferred Club Junior Suite Tropical View (King), Preferred Club Junior Suite Oceanfront (King), Preferred Club Junior Suite Oceanfront (Double), Preferred Club Beachfront (King), Preferred Club Beach Front (Double) and Preferred Club Governor Suite. $200 resort coupons: All other room categories.
        • Now Garden Punta Cana: $200 resort coupons: All room categories.

      Sunscape Resorts & Spas:

        • Sunscape Dorado Pacifico Ixtapa: $400 resort coupons:Sun Club Deluxe Ocean View, Sun Club Family Suite Ocean Front, Sun Club Family Connecting and Sun Club Honeymoon Suite. $200 resort coupons: Deluxe Partial Ocean View, Deluxe Ocean View and Family Connecting Room.
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          Re: Sex tourism in Gambia...   
From www gvnet.com I transfer the fllowing passage.

Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery

The Gambia is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Within The Gambia, women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are trafficked for sexual exploitation, in particular to meet the demand for European sex tourism, and for domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked within the country for forced begging by religious teachers and for street vending. Transnationally, women, girls and boys from neighboring countries are trafficked to The Gambia for the same purposes listed above. Primary source countries are Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Benin. Trafficking of Gambian boys to Senegal for forced begging and Senegalese boys to The Gambia for the same purpose is particularly prevalent. Gambian women and girls are trafficked to Senegal for domestic servitude, and possibly for sexual exploitation. Gambian women and children may be trafficked to Europe through trafficking schemes disguised as migrant smuggling. Reports in the last two years of Gambian, Senegalese, and nationals of other neighboring countries being transported from The Gambia to Spain by boat appear to be predominantly cases of smuggling rather than trafficking. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2008 [
          International Revenue Sharing Consultancy   
UNDP: International Revenue Sharing Consultancy in Monrovia, LIBERIA. Closing date: 2017-07-03
          President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia visits Dallas – WFAA   
WFAALiberia had a direct connection with Dallas in 2014 when a Liberian man named Thomas Eric Duncan came down with Ebola while visiting family in North Texas. Sirleaf says she was in communication with health and government officials in North Texas … and more …read more Source:: Dallas News From Google News
          How Liberia Is Working To Deliver Healthcare To More Than A Quarter Of Its Population   
By training and deploying community health assistants to remote corners of the country, the government aims to deliver basic healthcare and reduce child mortality.
          LIBERIA: Land deals with foreign firms 'could sow seeds of conflict'   
Land deals with foreign firms in Liberia 'could sow seeds of conflict'says a new report from the Centre for International Conflict Resolution (CICR) at Columbia University in New York. The report covers Golden Veroleum, Sime Darby, ArcelorMittal and Putu Iron Ore Mining Corporation.

          Liberia: Music Academy to Stage Independence, Peace Festival   
[Observer] The Liberia National Academy of Music (LINAM) will be staging an Independence and Peace Festival under the Theme: "Awake and Build our Motherland" at the Monrovia City Hall theater.
          Coventry University lecturer ‘was torturer’   

The ex-wife of former Liberian president Charles Taylor appeared at the Old Bailey today (Fri) accused of torturing people during the civil war. Coventry University […]

The post Coventry University lecturer ‘was torturer’ appeared first on Court News UK.


          Couple build refuge for orphaned baby chimps in Liberia   
A heartwarming video has emerged of a couple taking baby chimps into their refuge after their mothers were killed by poachers for the illegal bushmeat trade. The footage, shot on June 19 in Mambah-Kaba, Liberia, shows Jenny and Jim Desmond explaining their work with the baby monkeys and raising awareness about illegal poaching. "Jenny and Jim Desmond arrived in Liberia in 2015 with a big job to do - overseeing the care of the 66 chimpanzees abandoned on six islands by a New York-based blood bank," they wrote online. "Little did they know that, within weeks of their arrival, the Liberian government would be adding to their workload by bringing them orphaned chimpanzees whose families were killed by poachers for the illegal bushmeat trade." "Now, the Desmonds have to build a sanctuary in Liberia from the ground up," they added.
          Iowa Immigration Law Blog: DED Extended for Liberia   
On March 15, 2013, President Obama extended the grant of "deferred enforced departure" (DED) for Liberians for an additional 18 months beginning March 31.
          Aid brought Liberia back from the brink   

DRIVING through the Liberian countryside, on a rare paved highway, two kinds of roadside sign catch the eye. One advertises local Protestant churches.


          UN envoy: Liberia's democratic future hinges of elections   

The U.N. envoy in Liberia says the country's future as a stable democracy hinges on successful presidential and legislative elections in October and broad acceptance that they are free and fair. Farid Zarif told the Security Council on Tuesday that "no major threats are envisaged beyond possible isolated and sporadic incidents" during the election period and transition to a new government in January.


          UBA Foundation launches Read Africa in Liberia   

In pursuance of its mission to uplift the lives of communities, UBA Foundation's initiative, Read Africa, is visiting schools in African countries to encourage young children to embrace the culture of reading. Conceived and introduced in 2011 by the foundation, the project involves the provision of recommended literature for junior and senior secondary school students across the continent.


          World Leaders Condemn Capitalism. Africa Or Liberia, Which Way?   

Is capitalism having a bad coverage? Well, many voters under capitalism are having more doubts about the benefits of this economic system or "trickle down theory." In a 2016 Poll, Harvard University found that 51 percent of young American voters rejected capitalism and have positive views about socialism, similar to the conclusion of the 2011 Pew Poll.


          For sale - rare nike air pegasus 31 wings glow in dark black... - $52   

Zetland 2017, Australia
Posting to: Americas, Europe, Asia, Australia Excludes: Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Liberia, Libya, Mauritius, Western Sahara, Iraq, Lebanon, Turkey, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan Republic, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Guam, Guernsey, Jersey, British Virgin Islands, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Macau
ebay.com.au

          Liberia: MOH Begins Vaccine   
[NEWS] The Ministry of Health & Social Welfare through its Expanded Program on Immunization has begun the Injectable Polio Vaccine to improve the protection of children against Polio.
          United – $366: Seattle – Liberia, Costa Rica. Roundtrip, including all Taxes   
United – $366: Seattle – Liberia, Costa Rica. Roundtrip, including all Taxes
A good sale to the Guanacaste province of Costa Rica. Availability is limited. Here are some practical travel tips to Costa Rica. Costa Rica is one of the countries with active cases of Zika virus transmission. Please read up on it at the Center for Disease Control if you are planning to go. Sample Travel Date: […]
          Beasts of No Nation   



Beasts of No Nation

by Cary Joji Fukunaga

2015

U. S. A. 

 





Récit initiatique d'un enfant soldat qui réussit le pari de nous émouvoir sans jamais verser dans le mélodrame larmoyant, et sait sublimer les codes du genre pour nous offrir une magnifique réflexion sur le sens de notre destin au sein d'un monde en plein bouleversement. 
 

La Passion selon Fukunaga

ou 

Le Bruit et la Fureur

 

Si le dernier film de Fukunaga s’inscrit dans la lignée du récit initiatique, aux codes duquel il obéit partiellement, il s’en réfère d’abord à une conception humaniste qui résiste à la morosité ambiante du regard porté sur notre monde, au delà des atrocités qui en défigurent la beauté. Agu (Abraham Attah), son jeune protagoniste, en est la figure évangélique, porteuse d’un espoir nouveau sur l’avenir de l’humanité… à condition de parvenir à traverser indemne les épreuves qui l’attendent. Le réalisateur américain, révélé au grand public par la série True Detective (2014), dont on connaît l’échec retentissant de la deuxième saison diffusée aux États-Unis, revient à ses premières amours. Avec Sin Nombre (2009) il s’était déjà emparé (avec talent, faut-il le souligner) d’un sujet d’actualité politique ô combien brûlant aux États-Unis: celui de l’immigration clandestine des mexicains et/ou des sud américains à la recherche d’une vie meilleure de l’autre côté du Rio Grande. Cary Joji Fukunaga s’attache à explorer le thème de l’identité dans un monde aux poussées migratoires particulièrement déstabilisantes, que ce soit pour les populations des pays d’accueil comme pour les migrants eux-mêmes. Déjà, dans son précédent film, il nous narrait le voyage périlleux de honduriens contraints de quitter leur terre natale pour survivre, acceptant en route d’y perdre leur nom (« sin nombre »: « sans nom » en espagnol) et leur identité d’origine. Ici, il retrace le parcours d’un enfant qui, après avoir assisté au massacre de toute sa famille, se voit recueilli par une faction rebelle au pouvoir officiel. Celle-ci est dirigée par un chef dont l’autorité repose sur un discours idéologique aussi simpliste qu’efficace (récupérer la terre que leurs ennemis se sont accaparés) allié au sentiment de crainte qu’il inspire à ses soldats. 


Un parcours inversé, donc, par rapport aux protagonistes de son opus précédent, et dont l’échec est annoncé par son titre à valeur programmatique: les enfants soldats sont arrachés à leur famille, à leur patrie, à leur terre et surtout à leur innocence. Réduits à l’état de bêtes sanguinaires, ils combattent au profit de forces qui les dépassent. Le rôle des puissances occidentales y est à peine évoqué au détour d’une image: celle, fugitive, d’une femme blanche regardant passer à travers la vitre arrière d’une voiture la troupe des petits soldats arpentant la forêt. Fuyant elle-même les combats, elle symbolise à elle seule la relation de deux mondes qui se croisent à distance l’un de l’autre, sans jamais s’entremêler. Le récit, quant à lui, nous expose la lutte interne pour l’accession au pouvoir qui se joue entre le Commandant et son supérieur direct. Son apparition retardée à l’image souligne son intention de maintenir avec son rival une distance respectueuse, comme en témoigne l’attente qu’il lui impose avant d’accepter de le recevoir. Le face à face entre les deux hommes, pivot du film, vient résoudre leur querelle intestine en conflit larvé, où les qualités guerrières de meneur d’hommes de l’un s’effacent devant l’habileté diplomatique de l’autre. Brillant résumé d’une certaine manière de faire de la politique que ni l’Afrique, ni notre époque n’ont le privilège de connaître à elles seules. Dépouillés de tout pouvoir de décision sur leur vie, les enfants soldats ne sont que l’instrument d’une guerre où leur qualité d’hommes libres n’a plus lieu d’être.



Pour l’écriture de son scénario, Cary Joji Fukunaga s’est appuyé sur le roman éponyme de UzodinmaIweala, un américain d’origine nigériane, qui, déjà, relatait le parcours d’un enfant soldat pris dans la tourmente d’une guerre civile au sein d’un pays sans nom. La référence à l’histoire proche y est évidente et renvoie aux nombreux conflits qui embrasent l’Afrique noire depuis des décennies, alimentés par les intérêts économiques et/ou géostratégiques du monde occidental. L’absence de repère géographique précis soulignée par le titre place en effet d’emblée les personnages du récit au sein d’un univers filmique abstrait à valeur allégorique. Il identifie le conflit imaginaire à tous les conflits réels ayant déjà eu lieu ou à venir. Beasts of No Nation se distingue sur ce point de Johnny Mad dog, film de Jean-Stéphane Sauvaire sorti en 2007 sur les écrans français, qui prenait peu ou prou le même sujet pour point de départ. Mais tandis que le film du français adoptait un point de vue naturaliste dont l’univers de référence, bien que partiellement gommé, désignait ostensiblement le Liberia, l’américain choisit au contraire de creuser l’écart inhérent à toute fiction avec le réel. Son modèle se rapproche davantage du chef d’œuvre réalisé par le réalisateur russe Elem Klimov en 1985, Requiem pour un massacre. En particulier parce qu’il choisit d’adopter le point de vue d’un jeune garçon en proie au cauchemar d’une guerre absurde, un regard exploitant les mécaniques du rêve pour contaminer les formes et couleurs de l’image.

 

Chez Klimov, le traumatisme conséquent au largage d’une bombe réduisait déjà le canal perceptif du spectateur à celui du personnage de Florya (Aleksey Kravchenko). Et c’est au travers des sens d’abord confus du jeune garçon (la vue et l’ouïe) que celui-ci appréhendait la compréhension des éléments qui composent le cadre. Une expérience purement sensorielle qu’aucun discours emprunté au langage verbal ne venait contrebalancer. Fukunaga, lui, prend soin d’opérer une scission au sein de l’instance narrative dédoublée du narrateur-personnage. Ainsi, la voix hors cadre du conteur Agu entre en conflit avec le point de vue du personnage assumé par l’œil de la caméra: la voix du jeune adolescent qui livre au spectateur son sentiment d’horreur sur ce qu’il est en train de vivre se superpose aux atrocités qu’il commet. Ce procédé permet de rendre compte du caractère schizophrénique de son état mental, justifié par le récit (événement traumatique), tout en renforçant paradoxalement l’identification du spectateur au jeune garçon. La voix d’Agu ne porte plus dans ce monde auquel il ne semble déjà plus appartenir lui-même. Corps dont l’âme a déjà commencé à s’élever pour rejoindre un Dieu muet à ses prières : « Eli, eli, lama sabachtani ». Deuxième clou.
 


Le semblant d’équilibre psychologique qu’Agu parvient ainsi à conserver dans sa situation est cependant à tout moment mis en péril par sa relation ambivalente à l’égard du Commandant (Idris Elbaredoutablement efficace dans son rôle). Son initiation à la discipline militaire, à l’usage des drogues, aux rites magiques ainsi qu’au meurtre, contribuent à renforcer le sentiment d’obéissance qu’il éprouve pour ce dernier. Car s’il agit d’abord sur ordre de son chef (phase d’initiation), il anticipe bientôt ses désirs en se livrant de son plein gré à des exactions sur ses victimes (phase d’assimilation). Une progression qui rend compte du travail de conditionnement opéré sur le jeune adolescent par le Commandant. Cependant, le comportement protecteur et le favoritisme dont ce dernier honore Agu n’est pas sans contreparties, et la figure du père que se plaît à revêtir celui-ci auprès du jeune garçon se fissure. S’engage alors une relation dialectique faite d’amour et de haine, d’adhésion et de rejet, entre Agu et son chef. Un chef à la personnalité ambiguë, colosse aux pieds d’argile, habile orateur devant ses soldats, pris dans l’engrenage d’une machinerie politique dont il n’est qu’un rouage, et figure d’un père qui n’hésite pas à sacrifier ses enfants pour servir ses ambitions personnelles. Troisième clou.


Le réseau structurel du récit tisse ainsi un voile d’illusions formelles, dont le soulèvement progressif ne se propose pas tant de retarder le dénouement de l’intrigue que de faciliter l’identification du spectateur aux personnages. Ainsi, le caractère faillible du Commandant, s’il ne nous le rend pas sympathique pour autant, attire notre attention sur la complexité psychologique de son caractère, renforçant la crédibilité de l’histoire. Par le geste même d’en gommer les contours précis, le scénario donne corps à ses personnages. En outre, sa foi en la cause qu’il prétend servir n’est jamais véritablement remise en question par le récit. Ambiguïté du réel oblige, dirait André Bazin ; en tous les cas, le réalisateur se refuse à prendre parti sur la question. Ses personnages ne sont pas les créatures livrées au caprice d’un cinéaste-démiurge qui les jetterait en pâture à son public comme aux lions les gladiateurs romains. Pas plus que le spectateur n’est sa dupe comme il plaît à certains petits malins du cinéma hollywoodien tels que David Fincher (cf. Gone Girl [2014]) qu’il le soit. À l’inverse, Fukunaga préfère l’inviter à appréhender les événements du point de vue de son protagoniste. Suivant les méandres de sa pensée en lutte pour se préserver de la folie, pendant psychologique de la mort physique, le spectateur entre d’abord en empathie avec lui. Ne cherchons-nous pas tous, comme lui, à retrouver nos rêves d’enfant là où nous les avions laissés ? Notre Père qui êtes aux cieux, que Votre Nom soit sanctifié ... ou pas.


Portrait flamboyant d’un enfance porteuse d’espoir, en lutte avec les vicissitudes de l’existence symbolisées par le personnage d’Agu (magistralement interprété par le jeune Abraham Attah), Beasts of No Nation tire parti d’un schéma narratif classique favorisant l’immersion de son spectateur au sein de la conscience bouleversée de l’homme. Car en dépit de la dureté de certaines séquences, le film ne sombre jamais complètement dans le constat alarmiste auquel on pourrait craindre qu’il aboutisse, comme en témoigne l’émouvante amitié qui lie Agu à Strika (Emmanuel Nii Adom Quaye) et sauve les deux jeunes garçons d’une bestialité à laquelle la guerre tend inlassablement à les ramener. Avec Beasts of No Nation, Cary Fukunaga réussit un film aussi stimulant intellectuellement qu’éblouissant pour les sens et s’affirme comme un réalisateur de premier ordre. A noter que pour avoir acquis les droits mondiaux de diffusion du film contre une enveloppe de 12 millions de dollars, le film n’est actuellement disponible que sur la plate forme américaine Netflix, en espérant qu'un jour il soit visible en salles comme il le mérite.







          170th Liberian Independence Day Celebration ~ Historic Stockton Waterfront District   
At the dawn of the US Civil War in 1862, the United States of America officially recognized the Republic of Liberia. Today, a California ~ Liberian Family Reunion builds on an amazing historical legacy and provides a firm foundation towards unlimited future opportunity of collaborative partnership. From an amazing June 19, 2017 small luncheon gathering of like minds, good fruit is assured for a strong California ~ Liberian Family Reunion, in the Stockton Historic Waterfront District.
          Stage set for fight over proposed BWM convention delay   
Stage set for fight over proposed BWM convention delay

JUNE 30, 2017 — Ballast water management is set to be a contentious issue at next week's IMO MEPC 71. And though a lot will be said on the impact of the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention (BMWC) on the environment, the underlying battle is between shipowners who don't want to invest in hardware they have little faith in and those who have invested millions to develop systems meeting IMO requirements.

Some IMO Member States, led by Brazil, Cook Islands, India, Norway, Liberia and the U.K., are pushing to delay implementation BMWC for existing ships by another two years. That suggestion has been welcomed by the global shipping industry with the International Chamber of Shipping saying that there is no logic, from an environmental protection standpoint, in requiring thousands of ships in the existing fleet to comply until they can be fitted with systems that have been approved under the more stringent type-approval standards which were only adopted by IMO in 2016 (and which are about to be included in what will soon become a mandatory Code for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems).

However, European shipyards, represented by CESA and SEA Europe, say they are heavily opposed to any attempt to further delay the BMWC implementation.

"Both shipyards, repair yards and maritime equipment manufacturers have made significant investments to ensure that ballast water management systems can be installed onboard ships on time", said Christophe Tytgat, CESA/SEA Europe Secretary General. "Another delay by two years would not only extend the implementation of the Convention from 2022 to 2024 – in other words seven years from today – but it would also give a wrong political signal."

According to Mr. Tytgat, since the adoption of the BMWC in 2004, the shipping industry has been fully aware of the requirement to install a ballast water management system onboard ships and has thus had numerous opportunities to prepare itself for this new legislation.

"Many maritime equipment manufacturers have made significant investments in innovative technologies, in producing ballast water management systems and in ensuring that these systems are tested and certified," Mr. Tytgat says. "If the IMO would delay the BMWC again, this would be a blow for all maritime equipment manufacturers that have done what they were invited to do: invest in ballast water management systems for ships to protect the marine environment for this and future generations."


          Höga eller låga skatter?   

I delstaten Kansas i USA har man kraftigt sänkt skatterna, ner till 0 procent för småföretagare. Är det en bra idé? P4 Världen har besökt svenskstaden Lindsborg i Kansas för att prata med svenskättade cowboys och dalahästtillverkare om hur mycket skatt de tycker det är rimligt att betala.

Dessutom rapporterar vår utsände direkt från det Eboladrabbade Liberia. Och så får vi en inblick i flygplatsen i Dotesk i Ukraina. Den har blivit som ett datorkrigsspel, fast i verkligheten. Vill du se bilder? Klicka vidare i bildspelet.

  


          Witness - Alfred's Free Press   
One innovative journalist has found a way to get daily news and information to Liberians with the aid of a blackboard. tags: AlfredcivilDavidLaleLiberiaMonroviapovertyWitness - Alfred's Free Press
Al Jazeera English
          Malawi's New President Moves to Heal Political Divide   
Malawi's Joyce Banda told supporters there was no room for revenge as she was sworn in as Africa's only female head of state in modern ... tags: BandaEllenJeanJohnsonJoyceLiberiamalawianMalawi's New President Moves to Heal Political Divide
NewsLook
          Leymah Gbowee: A Life's Work Rooted in Faith   
Nobel laureate Leymah Gbowee led a revolution in her home country of Liberia that toppled its dictator and led to the election of Ellen ... tags: EllenGboweeJohnsonLeymahLiberiaSirleafLeymah Gbowee: A Life's Work Rooted in Faith
tvnportal
          Liberia, la presidente uscente Sirleaf sulla via della...   
E' sulla via della riconferma, la presidente uscente della Liberia e fresco Nobel per la pace Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. o i primi risultati ... tags: dellaElezionieuronewsLiberiapresidenteSirleafsullaLiberia, la presidente uscente Sirleaf sulla via della...
euronews-it
          Liberians Await Election Results   
Liberians lined up outside polling stations under the watchful eyes of UN peacekeepers to vote in the democratic elections their country ... tags: africanEllenJohnsonlaureateLiberianobelpeaceLiberians Await Election Results
NewsLook
          Liberian Peace Prize President Seeks Re-election   
Liberians have gone to the polls to vote in the country's presidential and legislative elections since the end of a 14-year civil war. The ... tags: AfricaelectionEllenJohnsonLiberialiberianSirleafLiberian Peace Prize President Seeks Re-election
NewsLook
          Libéria : deux femmes lauréates du Nobel de la Paix   
Les cartes pour comprendre comment le Libria a pu sombrer dans une guerre civile meurtrire. Les deux femmes, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf et ... tags: cartesgboweeharoldliberiasirleafLibéria : deux femmes lauréates du Nobel de la Paix
BFM TV
          Obama Applauds Women Who Won Nobel Peace Prize   
US President Obama applauds the selection of three women's rights activists who received Nobel Prize for Peace. Powered by ... tags: EllenJohnsonliberiaNobelpeacePrizerightsObama Applauds Women Who Won Nobel Peace Prize
NewsLook
          Se vende - Cables De Chasis Para Computadora para Juegos... - Subasta   
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ebay.es

             
30 juni 2017 op de Westerschelde bij Vlissingen met bestemming Antwerpen

LOENERBORG
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Eigenaar Loenerborg B.V., Delfzijl
Manager Wagenborg Shipping B.V. & Favoriet Shipmanagement B.V., Delfzijl
Gebouwd Nanjing Huatai Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Nanjing / 5406
LxBxH 108.20 x 18.47 x 9.00 meter
Vermogen 4080 pk, snelheid 11.5 knoop, roepsein PCHH

Voormalige LOENERDIEP van Beheermaatschappij ms Loenerdiep B.V., Groningen
Manager Feederlines B.V., Groningen
7 juli 2011 (e) vlag Liberia, thuishaven Monrovia, roepsein A8ZO8
8 februari 2017 verkocht Loenerborg B.V., Delfzijl / Wagenborg Shipping B.V.
22 februari 2017 herdoopt

© Lucien van der Horn


          Review of Massimo Pigliucci’s, Answers For Aristotle: How Science and Philosophy Can Lead Us to a More Meaningful Life   

I just finished Massimo Pigliucci’s wonderful book: Answers for Aristotle: How Science and Philosophy Can Lead Us to A More Meaningful Life. Pigliucci was born in Monrovia, Liberia and raised in Rome.[1] He has a PhD in genetics from the University of Ferrara, Italy, a PhD in biology from the University of Connecticut, and a PhD in philosophy of science from the University of Tennessee.[10] He is currently a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.

https://ieet.org/images/uploads/41dGVyDVqhL._SL250__.jpg
              
Liberian Queen @jessie_clark95 at #mfwusa . #follwme #happy #like #africanqueens #igers #canongang #canon #streets #streetfashion #streetview #arts #life #time #views #kind #focus #inspire #inspiration #funny #dream #friends #friendship #magic #raw #talent #liberiangirl #canon #canon6d
          Call for papers: Ebola and the law   
Ebola map

Call for papers

Ebola and the Law

Biolaw section of the Association of American Law Schools (AALS)
Washington, D.C.
Monday, January 5, 2015, 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m.


Ebola health workers

The 2014 west African outbreak of the Ebola virus is the most severe epidemic attributed to this pathogen since 1976, when international health officials began keeping records on Ebola. As of August 2014, the total number of suspected cases has approached 2,000, and the number of suspected deaths has exceeded 1,000. The World Health Organization has designated the health crisis as one of international concern. The law has a strong stake in containing this outbreak and preventing future episodes of this kind.

The Biolaw section of the AALS invites papers addressing issues of law and policy arising from the Ebola outbreak. Such issues may include (but by no means are limited to) the following:

  • Why was the international legal and public health community so slow to recognize the 2014 Ebola outbreak? Human beings are supremely attuned to threats posed by other humans (such as war or terrorism), but far less prepared for threats deemed "natural" or "environmental." How should law accommodate and/or offset this biological predisposition?

  • There is no vaccine or cure for Ebola. Medicines for treating Ebola, carrying some hope of reducing the mortality rate, are in extremely short supply. What are the bioethical implications raised by the decision to devote the extremely limited supplies of Ebola medication — no more than a handful of doses as of August 2014 — to medical workers of non-African origin? How should the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and its foreign counterparts handle petitions to expedite the experimental use of Ebola medication?

  • The failure to contain Ebola to a few, geographically concentrated cases has enabled the virus to infect four countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria) as of August 2014. Relatively severe public heath measures, ranging from the quarantine to the cordon sanitaire, are contemplated and may be implemented in varying degrees in one or more affected countries. What are the legal and ethical implications of resort to law enforcement or even military solutions during public health emergencies?

  • Outbreaks of Ebola and other highly communicable diseases are all but inevitable in an age of globalization, anthropogenic climate change, and biodiversity loss. Even apart from the bushmeat trade, which is suspected of enabling epizootics to make the jump to humans, increased human traffic into previously untouched areas has introduced viruses and other pathogens to human populations around the world. What if any solutions can the law provide, through its focus on environmental protection, immigration, trade, and human rights?

Please submit your proposals to Biolaw section chairman Jim Chen at chenjame@law.msu.edu by September 26, 2014. The section will explore channels for publishing papers presented in this program. The program will take place at the 2015 midyear meeting of the AALS in Washington, D.C., at 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m. on Monday, January 5, 2015.

Eligibility: Full-time faculty members of AALS member law schools are eligible to submit papers. Foreign, visiting (without a full-time position at an AALS member law school) and adjunct faculty members; graduate students; fellows and non-law school faculty are not eligible to submit. Faculty at fee-paid non-member schools are ineligible.


          Watch Charlize Theron and Javier Bardem in Sean Penn’s The Last Face   
The Last Face centers around a love affair between Dr. Miguel Leon (Javier Bardem), a relief-aid doctor, and Dr. Wren Petersen (Charlize Theron), the director of an international aid organization. Set against the devastating backdrop of war-torn Liberia, Miguel and Wren must find a way to keep their relationship alive in extraordinarily difficult conditions battling […]

          Dal 3 al 19 luglio torna a Cerignola l’appuntamento con “E!State Liberi”   
51 località ospitanti campi sui beni confiscati alle mafie e con realtà dell’antimafia sociale, più di 150 settimane complessive di formazione, 13 regioni coinvolte. E non solo Sud ma anche Piemonte, Emilia Romagna, Lombardia, Umbria, Marche, Veneto, Lazio. Con E!State Liberi!, i campi di impegno civile e formazione sui beni confiscati alle mafie promossi da […]
          Liberia: One Health Best for Liberia   
[NEWS] Liberia has launched the One Health Platform thus becoming the second country in Africa to join this global health initiative.
          Liberia: J.J. Dossen Hospital Faces Challenges   
[New Dawn] Despite medical equipment provided by government and partners to upgrade J.J. Dossen Hospital, the only referral hospital in southeast Liberia, the hospital still faces several constraints that are hampering its smooth operations.
             
30 juni 2017 uitgaand op het Noordzeekanaal met bestemming Boston (UK)

DOUWENT
Bouwjaar 1987, imonummer 8703139, grt 1311
Eigenaar Douwent Maritime Ltd., Monrovia, Liberia
Manager Ionian Marine Shipping, Piraeus, Griekenland
Gebouwd B.V. Scheepswerf "Ferus Smit", Foxhol / 248
LxBxH 79.67 x 11.21 x 4.63 meter
Vermogen 1075 pk, snelheid 12.0 knoop, roepsein D5EA6

De voormalige Nederlandse TORPE
van C.V. Scheepvaartonderneming Torpe, Delfzijl / Gebr. de Vries, Westerbork

November 1993 verkocht, herdoopt DOUWE-S van H. Steenstra, IJsselmuiden
25 februari 2005 verkocht en herdoopt

© Marcel Coster




           Ex-Liberian president Charles Taylor's ex-wife in court    
Agnes Reeves Taylor, 51, of Dagenham, East London, allegedly inflicted severe pain or suffering 'in the performance of her official duties' in the African country between 1989 and 1991.
          Re: Sex tourism in Gambia...   
From www gvnet.com I transfer the fllowing passage.

Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery

The Gambia is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Within The Gambia, women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are trafficked for sexual exploitation, in particular to meet the demand for European sex tourism, and for domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked within the country for forced begging by religious teachers and for street vending. Transnationally, women, girls and boys from neighboring countries are trafficked to The Gambia for the same purposes listed above. Primary source countries are Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Benin. Trafficking of Gambian boys to Senegal for forced begging and Senegalese boys to The Gambia for the same purpose is particularly prevalent. Gambian women and girls are trafficked to Senegal for domestic servitude, and possibly for sexual exploitation. Gambian women and children may be trafficked to Europe through trafficking schemes disguised as migrant smuggling. Reports in the last two years of Gambian, Senegalese, and nationals of other neighboring countries being transported from The Gambia to Spain by boat appear to be predominantly cases of smuggling rather than trafficking. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2008 [
          Re: Sex tourism in Gambia...   
From www gvnet.com I transfer the fllowing passage.

Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery

The Gambia is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Within The Gambia, women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are trafficked for sexual exploitation, in particular to meet the demand for European sex tourism, and for domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked within the country for forced begging by religious teachers and for street vending. Transnationally, women, girls and boys from neighboring countries are trafficked to The Gambia for the same purposes listed above. Primary source countries are Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Benin. Trafficking of Gambian boys to Senegal for forced begging and Senegalese boys to The Gambia for the same purpose is particularly prevalent. Gambian women and girls are trafficked to Senegal for domestic servitude, and possibly for sexual exploitation. Gambian women and children may be trafficked to Europe through trafficking schemes disguised as migrant smuggling. Reports in the last two years of Gambian, Senegalese, and nationals of other neighboring countries being transported from The Gambia to Spain by boat appear to be predominantly cases of smuggling rather than trafficking. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2008 [
          Liberia: Court Wants U.S. Embassy Handover Stolen Vehicles   
[New Dawn] The Criminal Court "C" in Monrovia has paused trial surrounding some alleged stolen seven U.S. cars, instructing its clerk to inform the Ministry of Foreign Affairs here "to exert its influence" on the United States Embassy to have the vehicles brought under the court's jurisdiction.
           UN agrees to cut peacekeeping budget, a reduction US sought    
UNITED NATIONS (AP) — The General Assembly on Friday agreed to a significant cut in the budget for the U.N.'s far-flung peacekeeping missions, a reduction that the Trump administration fought hard to achieve though it wanted an even larger decrease. After lengthy and heated negotiations, the assembly's powerful budget committee agreed to a $7.3 billion budget for 14 peacekeeping missions for the year starting July 1, a $570 million cut from the current budget of $7.87 billion. The peacekeeping mission in Liberia, established in 2003 to support implementation of a cease-fire agreement, is wrapping up its operations next year. The Security Council created a small follow-on peacekeeping mission for an initial period of six months comprising 1,275 police officers who will continue training Haiti's national police force.
          Information About Ebola   
PinnacleHealth
Infectious Disease Specialist,
John Goldman, MD.
While the Ebola virus continues to cause concern, we should be reassured that the risk for the spread of the infection in the U.S. remains low.

Ebola is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person's blood or body fluids. Ebola is not transmitted through the air or in water. Patients with Ebola are not infectious until they are symptomatic.

Healthcare providers locally and around the country are taking steps to protect our communities. At PinnacleHealth, we are asking patients to inform us of recent travel. We want to know if you have you lived in, visited, or cared for someone who is ill that traveled to one of the following countries within the last three weeks.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Guinea
  • Liberia
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
By knowing this information, we can properly screen those who may have been exposed and begin treatment if needed. A patient with signs and symptoms of Ebola and recent travel to an area where Ebola transmission has been active will be immediately isolated in Standard, Contact and Droplet Precautions.

Early symptoms of Ebola include sudden onset of fever, weakness, muscle pain, headaches and a sore throat, each of which can be easily mistaken early on for other ailments like malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. It generally takes about 5 to 7 days to develop symptoms. However, symptoms might not appear until two to 21 days after one is infected.  Ebola can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, which can affect multiple organ systems in the body and is often accompanied by bleeding.

While the medical community is working to develop a vaccine, there aren’t specific medications to treat the infection. We are able to offer supportive measures while the body works to heal on its own.  The following basic interventions, when used early, can significantly improve the chances of survival:
  • Providing intravenous fluids (IV)and balancing electrolytes (body salts)
  • Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure
  • Treating other infections if they occur
It is our strong recommendation that all non-essential travel to West Africa should be avoided. If you are traveling, use common sense infection prevention. Do your best to avoid sick individuals and use good hygiene practices, such as regular hand-washing and hand sanitizer. The CDC offers the following information about travel and Ebola.


          Liberia: Macdella Cooper Craves Better Future for Liberian Children   
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -Presidential aspirant, Macdella Cooper, said it is every generation's responsibility to leave a better arrangement in the world for the one coming after.
          Liberia: CSA Commits Support to President's Young Professionals Program   
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -In a bid to ensure a more professionalized public service, the Civil Service Agency has reaffirmed its commitment to support the President's young professional program PYPP, a premiered capacity building program for youth leadership in public service launched in 2009 by President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.
          Flights from Montevideo to Liberia   
Find cheap flights and airlines tickets to flight from to
          CHILD SOLDIERS - INNOCENCE UNDER FIRE   

From Medieval times to the modern day, young children have been put to tragic use in warfare.

1. Children of “hard flesh”.

Wrenched from their homes at the age of seven, Sparta’s boys were battle-ready by 20.

The ancient Greek city of Sparta was a military superpower, and its children were enveloped within this fighting ethos from a very early age. Soon after birth, a council of inspectors would judge a male infant’s physical attributes; if he was deemed unfit, the baby would most likely be abandoned on a nearby hillside. At the age of seven, Spartan boys were removed from their parents’ homes and conscripted into the ‘agoge’, a military training scheme. The first-century AD Roman historian Plutarch detailed their regime: “Their training was calculated to make them obey commands well, endure hardships and conquer in battle... When they were 12 years old, they no longer had tunics to wear, received one cloak a year, had hard flesh and knew little of ths.”

Despite the boys’ early military education, the Spartans didn’t entertain the concept of a child army. From a practical perspective, children weren’t strong enough to handle the heavy weapons of the time. Instead, the youthful recruits served by conducting menial chores, such as bearing shields and mats for the more senior warriors. It was only when he turned 20 years old that a Spartan man would be deemed fit to serve as a soldier ofthe state.

2. The fearless fledglings of God

Armed with the gospel, a young Christian army set off on a crusade to Jerusalem. It turned out to be mission impossible.

In 1212, around 30,000 children from across Europe banded together and marched towards Jerusalem. Although the facts are marred by mythology and a lack of historical sources, we know that their aim was to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity. Versions of the story – over 50 of which have been found dating back to the 13th century – tell us of various child leaders marching to the Holy Land.

One was a young French boy, Stephen of Cloyes, who believed he’d been chosen by Jesus to lead the divine mission. He gathered followers by performing miracles and portents, and claiming that the Mediterranean Sea would part for his followers on their journey. Across the continent, droves of children joined the cause, taking the crusader’s vow, which was both militant and legally binding.

Sadly, their mission was to end in disaster. Once the band of children reached the coast and the sea remained unmoved, those who chose to continue their journey on ships were either taken to Tunisia and sold into slavery or died in shipwrecks. Despite their failure, however, their quest could be considered as the first mass European youth movement.

3. Noble warriors

Boy pages were often seen on medieval battlefields and were deadly with a crossbow.

In Medieval Europe, boy pages were a regular sight in the homes of aristocrats. At the age of seven, noble boys would be sent from their family homes and stationed in another aristocratic household, where they would dutifully serve the lord of the estate through menial chores and personal service. In return, they received hospitality and education. They also underwent military training, learning how to use weapons and ride. The children would mount wooden horses, learn how to handle lances and conduct target practice.

Boy pages witnessed their fair share of conflict, dressing and arming their lords on the field. They mainly performed minor auxiliary roles but, in the event of a siege, were expected to know the basics of how to defend a castle with a crossbow. This was one of only a few weapons a child could use; the string could be pulled back with a lever, or by winding a crank, giving the bow tension, power and the ability to travel long distances – all of which meant a child could kill without engaging in direct combat with an adult. Despite their military training, even in the heat of battle it was bad form to consider the boys a target. In the 1415 battle of Agincourt, it is rumoured that Henry V was so enraged by the French targeting his army’s boy pages, that he retaliated by slitting the necks of his prisoners.

4. Trained to die for their sultan masters

As the Ottoman empire flourished, non-Muslim children were rounded up and forced into military slavery.

Between the 14th and 19th centuries, the Ottoman empire trained elite infantry units known as Janissaries. These units were populated by strong children, aged 7–18, who had either been kidnapped from local non-Muslim families or taken during military campaigns against Christian communities. This system of abduction and enlistment became known as ‘devshirme’, which is Ottoman Turkish for ‘lifting’ or ‘collecting’.

Upon capture, the children were dressed in red so that they would be recognised in the event of an escape. They would then be circumcised and converted to Islam. As the sultan’s personal slaves, the children were trained for a life of service; indoctrinated to fight and die for their master. They were known in society as ‘kapikulu’, servants who were neither free nor ordinary slaves.

Over the centuries, Janissaries were used in all major campaigns, including the 1453 capture of Constantinople and the Battle of Mohács in 1526. Despite their life in captivity, many considered their high standing in the Ottoman administration an honour.

5. In the powder keg of war

Children endured tough conditions while serving in some of history’s most famous naval battles.

The British Royal Navy first began using the term ‘powder monkey’ in the 17th century. In the golden age of sail, young boys would be recruited or press-ganged to service artillery guns on warships. Their job was to ferry gunpowder from the magazine in the ship’s hold to the gun crews. It was a dangerous job: gun carriages would regularly dismount and maim crewmembers, scalding iron rained from misfired guns and giant splinters would penetrate flesh.

Brief autobiographical accounts from powder monkeys survive. One such account is from a boy named Robert Sands, who worked on Admiral Nelson’s ship during the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. He explained that “the smoke sofecated us… our skreens took fire and burnt the Leftanant of mereans [marines] badley. I had jest left thair wen the exploshon took place. The men inside the skreens was burnt to deth... Then I had to go to the fore magesene for my powder.” Despite his age and lower-class status, Sands’ unlikely memoir is one of the few accounts that exist from the battle.

6. Beating hearts

Historically, drummer boys have played a central role on the battlefield, especially in the American Civil War.

The use of drummer boys on the battlefield has been a longstanding western tradition. These musical mascots had a practical role to play, using different drum rolls to enable officers and troops to communicate with each other. Despite their wide-spanning history, drummer boys have become synonymous with 19th-century American warfare: sentimentalist poetry, art, sculpture and autobiography from the era juxtaposed these innocent children with sweeping battlescapes.

The American Civil War propelled drummer boys to semi-celebrity status. The youngest recruit of the war, nine-year-old John Clem, rose to fame after he opened fire on a Confederate colonel who’d ordered him to surrender, and managed to escape. ‘The Drummer Boy of Chickamauga’, as he became known, was subsequently promoted to sergeant, making him the youngest soldier ever to become a non-commissioned officer in the US army.

Other notable Civil War drummer boys include 13-year-old Charles King, the youngest recruit to be killed in the war; 12-year-old William Black, who lost his left arm during battle; and Louis Edward Rafield, who inspired the sentimental Confederate song ‘The Drummer Boy of Shiloh’, written by Will S Hays in 1863: On Shiloh’s dark and bloody ground The dead and wounded lay; Amongst them was a drummer boy, Who beat the drum that day.

7. The teenage Tommies

Children as young as 12 and 13 lied about their age to fight for Britain in the First World War.

During the First World War, British youth movements such as the Boy Scouts, the Sea Scouts and the Girl Guides militarised the youth of the nation and provided them with practical medical and survival skills. These children were quick to volunteer their services. One such child, nine-year-old Alfie Knight, pleaded with the then-secretary of state for war, Lord Kitchener, to let him join the army: “I want to go to the front. I can ride jolley quick on my bicycle, and would go as a despatch ridder. I wouldint let the Germans get it.” Kitchener replied to thank the lad, but noted that he was a little too young to fight.

Many young boys did, however, find their way into the army. Approximately 250,000 British soldiers were under the legal age limit of 19. The youngest recognised soldier was 12-year-old Sidney Lewis, who fought in the battle of the Somme. Another young recruit, 13-year-old George Maher, lied about his age and was sent to the front line.

His true age was revealed after he was found crying during heavy shelling. Punch magazine satirised this epidemic of willing youths with a cartoon. In it, an officer points to a young boy in a soldier’s uniform and booms: “Do you know where boys go who tell lies?” The applicant replies: “To the front, sir.”

8. Hitler’s final hope

Only lightly trained, the youthful soldiers recruited to support the Nazis’ last stand were essentially cannon fodder.

The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were among the primary tools used by the Nazi regime to control Germany’s future generation. Despite the compulsory gender roles attributed to each movement, the militant rhetoric that implored young subjects to devote themselves to the strength and defence of the ‘Fatherland’ was similar.

The Hitler Youth received only quasi-military training as part of their political programme, learning how to march, drill, throw grenades, dig trenches and escape through barbed wire reels under pistol fire. And when they were ordered to join the fight against Allied forces in the final months of the war, the boys were woefully inexperienced and ill-prepared. They were sent out in lightly armed ambush squads, fulfilling their vow to “be ready as a brave soldier, to stake my life at any time for this oath”. Fifteen-year-old Heinz Shuetze was put in an SS uniform and sent to fight Soviet forces on the front line after being given just half a day’s training. He was armed with a panzerfaust, an anti-tank rocket.

A survivor from some of the Soviet confrontations, Guenter Dullni,  noted: “They [the Soviets] had no mercy for child soldiers, particularly when you were slapped into an SS uniform.”

Tragically, many of the children who lost their lives in battle were sent to fight after the fate of the war had effectively been decided.

9. Young guns

How the proliferation of assault rifles gave birth to a new breed of child warriors.

While children were once of little use in combat roles, the invention of assault rifles like the Kalashnikov and the M-16 – smaller, lighter and with less recoil than previous guns – has enabled youngsters to be deployed as deadly ‘soldiers’. The Cold War marked the emergence of this trend, El Salvador in the 1980s being a prime example. Fighting between government troops and the rebel FMLN (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front) resulted in the kidnap and rape of children, but also their conscription into the military by both sides. It’s reported that more than one in five of the FMLN’s troops were children, while 80 per cent of the government’s forces were under 18. In other words, children fighting children.

The FMLN would send ‘kids units’ into villages to recruit even younger children, but also deployed them in active fighting. The government forces reportedly sent children to kill or injure members of their own family to ‘prove’ their loyalty. Like the FMLN, they also used children in overt active combat roles. One former child soldier recalled “eight-year-olds carrying M-16s and losing their whole families”.

10. “Eyes wide, screaming in pain, fear and hatred”

Child soldiers in recent conflicts in Africa have been forced to participate in a number of terrible atrocities.

The impact of child soldiers was ramped up to brutal new levels during the African civil wars of the 1990s, with mercenaries, gangs, arms dealers, militias and weakened governments all incorporating children into their ranks. In Liberia, ‘Small Boys Units’ were frequently used by the warlord/president Charles Taylor. Armed with Uzis or AK-47s, children would be used to engage against UN peacekeepers, pillage and plunder communities, or commit mass atrocities. One former child soldier recalled “the scent of gunpowder, eyes stinging from smoke, your friend crying… it was terrible. I missed my mother at that moment.”

Children were also used by the FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda) to take part in the country’s devastating 1994 genocide. Boys aged 14 and younger, many of them orphaned and desperate for protection, were drugged, kidnapped and sold, then for to act as com tants taking part in rape, mutilation and the killing of civilians. A staggering 800,000 people were murdered in the space of just 100 days. As the commander of the UN mission in Rwanda said at the time: “Those child soldiers’ eyes were wide and brilliant, screaming in pain and anguish, fear and hatred.” For these fresh-faced fighters, the innocence of youth is short-lived.

By Emma Butcher and James Rogers in "BBC History Magazine" UK, July 2017, excerpts pp. 25-30. Redigized, adapted and illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa.
          GMAT Sentence Correction (SC) | In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from   
Imo C
Lets analyze rest of the options.
A.which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of theMoon’s
which here is modifying distance and it leads to nonsensical meaning that distance revealed a degree of cratering .
B.to reveal a degree of cratering similar to the Moon infinite here is wrong .

I would concentrate on meaning here , we use to to indicate a plan of action in future or in past
For example 1) The mission of James Bond was to find out about the organisation named Specter.
2) The WHO has implemented a new plan in Liberia to get rid of Ebola a very contagious disease.

...

          Liberia: Gender Condemns Sex Video   
[NEWS] The Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection (MGCSP) condemns the circulation of a new 'sex-video' on social media exposing the privacy of a Liberian woman.
          Liberia: Orwoch Trains Female Aspirants & CSOs   
[The Capitol Times] As part of efforts to enhance the capacity of female aspirants in the October 2017 Presidential and Legislative elections, a local advocacy group, Organization for Women and Children (ORWOCH) will today Friday June 30, 2017 hold a one-day training for female aspirants and CSOs at the YWCA Conference Hall, Congo Town.
          Liberia: Sandi's Wife Promises Women Participation   
[NEWS] The wife of the political leader of Liberia Transformation Party (LTP), Mrs. Eugenia Sandy says she will prioritize 30% female participation in the three branches of government.
          Liberia: President Sirleaf Challenges Women Worldwide to Go After Their Dreams   
[Govt of Liberia] President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has challenged women worldwide to go after their dreams; stay focused and remain true to their God despite the many challenges they may encounter in their lives. The Liberian leader spoke last Wednesday IN Dallas. Texas when she served as special guest speaker at the Women's Economic Empowerment Breakfast at the beginning of the 2017 Dallas Megafest hosted by Bishop T.D. Jakes of the Potter's House Ministry.
          Liberia: Women, Children Organization Holds Training   
[NEWS] The Organization for Women and Children (ORWOCH) is expected to hold a one-day training of female aspirants and CSOs at the YWCA today.
          Lab Scientist at Global Vision for Women and Children   

Global Vision for Women and Children is a community Based Organization (CBO), an amended version of Belleh District Women Development Agency established and registered in February 2005 under the Laws of the Republic of Liberia. GOVWAC seeks to address issues that affect women and children in Liberia. Until our amendment in January 2013, we worked […]

The post Lab Scientist at Global Vision for Women and Children appeared first on Career Hob.


          DRC Declares Ebola Outbreak Over   
Democratic Republic of Congo declared its two-month Ebola outbreak officially over Saturday after 42 days without recording a new case of the disease. The outbreak in Congo’s remote northeastern forests, a record eighth for the country where the disease was first discovered in 1976, killed four out of the eight people infected, Health Minister Oly Ilunga said in a statement. “I declare on this day, at midnight, the end of the outbreak of the hemorrhagic fever of the Ebola virus in DRC,” Ilunga said. Congolese health authorities approved the use of a new experimental vaccine but ultimately declined to deploy it because of the small scale of the outbreak and logistical challenges. The latest outbreak came a year after the end of the virus’ deadliest episode in West Africa, which killed more than 11,300 people and infected some 28,600 as it swept through Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia and caused alarm around the world. Health officials say northeastern Congo’s remote geography combined with the country’s experience fighting the disease allowed them to gain the upper hand quickly. “The government of DRC has been very transparent in declaring that there is the outbreak and that really facilitated ... communication and information sharing and rapid action,” Ibrahima Soce Fall, a senior World Health Organization official in Africa, told Reuters last week.
          La cultura del sabanero vista por el Dr. Víctor Julio Baltodano Zúñiga   
Miguel Fajardo Korea





ARTÍCULO

 


La cultura del sabanero vista por el Dr. Víctor Julio Baltodano Zúñiga

Lic. Miguel Fajardo Korea

Premio Nacional de Promoción y Difusión Cultural de Costa Rica



            En 1990, mediante el decreto ejecutivo N° 20176-C se crea el Museo Regional del Sabanero, en Liberia. Por otro lado, el Día Nacional del Sabanero  inicia en 1992, con una iniciativa del ACG. En la misma línea, en 1995, cuenta con el apoyo de los Ministerios de Educación y  Cultura, decreto ejecutivo N° 24414-C-MEP. Finalmente, durante el 2003, el artículo 1, Ley N° 8394, expresa: “Declárese el 10 de noviembre de cada año, Día Nacional del Sabanero, como un reconocimiento al personaje que modeló el ser guanacasteco”.
            Licenciado en Economía, Máster en Administración de Empresas y Doctor en Ciencias Sociales, el académico Víctor Julio Baltodano Zúñiga trabaja en la UNA desde 1992. En la actualidad, ejerce como Catedrático y funge como Vicedecano de la  Sede Regional Chorotega. Su tesis doctoral “Transformaciones en la cultura del sabanero guanacasteco en una sociedad posmoderna y globalizada” (2014: 400), obtuvo el reconocimiento Cum Laude.

            El Dr. Víctor Julio Baltodano Zúñiga se perfila como el nuevo Decano de la Sede Regional Chorotega de la UNA (2017-2022). Su tesis doctoral es, sin ninguna duda, el más completo estudio sistemático, en torno de la singular figura arquetípica, histórica e identitaria del sabanero guanacasteco.

            El investigador Baltodano Zúñiga se propuso los siguientes objetivos: 1. Describir los cambios que se han suscitado en la estructura productiva de Guanacaste, en el contexto de la globalización económica y cómo esta ha influenciado la cultura del sabanero guanacasteco; 2. Indagar el cambio sucedido en el patrón laboral de los sabaneros guanacastecos y la forma en que se configura la transformación en la cultura de estos sabaneros; 3. Estudiar las transformaciones en la cultura de los sabaneros guanacastecos, en el contexto de una sociedad posmoderna y globalizada; 4. Estudiar las transformaciones económicas emergentes a partir de 1990,  específicamente, la actividad turística, como catalizador del cambio sociocultural del sabanero guanacasteco.
      En su estudio paradigmático, don Víctor Julio procura dejar testimonio sobre la dinámica de las manifestaciones culturales, con la base en la interacción de una sociedad, cuyos patrones evolucionan insospechadamente.  En ese orden, reconoce cuatro sabaneros:
        Sabanero tradicional: Trabajaron como asalariados en grandes haciendas y  fincas. Tienen más de 70 años. Simbolizan el eje de una cultura ligada a la tierra y al ganado. Su instrumento fue el caballo. Gozan de reconocimiento social, debido a su legado: baile con  marimba, las bombas, las retahílas, las fiestas de toros,  su característico grito, ser valientes.


       Sabaneros en el turismo: Los sabaneros tradicionales, quienes se trasladaron al turismo; los sabaneros más jóvenes, quienes combinan la labor de la hacienda con el trabajo en el turismo. Se encuentran en hoteles guanacastecos. Incorporan espectáculos para el turismo.


       Sabaneros transformados: Trabajadores de épocas recientes, quienes debido a la fragmentación de la tierra, la tecnología, la globalización y el nuevo entramado económico  cambian sus prácticas laborales. Usan  las redes sociales, se orientan a la cría de toros para espectáculos taurinos.

       Sabanero por apropiación: jóvenes o adultos medios que no han trabajado como sabaneros  Asisten a cabalgatas  y  fiestas. El cambio es de un patrón laboral a un modo vital. Bregan en otras actividades. Comparten con los sabaneros transformados. Algunos  han heredado propiedades; otros han aprendido, porque asisten y participan en las “probaderas”.

       El Catedrático Víctor Julio Baltodano, quien obtuvo un premio de investigación turística en Venezuela, en el 2011, establece que las transformaciones en la cultura del sabanero, se presentan desde 1950, cuando se da el cambio en la propiedad, que ha modificado los patrones de interacción laboral del sabanero, así como el entorno.


La cultura del sabanero tradicional cimentó su masculinidad, refrendada en los corrales de piedra y en la fierra. Dichas faenas de trabajo rudo,  persecución del ganado, el aparto y el cuido de él, amansar y hacer los caballos de las haciendas. Es decir, la construcción simbólica como hombres fuertes, trabajadores, sin miedo a nada. El “orgullo sabanero” es, en opinión del Dr. Baltodano, uno de los elementos centrales del esquema de interacción laboral y cultural que se trata de reproducir, y posibilita mantener su figura arquetípica, tanto en el imaginario regional como nacional.
En su intensa investigación doctoral, entrevistó a siete longevos sabaneros  tradicionales: Walter Castrillo (75); Antonio Fonseca (75); Balbino López (85 años); Pedro Bianco (86); Jorge Ríos Hernández (87); Julián Bustos (88) y Bernardino Angulo (89) años.
A partir de sus relatos de vida, configuró ejes temáticos, tales como la hombría, el trabajo rudo, la relación entre sabaneros, la importancia de los sitios, la extinción del sabanero y las luchas alrededor de las prácticas locales de poder, deseo, saber y discurso. 

Entre los elementos culturales inherentes con el trabajo, que iba moldeando la cultura del sabanero y la división social del trabajo, se reconoce la siguiente jerarquización: administrador, mandador, sobrestante, sabaneros, arreador, vaqueros, jornaleros, boyeros,  cocineras, llavero  y guachos.
Las tradiciones, a partir del trabajo en la hacienda configuraron una cultura, ligada con la tierra, la ganadería y la hacienda. Clifford Geertz (1994),  la conceptualiza como unsistema de concepciones expresadas en formas simbólicas por medio de las cuales la gente se comunica, perpetúa y desarrolla su conocimiento sobre las actitudes hacia la vida”, es decir, su función es dar sentido al mundo y hacerlo comprensible.
El antropólogo precitado también habla de redes de significado, como un conjunto semiótico, donde la cultura son las redes tejidas por el ser humano, por lo tanto, “un ser social, localizable geográficamente, con una matriz potencial de diferenciación social”.  Uno de los problemas nacionales es el esquema  cultural valle-centrista, como imagen de  la cultura nacional, legitimada por los medios de comunicación, donde la periferia y los polos interiores de cultura tratan de ser invisibilizados en sus manifestaciones vernáculas señeras.
En opinión del Dr. Baltodano  Zúñiga “La conformación de una cultura del sabanero no es un proceso claro ni estructurado, ni tampoco fácil de determinar o describir. Más bien, este responde a una totalidad de elementos que, de una u otra forma, fueron constituyendo un mundo que se puede llamar, el mundo de vida del sabanero. Es claro que Guanacaste y la cultura del sabanero surgen de una estructura colonial con una economía y cosmovisión de influencia europea”.
El sabanero guanacasteco vive inmerso dentro de una provincia heterogénea, multiétnica  y multicultural. Costa Rica sufre transformaciones en los planos políticos, económicos, sociales, ambientales y culturales hacia 1950, cuando él fija las transformaciones en la cultura de la actividad socio-productiva de los sabaneros.

 

Aduce el Dr. Baltodano Zúñiga que “La función tradicional del sabanero estaba ligada al ganado, pero para ello debía cuidar los caballos, en primera instancia, y para eso disponía de una cuadra con diez o más animales. Debía saber hacer sus propios instrumentos, tales como la jáquima y la grupera; y asimismo, construir su propia soga. Con el caballo, la soga y el cacho carbolinero como instrumentos de trabajo principales, el sabanero se iba al campo”.
 René Amador señala que la comunicación es diferente “Antes era con un grito; hoy es con un radio”. El grito del sabanero ha sido una de sus marcas semióticas. Tenía diversos significados: alegría,  incitación a la violencia, a la gresca, pero, sobre todo, un mecanismo de comunicación. Aduce Marco Tulio Gardela (2014) que “el uyuyuy: grito potente, uniforme, continuo, extenso y serial, que es una respuesta del sabanero al bramido del toro”.
Toda sociedad impone cambios de ver el mundo, por ejemplo,  el sabanero tradicional no sentía miedo, alardeaba de su valentía, soportaba dolores por las espinas o las astillas incrustadas. En cambio, los sabaneros transformados son más tolerantes. Cuando realizan alguna actividad de los sabaneros tradicionales, solo los anima mantener la cultura y las tradiciones, es decir, el recordar nostálgico selectivo.
En las prácticas locales del saber, poder, deseo y discurso, hay nuevos elementos que van aglutinando expectativas en la experiencia cotidiana. En ese horizonte de expectativas, el catedrático Baltodano asevera que “Los sabaneros tradicionales, ya no desde su práctica laboral, sino desde una posición diferente, como poseedores de un conocimiento que forjaron en las haciendas, desde el ámbito del saber, se posicionan en un ámbito del poder que desean imponer como deseante, para mantener un orgullo sabanero posicionado en el imaginario social regional. Este ámbito de lo deseante en los sabaneros tradicionales y de los transformados es trasladado al ámbito de las prácticas locales de discurso”.
Al decir del Dr. Baltodano: “En otras palabras, se pasa de una identidad concreta, particular, a una identidad colectiva. Por supuesto, que ambos procesos, la subjetivación y la objetivación son paralelos, simultáneos y concomitantes, de ahí que no se puedan separar ni establecer, quién es primera, dado que provienen de la vida cotidiana, de lo que hacen las personas que están inmersas en los distintos patrones de interacción social. Y también es menester apuntar que esas prácticas locales de saber, poder, deseo y discurso se dan en una circularidad, sin necesariamente establecer jerarquías”. 
Por su parte, los sabaneros por apropiación, utilizan el celular, tienen muros en Facebook, desde donde comparten actividades, suben fotos y videos de animales y haciendas, así como de las competencias donde participan con mucha frecuencia.
 Para el Dr. Víctor Julio Baltodano,  nadie discute que la hacienda ganadera fue la que dio origen al sabanero tradicional, pero muchas veces, se trata como una visión homogénea, sin embargo, se ofrece dentro de un marco de heterogeneidad, y se le capta desde el concepto abstracto de hacienda.


Otra de sus inferencias conclusivas, estriba en que la cultura se enfoca en el espectáculo y la explotación de la imagen. En el sabanero guanacasteco  hay un cambio en los contenidos. No es falsificación, sino un proceso dinámico, que incide en las subjetividades de los sabaneros, y de éstos, en el mismo contexto. Ahora, es más fácil mercantilizarla, mediante el circuito de la reproducción del capital, por medio de la explotación de la imagen de los espectáculos taurinos, a modo de ejemplo.


Asimismo, aduce que  el sabanero tradicional, cuando salía de su faena laboral, seguía siendo sabanero en cualquier espacio que estuviera. En cambio, el sabanero transformado, se  despoja  de  él y  puede  ser otro en diversos ámbitos de la vida social.  Žižek (2004: p. 86), lo denomina “capitalismo cultural”, donde la “relación entre un objeto y su imagensímbolo se da la vuelta: la imagen no representa al producto, sino que, por  el contrario, el producto representa a la imagen”.


El  acucioso Catedrático Baltodano Zúñiga, con más de 40 publicaciones,  manifiesta “En cuanto al sabanero, ha calado el estereotipo del tipo machista, que todo lo soluciona por la fuerza, pero que se ve  diluido por la sumisión al patrón (…) La familia era prácticamente invisible en el discurso del sabanero. Pocas veces aparece la esposa, la compañera o los hijos en el mundo del sabanero. Y eso se debe a la forma en que se estructura la relación hombre-mujer en este mundo laboral, donde es netamente patriarcal y el hombre ejercía como proveedor”.


Según (Olavarría, 2003:94) “Para muchos varones, la forma dominante de ser hombre, la que ha hegemonizado la masculinidad, resulta lejana y ajena a sus vivencias y contradice lo que quisieran ser y hacer. Si antes, en muchos/as, generaba culpa no adaptarse a las mandatos, hoy, a lo más, produce vergüenza”.

            La investigación identifica diferentes rostros en los sabaneros guanacastecos, a partir de procesos de hibridación o de sincretismo en la sociedad globalizada y posmoderna. Uno de esos rostros, es el del sabanero vinculado con el turismo (donde la explotación de su imagen como sabanero es evidente), vinculada a una economía del espectáculo. Ahora no interesa que tenga hacienda, ni trabaje en ella: lo que importa es que sea vehículo de una imagen vendible. Por ello, según (Martínez de Bringas, 2005:21), se “culturiza la economía”.
En epítome, el Dr. Víctor Julio Baltodano Zúñiga, evaluador externo del CSUCA y conferencista en Costa Rica, México, Brasil, Estados Unidos, Chile y España, en su documentada investigación sobre la cultura del sabanero, conceptualiza: “Estos nuevos rostros conviven en una hibridación entre lo local y lo cosmopolita, aportado por el proceso de globalización cultural, transmitidos por los medios de comunicación (…). Pero, también, esos rostros luchan por un reterritorialización y un reconocimiento dentro de un engranaje mundial que todo lo fragmenta y lo globaliza, por medio del mercado. Esos nuevos sabaneros aprovechan los medios virtuales típicos de la nueva economía, para conectarse entre ellos, buscar nuevas formas de establecer vínculos y, a la vez, otras formas de mantenerse en el mercado, en la economía del espectáculo y del capital turístico”.

 

 

Lic. Miguel Fajardo Korea

Premio Nacional de Promoción y Difusión Cultural de Costa Rica


          Liberia, Guanacaste: imágenes históricas recuperadas; códigos textuales dialógicos   
Miguel Fajardo Korea, Costa Rica





E N S A Y O


Liberia, Guanacaste: imágenes históricas recuperadas; códigos textuales dialógicos



Lic. Miguel Fajardo Korea
Premio Nacional de Educación Mauro Fernández
            (Guanacaste-Moravia).-  Durante el  último trimestre del 2015 y el primer semestre del 2016, tuve el privilegio de efectuar la revisión filológica de un texto decisivo para la historia abierta de Liberia, Guanacaste. Me refiero al libro “Liberia, Guanacaste y sus orígenes” (San José: Lara & Segura: 2016: 430), del Lic. Ronny Pizarro Méndez (Filadelfia, Guanacaste, 15-8-1938), que será presentado en la primera semana de setiembre de este año.
El Lic. Pizarro posee una exclusiva y estupenda colección fotográfica sobre  Guanacaste, y sobre Liberia, en particular. Este libro contiene 400 fotografías selectas, que comprenden un lapso de tres siglos XIX, XX y XXI. Algunas de ellas se repiten en diversos capítulos, por la importancia de remarcar el contexto respectivo, de acuerdo con el enfoque discursivo del autor.
 En otros casos, las perspectivas fotográficas son semejantes, pero difieren del contenido textual que su coleccionista quiere perfilar sobre ellas. En el libro se encuentra imágenes en cuatro focalizaciones: humanas, paisajísticas, infraestructura y  documentación.
 El autor ha dicho claramente: “No es un libro que cumpla con las reglas de la investigación histórica de Liberia, pero sí contiene textos de interés histórico, enriquecidos con fotografías de los siglos XIX, XX y XXI”. 
            El libro se encuentra dividido en 35 capítulos, cuyas temáticas no siguen, adrede, una periodización histórica rígida, por cuanto no es un libro de historia, pero ofrecen singulares estrategias discursivas desde la perspectiva gráfica e histórica guanacasteca:
Cap.   I            Liberia, Guanacaste y sus orígenes
Cap.   II          De Nicoya a la antigua villa del Guanacaste
Cap.   III         Edificio de la Gobernación de la provincia de Guanacaste
Cap.   IV         Escuela Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra (1904)
Cap.   V          Lic. Francisco Mayorga Rivas (1862-1940), Hijo Benemérito de Liberia
Cap.   VI         Gira del presidente, Lic. Alfredo González Flores, enero de 1916
Cap.   VII       Dr. Francisco Vargas Vargas (1909-1995)
Cap.   VIII      Hospital de La Caridad
Cap.   IX         Dr. Enrique Baltodano Briceño (1903-1980)
Cap.   X          Liberia y su antiguo transporte
Cap. XI           Luna Liberiana (1936)
Cap. XII         Fotos antiguas familia Baltodano Guillén
Cap. XIII        El Instituto de Guanacaste (1945…)
Cap. XIV        Prof. Aristides Baltodano Briceño (1890-1965)
Cap. XV         Ciudadanos ilustres de Liberia
Cap. XVI        Aeropuerto Internacional de Llano Grande
Cap. XVII      Discurso fúnebre por el Prof. Sacramento Villegas Villegas (1997)
Cap. XVIII     Lic. Daniel Oduber Quirós (1921-1991), el presidente de los guanacastecos
Cap. XIX        Lic. Enrique Montiel Gutiérrez (1915-2012)
Cap. XX         Doña Pacífica García Santana (1866-1935)
Cap. XXI        Lacsa vuela a Guanacaste
Cap. XXII      Estadio Edgardo Baltodano Briceño (1977)
Cap. XXIII     Veinte años del fallecimiento del Dr. Vargas Vargas
Cap. XXIV     Fotos históricas que hablan
Cap. XXV      Leandro Cabalceta Bran  (1856-1946)
Cap. XXVI     Periodista Joaquín Vargas Coto (1895-1959)
Cap. XXVII    Lic. Julio César Jaén Contreras (1925-2016)
Cap. XXVIII   Rubén Darío en Liberia (1891)
Cap. XXIX     Rodolfo Salazar Solórzano (1908-1982)
Cap. XXX      José María Fuentes Sequeira (1913-1960).
                       “Charío Fuentes”, un personaje popular
Cap. XXXI     Lic. Leonidas Briceño Baltodano (1875-1926)
Cap. XXXII   Prof. Jesús Bonilla Chavarría (1911-1999)
Cap. XXXIII  Ciudadanos ilustres de Guanacaste en Liberia
Cap. XXXIV  Liberia en el siglo XXI
Cap. XXXV   Registro gráfico sobre Liberia en el siglo XXI

                El libro del Lic. Pizarro Méndez es una Reseña gráfica e histórica de Liberia, en particular, y de Guanacaste, en general. Un sello especial de esta obra es la acertada inclusión de 400 fotografías poco conocidas sobre el contexto geográfico que aborda. 
En ese sentido, la Dra. Magdalena Perkowska, en su imprescindible libro crítico “Historias híbridas” (Madrid: Iberoamericana Vervuet, 2008: 371 pp.), sostiene:
Las fotografías funcionan como documento, del que se asume que confirma, comprueba y atestigua la realidad que el texto se propone representar.  Este papel de las fotografías resulta de la fe en su transparencia, de la convicción de que nada se interpone entre ellas y la realidad (p. 252).
Compartimos la aseveración de la crítica literaria polaca, toda vez que la inserción de las fotografías en el libro, responde a una elección del autor, quien documentaliza e ilustra los textos discursivos que dan título a cada uno de sus interesantes 35 capítulos.
Puede observarse que la mayoría de los apartados del libro del Lic. Pizarro Méndez, prioriza escritos sobre personajes relevantes, tanto del contexto geográfico, como para el espacio geopolítico donde se inscribe el texto: Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra, Francisco Mayorga Rivas, Alfredo González Flores, Francisco Vargas Vargas, Enrique Baltodano Briceño, Jesús Bonilla Chavarría, Aristides Baltodano Guillén, Sacramento Villegas Villegas, Daniel Oduber Quirós, Enrique Montiel Gutiérrez, Pacífica García Santana, Edgardo Baltodano Briceño, Leandro Cabalceta Bran, Rodolfo Salazar Solórzano, José María Fuentes García, Julio César Jaén Contreras, Leonidas Briceño Baltodano, Joaquín Vargas Coto.
Siguiendo los puntuales postulados de Perkowska: “al igual que en la serie fotográfica, en la serie textual se podrían añadir más elementos (fechas, acontecimientos, personas), porque entre  cada  uno  de  los  eslabones  existen vacíos, fisuras y rupturas” (p. 247). En ese orden, en dos de sus capítulos, XV y XXXIII, selecciona, según su criterio autoral, a diversos ciudadanos ilustres de Liberia y de Guanacaste en Liberia e, igualmente, un estupendo registro gráfico infraestructural sobre Liberia durante los primeros cuatro lustros del siglo XXI.


Siguiendo la magnífica estrategia interpretativa de Perkowska:
Muchos son los factores que determinan la naturaleza de una fotografía: el sistema cultural de valores que decide lo que vale la pena fotografiar: el ángulo, la perspectiva, la luz, la enmarcación del sujeto/objeto representado (…) La fotografía siempre impone su sistema y sus estrategias al sujeto/objeto, nunca lo deja intacto, puro, igual a sí mismo. (…) el  texto  se  visualiza  y  la  imagen  se  textualiza (p. 255). (La negrita es suplida).
            En el caso del Lic. Pizarro Méndez, las fotografías y los textos que acompañan cada capítulo, responden al sistema cultural de valores en los que él cree. Las fotografías son referentes que dialogan con las imágenes, por lo tanto, entre ellos se origina un sistema de representación abierto, sin embargo, es consciente de los límites de su palabra, toda vez que los Otros pueden disentir de la subjetividad de sus perspectivas.
            Al leer el libro del Lic. Pizarro Méndez, nos damos cuenta de que es invaluable su aportación al fondo bibliográfico, textual y gráfico, sobre Liberia y Guanacaste. Nos da a conocer resquicios históricos poco tratados en el acervo bibliográfico de la identidad regional.
            En ese sentido, su obra la encuentro bastante hermanada con mi libro “Perspectivas muralísticas sobre la historia de Liberia” (San José: CoopeAnde: 2016:38 pp.). El libro precitado es una sistematización discursiva, a partir de las 42 imágenes que ofrece el “Mural de la Historia de Liberia”, desplegado a lo largo de 80 metros de longitud, frente al parque ecológico Héctor Zúñiga, en Liberia, popularmente conocido como “El Pulmón”. Dicho libro puede  leerse, gratuitamente, en el link www.coopeande1.com
            Como habitantes de Guanacaste, agradecemos las rutas y las vías que su obra documentaliza, pues es una mirada que se desplaza con acentos históricos.  Por su ejercicio profesional, como Licenciado en Derecho y Notario Público, en algunos de sus capítulos se percibe, tanto el alcance como el estilo legal.
 Es relevante que un profesional en Derecho haya atesorado tan significativos esquemas capitulares y decida sacarlos a luz pública, toda vez que significan una perspectiva plural que nos ofrece  otras dimensiones, desde la coyuntura multicultural de “La Guanacastequidad”.
Es digno mencionar que el Lic. Pizarro Méndez haya venido escribiendo desde hace muchísimos años. Sus artículos, sobre temas vernaculares, han sido publicados en diversos medios de prensa: La Nación,  La República,  La Prensa Libre,  Universidad, Excélsior, Anexión, La Provincia, entre otros.

Asimismo, en las redes sociales se ha mantenido muy activo. Desde Facebook, ha dado a conocer diversas reseñas gráficas e históricas de Liberia, cuyas fotografías ofrecen marcados intereses históricos. Muchas de ellas se encuentran en este libro, con explicaciones textuales que ofrecen su versión  definitiva.

Otro mérito que tiene el libro del Lic. Ronny Pizarro Méndez estriba en que conoció a la mayoría de los protagonistas humanos de sus esquemas  capitulares, por ello, aporta datos historiográficos de fuentes primarias de la memoria para acceder al pasado. En ese sentido, las fotografías incorporadas funcionan como rememoración y reescritura contra el olvido.

El capítulo XXIV del libro se denomina “Fotos históricas que hablan”.  No llevan texto. La académica Magdalena Perkowska aduce:

Una fotografía siempre inmoviliza y aprisiona al ser humano, lo petrifica en un instante. (…)En este sentido, las fotografías complementan el texto en su proyecto de sugerir la multiplicidad y la contradicción, pero revelan también que el acto de representación es siempre un acto de selección/exclusión, porque ninguna imagen logra reproducir el infinito movimiento del “yo” humano (p. 245).

           Es decir, las fotografías están para representar lo no dicho. El lector completará sus códigos textuales dialógicos. Para cada lector, las fotografías evocan y significan sus respuestas, con base en el sistema cultural de sus propios valores. En todo caso, al autor no le interesa, en ese acápite, dar su versión intrínseca de cada fotografía.  Su inclusión responde a un testimonio integral, a una estrategia holística que se propone completar las perspectivas del contexto abordado. Por ello, cada lector hará una remirada y completará su significación documental.

           Así como me cautivaron muchísimas de las fotografías reunidas; también me cautivaron dieciséis de los treinta y cinco capítulos del libro, a saber:

Cap.   III         Edificio de la Gobernación de la provincia de Guanacaste
Cap.   IV         Escuela Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra (1904)
Cap.   V          Lic. Francisco Mayorga Rivas (1862-1940), Hijo Benemérito de Liberia
Cap.   VII       Dr. Francisco Vargas Vargas (1909-1995)
Cap.   IX         Dr. Enrique Baltodano Briceño (1903-1980)
Cap.   X          Liberia y su antiguo transporte
Cap. XIII        El Instituto de Guanacaste (1945)
Cap. XVIII     Lic. Daniel Oduber Quirós (1921-1991), el presidente de los guanacastecos
Cap. XX         Doña Pacífica García Santana (1866-1935)
Cap. XXII      Estadio Edgardo Baltodano Briceño (1997)
Cap. XXV      Leandro Cabalceta Bran  (1856-1946)
Cap. XXVI     Periodista Joaquín Vargas Coto (1895-1959)
Cap. XXVII    Lic. Julio César Jaén Contreras (1925-2016)
Cap. XXVIII   Rubén Darío en Liberia (1891)
Cap. XXX      José María Fuentes García (1913-1960). “Charío Fuentes”, un personaje 
                        popular
Cap. XXI        Lic. Leonidas Briceño Baltodano (1875-1926)

El estilo discursivo del Lic. Pizarro Méndez es de alto nivel.  Detallista, moroso, honesto en sus filiaciones, convincente en sus perspectivas socio-históricas.  Cuando aborda figuras humanas, efectúa tanto retratos como prosopografías, con lo cual ofrece un deslinde muy completo, en cada uno de los perfiles discursivos de cada homenajeado.
Celebramos la publicación del libro “Liberia, Guanacaste y sus orígenes”, del Lic. Ronny Pizarro Méndez, un profesional comprometido con la recuperación de diversos filones temáticos históricos, de grupos humanos esenciales y de causas nobles que engrandecen la condición del factor humanidad, desde Guanacaste como espacio, y desde Liberia, como su ámbito raigal.
¡Albricias, entonces!  Palabras e imágenes nos están esperando para reconquistar los resquicios históricos que nos atañen, y que debemos conocer como un imperativo de vida plena desde Guanacaste, la región del arcoíris, hasta el corazón de las huelenoches. Nadie defiende lo que no conoce, y este libro documentaliza y afirma procesos identitarios, ineludibles en el mundo de alta velocidad que nos ha correspondido vivir.


          El universo irresistible de Ninfa Santos    
Lic. Miguel Fajardo Korea





Centenario de natalicio

El universo irresistible de Ninfa Santos



Lic. Miguel Fajardo Korea
Premio Nacional de Promoción y Difusión Cultural de Costa Rica
minalusa-dra56@hotmail.com





(I parte)
            Estamos conmemorando el centenario del natalicio de la poetisa costarricense Ninfa Santos (1916-1990), quien murió en México, país que le editó su único libro “Amor quiere que muera”(1949), con 10 dibujos de Santos Balmori. Por su parte, Alejandro Finisterre publica la segunda edición mexicana (1985), con un dibujo en la portada de su nieta Paloma Díaz Abreu.
            Ninfa Santos edita su único poemario en 1949, a los 33 años de edad, pero 67 años después, el libro es prácticamente desconocido en Costa Rica. El título de su poemario es un intertexto de Garcilaso, con función de epígrafe: “Amor quiere que muera sin reparo”. La edición fue patrocinada por la revista América, de México, con una tirada de 500 ejemplares numerados. Contiene 407 versos.
            Ninfa Santos tuvo una vida accidentada, producto de una infancia difícil, debido a la ausencia de la figura materna desde los tres años, en virtud de lo cual, su padre delegó esa responsabilidad en la tía Ninfa, su inflexible hermana. Ninfa Santos vivió su infancia en Liberia, en la hacienda La América. También residió en San José.
            Su periplo de vida incluye México, Estados Unidos e Italia. Además, visitó Rusia. Sin duda, una vida muy agitada, en años igualmente convulsos. En México, Ninfa Santos se hospedó en casa de su tía Lupe, pero abandona ese espacio debido a las fuertes restricciones de su tía.  

            Debió permanecer encamada durante largos periodos. Aparte de esas aflicciones y castigos, el destino se ensañó contra ella. Poco a poco, se vio afectada por la artritis, e hinchada por los efectos de la cortisona. La artritis deterioró su imagen e identidad corporales, y le restringió su capacidad de movimiento.
             Para la escritora francesa Fabienne Bradu (1954): “El signo dominante de su infancia fue la horizontalidad”. Bradu, en su libro “Damas de corazón” (México: FCE, 1996) dedica a Ninfa Santos 67 páginas (170-228).  Es, sin duda, uno de los ensayos más lúcidos para entender el irresistible universo humano y poético de la autora costarricense, de larga estancia en México.
            El caso de Ninfa Santos se asemeja al de Eunice Odio (1919-1974). Recuérdese, en esa misma línea, que el libro premiado de estreno de Eunice Los elementos terrestres (Guatemala, 1948), no se editó en nuestro país, sino hasta en 1984, es decir, 36 años después.
            Uno se pregunta, con increíble asombro, la tardanza costarricense en publicar dichos libros.  En el caso de Ninfa Santos, la Editorial EUNED (2013), publica su pequeño libro, 64 años después, con prólogo de Mía Gallegos. Sin embargo, dicha edición, solo incluye 12 de los 19 textos.
            La poesía es un margen de vida. Una perspectiva de identidad para crecer. Un arma de palabras que retoma el viento para marcar destinos presentidos, pero intransitados. Por ello, la poesía es un manifiesto del decir, desde los diversos frentes vitales del factor humanidad. Es de este mundo, pero alcanza otros estadios, para fundar una manera de ser.

            Desde esa coyuntura, el nombre y la obra poética de Ninfa Santos, no debería ser ajeno ni desconocido, aunque sí lo extrañamos, con mayor peso,  en el cuerpo bibliográfico de la literatura costarricense. Su nombre sonoro es uno de los que ha sufrido extrañas exclusiones, quizá por el desconocimiento de su obra, por su independencia paradigmática o por la mezquindad cultural del medio.  Costa Rica cuenta con notables legionarias de las letras: Carmen Lyra, Yolanda Oreamuno, Eunice Odio, Ninfa Santos, Victoria Urbano, Rima Vallbona…
            En esa zona de recuperación, destaco a la revista costarricense Hoja en blanco (Núm. 2, año 2, agosto 2004. 7-47 pp.) Tanto su consejo editorial, como su director, Álvaro Mata Guillé, reivindican y recuperan, con propiedad, el nombre y la obra de Ninfa Santos, para inscribirla dentro de la poesía costarricense, en páginas integrales, de honda intensidad, de afirmaciones y rotundidades, para abrir el claroscuro de su caso artístico.
             Álvaro Mata Guillé, Antidio Cabal, Fabienne Bradu, la inclusión de cinco poemas de Ninfa  y cuatro fotografías de ella, llaman  la atención, para revisar su nombre, marginalmente inscrito en la casa histórica de la poesía costarricense, desde el siglo anterior.

            Con la visión que caracterizó al Maestro Joaquín García Monge (1881-1958),  publicó a Ninfa Santos en Repertorio americano (Vol. 48, Núm. 4, marzo de 1953, p. 57), la revista costarricense de mayor alcance continental (1919-1958).
            Igualmente, el chileno Alberto Baeza Flores (1914-1998) expresa en su ensayo antológico “Evolución de la poesía costarricense (1574-1977)”, refiriéndose a Ninfa Santos y sus poemas en Repertorio Americano:Y esta sola página es la que fundamenta, y alimenta, en Costa Rica el nombre de Ninfa Santos (…) Los poemas de Ninfa Santos son breves, rítmicos, frágiles, casi a punto de deshacerse, de quebrarse, como si fueran un delgado hilo conductor. Pero este filamento está cargado de emoción y de eficacia. Y transmite eso no siempre fácil: la poesía” (1978, p. 177).

            Pocas son las antologías costarricenses que han incluido a Ninfa Santos, a saber: Manuel Segura Méndez, en “La poesía en Costa Rica” (1963); Carlos Rafael Duverrán, en “Poesía contemporánea de Costa Rica” (1973);  Alfonso Chase,  en  “El amor en la poesía costarricense” (2000).
            En julio de 1984, con motivo del Segundo Simposio “Evaluación de la literatura femenina de Latinoamérica en el Siglo XX”, edité el suplemento Presencia femenina en la literatura costarricense del siglo XX, en el número de cierre de la revista Hojas de Guanacaste (1982-1984), nº 12, con un tiraje de 1.000 ejemplares. Ninfa Santos aparece con dos poemas. Era mi primer acercamiento con su poesía y con su sobresaliente caso artístico, que seguimos con mucho interés.

            El 15 de abril del 2005, la revista Hoja en Blanco y el Centro Literario de Guanacaste (fundado en 1974), le rendimos uno de los pocos  homenajes públicos costarricenses que se  han ofrecido a la obra poética de Ninfa Santos, en el norte geográfico de Costa Rica. Con la presencia del  Álvaro Mata Guillé,  Víctor Alvarado Dávila,  Marco Tulio Gardela y quien escribe, se logró cautivar a un ávido auditorio, deseoso de conocer la voz poética de Ninfa Santos.

            Ninfa Santos casó con el escritor mexicano Ermilo Abreu Gómez (1894-1971), con quien mantuvo una relación durante 20 años, y con quien procreó a su hija Juana Inés (1939). Se divorcia de él, cuando la descalificó de sus responsabilidades maternas. Su hija Juana Inés casó con Bernardo Díaz, bisnieto de Porfirio Díaz, y ella guardó el secreto de los jóvenes, lo que enojó a su esposo. De esa boda, nacieron sus nietas Paloma y Marisa.
            Su matrimonio con Abreu Gómez y su ámbito laboral le permitieron cultivar amistades literarias de prestigio, tales como Octavio PazAugusto MonterrosoAlfonso ReyesErnesto CardenalErnesto Mejía SánchezRosario CastellanosJuan RulfoRafael Alberti y su esposa María Teresa León, Juan Ramón JiménezJuan RejanoRamón GayaJuan Gil-AlbertEmilio CarballidoAlice Rahon, Ricardo GaribayTomás Segovia, Michèle Albán, Jorge RigolSalomón de la SelvaXavier VillaurrutiaRodolfo UsigliEfrén HernándezMargarita MichelenaAgustín LazoMarco Antonio MillánJuan de la Cabada o María Asúnsolo, entre un brillante ertcétera.

            La autora costarricense trabajó como Auxiliar en la delegación de México ante la OEA (1953). Allí inició su carrera diplomática. En 1958 es ascendida a Vicecónsul. En 1963 viaja a Nueva York.  En 1967 llegó a Roma, Italia, donde vivió durante trece años.  Regresa a México, donde fallece, el 26 de julio de 1990, hace 26 años.
            El viaje a los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, le genera expectativas y un entrañable acento nostálgico por cuanto debía dejar México: “Ahora me iré a una ciudad lejana / de hombres extraños que hablan extraña lengua, / hombres indiferentes cuyo dolor ignoraré / así como ellos ignorarán este largo sollozo / que camina, sonríe, se detiene, pasa”.

            En el mismo texto, se advierte su aflicción por la soledad, a la que prevé enfrentarse: “Habrá también mi soledad tremenda (…) pero mi soledad será como esos perros / que crecen a puntapiés (…) Será la soledad de los ataúdes sin muertos”.
            Según la brillante escritora francesa Fabienne Bradu: “Ninfa no tuvo conciencia de su propio y secreto heroísmo, que consistió en resistir, hasta el último día de su vida, al desamor, a la amargura, a la resignación, a la falta de asombro y de esperanza” (Bradu, 2004: 39).
            El  poeta y  crítico español, Antidio Cabal (1925-2012) aduce: “El mundo de Ninfa Santos desemboca en el metamundo de Ninfa Santos: el castigado tránsito de su carne a través del mundo fracturado por el fenómeno del amor (huesos, “ciego muro infinito ciego pozo de espanto”, musgo, sierpes, veneno, frío, maculación, “huracán frenético”, odio, hiedra, losa, lava, ceniza, angostura, “intacto sepulcro”: “Tal es mi juventud y junto a ella, detrás de esta miseria, tu fantasma”) se desvanece, se  volatiliza  ante  la  semilla  trascendente  e  inmanente  del  yo (…) Ese  yo  o  esa esencia  o  esa  verdad / identidad se llama Anacostia: en el silencio / me está llamando / una voz. Es la Ninfa de dentro llamando a la Ninfa de fuera” (Cabal, 2004: 16-17).

            La Asociación Costarricense de Escritoras de Costa Rica,  rinde homenaje a Ninfa Santos en el  centenario  de  su  natalicio, al dedicarle el III Encuentro sobre literatura de mujeres en Costa Rica (2016). De mi parte,  he incluido mi ponencia “Otra lectura a ‘Amor quiere que muera’, de Ninfa Santos”, en  el  suplemento cultural “Caminos culturales del Norte G.” (Periódico Anexión. N. 271,  año 25, 2016: p. 4).  Asimismo, un epígrafe de Ninfa Santos acompaña la segunda edición de mi libro antológico “Nadie es dueño” (2016).
            Ninfa Santos reclama un espacio en las letras de su patria natal. Parece mentira que, 64 años después de publicarse en México (1949) su único y pequeño poemario “Amor quiere que muera”, Costa Rica no lo haya editado, sino hasta el 2013 (Euned), lo que ha incidido, sin duda,  en la poca difusión de su obra, así como en el conocimiento marginal  de su preciso universo poético irresistible. 


          Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia, trigésimo aniversario   
La mayoría de  miembros de la Junta Directiva de la Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia(2016-2017), posan con atuendos y trajes vernaculares, signos de autenticidad guanacasteca (MFK).






Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia, trigésimo aniversario


Lic. Miguel Fajardo Korea
minalusa-dra56@hotmail.com
Premio Nacional de Promoción y Difusión Cultural de Costa Rica




            La Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia (1986-2016), es una organización cultural independiente, sin fines de lucro. Fue fundada hace tres décadas, el 16 de junio de 1986. Por su tesonero trabajo voluntario a favor de la cultura, obtuvo el “Premio 18 de Abril”, otorgado por ICOMOS de Costa Rica, en 1993.

            La Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia se encuentra constituida legalmente. Su personería jurídica es 3-002-078807-00. Mantiene la búsqueda permanente de opciones y oportunidades, que permitan perpetuar la memoria histórica-cultural, mediante proyectos que fortalezcan la identidad del cantón.

            Para evitar que se atente contra los procesos identitarios de la capital de la provincia de Guanacaste, debe coordinar con las diferentes autoridades locales, nacionales e internacionales, para lograr la permanencia de la identidad y la cultura, heredada  del ayer, que se vivencia  hoy,  y se trasmitirá a las futuras generaciones.

            Los objetivos que guían su loable trabajo voluntario, cultural e independiente son:

1). Promover el estudio y rescate de los valores cívicos y del patrimonio cultural de Liberia. 2). Fortalecer la identidad mediante el resguardo de la historia, costumbres, conocimiento, e ideales  del entorno de Liberia. 
3). Formar conciencia sobre la importancia del espíritu de respeto que el ser guanacasteco debe tener  con su cultura e ideales. 
4). Apoyar las acciones de los grupos culturales y artísticos organizados, que busquen el desarrollo cultural y social de Liberia.
 5). Coordinar y robustecer vínculos con instituciones nacionales o internacionales que tengan por objetivo la promoción cultural.

            Como parte de sus atribuciones para el cumplimiento de sus fines, la Asociación podrá adquirir bienes muebles e inmuebles, derechos reales y personales, celebrar contratos de toda índole, y realizar toda especie de operaciones lícitas, encaminadas a la consecución de sus metas. Asimismo, propicia alianzas culturales con otros grupos, por ejemplo, el Centro Literario de Guanacaste (1974-2016).
            En la actualidad,  la Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia sigue dando  una tenaz lucha contra la demolición del inmueble patrimonial, así como la desaparición de costumbres y tradiciones, producto del desarrollo mal entendido, por algunos sectores de la sociedad civil y gubernamental.

            La Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia, ha centrado sus esfuerzos en recuperar los rasgos costumbristas y las tradiciones, mediante experiencias vivas, para que la comunidad no las borre de su memoria social y reaprenda a disfrutarlas con sentido de convivencia.

            En conjunto con la Municipalidad de Liberia, ha  logrado la declaratoria de las Salas principales de la antigua Casa Gobernación de Guanacaste, en honor de a Jesús Bonilla o Lía Bonilla, entre otros artistas.

            La Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia ha impulsado la protección del patrimonio arquitectónico, con el ánimo de recuperar el patrimonio cultural y los valores culturales que signan la expresión de identidad de un pueblo, tales como la tradición, las costumbres y los hábitos, así como el conjunto de bienes inmateriales y materiales, muebles e inmuebles, que poseen un especial interés histórico, artístico, estético, plástico, arquitectónico, urbano, arqueológico, ambiental, ecológico, lingüístico, sonoro, musical, audiovisual, fílmico, científico, testimonial, documental, literario, bibliográfico, museológico, antropológico, al igual que las manifestaciones, los productos y las representaciones de la cultura popular.

            La Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia cuenta con intensos 30 años de voluntariado cultural  independiente. Durante este lapso, vela y registra numerosas luchas a favor del patrimonio de Liberia, por ejemplo: ha participado dos veces en la restauración de la Ermita de la Agonia, así como en la restauración, tanto de la Casa de la  Cultura de Liberia, como de la Casa Gobernación de Guanacaste.

            Otras tareas voluntarias que han hecho suyas, sin desmayos ni amedrentamientos, es la fervorosa defensa del patrimonio arquitectónico. Para ello, ha solicitado la declaratoria de varios inmuebles de gran importacia, tales como la casa de Francisco Mayorga Rivas, el edificio de la Copa de Oro, El Puente Real, entre otros.

            En la actualidad, trabaja en la consolidación y declaratoria del Centro Histórico de Liberia, el cual incluye  72 manzanas, correspondientes a los cuatro barrios fundadores de la ciudad, así como el Museo temático del Traje Típico Guanacasteco, basado en la visionaria idea de Lía Bonilla Chavarría (+).
           Ha trabajado por el Patrimonio Intangible desde  1991, cuando la horchata y el arroz de maíz se estaban extinguiendo, por ello, se propuso recuperarlos en el uso cotidiano, por lo tanto, fueron declarados  como el  fresco y la comida oficial para las actividades de la Asociación. Ahora, se propone la recuperación del fresco de pitahaya y el ajiaco, ambas, en peligro de extinción.
           El  más reciente logro en el área del Patrimonio Intangible, fue la declaratoria del Tope de Toros (2013-2014), producto de una Beca-Taller del MCJ, se logró la elaboración de los lineamientos y su publicación en el diario oficial La Gaceta (2015, los cuales rigen para la tradición del Tope de Toros,  durante las Fiestas Cívicas de Liberia.
           En el campo literario, la Asociación cuenta con un fondo editorial propio.  En ese sentido,  han auspiciado la publicación de cinco libros de colección, con el fin de perpetuar el legado musical y cultural de afamados artistas guanacastecos: Héctor Zuñiga Rovira (1993); Sacramento Villegas Villegas (1994); Medardo Guido Acevedo (1996); Jesús Bonilla Chavarría (2011) y  Lía Bonilla Chavarría (2012). En esta colección, han colaborado, quien suscribe y como coautores, en dos de dichos proyectos, Fernando Gutiérrez Coto y  Mélida Obando Viales. Asimismo, colaboraron con mi más reciente libro “Perspectivas muralísticas sobre la historia de Liberia“ (CoopeAnde, 2016:38).

            La Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia cuenta con más de 80 asociados y 10 miembros de Junta Directiva, la cual tiene una permanencia de dos años consecutivos. En ese sentido, los proyectos que la Asociacion tiene, no se ven afectados por los cambios. La composición de sus asociados es heterogénea: desde vecinos, amas de casa, pensionados, educadores, arquitectos, artistas, abogados, sacerdotes, historiadores o comunicadores. La Junta Directiva (2016-2017) cumple con la equidad de género, a saber:
            Presidenta                   Nuria Cuadra Clachar              
            Vicepresidenta           Verónica Navarro Fennell,     
            Secretario                   Olger Hurtado Hernández
            Tesorera                      Mélida Obando Viales
            Fiscal                          José Luis Pizarro Pizarro           
            Vocalías:                     Hugo Zúñiga Clachar                       
                                               Lidia Fennel  Montoya                     
                                               Magdalena Angulo Martínez        
                                               Manuel Martínez  Abarca
                                               Warren Meza Valverde             

            El trabajo cultural, VOLUNTARIO E INDEPENDIENTE, desplegado durante 30 años por los miembros de la Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia  ha sido un insumo cultural  de  gran proyección  para  la capital guanacasteca.  Por ejemplo, han organizado 30 Semanas culturales “Liberia, Ciudad Blanca”, que culmina el día cuando se conmemora la fecha de la fundación de Liberia, el 4 de setiembre de 1769.  Por cierto, en el 2019, Liberia alcanzará su ducentésimo quincoagésimo aniversario (250 años).

            Nadie defiende lo que no conoce y la Asociación para la cultura de Liberia (1986-2016), se ha propuesto que nos conozcamos como ciudad, para poder remirarnos, con los signos de las luchas auténticas y la defensa de las herencias vernáculas más preciadas que le dan  pertenencia identitaria a la capital de la provincia guanacasteca.

            Para contactar con la Asociación para la Cultura de Liberia, pueden hacerlo con su representante Nuria Cuadra Clachar, al telefax: 2666-7833, o bien, al celular 8357-0203.  Asimismo, la Asociación cuenta con el siguiente correo electrónico: liberiacultura@gmail.com y, en la red, pueden visitar su agradable página https://www.facebook.com/asociacion.culturadeliberia/info


          Che Pauraaa!!!   

 

☃️❄️Buongiorno Mondo!!! Questa mattina freddo freddo ..☕️ prima del caffè e di qualsiasi altra cosa, mille sorrisi 💞 Grazie Dio!

..quando ci liberiamo dalle nostre paure..
..la nostra presenza
automaticamente libera gli altri. Infatti siamo nell'altro e l' altro e' in noi.. se stiamo bene facciamo stare bene chi e' vicino a noi..se stiamo male facciamo stare male chi e' vicino a noi..
..siamo responsabili uno dell'altro... ampliamo i nostri Orizzonti e cerchiamo l'immensita' della vita, alziamoci e non rimaniamo nel nostro piccolo egoismo...in questo caos nel mondo..


          Episode 188: Voting with a Buggy Whip   
  Duck Dynasty Dad Warns #IStandSunday Believers They're Headed For Jail For Being Christian Alan Robertson Warns That Satan Is Out To Destroy 'Duck Dynasty' Liberia's Gay Community Under Attack Over Ebola Outbreak Regulations About Defiling Skin Diseases Mysterious Image Appears In Smoke Plume During Fresno Fire Campaigning for ISIS in the West Child Molesting Priest, Sentenced to 15 Years in Prison, Wants Out After 6 Months Because He’s Learned His Lesson Antivaccine wingnuts, stay away from my Halloween Kit Kats and Reese’s! Iowa’s Joni Ernst: Obamacare is bad because people should rely on churches for help  
          Episode 169: Sierra Leone Sriracha Sauce   
  Outrage in Saudi Arabia at appearance of female newsreader without headscarf on state television First Amendment, Christianity and Satanism Church baptism fountain being used as a pool Republican Whip Sends Bible to Every Member of Congress to Help Them with “Decision-Making” Ebola outbreaks: Science versus fear mongering and quackery ‘God is angry with Liberia,’ local religious leaders say, blaming Ebola on ‘homosexualism’ ReaganBook Is the Latest Conservative #Fail Bryan Fischer Agrees With ISIS That Yazidis Are Devil Worshipers And That's Why Obama Defends Them Michele Bachmann Worries Unaccompanied Children Will Be Used For Medical Experiments
          Liberia: FA Cup - All Level in Quarter Finals   
[Observer] Flashback: Photos of the four quarterfinalists including LISCR FC (upper left), FC Fassel (upper right), title holders, Monrovia Club Breweries and third division side, Samira FC
          Sierra Leone Gets Less - Can Liberia Get More Diamond Revenue After 2017 Elections?   
[FrontPageAfrica] Liberians, once again, are hoping that a change in leadership after 2017 their country will address Liberia's issues: generate adequate revenue, finance electricity to entice good-paying-job investors, finance social programs, fight corruption, etc.
          Liberia Defeats Sierra Leone in International Friendly   
[Observer] A 79th minute header from LISCR FC striker Christopher Jackson yesterday gave the home based-dominated Lone Star a narrow 1-0 win over the Leone Stars of Sierra Leone in an international friendly at the Antoinette Tubman Stadium.
          Comment on Nina Simone in Liberia by A. F. Nelson   
I loved every word. I fell in love with Nina Simone after hearing "Four Women." She deserves the respect she never got in the U.S.
          Comment on Nina Simone in Liberia by Kreemer   
What a fantastic story, and great, great writing. I was captive.
          7/1/2017: FRONT PAGE: Dictator’s former wife in court   
THE ex-wife of former Liberian president Charles Taylor has appeared in court accused of torture offences linked to the country’s civil war. Agnes Reeves Taylor, 51, faces six charges relating to alleged offences committed in the west African country...
          Liberians In America Help Dispel Ebola Myths Back Home   
Amelia Togba-Addy lives in Atlanta, but Ebola is always on her mind. Like many Liberian Americans, she has family and friends in West Africa, where Ebola has killed nearly 900 people. In Liberia alone, the World Health Organization has reported almost 500 cases and more than 250 deaths so far. So when Togba-Addy's aunt called early one morning last week, she panicked. "The first thing I thought about was, 'Oh! A family member has come down with the virus,' " she says. "So I started crying." What her aunt said next seemed to confirm her fear. It's your brother, her aunt told her. He's been vomiting blood. "I said, 'Oh Lord! I'm finished,' " Togba-Addy recalls. In the end, the problem turned out to be an ulcer — not Ebola. But Togba-Addy says it was enough of a scare that she had to do something to help her fellow Liberians. It's been difficult to contain the largest Ebola outbreak in history, partly because of misunderstanding. This year's outbreak is the first in Liberia, and many
          LIBERIA Anhänger 925 Silber mit Brillant am Wunschort mit Halskette   
86,90 EUR
Halskette Panzer 1,2 mm - 50 cm lang - mit Kettenanh?nger aus der Form der LIBERIA? Landkarte aus massiv 925 Sterling Silber mit einem Brillant an Ihrem Wunschort!Noch pers?nlicher durch den Brillant an Ihrem Wunschort!Die Anh?nger werden in einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede aus massivem Material hergestellt und selbstverst?ndlich 925 gestempelt!Landkarte: LIBERIAMaterial: massiv 925 Sterling SilberGr??e: ca. 21 mm und 1mm dickGewicht: ca. 3,4 gOberfl?che: Vorderseite handpoliert und R?ckseite matt geb?rstetBrillant: 0,015ct TW SIHalskette: 50 cm lang, Panzer 1,2 mm mit Federring-Verschlu?Bitte teilen Sie uns unbedingt nach Ihrer Bestellung den Wunschort f?r den Brillant aus der Kaufabwicklung unter Bemerkungen oder per Email mit!Sonderanfertigungen, wie z.B. ein anderes Land, gr??er oder aus einem anderen Material k?nnen auf Wunsch f?r Sie hergestellt werden. Fragen Sie uns einfach danach! Wir werden Ihnen sicherlich weiter helfen k?nnen!Alle Kettenanh?nger werden direkt nach Ihrer Bestellung von einer traditionsreichen deutschen Goldschmiede extra f?r Sie angefertigt.Da es sich hierbei um eine Sonderanfertigung handelt, ist dieser Artikel ausdr?cklich vom R?ckgaberecht ausgeschlossen!Die Abbildungen sind nicht in Originalgr??e - Bitte entnehmen Sie die Gr??e der jeweiligen Produktbeschreibung!

          Thursday's child   





Temperature e temporali a parte, l'estate è arrivata come di consueto portando in sala ricicli, vecchie pellicole, cose di poco conto e via discorrendo, come se l'ultima, terribile primavera cinematografica non fosse stata abbastanza.
Quantomeno, a tenere un pò alto il morale della moscissima blogosfera, i due rivali ex rivali ultimamente più rivali, il qui presente Ford ed il purtroppo anch'egli qui presente Cannibal Kid.


"Vorresti far guidare il furgone a Ford!? Hai intenzione di lasciarci la pelle!?"



Codice criminale

"Sono dovuto venire qui in mezzo al nulla dove vive Ford, per avere un White Russian decente!"

Cannibal dice: Michael Fassbender in un film musicato dai Chemical Brothers?
Potrebbe essere una figata! Il condizionale è comunque d'obbligo, visto che alcuni degli ultimi film con Fassbender non è che mi abbiano fatto “fangirlare” come quel criminale di Ford quando vede una pellicola con Stallone tutto nudo e tutto unto.
Ford dice: Fassbender e i Chemical Brothers potrebbero promettere bene, ma si sa che spesso non è tutto oro quello che luccica. Guardate Pensieri Cannibali: a prima vista potrebbe sembrare un blog curato, aggiornato e documentato, ma poi si comincia a leggere, e ci pensa il suo autore a trasformarlo in una roba terrificante. Speriamo che in questo caso ci vada meglio.

Il tuo ultimo sguardo

"Ho riempito il frigo di birre. Dici che Ford sarà contento?"

Cannibal dice: Una storia d'amore tra i sex symbol Charlize Theron e Javier Bardem nei panni di una direttrice di una ONG e di un medico sullo sfondo della guerra civile in Liberia?
Potrebbe essere la pellicola buonista più banale dell'anno. Peccato che a dirigerla ci sia Sean Penn, il cui ultimo film era il bellissimo Into the Wild e che poi, per amore (già finito) della bella Charlize si dev'essere bevuto il cervello. Come Ford dopo troppi White Russian.
Ford dice: Sean Penn, come attore e come regista, mi ha regalato cose davvero notevoli ed altre clamorosamente sopravvalutate. Ho come l'impressione che questo apparentemente finto impegnato e buonista Il tuo ultimo sguardo faccia parte della seconda categoria. Su Cannibal, invece, non ho dubbi: è quasi più sopravvalutato di Malick.

2:22 – Il destino è già scritto

"Cannibal Kid? Ancora!? Me l'avevano detto che quello era un vero stalker!"

Cannibal dice: Un altro film in cui lo stesso giorno si ripete di continuo? Sembra di stare dentro una versione thriller di Ricomincio da capo. O dentro White Russian quando parla per la millesima volta di serie infinite come Grey's Anatomy e Criminal Minds.
Ford dice: ennesima roba inutile tra viaggi nel tempo e pseudo thriller. Potrebbe venire buona per una visione estiva senza impegno, ma non ci faccio troppo affidamento, almeno quanto sulle opinioni del mio ex quasi rivale tornato - forse - agli antichi fasti.

Le Ardenne – Oltre i confini dell'amore

"Tra cinque minuti inizia la proiezione del film consigliato da Cannibal." "Bene: ho già il cuscino pronto."

Cannibal dice: Il manifesto di questo film thriller-drammatico belga recita: “Tanto potente quanto Fargo, Trainspotting e i primi film di Quentin Tarantino”. Io non sono il primo pollo che passa e ci casca, come Ford, e lo so che sono le solite sparate di marketing esagerate per vendere una pellicola, però in questo caso con me l'hanno venduta bene e l'ho già messa in elenco tra le prossime visioni.
Ford dice: film belga del duemilaquindici arrivato non si sa come o perchè qui in Italia in ritardo clamoroso e spinto da una serie di critiche non proprio esaltanti. Personalmente, fino a settembre cercherò di tenermi lontano dalle scommesse pseudo radical e pseudo Cannibal.

Bedevil – Non installarla

"Sento la presenza di Marco Goi, qui in giro. Ho tanta paura."

Cannibal dice: Solita pellicola horror che cerca di demonizzare le nuove tecnologie. Ma mi sa che fa molta più paura vedere il poco smart Ford che tenta di installare una app su uno smart phone.
Detto questo, io un horrorino teen scemo come questo per una rinfrescante visione estiva non credo me lo farò mancare.
Ford dice: tipico horrorino buono per i pusillanimi che in estate è praticamente un appuntamento fisso. Dovessi avere un buco nella classifica del peggio di fine anno, lo recupererò.

L'infanzia di un capo

"Questi sono i libri usati per studiare da Ford quando aveva la tua età, il secolo scorso."

Cannibal dice: Film che un capo del cinema d'autore e radical-chic come me ovviamente ha già visto e pure recensito qui: http://www.pensiericannibali.com/2017/01/the-childhood-of-leader-crescere.html. Mica come Ford che si vede solo action e B-movies per decere... ehm, per persone poco intelligenti.
Ford dice: altra pellicola radical che non mi pare sospinta da critiche così esaltanti che prima dell'autunno non mi sognerò di certo di recuperare. E' estate, fuori i mojiti, i despaciti e tutto quello che non richiede impegno.

The Latin Dream

"E ora suoniamo Despacito tutta la notte!"

Cannibal dice: Un film sulle danze latinoamericane?
Ma questo è l'horror dell'anno insieme a Io, James Ford.
Ford dice: già faccio cagare a ballare, non mi sogno neppure di avvicinarmi ad una roba come questa. Anche se, da buon tamarro, con Despacito e Subeme la radio sto alimentando l'estate a volume alto.

Ninna nanna

"E' nato il primo figlio di Cannibal e Ford." "Ammazza, è proprio mostruoso!"

Cannibal dice: Pellicola italiana che speriamo faccia almeno onore al suo titolo e consenta una bella ronfata come si deve.
Ford dice: mi basta il titolo, senza neppure bisogno del film. E ho un bel coma di qualche ora pronto per rifocillarmi.

 

          Liberiamoci dall'euro, per un'altra Europa   

Quello che si sta delineando è lo scenario di una profonda involuzione con enormi e incalcolabili rischi per il nostro paese, per la sua economia e per la sua coesione sociale.

Il paese si trova davanti ad una doppia Liberazione: Liberarsi dal governo in carica e dall'attuale asse di potere del governo dell'Unione.

Vogliono usarla come ariete per l'attacco finale ai diritti conquistati dai ceti subalterni nel trentennio seguito alla Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Come prescrive la "shock economy".

L'Unione Europea è del tutto interna a questa logica, e l'adesione all'euro rende più difficile escogitare strategie alternative.

Questo saggio analizza la situazione e propone l'uscita dall'euro come unica possibilità concreta per evitare un rovinoso attacco ai diritti e ai redditi dei ceti subalterni in Italia e in Europa.


          Amnesty Internetional - Rapporto 2010 - La Situazione dei Diritti Umani nel Mondo   

Il Rapporto Annuale 2010 di Amnesty International documenta la situazione dei diritti umani in 159 paesi e territori nel corso del 2009.

Il Rapporto ripercorre un anno in cui la richiesta di giustizia è sembrata per molti essere un ideale lontano, mentre la vita quotidiana delle persone continuava a essere dilaniata da repressioni, violenze, discriminazioni, giochi di potere e battute d'arresto politiche.

Ma il Rapporto celebra anche progressi concreti, rivelando come sia divenuto ormai sempre più difficile per i responsabili dei peggiori crimini assicurarsi l'impunità.

La richiesta di giustizia non si limita più solo a garantire indennizzi per uccisioni o torture, ma si estende fino a occuparsi della negazione di tutti quei diritti necessari a ogni persona per vivere in dignità la propria vita.

Introduzione al Rapporto Annuale 2010 di Claudio Cordone,

Segretario Generale ad interim di Amnesty International

Tra gennaio e maggio del 2009, nello Sri Lanka, circa 300.000 civili sono rimasti intrappolati in una piccola striscia di terra, tra le Tigri per la liberazione della patria Tamil (Ltte) in ritirata e l'esercito che avanzava. Nonostante un crescendo di denunce di violazioni dei diritti umani, il Consiglio di sicurezza non è intervenuto. Almeno 7000 persone sono state uccise ma alcune fonti parlano persino di 20.000. Il governo dello Sri Lanka ha liquidato le notizie di crimini di guerra commesse dalle sue forze armate e ha respinto le richieste di un'indagine internazionale.

Nel contempo, non ha svolto alcuna inchiesta credibile e indipendente. Il Consiglio Onu dei diritti umani è stato convocato in sessione speciale, ma i giochi di potere hanno portato gli stati membri ad approvare una risoluzione proposta dallo Sri Lanka, in cui ci si complimentava per il successo ottenuto contro l'Ltte. Alla fine dell'anno, nonostante ulteriori prove di crimini di guerra e di altre violazioni dei diritti umani, nessuno era stato portato di fronte alla giustizia.

È veramente difficile immaginare un fallimento peggiore nell'accertamento delle responsabilità di chi ha violato i diritti umani.

Tutto questo mi ha fatto tornare in mente l'introduzione al Rapporto annuale 1992. Intitolata "Farla franca con gli omicidi", questa denunciava i tanti paesi in cui leader civili o militari responsabili di aver ordinato o tollerato omicidi, sparizioni forzate, stupri sistematici e altre torture, non correvano alcun pericolo di essere chiamati a risponderne di fronte alla giustizia.

Lo Sri Lanka figurava nell'elenco, in quanto il governo dell'epoca era venuto meno al dovere di sottoporre a procedimenti giudiziari i responsabili di decine di migliaia di esecuzioni extragiudiziali e sparizioni forzate, nella violenta reppressione dell'insurrezione interna degli anni 1988-90.

La domanda è spontanea: è cambiato qualcosa negli ultimi due decenni? Se esaminiamo la situazione dello Sri Lanka nel 2009 o quelle della Colombia o di Gaza, sarebbe facile concludere che no, non è cambiato niente. E se cosÌ stanno le cose, perché ostinarsi a chiedere che i responsabili delle violazioni dei diritti umani siano chiamati a rispondere del loro operato? In questo modo, però, rischieremmo di perdere di vista gli importanti progressi fatti in meno di 20 anni che, nonostante sfide vecchie e nuove, rendono oggi più difficile a chi ha commesso dei crimini sfuggire alla giustizia.

È vero, il raggio d'azione della legge è lungi dall'essere totale. Alcuni casi sono fuori da ogni monitoraggio, in altri la giustizia ci mette troppo tempo. Ma ci sono dei progressi. Per di più, l'accertamento delle responsabilità è stato esteso dal tipico ambito della ricerca della giustizia per omicidi e torture, alle violazioni di diritti umani fondamentali come quello al cibo, all'educazione, all'alloggio e alla salute, diritti necessari per vivere in dignità.

I risultati raggiunti

Essere chiamati a rispondere per qualcosa che si è fatto, o qualcosa che si è mancato di fare, e che ha avuto conseguenze dirette su altre persone è un concetto ampio: lo si può usare, dal punto di vista politico, come nelle elezioni; oppure, da un punto di vista morale, per misurare i valori di una società.

Gli standard internazionali sui diritti umani si concentrano sulla cosiddetta "accountability" per definire una responsabilità di tipo giuridico. Le persone hanno dei diritti che devono essere previsti e protetti dalla legge. Coloro che detengono il potere hanno i doveri, a loro volta sanciti dalle leggi, di rispettare, proteggere e garantire i diritti individuali.

Essere chiamati a rispondere, sul piano giuridico, delle proprie azioni, è importante, soprattutto e in primo luogo, perché chi ha sofferto un danno ha diritto alla verità e alla giustizia. Le vittime e i loro familiari devono vedere i torti subiti riconosciuti e i responsabili chiamati a risponderne. Verificare se le vittime hanno titolo a ricevere un risarcimento, scoprire quanto è accaduto, da parte di chi e perché è tanto importante quanto portare di fronte a un giudice i responsabili delle violazioni commesse.

Accertare i fatti e chiarire le responsabilità aiuta anche a guardare avanti. Costituisce una forma di deterrenza nei confronti di chi ha commesso un crimine e anche una base su cui avviare riforme delle istituzioni statali e internazionali. Meccanismi efficaci ed efficienti in questo ambito possono aiutare gli stati a rendere migliori le leggi e la prassi e a verificare l'impatto di queste ultime sulla vita delle persone.

Negli ultimi 20 anni, una campagna globale è riuscita a stabilire il ruolo della giustizia internazionale. Tra i suoi successi, c'è l'istituzione nel 1998 della Corte penale internazionale (Icc), ispirata dai tribunali internazionali che si occupano di genocidio, crimini contro l'umanità e crimini di guerra nell'ex Jugoslavia e in Ruanda.

Il 2009 è stato uno spartiacque: un capo di stato in carica, il presidente del Sudan Al Bashir è stato raggiunto da un mandato d'arresto emesso dall'Icc per cinque imputazioni relative a crimini contro l'umanità (omicidio, sterminio, trasferimento forzato di popolazione, tortura e stupro) e due imputazioni di crimini di guerra (per aver colpito la popolazione civile).

Alla fine del 2009, il procuratore dell'Icc aveva avviato indagini su tre situazioni deferite alla Corte dagli stati in cui erano occorsi i crimini, in Uganda, Repubblica Democratica del Congo e Repubblica Centrafricana, e su una situazione deferitale dal Consiglio di sicurezza in Darfur, Sudan. Il procuratore aveva inoltre richiesto alla Camera preprocessuale di autorizzarlo ad aprire un'ulteriore indagine in Kenya. L'Icc ha chiamato a comparire, oltre al presidente sudanese, il capo di un gruppo armato del Darfur e ha emesso mandati d'arresto per un leader della milizia, per un funzionario governativo di alto profilo e per il presidente del Sudan, oltre che per i capi di gruppi armati operanti in Uganda, Repubblica Democratica del Congo e Repubblica Centrafricana. Si è trattato di passi avanti importanti per affermare il principio che tutti coloro che commettono crimini di guerra o crimini contro l'umanità devono essere chiamati a risponderne allo stesso modo, che siedano in un governo o appartengano ad altre forze.

Recentemente, il procuratore dell'Icc ha ampliato il raggio geografico d'azione del suo lavoro, avviando indagini preliminari su quattro situazioni al di fuori dell'Africa: Afghanistan, Colombia, Georgia e il conflitto di Gaza e del sud d'Israele del 2008-2009.

Il processo di ratifica progressiva dello Statuto di Roma dell'Icc (110 stati alla fine del 2009) ha dato il via a riforme legali a livello nazionale per conferire alle corti locali giurisdizione su crimini di diritto internazionale, tali da consentire di incriminare presunti autori di reati quando si trovano all'estero, nel caso in cui, e solo nel caso in cui, beneficino dell'impunità nel loro paese.

Nonostante alcuni passi indietro, registrati lo scorso anno, nello sviluppo di un sistema di giurisdizione universale, come l'appovazione in Spagna di una legge che restringe il suo ambito di applicazione, avvocati hanno avviato cause e alcune hanno registrato progressi presso i tribunali nazionali (nelle Americhe, in Europa e in Africa). In Sudafrica, a dicembre, due Organizzazioni non governative hanno contestato in tribunale la decisione delle autorità di non aprire un'indagine secondo la legge sulla giurisdizione universale del Sudafrica, in merito alle accuse di crimini contro l'umanità commessi in Zimbabwe da persone che era noto avessero visitato il Sudafrica.

Alla fine dell'anno, più di 40 stati, dal 1998, avevano emanato legislazioni per ribadire o ampliare la giurisdizione universale su crimini di diritto internazionale, contribuendo in questo modo a tappare una piccola parte della falla globale dell'impunità.

Queste indagini e questi procedimenti hanno trasformato il modo in cui i governi e l'opinione pubblica valutano i crimini di diritto internazionale. Sempre di più, questi casi sono visti per quello che sono: gravi reati che meritano di essere sottoposti a inchieste e processi, piuttosto che questioni politiche da risolvere per via diplomatica. Essendomi impegnato strenuamente, insieme ai miei colleghi, per assicurare alla giustizia l'ex presidente cileno Augusto Pinochet dopo il suo arresto a Londra nel 1998, sono particolarmente incoraggiato da questo cambio di prospettiva.

In tutta l'America Latina, tribunali e governi stanno riaprendo le indagini su crimini a lungo occultati dalle leggi di amnistia. Questi sviluppi mostrano come, persino a distanza di decenni, e nonostante numerose amnistie e provvedimenti d'impunità emanati per bloccare le inchieste, la società civile continua a lottare per buttare giù gli ostacoli alla verità, alla giustizia e alla riparazione.

Tra le molte sentenze che possono essere considerate pietre miliari, figura indubbiamente la condanna nell'aprile 2009 dell'ex presidente peruviano Alberto Fujimori, per crimini contro l'umanità. Questa ha dato un minimo di conforto alle famiglie di coloro che furono sequestrati, torturati e assassinati dalle squadre della morte in tre casi risalenti all'inizio degli anni Novanta. A ottobre, la Corte suprema dell'Uruguay ha stabilito che la legge d'amnistia prolungata alla fine degli anni Ottanta era nulla e priva di efficacia, in quanto non in linea con gli obblighi di diritto internazionale del paese. Alla fine dell'anno, in uno dei più importanti processi dopo il governo militare (1976-1983), i pubblici ministeri dell'Argentina hanno iniziato a presentare le prove a carico di 17 membri delle forze armate e della polizia accusati di torture, sparizioni forzate e omicidi all'interno della famigerata Scuola superiore di meccanica della Marina (Esma).

Nel 2009, la ricerca della giustizia è andata ben oltre l'America Latina. La Sierra Leone, per esempio, si è avvicinata alla riconciliazione col suo passato grazie alla conclusione di tutti i processi della Corte speciale per la Sierra Leone, tranne quello nei confronti dell'ex presidente della Liberia Charles Taylor, ancora in corso. In Asia, uno dei più truci comandanti dei khmer rossi è finalmente arrivato in un'aula di tribunale, per rispondere di crimini di guerra e crimini contro l'umanità commessi oltre 30 anni prima: Kaing Guek Eav, conosciuto anche come Duch, era il comandante dell'Ufficio per la sicurezza del carcere S-21, dove vennero torturate e uccise almeno 14.000 persone, tra l'aprile 1975 e il gennaio 1979. Si è trattato del primo processo celebrato dalle "Camere straordinarie dei tribunali della Cambogia", che in quanto tribunali temporanei devono lasciare il passo a un sistema giudiziario funzionante non appena possibile, ma che almeno permettono ai sopravvissuti di rendere note le loro sofferenze.

Anche gli stati potenti hanno scoperto che non sempre possono sfuggire alla giustizia. Mentre alcuni stati europei hanno agito blandamente sulle violazioni dei diritti umani nel contesto della "guerra al terrore" diretta dagli Usa, a novembre un tribunale italiano ha condannato 22 agenti della Cia, un funzionario dell'Air Force statunitense e due agenti dell'intelligence italiana per il loro coinvolgimento nel sequestro di Usama Mustafa Hassan Nasr (Abu Omar), avvenuto nel settembre 2003 a Milano. Abu Omar era stato trasferito in Egitto, attraverso una rendition, e qui detenuto in segreto per 14 mesi e, come da lui denunciato, sottoposto a torture. Il processo ha avuto luogo in larga parte grazie alla determinazione dell'ufficio della procura milanese nel far rispettare la legge e nonostante le pressioni del governo a chiudere il caso e il fatto che nessuno degli agenti Usa fosse mai stato arrestato né tantomeno fosse presente in aula.

L'esistenza dell'Icc ha portato una più seria attenzione persino in stati dove l'immunità avrebbe potuto essere garantita dalla mancanza formale di accettazione della giurisdizione della Corte.

Il Consiglio Onu dei diritti umani ha istituito una missione indipendente di accertamento dei fatti, presieduta dal giudice sudafricano Richard Goldstone (già Procuratore dei tribunali penali internazionali per il Ruanda e l'ex Jugoslavia) e chiamata a indagare sulle presunte violazioni durante i 22 giorni di conflitto a Gaza e nel sud d'Israele, terminati nel gennaio 2009. Il rapporto Goldstone è giunto a conclusioni analoghe a quelle delle missioni di ricerca di Amnesty International, e cioè che sia le forze israeliane, sia Hamas (e altri gruppi palestinesi) avevano commesso crimini di guerra e forse anche crimini contro l'umanità.

Il rapporto Goldstone, sottolineando che "la prolungata situazione d'impunità ha dato luogo a una crisi della giustizia", ha raccomandato che se le due parti non avessero svolto indagini e portato i responsabili davanti alla giustizia, il Consiglio di sicurezza avrebbe dovuto esercitare la sua autorità e deferire il caso all'Icc. Nel novembre 2009, l'Assemblea generale dell'Onu ha dato alla parte israeliana e a quella palestinese tre mesi di tempo per dimostrare di essere intenzionati ad aprire indagini in linea con gli standard del diritto internazionale.

Un esempio di risposta rapida della comunità internazionale è stato l'istituzione, da parte delle Nazioni Unite, di una Commissione d'inchiesta sui fatti del 29 settembre quando a Conakry, la capitale della Guinea, 150 persone sono state uccise e molte donne stuprate in pubblico da parte di uomini delle forze di sicurezza, intervenuti per reprimere brutalmente una manifestazione pacifica in corso nello stadio. A dicembre, l'inchiesta ha concluso che erano stati commessi crimini contro l'umanità e ha raccomandato di deferire il caso all'Icc, che ha avviato un esame preliminare.

Infine, gli ultimi 20 anni hanno visto una crescita esponenziale dei meccanismi di "giustizia transitoria", in molti paesi usciti da lunghi periodi di conflitto armato o di repressione politica e che hanno iniziato a fare i conti col loro passato, mediante differenti modelli di accertamento delle responsabilità. Nel corso del 2009, procedimenti di verità e riconciliazione e i loro aggiornamenti sono andati avanti in Liberia, Isole Salomone e Marocco/Sahara Occidentale.

Il Marocco è il solo paese dell'area Medio Oriente - Africa del Nord ad aver agito in questo modo, anche senza aver introdotto elementi di giustizia penale. Mentre ad Amnesty International raccoglievamo le informazioni utili per supportare questo processo, dopo decenni di ricerca su casi individuali, era chiaro a tutti noi che l'accertamento delle responsabilità debba andare di pari passo con quello della verità, se davvero si vuole ottenere una riconciliazione basata sulla giustizia.

La tentazione rimane quella di dire che "il passato è passato" ma l'esperienza ha dimostrato che consentire ai responsabili di "farla franca con gli omicidi" può condurre a una pace precaria e di breve durata.


          Blister Euroschiavi + Il Consapevole n. 8   

Rivista + LIBRO al prezzo speciale di 9,90 €

La Fabbrica del Terrorismo

11 settembre – Nuovo Ordine Mondiale

Al lupo! Al lupo!

Inventare allarmi terroristici per controllare l’opinione pubblica

di Michel Chossudovsky, professore di economia all’Università di Ottawa e direttore del Centro per la Ricerca sulla Gobalizzazione

Di quanti imminenti attacchi terroristici abbiamo sentito parlare nel corso degli ultimi anni?

Ripercorrere i casi di falso allarme, le circostanze e i momenti cruciali in cui si sono verificati, rende evidente il modo in cui l’opinione pubblica è stata costantemente distratta dagli eventi scioccanti e realmente importanti dello scenario internazionale. Nell’agosto 2006 l’attenzione dell’opinione pubblica mondiale è stata distolta alla gravissima situazione mediorientale utilizzando lo schema – ormai collaudato – dell’imminente attacco terroristico e della paura

11 settembre: fatto accadere di proposito

Le ragioni della tesi MIHOP, made in happened on pur pose

di Webster Tarpley, esperto mondiale di terrorismo internazionale ha diretto, è autore del libro “Synthetic Terror: Made in USA”, Progressive Press, Joshua Tree, 2005

La posizione MIHOP sostiene che gli eventi dell’11 settembre del 2001 sono una provocazione deliberata, fabbricata da una rete fuorilegge di alti ufficiali che infestano l’apparato militare e di sicurezza interna degli USA e della Gran Bretagna. Una rete che, in definitiva, è dominata dai finanzieri di Wall Street e della City di Londra

La Ribellione degli EuroSchiavi

Una riflessione pungente su debito pubblico, signoraggio e moneta virtuale

Il nuovo saggio economico-politico di Marco Della Luna, Euroschiavi, ha fatto centro. Ha venduto migliaia di copie con la prima edizione, ed è alla seconda, aggiornata e ampliata.

La tesi centrale del libro si può così riassumere: il sistema bancario privato, con la copertura dello Stato, ogni anno, attraverso le tasse e altri mezzi, defrauda i cittadini di centinaia di miliardi di Euro…

E ancora

La bandiera della Terra Santa

di Friedrich Hundertwasser

Perché siamo in Libano?

di Eduardo Zarelli

Costruiamo la nostra moneta… e liberiamola da inflazione e interesse

di Margrit Kennedy

Superfarmacia

Coop Italia: dalla filosofia “iper” alla vendita di medicinali da banco

di Monica Di Bari e Saverio Pipitone

Quante TAV in questo mondo?

Dalle navi da crociera a Dubai tutte le contraddizioni della filosofia “mega”

di Marco Cedolin

Prendi Jungo e vai

Come trasformare il traffico in una risorsa

di Enrico Gorini

Guarire dal cancro è possibile… se non usi la chemioterapia

di Giorgio Gustavo Rosso

Il parto in casa: una scelta di libertà

di Valerio Pignatta

illa Consapevole: nelle edicole delle maggiori città italiane

oppure direttamente a casa in abbonamento

Per maggiori informazioni

contattaci!

0547/347627

info@ilconsapevole.it

Le teoria del buonsenso

Per confutare la tesi ufficiale sull’11 settembre basta osservare i fatti con logica e spirito critico

Massimo Mazzucco – www.luogocomune.net

Quando tu sai che nessuno dei quattro dirottatori aveva mai pilotato un jet nella sua vita, ci arrivi da solo a capire che non bastano due sessioni in un simulatore qualunque – se mai ci sono davvero state – per permetterti di portare un aereo commerciale in giro per l'America, nel bel mezzo delle rotte più trafficate del mondo, senza più nessun aiuto da terra, senza commettere il minimo errore.

Quando vedi una Torre di 400 metri – quattrocento, signori, non quaranta –

autodistruggersi da sola, in poco più di dieci secondi, crollando tutta sulla propria pianta, mentre si disintegra in polvere finissima, non ci vuole nessuna laurea per capire che c'è qualcosa che non và. Se poi vedi che mezz'ora dopo la stessa identica cosa accade a una Torre simile, che fra l'altro è stata colpita in maniera completamente diversa, ci vogliono delle belle fette di salame sugli occhi per pensare che sia tutto normale. Gli edifici infatti, quando crollano da soli, non lo fanno in quel modo – dritti su sé stessi e dal primo all'ultimo piano, nessuno escluso – ma si inclinano su un lato, quel lato cede e si spezza, e il resto in qualche modo rimane lì a guardarti. E, attenzione, quando il pezzo superiore si inclina e comincia a cadere, poi continua a cadere, e lo fa finché non colpisce qualcosa che c'è intorno. Non si smaterializza nel nulla, come ha fatto il troncone superiore della Torre Sud, che è diventato polvere finissima prima ancora di toccare terra. Contro che cosa ha battuto, nel frattempo? Uno stormo invisibile di miscroscopici condor d'acciaio?

Quando vedi una parete del Pentagono che ha ancora 20 finestre intatte su 26, e di queste la maggioranza non ha nemmeno i vetri rotti, non ci vuole una specializzazione in fisica atomica per capire che forse non era un Boeing 757 quello che si è schiantato lì contro. E se proprio non sei convinto, basta che tu dia un'occhiata al prato sottostante, e vedrai che non c'è un solo pezzo che appartenga necessariamente ad un Boeing.

Quando vedi – e senti i pompieri che lo raccontano – pozze di metallo incandescente trovate alle basi delle Torri nel mese di novembre, e sai che sono cadute l'undici di settembre, dovrebbe essere chiaro a chiunque che il kerosene non ha questi magici poteri di combustione.

Allora, che cosa facciamo, di fronte a questo?

 

Leggi lo speciale sull’11 settembre su illa Consapevole numero 8!

 

NOVITA’ MACRO EDIZIONI

SCONOLGENTE, INOPPUGNABILE, DOCUMENTATISSIMO

 

11 SETTEMBRE 2001

Inganno globale

Tutto quello che le televisioni non ci hanno raccontato sui fatti di quel giorno

Libro + dvd in omaggio – € 11,90

di Massimo Mazzucco

Risultato di un’inchiesta rigorosamente basata su fatti ampiamente documentati, il libro e il film non propongono nessuna “teoria complottistica”, ma si limitano ad analizzare i molti lati oscuri della versione ufficiale che non sono mai stati chiariti da nessuno. Uno strumento indispensabile per chi vuole vederci chiaro, per chi vuole avere informazioni reali, non mediate o censurate, su quello che è accaduto a New York e sta continuando ad accadere quotidianamente nel mondo. Il terrorismo, sia fatto con le armi, la politica o l’informazione, oggi coinvolge tutti e chiama tutti a essere responsabili dei destini del mondo, interrompendo l’atteggiamento di chi “si volta dall’altra parte”.

Massimo Mazzucco, fotografo e regista, si dedica da anni alla ricerca e all’informazione in internet curando costantemente il sito luogocomune.net.

Buona accoglienza e interessanti sinergie per la I edizione di

I.E.S. SOSTENIBILITÀ – Itinerari Educativi per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile

Il progetto I.E.S. SOSTENIBILITA’ – Itinerari Educativi per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile è stato presentato all’annuale edizione del Salone JOB&Orienta, dedicato ai temi di scuola, formazione e lavoro, presso la Fiera di Verona dal 23 al 25 novembre. Promosso da Fondazione Culturale Responsabilità Etica (Gruppo Banca Etica) e ADESCOOP – Agenzia dell’Economia Sociale, con la collaborazione scientifica della Fondazione Lanza, ha esordito in uno spazio allestito di 240 mq, all’interno del quale hanno trovato spazio espositori interessati alla promozione della sostenibilità. L’area Conoscere Sostenibile ha visto aziende pubbliche e private, istituzioni e realtà del non profit mettere in mostra progetti innovativi e buone pratiche legate alla tutela ambientale, alla mobilità sostenibile, al commercio equo e solidale, all’agricoltura biologica, la bioarchitettura, le energie rinnovabili, il riciclo, l’ecoefficienza, la cooperazione allo sviluppo, i diritti umani, il consumo critico, il turismo responsabile, la finanza etica, l’interculturalità.

Giovani e adulti hanno partecipato agli appuntamenti culturali proposti nell’area Dialogare Sostenibile, dove esperti provenienti da vari settori si sono confrontati con insegnanti, cittadini e studenti su significato e modalità di attuazione dello sviluppo sostenibile. Buona anche la partecipazione ai laboratori dello spazio Fare Sostenibile, attraverso i quali sperimentare concretamente comportamenti sostenibili per un nuovo stile di vita. L’area non mancava infine di uno spazio dedicato all’editoria di settore, Comunicare Sostenibile, dove è stato possibile visionare decine di riviste accreditate, libri e altri prodotti editoriali che a vario titolo si occupano di sostenibilità.

 

La Commissione Nazionale Italiana dell’UNESCO ha riconosciuto I.E.S. SOSTENIBILITÀ come iniziativa che contribuisce a promuovere il Decennio dell’Educazione allo Sviluppo Sostenibile, proclamato dalle Nazioni Unite.


          Puerto Quequén con capacidad para operar buques de fertilizantes de 200 metros de eslora a 40 pies de calado   
  La estación marítima se posiciona como la puerta de ingreso de los fertilizantes a Argentina y Uruguay. Con el arribo del buque de bandera liberiana DRAGONGATE y su atraque en el Sitio 9/10 de la margen de Necochea, Puerto Quequén suma la aptitud de recibir, amarrar y descargar buques de fertilizantes de 200 metros […]
          African migrants are reaching Europe with tales of kidnap and torture in Libya   

Awa had traveled more than 2,000 miles from her home in Sierra Leone by the time she reached the Libyan desert.

She knew she was heading into danger, but it was too late to turn back. She got into a smuggler’s car with her two young children and teenage niece, and headed out into the imposing emptiness.

They had driven less than an hour when a group of armed men stopped their car.

“Our vehicle was attacked,” she says. “They ask you to pay money. If you don’t have it, they will not release you. They will punish you.”

Awa, 35, was taken to a migrant detention center in the capital Tripoli, where she says she was held for five months and subject to regular beatings until she was able to escape.

Now she is safe on the deck of a ship whose crew of humanitarian workers rescued her, along with hundreds of others, from the waters off the Libyan coast just 24 hours earlier. Everyone on board has a similar story of hell from their time passing through the country.

A torture archipelago

Over the past few years, Libya has become a “torture archipelago,” according to the International Organization for Migration. It is a place where migrants trying to reach Europe face the real prospect of being sold into slave markets, abuse, rape and detention.

Since the ouster of despot Col. Muammar Gaddafi in 2011, Libya has existed in a state of chaos and lawlessness. A fragile United Nations-backed government holds sway in Tripoli, but rival militias control the rest of the North African country’s coastline.

Abuse is rampant both in government-run facilities and in the secret dungeons of unaccountable militia groups. Smugglers have thrived in the absence of a central authority, packing increasingly unsafe boats with greater numbers of people.

The European Union has responded to the crisis by pouring money into the country, to boost its capacity for keeping migrants from reaching Europe. In February, EU leaders agreed to provide Libya’s UN-backed government with $215 million to disrupt smuggler networks and improve conditions at detention centers.

But rights groups have criticized the EU response, arguing that its actions will only create a bottleneck of migrants in a country in which they are likely to endure rights abuses.

Arjan Hehenkamp, the general director of Doctors Without Borders, has accused the EU of “misrepresenting the reality on the ground” with its plan.

“Libya is not a safe place and blocking people in the country or returning them to Libya makes a mockery of the EU’s so-called fundamental values of human dignity and rule of law,” he said.

Hundreds of people rescued in the Mediterranean Sea are wrapped in blankets and resting in all corners of Save the Children's ship.

Hundreds of people rescued in the Mediterranean Sea are wrapped in blankets and resting in all corners of Save the Children's ship.

Credit:

Richard Hall

On the Vos Hestia, a rescue ship run by Save the Children, hundreds of exhausted migrants are sprawled and huddled in whatever space they can find. The charity workers pulled them from unsafe and overloaded dinghies heading across the Mediterranean toward Europe. Some of the migrants had to be plucked from the water after their boats capsized.

The sea journey is deadly — more than 2,000 have died or gone missing in Mediterranean crossings so far this year. But even after their dramatic rescue from the water, the passengers of the Vos Hestia are consumed by what they endured in Libya.

Libya does not distinguish between migrants and asylum-seekers. A Gaddafi-era law stipulates that anyone arriving without a valid permit is detained and treated as a criminal.

Awa, the mother from Sierra Leone, only escaped after her captors let down their guard.

“They just forgot,” she says, sitting in the clinic on board the ship as it heads toward port in Italy.

“They left the door open, so I was able to escape. I ran into the streets and I don’t know anyone. So I began to run and run and run and came into an empty building with these kids. I don’t have anything with me.”

She was found by a local man, who brought her food and later took her to where the migrant boats left from.

“When we reached the seaside, he left me there. I see this boat, I see people enter, so I begged one man to take my baby. He took it and I climbed in. So this is how I find myself here.”

Awa’s husband fled Sierra Leone a year earlier for Germany, where he still lives. He took with him their two sons to avoid forced conscription into the powerful Sierra Leonean Poros Society. She followed him with her daughters, ages 1 and 4, fearing they would be subjected to female genital mutilation, which is part of the initiation for women.

“For us, we already went through it. We already know the effects. So I will not allow that for [the girls].”

“Libya is not safe for us blacks.”

Testimony from people on board the Vos Hestia and others who have survived the journey suggests that black Africans — both migrants and long-term residents — are being targeted on a massive scale in Libya.

An estimated 2.5 million sub-Saharan Africans came to Libya to work and study during Gaddafi’s reign. Some observers say racism toward black people in Libya grew under the leader’s 41-year rule.

When the Libyan revolution broke out in 2011, black Africans were targeted en masse. Rebel fighters accused them of being mercenaries hired by Gaddafi to quash the uprising, and they have faced discrimination and attacks ever since.

Migrants detained after trying to get to Europe wait in a detention camp in Gheryan, outside Tripoli, Libya

Migrants detained after trying to get to Europe wait in a detention camp in Gheryan, outside Tripoli, Libya, on Dec. 1, 2016.

Credit:

Hani Amara/Reuters

Jackson, 42, came from Liberia in June 2016 with the intention of traveling to Europe and was detained upon arrival. He lost two sisters in the country’s 2014 Ebola crisis, and his family never recovered. But what he found on the road was worse than he ever imagined.

“You don’t know what you have done or when you will come out,” he says. “Libya is not safe for us blacks. We don’t have any peace. It is like you are in a hole. You cannot communicate with your families. Our families don’t know where we are today.”

It is a story repeated from the deck to the bow of the boat.

Many who took the dangerous sea voyage had not arrived in Libya intending to travel on to Europe, but did so to escape from the conditions they faced in the country.

Prince, a 42-year-old man from Nigeria, had been in Libya for 10 years when clashes between rival militias broke out in the town where he lived. He was at the shop where he worked when he was abducted in the chaos of the clashes.

“They started shooting up and down. They were just picking up black people. They came into houses, pick you out, slash you, take your money, your phone, everything. They shot two people in front of me,” he says.

“They put a mask on my face and took me to the desert. They took everything and left me in the desert. They came again another time and put me in the boot [trunk of the car], and dropped me off at the deportation center.”

He faced horrific treatment at the hands of his captors.

“They use a hosepipe to beat you anyway they like, and if you die they drop you inside the desert,” he says.

The UN has described these centers as “inhumane” and called for the internationally recognized government in Tripoli to close them down.

Some officials in Libya have acknowledged problems with holding immigrants in the country. Hussein Thwardi, mayor of the busy departure city of Sabratha, Libya, told The New York Times that keeping migrants in the country is “dangerous” because Libya lacks the resources to deal with them. A spokesman of the UN-backed government, Jalal Othman, said to British newspaper the Independent that the country takes abuse accusations very seriously. "We condemn all mistreatment of migrants without reservation. While we have to be realistic about the state's current law-enforcement capacity, action will be taken wherever possible against those who break the law," Othman said.

Push or pull?

The well-documented danger migrants face in Libya is central to the debate over how critics say the EU should address the current crisis.

Rights groups accuse the EU of putting lives at risk in an effort to stem immigration — from cutting its search and rescue missions in 2014, to its policy of pushing responsibility for rescues over to the Libyan coast guard, and therefore putting migrants into the hands of the Libyan authorities.

Critics argue that these policies are rooted in trying to address the “pull factors” — the things that might attract someone to take a boat to Europe. The idea that they will be rescued and taken to Europe if they just manage to get on a boat is one example.

Migrants on a boat after being detained at a Libyan navy base in Tripoli.

Migrants on a boat after being detained at a Libyan navy base in Tripoli.

Credit:

Hani Amara/Reuters

But the evidence suggests that rising deaths in the Mediterranean hasn’t stopped people from coming. There was a 33 percent increase in people taking the Libya-Italy route from January through April, compared to the same period in 2016 — a year of record fatalities.

Rights groups say it is in fact the “push factors” that are forcing people to take the deadly journey — war, poverty, famine and disease in their own countries, and the horrific conditions inside Libya.

Rob MacGillivray, Save the Children’s search and rescue director, said European states should focus on supporting Italy’s migrant relief efforts and address the problems across Africa that are causing migration.

“Saving lives — not border control — should be the overriding priority. Until the EU provides safe and legal routes to Europe, both for those in need of international protection and for other migrants, which ensure human rights and respect dignity, people will continue to risk their lives to reach Europe,” MacGillivray says.

“A long-term plan to tackle the root causes of unsafe and forced migration must also be established by increasing development aid for poor countries and working to end violence and persecution in their countries of origin.”

The EU says part of its plan aims to make the home countries of people trying to reach Europe safer. A $2.1 billion Africa Trust Fund agreed by the EU in 2015 was supposed to target countries from or through which migrants are departing: among them Nigeria, Niger, Mali, Ethiopia and Senegal.

That is a long-term plan. Aid workers on board the ships that patrol a frequent rescue zone off Libya’s coast say that without their presence, the Mediterranean Sea would be a graveyard.

The vast majority of those on board the Vos Hestia say were being pushed toward Europe. Many had no concept of how far or dangerous the journey would be. They knew only where they would depart, before they were pointed in the direction of Italy and told to steer straight.

Asked what he would tell his fellow Nigerians who were thinking of making the same trip he did, Prince replied: “They should not try it. It is hell.”

Full names and other details of interviewees and their journeys have been withheld at their request.


          Re: Sex tourism in Gambia...   
From www gvnet.com I transfer the fllowing passage.

Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery

The Gambia is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Within The Gambia, women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are trafficked for sexual exploitation, in particular to meet the demand for European sex tourism, and for domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked within the country for forced begging by religious teachers and for street vending. Transnationally, women, girls and boys from neighboring countries are trafficked to The Gambia for the same purposes listed above. Primary source countries are Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Benin. Trafficking of Gambian boys to Senegal for forced begging and Senegalese boys to The Gambia for the same purpose is particularly prevalent. Gambian women and girls are trafficked to Senegal for domestic servitude, and possibly for sexual exploitation. Gambian women and children may be trafficked to Europe through trafficking schemes disguised as migrant smuggling. Reports in the last two years of Gambian, Senegalese, and nationals of other neighboring countries being transported from The Gambia to Spain by boat appear to be predominantly cases of smuggling rather than trafficking. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2008 [
          For sale - rare nike air pegasus 31 wings glow in dark black... - $52   

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          Re: Sex tourism in Gambia...   
From www gvnet.com I transfer the fllowing passage.

Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery

The Gambia is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Within The Gambia, women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are trafficked for sexual exploitation, in particular to meet the demand for European sex tourism, and for domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked within the country for forced begging by religious teachers and for street vending. Transnationally, women, girls and boys from neighboring countries are trafficked to The Gambia for the same purposes listed above. Primary source countries are Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Benin. Trafficking of Gambian boys to Senegal for forced begging and Senegalese boys to The Gambia for the same purpose is particularly prevalent. Gambian women and girls are trafficked to Senegal for domestic servitude, and possibly for sexual exploitation. Gambian women and children may be trafficked to Europe through trafficking schemes disguised as migrant smuggling. Reports in the last two years of Gambian, Senegalese, and nationals of other neighboring countries being transported from The Gambia to Spain by boat appear to be predominantly cases of smuggling rather than trafficking. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2008 [
          VP of Corporate Finance & FP&A - India-Hyderabad   
******* is the world’s largest and fastest-growing chain of primary and preprimary schools with more than 500 academies and 100,000 pupils in Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, India, and Liberia. We democra...
          Will Greta Van Susteren Return to Fox News or CNN?   

Greta Van Susteren’s announcement that she and MSNBC were parting ways after her six-month stint as host of “For the Record with Greta” was received with disappointment from her colleagues and fans alike, many whom asked what was the next stop on her career path.

Back to Fox News, where she hosted “On the Record w/ Greta Van Susteren” for 15 years? Not likely. As she told her Twitter followers, “I had a clause in my contract that permitted me to [walk away] within a certain time frame and the end time had approached.” She added, “It is really odd for me to look back to exactly one year ago and how different our lives at Fox were from right now.”

Then maybe a return to CNN, where she was a legal analyst co-hosting “Burden of Proof” alongside Roger Cossack? Nope. “I just don’t see that happening…I don’t see them interested in me or me interested in them.”

Van Susteren isn’t looking back but instead forward, calling herself “just an average Jane anchor” looking for facts wherever they may be. She has a book coming out November 14 about social media and is excited about an app in the works, which she says, is all goes as planned, will be available sometime this summer. In the meantime, she’s stepping back and getting a new perspective of the news industry.

“Right now the news environment is quite chaotic,” she wrote. “It has occurred to me w/all fighting in the media/politics right now that this may be a good time to take a break and watch from sidelines. … And frankly there are so many exciting things to do besides tv news …I am determined to succeed on this project https://www.gofundme.com/ct-Liberia.”

Van Susteren is fresh off the success of a Go Fund Me campaign that helped a young Liberian man get life-saving surgery to remove tumors that filled his skull, disfigured him and was destroying eyesight. She is now reaching out in hopes of raising money to send Liberia a CT scan so doctors and diagnose patients earlier.

Meanwhile, she tells her concerned fans, “Don’t feel sorry for me, I am fine. Feel sorry for someone who loses a job and has no savings and no options.” And for the trolls out there who cheered about her MSNBC exit, she simply says:

Insult received. You win. Now help me with this gofundme.com/ct-Liberia.”

Related stories from TheWrap:

Greta Van Susteren Parts Ways With MSNBC

Ex-Fox News Host Greta Van Susteren Lands at Rival MSNBC

Greta Van Susteren Slams Fox Execs Who Didn't 'Supervise' Roger Ailes

Is Greta Van Susteren's Exit the Start of a Crack-up for No 1-Rated Fox News?

Greta Van Susteren Explains Why She Quit Fox News


          LIBERIA   
West Africa, Malta and the Balkans in 1999 [...]
          Odds and ends   


  • The Alan Gross case has provoked a lot of discussion for nearly five years, but until this new star of the Cuban opposition movement came along, it didn’t occur to anyone that Mr. Gross’ precarious health is apt for ridicule. Yesterday, “Let Alan rot!” And later, a joke on Twitter: “Alan Gross will be taken soon from Cuba to Africa to fight Ebola: if he survives, he'll be free. If he dies, USAID will take him to U.S.” If you set out to discredit the opposition movement from within, could you do any better?
  • VOA: Cuban doctors practicing in U.S.-built hospitals in Liberia. Wait ‘til the Helms-Burton purists get on this one…
  • Speaking of Helms-Burton, the President of Bacardi (!) talks about investing and doing business in Cuba when the embargo is lifted, without mentioning the law’s myriad conditions.
  • El Nuevo Herald: In Miami, dissident Guillermo Farinas talks about the state of the opposition movement, the parts he views as legitimate and not, and he tells of his fear for his life. He also says, without naming names, that someone in Miami tried to buy him off and did the same with Oswaldo Paya years ago. Paya’s widow says it isn’t true. Farinas came to Miami to attend a workshop on human rights and nonviolent action.
  • A top USAID official slamsthe Times for failing to note Cuba’s responsibility for jailing Alan Gross. Don’t hold your breath waiting for USAID to admit responsibility for sending him into a predictable disaster.
  • Aron Modig, the Swede who was in the car in which Oswaldo Paya was killed, slept through the whole thing, and remembers nothing, is now a member of Parliament. The Herald recently asked the driver, Angel Carromero, about Modig; Carromero said: “There were times when he was asleep but he was the copilot. If he chose to remain quiet and turn the page, well I don’t share in that sentiment. I respect it but I’ve chosen a more complicated road and one with worse consequences for me but I couldn’t stay silent.”

          Aid brought Liberia back from the brink   

DRIVING through the Liberian countryside, on a rare paved highway, two kinds of roadside sign catch the eye. One advertises local Protestant churches. The other sort advertises the splendid work done by aid agencies. USAID, the European Union, Japan’s development agency and others take credit for this youth programme or that forest rehabilitation scheme. An unscientific survey suggests that the Americans are winning the battle of the boards. But USAID does not command Liberia’s prime location. The capitol building in Monrovia, which is being enlarged, is plastered with China Aid signs.

It is barely disputable that this small west African country might need financial help. Always poor, Liberia was pulverised by civil wars between 1989 and 2003 that obliterated as much as 90% of the economy—a shock almost without parallel (see chart 1). It remains the world’s fourth- or fifth-poorest country, and the poorest one with a solid government. In 2014 half of all households ran short of food...


          Liberia: Commuters Stranded   
[NEWS] Hundreds of commuters are stranded at Tempo River Bridge, which connects Grand Bassa and Rivercess counties. Portion of the bridge collapsed recently.
          Liberia: House Passes Vocational Training Act for River Gee   
[New Dawn] The House of Representatives has passed an act establishing a Vocational and Technical Training Institute in Fish Town, River Gee County. n a report from the Committee on Education and Public Administration, the committee says it has observed that about 60 percent of the young people in the rural parts of Liberia including River Gee County do not enjoy a stronger job creation mechanism.
          Liberia: LRA Appreciates Taxpayers Saturday   
[New Dawn] The Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA) will observe Saturday, July 1, 2017as Taxpayers Appreciation Day at the Monrovia City Hall.July 1, henceforth, known as LRA Day, commemorates the date on which the LRA officially began operations here in 2014.
          Liberia: The Crucifixion of Liberianization - Why Give a Whopping 30-Year Tax Break to a Lebanese-Owned Hotel?   
[NEWS] In a bid to be re-elected in 2011, Africa's first female President signed an official contract with all Liberians through a solemn pledge consisting of twenty promises. As part of those 20 promises, these were Madam Sirleaf's words to all Liberian voters during the campaign period in 2011:
          Liberia: Smuggled' Vehicles Seized   
[NEWS] The Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA), through its Anti-Smuggling and Intelligence Unit (ASIU) has seized two vehicles that were smuggled into the country through the Free Port of Monrovia.
           New Stakes and Stake Presidencies Announced in June 2017    

AMERICAN FORK UTAH NORTH STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Jeffrey Harry Abram, 52, physician assistant; succeeding Stephen M. Jones; wife, Jean Renee Melton Abram. Counselors—Norman William Gardner, 51, curriculum writer, seminaries and institutes of religion, LDS Church; wife, Natalie Jean Yardley Gardner. Samuel Gunn Beeson, 45, teacher; wife, Sarah Lyn Worden Beeson.HENDERSON NEVADA ELDORADO STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Steven Leigh Morris, 46, attorney; succeeding Russell T. Peterson; wife, Lisa Christine Ricks Morris. Counselors—Steven Glade Walton, 54, pilot, Grand Canyon Airlines; wife, Darlene Louise Smith Walton. Steven Wayne Killian, 47, division chief financial officer; wife, Wendy Revill Killian.BARRANQUILLA COLOMBIA EL CARMEN STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Luis Enrique Jimenez Lopez, 42, coordinator, Ufinet Colombia; succeeding Yuri Z. Gil Toro; wife, Iisis Maria Bonett Arrieta. Counselors—Armando Ignacio Cuberos Delaytz, 54, commercial director, Tu Sim Distribution; wife, Yajaira Del Duca Osorio. Jeffrey Andres Viloria Arcon, 29, treasurer, Coopmulvital; wife, Loraine De Moya Noriega.PORT HARCOURT NIGERIA NORTH STAKE (November 27, 2016): President—Fredrick Ndah Igweh, 43, manager, Hadex Computers; wife, Evelyn Maluk Benjamin. Counselors—Sancho Nwobuisi Chukwu, 51, lecturer; wife, Victoria Chizia Wikpe Chukwu. Obiesia Lucky John-Jaja, 35, administrative officer, Rivers State Government; wife, Blessing Aimienroubiye Ekhuborohan.LAS VEGAS NEVADA BLUE DIAMOND STAKE (January 8, 2017): President—David Vance Walker, 60, CFO, Elan Office Systems; wife, Peggy Ann Zobrist Walker. Counselors—Joshua Ryan Dobbins, 39, CFO, Brady Industries; wife, Alicia Lynn Nobbs Dobbins. William David Rencher, 54, director of operations, University of Nevada School of Medicine; wife, Janet Colleen Morriss Rencher.LA CEIBA HONDURAS MIRAMAR STAKE (December 4, 2016): President—Ricardo Antonio Diaz Alcerro, 47, branch manager, BAC Honduras; wife, Olga Raquel Cáceres Galindo. Counselors—Fabricio René Lozano Guerrero, 42, manager, Seaffi; wife, Rossana Martinez Rivera; Milton Enrique Howell Matute, 41, owner, Inversiones Diversas Sión; wife, Zulma Janneth Murillo Padilla.BUENA VISTA VIRGINIA YSA STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—Scott Young Doxey, 55, managing director of student life, Knod; succeeding W. Todd Brotherson; wife, Annelle Olsen Doxey. Counselors—David Allen Moss, 52, institute director, LDS Church; wife, Heidi Lee Slack Moss. William Douglas Braddy, 52, director of institutional advisment, Southern Virginia University; wife, Elizabeth Turner Weaver Braddy.HOLLADAY UTAH YSA STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Bruce Young Newton, 55, physician; succeeding J. Scott Featherson; wife, Julie Sloan Newton. Counselors—Benson Lewis Hathaway Jr., 60, lawyer; wife, Laurie Swenson Hathaway. Robert Thatcher Gardiner, 52, CEO, Grandeur Peak Global; wife, Susanne Maria Barth Gardiner.TEGULCIGALPA HONDURAS ROBLE WEST STAKE (January 29, 2017): President—Alberto Elías Sierra Zeitun, 39, seminaries and institutes coordinator, LDS Church; wife, Gina Rebeca Ocampo Sierra. Counselors—Nahún Antonio García Pérez, 35, meterologist; wife, Vivian Marlene Valladares García. Luis Armando Gallo Ríos, 35, record assistant, Tegucigalpa Honduras Temple; wife, Vanessa Jaqueline Aceituno Gallo.A new stake has been created from the Tegucigalpa Honduras Loarque Stake. The Tegucigalpa Honduras Roble West Stake, which consists of the Jardines de Toncontín, Las Amerícas, Las Casitas, Pedregal, Roble Oeste, and Villeda wards, was created by Elder Kevin R. Duncan, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Sam M. Galvez, an Area Seventy.POMALCA PERU STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—Ronald Alejandro Sánchez Castañeda, 67, retired; succeeding Anibal Vasquez Sanchez; wife, Martha Maritza Mantilla Villar. Counselors—Segundo Adolfo Gamonal Torres, 50, construction foreman; wife, Rosana Guevara Tinoco. Isaías Víctor Ignacio Valcarcel, 45, payment collector, Avvon; wife, Mirian del Pilar Flores Cotrina.FAIRBANKS ALASKA STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—James Ryan Boland, 40, manager, Social Security Administration; succeeding Shane R. Duval; wife, Jennifer Ruth Mealey Boland. Counselor—Daniel Fielding Reynolds, 43, physician; wife, Christie Lee Baird Reynolds. Jeffrey Dirk May, 41, faculty, University of Alaska; wife, Lora Dawn Fleming May.KATOKA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO STAKE (December 13, 2015): President—Ngindu François Ngindu, 43, contractor, Liahona Development; wife, Ndomba Rosalie Ngindu. Counselors—Tshipangu Katende Alphonse, 57, head of division, Congolese State; wife, Mpianga Beatrice Nyemba. Biduaya Moise Mutafua, 47, judicial inspector, Congolese State; wife, Ngondo Aline Mykenge.OAK HARBOR WASHINGTON STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Randall D. Dickson, 48, high school teacher; wife, Lisa Paige Dickson. Counselors—William Francis Weaver, 66, CEO, Canyon Creek Cabinet Company; wife, Elaine Janet Hogg Weaver. Jason Gregory Hogge, 42, family physician; wife, Bobbilyn K. Hogge.A new stake has been created from the Monrovia Liberia district. The Monrovia Liberia Stake, which consists of the Congo Town 1st Branch and the Central Monrovia, Congo Town 2nd, Doe Community, Matadi, and Sinkor wards, was created by Elder Marcus B. Nash, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Anthony Quaisie, an Area Seventy.ARIZONA FLAGSTAFF EAST STAKE (May 7, 2017): President—Leslie Davis Seaman, 62, dentist; wife, Linda Marie Frost Seaman. Counselors—Terrance Richard Rice, 63, service coordinator, Goodman Electric; wife, Sandra Eileen Ethington Rice. Samuel Wayne Fisher, 55, senior manager, Hinton Burdick PLLC; wife, Jolene Hansen Fisher.CARMICHAEL CALIFORNIA STAKE (May 7, 2017): President—Todd Lewis Johnson, 47, dentist; succeeding Stephen B. Taylor; wife, Rachel Elizabeth Bringhurst Johnson. Counselors—Michael Ray Childs, 49, surgeon; wife, Kristin Leigh Trump Childs. Scott Michael Wigginton, 64, general internal medicine; wife, Laura Sue Newton Wigginton.EDMONTON ALBERTA BONNIE DOON STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—Kevin Grant Hatch, 46, therapist, LDS Family Services; succeeding Robert W. Mendenhall; wife, Katherine Beth Burgess. Counselors—Jamie Calvin Stewart, 56, learning consultant, University of Alberta; wife, Melonee Gaegh McGuire Stewart. Paul Douglas Greep, 41, lawyer; wife, Holly Janine Anderson Greep.SANDY UTAH HIDDEN VALLEY STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Charles Louis Cutler, 53, principal/partner, The Insight Group; succeeding L. Todd Budge; wife, Michelle Maxfield Cutler. Counselors—Joseph J. Joyce, 58, attorney; wife, Leslie Susan Taylor Joyce. Douglas Kenneth Smart, 55, owner, Smart Millworks; wife, Koni Kae Esplin Smart.CANDON PHILIPPINES STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Dante de Guzman Dacquel, 37, statistical analyst; succeeding Rodel T. Adviento; wife, Luzyiminda Camposo Sere Dacquel. Counselors—Edvardson Arellano Tacuban, 47, owner, FAF Computing Solution; wife, Normita Divina Sangalang Tacuban. Jessie Daniel, 49, maintenance personnel, Babia BMS; wife, Rubina Ellorin De la Cruz.A new stake has been created from the Kananga Democratic Republic of the Congo Stake. The Katoka Democratic Republic of the Congo Stake, which consists of the Ndesha 3rd Branch and the Katoka 1st, Katoka 2nd, Katoka 3rd, Malandji, Ndesha 1st, Ndesha 2nd, and Tsisuabantu wards, was created by Elder Kevin S. Hamilton, General Authority Seventy, and Elder L. Jean Claude Mabaya, an Area Seventy.PLEASANT GROVE UTAH GARDEN STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Brian Wayne Morgan, 40, owner-agent, Farmers Insurance; succeeding Brian D. Bowen; wife, Holly Anna Barbakos Morgan. Counselors—Samuel Robert Lee, 43, program manager, Utah Department of Health; wife, Valerie Adams Lee. Michiel Morse Anderson II, 52, chief software architect, Security Metrics; wife, Kelly Sue Heaps Anderson.NAIROBI KENYA WEST STAKE (March 20, 2016): President—George Katembo Njogu Munene, 40, managing consultant, Sabeo Technologies; wife, Sarah Anintter Abunge Kocko Katembo. Counselors—Prince Henry Omondi, 43, seminaries and institutes coordinator, LDS Church; wife, Linda Akingi Omondi Arigi. Darius Nyariki Mobe, 39, business developer, Lelgoi Group; wife, Mesgana Tamru Assefa.MONTPELIER IDAHO STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Steven Dilworth Hammond, 48, dentist; succeeding Darin S. Dransfield; wife, Julie Anne Scott Hammond. Counselors—Reed Parley Peterson, 70, retired; wife, Ralonna Lee Furniss Peterson. Luke Malcolm Kelsey, 45, principal; wife, Angela Lynn Johnson Kelsey.FESITRANH HONDURAS STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Luis Gerardo Mineros Jácome, 39, manager, Hanes Brand Inc.; succeeding Jose Hernandez; wife, Verónica Raquel Medina Alas. Counselors—Harold Exequiel Padilla Paniagua, 31, mechanic; wife, María Sagrario Gamez Amaya. Victor Manuel Herrera Moncada, 30, engineer; wife, Cybill Ivana Palacios Jiménez.BUCARAMANGA COLOMBIA TERRAZAS STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—Edinson Jesus Parra Hernandez, 43, accounting assistant; succeeding Simon Sandoval Quintero; wife, Marisol Chavez Lopez. Counselors—Edinson Andres Alfonso Alfonso, 29, tax reviewer; wife, Blanca Luz Claro Arevalo. Mario Alberto Mantilla Vargas, 53, operations consultant, ITAU Bank; wife, Dorys Yaneth Forero.A new stake has been created from the Port Harcourt Nigeria East and the Port Harcourt Nigeria West stakes. The Port Harcourt Nigeria North Stake, which consists of the Isiodu and Rumuji branches and the Choba, Emohua, Eneka, Igwuruta, Omoku, Rukpokwu, and Rumuodumaya wards, was created by Elder Marcus B. Nash, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Declan O. Madu, an Area Seventy.CONROE TEXAS STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Robert Maurice Goodman, Jr., 58, general manager, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co.; wife, Sharon Hill Goodman. Counselors—Wayne Lawrence Johns, 60, senior specialist representative; wife, Debra Rae White Johns. Russell Lynn Carruth, 65, founder, T S Upset and Thread; wife, Laura Craig Tuffli Carruth.SYDNEY AUSTRALIA PRAIRIEWOOD STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Andrew John Manousso, 38, learning and development officer, Department of Corrective Services; succeeding Andrew G. Shum; wife, Maria Karamell Schwenke Manousso. Counselors—Maunaloa Faivakimoana, 54, driver, TNT Express Australia; wife, Siu Ite Vava Taufa Faivakimoana. Ephraim Quentin Katieli, 35, corrective service officer, NSW; wife, Iemaima Katieli.A new stake has been created from the La Ceiba Honduras Stake. The La Ceiba Honduras Miramar Stake, which consists of the La Másica Branch and the Buenos Aires, El Confite, Las Colinas, Miramar, and Montecristo wards, was created by Elder José L. Alonso, General Authority Seventy, and Elder A. Moroni Pérez, an Area Seventy.LIMA PERU VILLA SALVADOR STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Martin Roberto Tello Sotil, 45, teacher; succeeding Lorenzo Morocho Castillo; wife, Isabel Cristina Vasquez Jimenez. Counselors—Elebi Tocto Soberon, 42, cook; wife, Hermelinda Jara Casazola. Walter Cesar Salazar Marcelo, 45, commercial consultant; wife, Delia Zapata Castillo.DRIGGS IDAHO STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Stanton Lee Marshall, 42, president and CEO, Headwaters Construction; succeeding Ryan M. Kunz; wife, Connie Browning Marshall. Counselors—Zane Myron Calderwood, 57, seminary principal, LDS Church; wife, Betsy Green Calderwood. Wade L. Treasure, 57, application programming director, Acclara Solutions; wife, Trudy Louise Green Treasure.RENO NEVADA NORTH STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—David Dean Baggett, 47, owner, North Hills Vet Clinic; succeeding Ren S. Johnson; wife, Kenya Bogart Baggett. Counselors—Bryce Leland Rader, 45, lawyer; wife, Rebecca Lynn Bjornson Rader. Justin Martin Krum, 42, software engineer; wife, Kjerstina Vail Murphy Krum.CATARMAN PHILIPPINES STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Amado Ebdane Estonanto Jr., 43, resetter, Arcos; succeeding Jimmy D. Pedrola; wife, Melina Lectana Madronio Estonanto. Counselors—Milben Balberan Corsino, 38, teacher; wife, Lilia Tiballa Dalupan Corsino. Oliver Dapulag Capangpangan, 38, teacher; wife, Luzviminda Eulin Galaroza Capangpangan.NEW YORK NEW YORK STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—Colin Lawrence Cropper, 44, managing director, RBC Capital Markets; succeeding Yoshiya Yamada; wife, Julie Burningham Cropper. Counselors—Norman Lajean Merritt Jr., 46, entrepreneur; wife, Armenay Faye Ouzounian Merritt. Richard Adam Lindsay, 39, founder, Powell Anderson Capital Partners; wife, Katherine Skidmore Daines Lindsay.MEXICO CITY TLALNEPANTLA MEXICO STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Guillermo Xan Tinoco Ramirez, 39, logistics manager, Monopark; succeeding Kylar G. Dominguez Zuleta; wife, Karen Gallegos Garcia. Counselors—Carlos Aguilar Alvarez, 56, English teacher; wife, Sandra Angelica Aguilar Arias. Ernesto Vazquez Patino, 39, sales, Calzado Kompressor; wife, Claudia Ivone Segura Gonzalez.ACCRA GHANA CHRISTIANSBORG STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—Dennis Kabuetteh Ocansey, 36, regional facilities manager, LDS Church; succeeding Anthony Quaisie; wife, Rita Darianaah Ocansey. Counselors—Ernest Gyampoh, 31, administrative assistant, LDS Church; wife, Sarah Eshun. Augustine Gyawu Adjei, 30, senior software engineer, SMS GH; wife, Susuan Aiswei Adjei.A new stake has been created from the Mount Vernon Washington and Everett Washington stakes. The Oak Harbor Washington Stake, which consists of the Eastsound, Friday Harbor and Lopez branches and the Anacortes, Mount Erie, Mount Vernon YSA, Oak Harbor 1st, Oak Harbor 2nd, Penn Cove, and South Whidbey Island wards, was created by Elder Mervyn B. Arnold, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Michael R. Murray, an Area Seventy.KUMAMOTO JAPAN STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Taizo Takahashi, 62, director, Aoba Hospital; succeeding Akitomo Fujita; wife, Miharu Takahashi. Counselors—Wataru Shibata, 58, subsection chief, Kirii Construction Materials Co., Ltd.; wife, Yuko Shibata. Norihiko Semba, 37, employed at Recruit R & D Staffing Co., Ltd.; wife, Mari Fukumoto Semba.OREM UTAH LAKEVIEW STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Steven Morris Glover, 53, professor and associate dean, Brigham Young University; succeeding Brent W. Roberts; wife, Tina Rene Hickman Glover. Counselors—Gary Ray Broderick, 58, owner, Broderick & Henderson Construction; wife, Rebecca Maree Downy Broderick. Daniel Joseph Van Cott, 48, real-estate developer; wife, Emily Morrey Van Cott.MOUNT VERNON WASHINGTON STAKE (April 23, 2017): President—David Alan Flake, 49, seminaries and institutes coordinator, LDS Church; succeeding Randal D. Dickson; wife, Sherilyn Flake. Counselors—Justin Lee Wright, 39, physician; wife, Kellyanne Wright. Benjamin Reynolds McKay, software architect; wife, Jennifer Elizabeth Frazier McKay.PORTSMOUTH ENGLAND STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—James Edward Robert Grant, 41, consulting orthodontist; succeeding Mark A. Gilmour; wife, Alison Ruth Tango Grant. Counselors—Steven Mark Taylor, 30, consultant, PA Consulting; wife, Ashton Brynn Curgenven Taylor. Lee Wendel Wilkey, 56, consultant; wife, Julia Miriam Grice Wilkey.Reorganized stakesA new stake has been created from the College Station Texas, Spring Texas, and The Woodlands Texas stakes. The Conroe Texas Stake, which consists of the Crockett, Heritage YSA, Huntsville 2nd, and Madisonville branches and the Conroe 1st, Conroe 2nd, Crighton, Huntsville 1st, and Montgomery wards, was created by Elder Bradley D. Foster, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Raymond S. Heyman, an Area Seventy.MONROVIA LIBERIA STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Augustine Sallyboy Geedeh, 34, teacher; wife, Rose Handful Geedeh. Counselors—Emmanuel Sokan Tarpeh, 46, MLU Analyst, LDS Church; wife, Silime Brandy Nyepan Tarpeh. Franklin Amoh Kemokai, 34, visa consular, Embassy of Egypt; wife, Kaisandra Maibel Gray Kemdkai.MEXICO CITY PANTITLÁN STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Mario Alberto García Salas, 39, distributor; succeeding Ricardo Terron Piña; wife, Xochitl Campa Pérez. Counselors—Mario Rosales Valdez, 29, technical support; wife, Joana Lizbeth Sandoval Olivera. Silverio Ortiz Bernal, 47, sales representative; wife, Margarita De la Chica León.EPHRAIM YSA 1ST STAKE (April 16, 2017): President—Ryan Wells Robison, 47, chief nursing officer, Intermountain Hospital; succeeding Tomas F. Bailey; wife, Paula Sue Walker Robison. Counselors—Matthew Dean Mitchell, 46, purchasing and shipping manager, CO Building Systems; wife, Sarah Lynn Brinkerhoff Mitchell. Gary Monroe Cole, 49, physician; wife, Shawna Ripplinger Cole.PROVO UTAH MARRIED STUDENT 3RD STAKE (Feb 19, 2017): President—Gale Joseph Skousen, 56, physician; succeeding Kenneth J. Swenson; wife, Theresa Denise Packard Skousen. Counselors—Dale C. Allred, 61, vice president of operations, Cornaby’s LLC; wife, DeVonne Allred. Sam Joel Coates, 58, psychiatrist; wife, Marina Less Daniel Coates.A new stake has been created from the Las Vegas Nevada South Stake. The Las Vegas Nevada Blue Diamond Stake, which consists of the Charleston Park, Coronado, Desert Hill, Homestead, Manse Springs, Painted Mountain, Sierra Vista, and Southern Hills wards, was created by Elder Kevin W. Pearson, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Todd S. Larkin, an Area Seventy.SALINA KANSAS STAKE (April 9, 2017): President—Glade LeGrand Topham, 43, associate professor, Kansas State University; succeeding Sterling G. Knapp; wife, Rebecca Dawn Techmeyer Topham. Counselors—Bret Allen Somers, 59, teacher; wife, Juana Juliata Hernandez Somers. John Russell Ruberson, 58, professor, Kanas State University; wife, Mary Lucia Hyde Ruberson.A new stake has been created from the Arizona Flagstaff Stake. The Arizona Flagstaff East Stake, which consists of the Sawmill Branch and the Flagstaff YSA 1st, Linda Vista, Mount Elden, Switzer Canyon, and Walnut Canyon wards, was created by Elder Larry J. Echo Hawk, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Maxsimo C. Torres, an Area Seventy.CARDSTON ALBERTA WEST STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Michael James Ferguson, 48, registered nurse; succeeding D. Brian Low; wife, Delia Joanne Ferguson. Counselors—Robert Douglas Quinton, 50, painter; wife, Renee Marie Leavitt Quinton. Austin John Nunn, 43, principal, Cardston High School; wife, Kaylynn Waite Nunn.A new stake has been created from the Nairobi Kenya Stake. The Nairobi Kenya West Stake, which consists of the Kitengela and Langata branches and the Athi River, Mountain View, Ongata Rongai, Riruta, and Upper Hill wards, was created by Elder Carl B. Cook, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Daniel P. Hall, an Area Seventy.A new stake has been created from the St. George Utah Washington Fields Stake. The St. George Utah Washington Fields North Stake, which consists of the Washington Fields 5th, Washington Fields 9th, Washington Fields 11th, Washington Fields 12th, Washington Fields 13th, Washington Fields 14th, and Washington Fields 15th wards, was created by Elder Randall K. Bennett, General Authority Seventy, and Elder Eric J. Schmutz, an Area Seventy.New stakesST. GEORGE UTAH WASHINGTON FIELDS NORTH STAKE (January 29, 2017): President—Spencer Richards Swift, 39, owner, Boulevard Motors; wife, Katrina Mariea Cox Swift. Counselors—Steven Eugene Swinson, 50, owner, Hydrologistics; wife, Yvonne Leigh Wells Swinson. Burkely Ralph Staheli, 54, elementary principal, Washington County School District; wife, Lonette Rasband Staheli.ANTIOCH CALIFORNIA STAKE (April 30, 2017): President—Joseph Robert Daynes, 51, president, Mercer; succeeding Paul A. Westover; wife, Susan Hollingshaus Daynes. Counselors—David William Hull, 51, regional vice president, Bosch Rexroth; wife, Maria Mecham Hull. Geoffrey Ryan Fowler, 42, religious educator, Church Educational System, LDS Church; wife, Roseanna Croasdale Fowler.


          01/07/2017: FRONT PAGE: Dictator’s former wife in court   
THE ex-wife of former Liberian president Charles Taylor has appeared in court accused of torture offences linked to the country’s civil war. Agnes Reeves Taylor, 51, faces six charges relating to alleged offences committed in the west African country...
          Holders Mamelodi Sundowns into CAF Champions League quarterfinals   
Khama Billiat of Mamelodi Sundowns is helped up by teammate Anthony Laffor of Mamelodi Sundowns during the CAF Champions League match between Mamelodi Sundowns and St George on 13 May 2017 at Lucas Moripe Stadium, Pretoria South Africa. A late goal from talisman Anthony Laffor away in Ethiopia on Saturday ensured progress for holders Mamelodi Sundowns through to the CAF Champions League quarterfinals, where they are joined by Tunisian pair of Esperance and Etoile Sahel. Sundowns beat Saint George in Addis Ababa with the Liberia international netting five minutes from time. Combined with Esperance's 2-2 draw against AS Vita Club of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sundowns are now ensured of progress as they moved three points...
          Holders Mamelodi Sundowns into CAF Champions League quarterfinals   
Khama Billiat of Mamelodi Sundowns is helped up by teammate Anthony Laffor of Mamelodi Sundowns during the CAF Champions League match between Mamelodi Sundowns and St George on 13 May 2017 at Lucas Moripe Stadium, Pretoria South Africa. A late goal from talisman Anthony Laffor away in Ethiopia on Saturday ensured progress for holders Mamelodi Sundowns through to the CAF Champions League quarterfinals, where they are joined by Tunisian pair of Esperance and Etoile Sahel. Sundowns beat Saint George in Addis Ababa with the Liberia international netting five minutes from time. Combined with Esperance's 2-2 draw against AS Vita Club of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sundowns are now ensured of progress as they moved three points...
          Africa's Titans And Rising Stars: On Leadership, Entrepreneurship, Wealth And Business In 2014   
Despite the many challenges that the continent faced in 2014; the kidnapping of 276 school girls in Nigeria, Ebola outbreak in the West African epicenters of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone and conflicts in various African countries, there were also significant strides and gains; the continent continued to make economic [...]
          Former Football Superstar-Turned Politician, George Weah Wins Liberian Senate Seat In Landslide Victory   
Against the backdrop of a nine-month long Ebola epidemic and twice-delayed senate elections, popular former football star and opposition politician, George Weah won a landslide victory in the mosthigh-profile race for the Montserrado County senate seat inLiberia. Running as a candidate for the Congress for Democratic Change (CDC), one of [...]
          LIBERIA: How Africa And Africans Are Responding To The Ebola Crisis   
This is a three-part series to explore the efforts and highlight the work that Africans are undertaking to curb the spread of the Ebola virus, particularly in the hardest hit region of West Africa. According to the WorldHealthOrganization (WHO), Ebola has infected over 10,000 people and claimed the lives of [...]
          Resisting corporate takeover: 'when our land is free, we’re all free'   
Silas Siakor and Jacinta Fay document the Jogbahn Clan’s struggles against agribusiness in Liberia.
          Pihak-Pihak Yang Terlibat Perang Dunia II   
Blok Poros (AXIS)

  1. Nazi Jerman : Adolf Hitler
  2. Italia : Benito Mussolini
  3. Jepang : Hideki Tojo


Militer tewas: 8.000.000
Sipil tewas: 4.000.000
Total tewas: 12.000.000

Negara-negara Poros (AXIS) adalah negara-negara yang menentang pihak Sekutu selama Perang Dunia II.
Ada 3 negara utama dalam kekuatan poros yaitu; Nazi Jerman, Italia dan Kekaisaran Jepang. Pada puncak kejayaan mereka, Kekuatan Poros menguasai dominasi daerah yang sangat luas di Eropa, Asia, Afrika dan Oseania/Pasifik. Tetapi Perang Dunia II berakhir dengan kekalahan mereka. Seperti pihak Sekutu, keanggotaan Negara-negara Poros tidak tetap, dan beberapa negara bergabung dan kemudian meninggalkan Negara-negara Poros selama perang berlangsung.

Anggota Negara-negara Poros minoritas:

  1. Bulgaria, Hongaria, Yugoslavia, Finlandia, Thailand, Rumania
  2. Negara Boneka Jepang:
    Manchukuo, Mengjiang (bagian wilayah di Mongolia], Nanking (bagian wilayah di Tiongkok), Burma, Filipina, dan India
  3. Negara boneka Italia:
    Albania dan Ethiopia
  4. Negara boneka Jerman
    Serbia
  5. Negara lainnya yang berkoalisi
    Spanyol dan Denmark
  6. Bekas anggota
    Uni Soviet, Berdiri sendiri/memihak Sekutu pada 1941.


Negara Sekutu:

  1. Britania Raya : Winston Churchill
  2. Uni Soviet : Joseph Stalin
  3. Amerika Serikat : Franklin Roosevelt
  4. Republik China : Chiang Kai-Shek

Militer tewas: 17.000.000
Sipil tewas: 33.000.000
Total tewas: 50.000.000

Blok Sekutu pada Perang Dunia II adalah negara-negara yang berperang bersama melawan Blok Poros (Jerman, Italia, dan Jepang) dari 1939 sampai 1945.

Anggota Sekutu

  1. Setelah penyerangan Jerman ke Polandia (1939)
    Polandia, Britania Raya (termasuk Kerajaan India & Negara Koloni), Perancis, Australia, Selandia Baru, Nepal, Afrika Selatan, Kanada
  2. Setelah berakhirnya perang Poni (1940)
    Norwegia, Belgia, Luksemburg, Belanda, Yunani, Kerajaan Yugoslavia, Uni Soviet, Tannu Tuva
  3. Setelah pengeboman Pearl Harbor (1941)
    Panama, Kosta Rika, Republik Dominika, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras,
    Nikaragua, Amerika Serikat, China, Guatemala, Kuba, Cekoslowakia
  4. Setelah pembentukan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (1942)
    Meksiko, Brasil, Ethiopia, Irak, Bolivia, Iran, Italia, Kolombia, Liberia
  5. Setelah D-Day (1944)
    Romania, Bulgaria, San Marino, Albania, Hungaria, Bahawalpur, Ekuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Turki, Arab Saudi, Argentina, Chile
  6. Setelah pengeboman Hiroshima (1945)
    Mongolia

          Reggio: sbarcano domani oltre 400 migranti   

migrantisbarco ildispaccio14aprquaterE' previsto domani 2 luglio, alle ore 8.00 circa, l'arrivo nel Porto di Reggio Calabria della nave "Diciotti" con a bordo 413 migranti, di varie nazionalità : Africa centrale, Senegal, Costa d'Avorio, Guinea Conaky, Bangladesh, Mali, Gambia, Camerun, Nigeria, Biafra, Sudan, Congo, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, Sierra Leone, Togo, Liberia, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Bisseaou, Libia e Casamass.

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Le operazioni di primo soccorso e assistenza, coordinate dalla Prefettura, saranno prestate dal personale della Polizia di Stato, dei Carabinieri, della Guardia di Finanza, del Comune Capoluogo, della Polizia Provinciale, della Capitaneria di Porto, dell'USMAF, del SUEM 118 e dell'Azienda Ospedaliera, della Croce Rossa Italiana, del Coordinamento ecclesiale Migranti della Caritas e da varie altre Associazioni di volontariato.

Al momento dello sbarco i migranti verranno sottoposti alle prime cure sanitarie da parte del personale medico presente sul posto e assistiti dalle Associazioni presenti.

Nell'occasione sarà allestita, a cura della Regione Calabria, la tenda per il trattamento igienico – sanitario dei migranti con patologie cutanee.

I migranti saranno trasferiti secondo il Piano di riparto predisposto dal Ministero dell'Interno.


          Constanta. Nave avizate la sosire pentru operare in porturile maritime romanesti. Trei sub pavilion Liberia   
La momentul editării acestei știri pe portalul CNAPMC se aflau avizate, pentru sosire la operare, șapte nave. Dintre acestea una era cu pavilion necunoscut, trei sub pavilion Liberia, și câte una sub pavilion Belize, Rusia și Turcia. Totodată, dintre cele șapte cinsi se aflau pentru desc ...

          Review of Massimo Pigliucci’s, Answers For Aristotle: How Science and Philosophy Can Lead Us to a More Meaningful Life   

I just finished Massimo Pigliucci’s wonderful book: Answers for Aristotle: How Science and Philosophy Can Lead Us to A More Meaningful Life. Pigliucci was born in Monrovia, Liberia and raised in Rome.[1] He has a PhD in genetics from the University of Ferrara, Italy, a PhD in biology from the University of Connecticut, and a PhD in philosophy of science from the University of Tennessee.[10] He is currently a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.

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          I would like to hire a Web Developer by psralph68w   
In actual fact, my project is all centered around providing feeding and care shelter for Liberian refugees kids and teens living on God's shelter for food, shelter and every needs at the Buduburam Refugee... (Budget: $1500 - $3000 AUD, Jobs: Email Developer, HTML, PHP, Software Development)
          I would like to hire a Web Developer by psralph68w   
In actual fact, my project is all centered around providing feeding and care shelter for Liberian refugees kids and teens living on God's shelter for food, shelter and every needs at the Buduburam Refugee... (Budget: $1500 - $3000 AUD, Jobs: Email Developer, HTML, PHP, Software Development)
          I would like to hire a Web Developer by psralph68w   
In actual fact, my project is all centered around providing feeding and care shelter for Liberian refugees kids and teens living on God's shelter for food, shelter and every needs at the Buduburam Refugee... (Budget: $1500 - $3000 AUD, Jobs: Email Developer, HTML, PHP, Software Development)
          I would like to hire a Web Developer by psralph68w   
In actual fact, my project is all centered around providing feeding and care shelter for Liberian refugees kids and teens living on God's shelter for food, shelter and every needs at the Buduburam Refugee... (Budget: $1500 - $3000 AUD, Jobs: Email Developer, HTML, PHP, Software Development)
          Re: Sex tourism in Gambia...   
From www gvnet.com I transfer the fllowing passage.

Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery

The Gambia is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Within The Gambia, women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are trafficked for sexual exploitation, in particular to meet the demand for European sex tourism, and for domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked within the country for forced begging by religious teachers and for street vending. Transnationally, women, girls and boys from neighboring countries are trafficked to The Gambia for the same purposes listed above. Primary source countries are Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Benin. Trafficking of Gambian boys to Senegal for forced begging and Senegalese boys to The Gambia for the same purpose is particularly prevalent. Gambian women and girls are trafficked to Senegal for domestic servitude, and possibly for sexual exploitation. Gambian women and children may be trafficked to Europe through trafficking schemes disguised as migrant smuggling. Reports in the last two years of Gambian, Senegalese, and nationals of other neighboring countries being transported from The Gambia to Spain by boat appear to be predominantly cases of smuggling rather than trafficking. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2008 [
          “Liberi da… liberi di…” Seminario di Tango Olistico a Bologna – 25 febbraio 2017   

Viaggio nella LIBERTA’ attraverso il TangoOlistico®” “E quando permettiamo alla nostra luce di risplendere, inconsapevolmente diamo agli altri la possibilità di fare lo stesso. E quando ci liberiamo dalle nostre paure, la nostra presenza automaticamente libera gli altri” (Nelson Mandela) La libertà è un desiderio primario per ciascun essere umano…Ma che cos’è davvero la libertà? […]

L'articolo “Liberi da… liberi di…” Seminario di Tango Olistico a Bologna – 25 febbraio 2017 sembra essere il primo su OliTango.


          Business and Private Diplomacy: A Potential Catalyst for Sustainable Peace   

30 Jun 2017

By Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov for Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP)

The UN has frequently acknowledged that the private sector can function as a powerful agent of change. However, the world body’s preferred partners to resolve conflicts and build peace remain civil society and armed actors. Additionally, the leaders of UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business communities or use their influence to build peace. Well, these practices have to change, argues Misha Nagelmackers-Voinov, both at the multinational and micro-national levels.

This article was originally published by the Geneva Centre for Security Policy in June 2017.

Introduction

A general overview of what the term “private sector” entails will help define the scope of this paper. The private sector can be defined as the part of the economy that is not run by a state, but by individuals and companies for profit. It comprises a large diversity of organisations such as publicly or privately owned companies, including multinational companies (MNCs); organisations owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit such as cooperatives; or organisations that raise funds to operate and are financed by government or intergovernmental organisations or through hybrid business models, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), but excluding non-profit organisations (NPOs).1 When referring to the private sector, this paper will include publicly or privately owned companies, including MNCs, but exclude private military companies. All private sector organisations’ main driving forces can be summed up as a quest for profits, security and reputation.

Because it is multidimensional, the private sector can be classified in many ways. In addition to a classification by sector, businesses can be ranked by size, number of employees, geographical presence, if they are a local business or the subsidiary of an MNC, or are tailored to serve domestic needs or export markets (or both). In a violence-or conflict-affected context each category of business will evolve differently, reinvent itself or disappear.

Key Points

Small businesses/micro-companies serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process because they often constitute the only form of economic activity in a conflict zone.MNCs have a range of options to respond to conflict, but cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding initiatives, and rarely become involved officially. Track Two diplomacy is their more likely area of involvement.The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, the UN still engages only two players in conflict resolution and peacebuilding: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. UN peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or use its influence to build peace.Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would produce a more formidable force for peace. World affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into a new UN system of governance; new routes are possible for a truly inclusive approach, recognising the business sector’s positive contribution to sustainable peace through informal mediation and collaborative engagement.

A converging definition and shared approach

Size is the most convenient and easily available criterion of classification for private sector companies. In emerging market economies affected by violence or conflict there would be five main categories of private businesses: formal businesses (big companies that are registered with local authorities and pay taxes); semi-formal medium-sized companies (which pay taxes, but are not systematically registered with authorities); small companies (which represent the vast majority of businesses, operate in a dedicated area or office, and are registered with local authorities); micro-companies (which operate from a variety of places such as markets or in the street and pay some form of tax on the temporary location from which they conduct business, such as a market place or handcart); and home workshops (which are mainly to be found in larger cities). Small companies operating from a dedicated or informal area provide more than half of the world’s formal jobs. They are key drivers of economic growth and development, as well as the backbone of a local economy. Among the medium-sized or small private companies mentioned above, government employees might run such small businesses in some countries in order to diversify sources of income or risk, and allow close or even remote family members to make a living.

As violence increases or conflict breaks out, micro-companies and MNCs will be impacted, but never in the same ways or at the same pace. Generally, the private sector will shift from traded to non-traded goods (i.e. goods provided by donors), cut investment, and shift its capital to foreign currency assets and away from its production tools. Commerce and tourism will be the first sectors to contract, followed by manufacturing and construction. This shift will create conditions for an informal economy (which employs 80% of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo/DRC2) as households’ incomes deteriorate and inflation affects official and parallel markets alike. Falls in employment will create falls in domestic savings and greater reliance on external aid. In such environments, agriculture and public administration will often remain the only source of official employment and income. Violence and conflict also change the prosperity equilibrium as individual roles evolve. When men die in conflict, women become responsible for ensuring the community’s survival by starting informal businesses or taking up farming.3

Small players, such as micro-companies, become important: in chaotic times grassroots, local entrepreneurs provide the only goods, services and jobs available in a given conflict zone. They can also make an important contribution to conflict transformation because they maintain their economic influence and local political contacts during the conflict, and thus serve as a good starting point for a conflict resolution process. So do business associations, because they often also have close links to governments and represent all sides of the conflict.

The Guatemalan experience illustrates the role of business associations. The 36-year civil war in that country was caused by interlinked social, economic and political factors, “specifically ideological differences embedded in the global political struggle of the Cold War”.Initially, the Guatemalan private sector was not a fervent supporter of the peace negotiations. The overall intensity of the war was low and geographically contained in mountainous areas, and the sectors that were most affected by the conflict were limited to tourism and the coffee industry. Negotiations with all stakeholders, including business, started on a very positive note. However, because of tensions between factions within the association representing the private sector, Comité Coordinador de Asociaciones Agricolas, Comerciales, Industriales y Financieras (CACIF), it refused to meet rebel groups, demanding instead an immediate ceasefire. Interestingly, the coffee industry did not embrace peace talks, because the peace process was associated with economic reform, while the tourism sector, too weak to lobby, was absent from the process. This tends to support the idea that different groups within the business sector are more or less willing or able to support mediation or a peace process.

At the other end of the size spectrum lie MNCs. They account for two-thirds of world trade and can be defined as large corporations incorporated in one country, implementing a consistent multinational response among their various subsidiaries. Their global number is estimated at 80,000, with 840,000 subsidiaries across the world, representing 75,000,000 employees. During the 1950s and 1960s host governments rarely intervened in the affairs of MNCs. Nowadays, these large companies are more flexible and more responsive to their host governments’ demands. But not all MNCs follow the same strategy, and some will sacrifice market participation to preserve strategic autonomy. “There can be no growth in an environment where there is no peace”, says Unilever boss Paul Polman, insisting that business “can and must be a force for good5”. The “corporate coalition” backing Peace One Day – including Skype, McKinsey, Ocado, Innocent, Coca-Cola and Burger King – is a start, but certainly not what corporations do best.6 Instead, they could engage in discussions on good governance and obstacles to peace.

An MNC subsidiary faces complex governance challenges in the wake of violence or conflict. It is controlled by its parent company, which is often based outside the region or country; this company bears the ultimate responsibility for the group’s worldwide strategic direction. The affiliate or subsidiary is expected to support the overall objectives of its group, contributing to its brand and matters of corporate priority such as Western-led concepts like corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is a first possible gap between the subsidiary of a MNC and its host country. Understanding often diminishes and misunderstandings widen as violence increases in the country hosting the subsidiary, due to the distance between the centre of power (company headquarters) and the local affiliate.

Going Beyond CSR; or, the limitations of policies

Recent literature7 has explored how MNCs are expected to contribute to peace and security in the absence of public or government capacity to fulfil this role. Most of those who participated in this research (through individual phone interviews or plenary sessions) were communications directors, CSR managers, and line and business managers from MNCs’ subsidiaries. Many respondents seemed to ignore the role their employer could or did play in peace and security. This might be because CSR involves voluntary self-commitments focusing mainly on the environment, health care, education or security. The role of business in conflict is rarely addressed in this context, either because the CSR agenda needs to be broadened or because businesses are indeed active in issues related to the conflict, but it is not considered part of CSR. This constitutes a second gap in the corporate governance of MNCs: local CSR is part of a more global CSR strategy and is often managed as an extension of local public affairs, public relations or marketing efforts. In order to offer any sense of how MNCs’ subsidiaries can have an impact on peace and security, further research is needed from the business point of view involving risk managers, chief financial officers, and members of the executive board in charge of audit and control committees.

Research by swisspeace focused on Swiss MNCs and how they engage in peace efforts.8 The paper in question is based on interviews with CSR managers from the MNCs’ head offices and focuses on their knowledge of their companies’ contribution to peacebuilding. The data covers eight to ten Swiss companies from various sectors. Most CSR managers appear to be unaware of the ways in which they could engage in peace processes or what role they could play. As the authors suggest, this might be because peacemaking or conflict transformation “is not linked to the business case”.9 Other explanations also come to mind. Firstly, involvement in a political process can only result from an informal individual initiative, not as part of a formal representation of the company, and strictly on a confidential basis, which means no public relations communications – in fact, no communication whatsoever. Secondly, the lack of institutional trust between civil society or advocacy NGOs and the private sector is so heightened that such high-level strategic information will be considered only on a need-to-know basis. The CSR manager will deal with philanthropic initiatives to improve the environment or help local communities, as well as manage advocacy NGOs or research foundations. CSR or security managers might not be involved in all formal or informal contacts between a local business manager and strategic stakeholders.

The review of existing grey research covering CSR managers in MNC subsidiaries and MNC headquarters demonstrates that there is an obvious need for more research in the area of violence and conflict resolution in terms of risk management. As a result, the issue of the relationship between business and peace might be more one of board policy or operational strategy, and therefore falls beyond CSR.

Take a positive peace perspective

When an MNC considers suspending its activities due to violence or conflict, the result is an important depletion of local knowledge – and an increase in risk for the local population and local business alike, because of outsourced goods and services. The immediate consequence of an MNC’s withdrawal or shutdown is undesirable from a local employment perspective: selling a subsidiary to a competitor might appear more desirable, but not if the new owner recognises fewer rights for employees and local communities (human rights, labour rights, development rights, social and economic rights).

Acting truly locally is a strategic challenge for global MNCs. Some are able to act like local businesses.10They employ local people, thus contributing to social mixing, and support those who wish to start their own businesses. This strategy maintains a certain level of economic normality in times of violence or conflict – and prepares for future peace. This can also be achieved by an MNC subsidiary maintaining local infrastructure such as transport, or temporarily covering basic health and social services. In all these examples the private sector can compensate for temporary state shortcomings or the total collapse of state-supplied services.

But in the absence of a mandate to participate in peace settlements, the private sector might resolve to consider its bottom line rather than its humanitarian impact, and shut down or sell its operations, despite adverse local consequences. In Nepal, for instance, the economic stagnation that marked the period following the end of civil war in 2006 was caused by the withdrawal of Indian MNCs that supported the Nepalese economy, and clearly hindered political and social stability.

It might be of interest to consider what strategies the private sector – MNCs and local businesses alike – can chose in a context of violence or conflict. Firstly, it can decide to take advantage of the economics of war and grow its business. Secondly, it can conduct business as usual, under local regulation or the absence of it, either because it cannot withdraw (e.g. a local business), or because violence is not affecting its operations. Thirdly, it can withdraw from the conflict zone and disengage. Fourthly, it can decide to engage proactively and contribute to public security.

From a positive peace perspective, business can foster economic development, support an emerging or existing legal system, and nourish a sense of community. It does not, however, consider the provision of assistance to local communities as a political act, but as tangible ways of reducing its operational costs. In matters of general strategy or corporate policy, CSR is considered as part of operations, while supporting peace or conflict resolution is the exclusive prerogative of the local or international political domain. In practice, the difference between CSR and working for peace and stability follows a very fine line, and is more of a corporate philosophy than an entrenched position. Businesses are committed to avoiding conflict as best they can. But as outsiders in a host country they must remain neutral: actively negotiating between warring parties cannot be part of their licence to operate. Business therefore cannot openly take part in conflict resolution and peacebuilding activities.

Because of the reputational and security risks involved in participating in peace mediation processes, companies rarely become involved officially, and if they do, it is with the utmost confidentiality and discretion. If the private sector contributes to conflict transformation efforts – for instance, through good offices or by supporting higher national interests – it is often on condition that its non-core contribution remains secret. If its contribution is publicised, its licence to operate and the safety of its staff, operations or infrastructure on the ground might be at risk. This need for discretion – for security or competitive advantage – is certainly one of the reasons why business’s engagement in peacebuilding or conflict mediation as a facilitator or information intermediary is rarely properly investigated or publicised. Short-term political ambitions only contribute to business’s caution when publicising any involvement in conflict prevention or resolution.

In terms of ‘economic’ peacebuilding, the private sector is encouraged to use its direct economic influence to promote peace. In terms of so-called ‘political’ peacebuilding, the private sector participates in initiatives such as ‘policy dialogues’ with local stakeholders. According to International Alert,11 this more political form of engagement includes participating in truth and reconciliation commissions; supporting weapons hand-ins; providing capacity-building support for local government, including judicial and police forces; supporting initiatives to attract foreign investment; and helping the local private sector build capacity and governance systems.

In a number of cases the private sector has decided to act as an agent of prevention in order to mitigate violence. One example is the campaign led by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and its 100,000 members following the 2008 electoral violence in that country. This violence caused major disruptions to the Kenyan tourism, tea and flower industries: exports fell by up to 40% in some areas of the country, while tourist inflows decreased by more than a third and job losses increased dramatically. The private sector decided to embark on a five-year corporate campaign to prevent possible violence ahead of the 2013 elections. Many initiatives were conducted, including a communication and training campaign in cooperation with civil society organisations, interfaith groups, developmental partners and the media. KEPSA is also reported to have supported legislative advocacy to tackle the causes of poverty in Kenyan society, lobbied key politicians to commit to peaceful elections, and pressured members of the media to avoid inflammatory content in their publications. Mobile operators also took steps to prevent their networks from being used to disseminate political hate speech. This local perspective on conflict transformation remains an important avenue for further research.

Business’s motivations to remain in violence- or conflict-affected zones

Assuming it has the possibility to leave a violent or conflict area, a company might still decide to remain in an unstable environment for four main reasons. Firstly, it might still be able to make a profit: costs related to the conflict do not outweigh the income the business can generate. While ensuring income for both the company and its local staff, the company thus contributes to preserving some kind of economic normality for local communities. Heineken, the Dutch brewer founded in 1864, imported its first beer into Africa in 1900. It is now present in 23 African countries. The current CEO, Jean-François van Boxmeer, worked in Rwanda in the early 1990s. He then moved to the DRC, where he helped to deal with the refugee crisis that followed the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

Among the refugees were many of Heineken’s Rwandan employees and their families. As general manager of Bralima, Heineken’s DRC subsidiary, Van Boxmeer decided the company would help his former Rwandan employees, offering shelter and basic income. This meant that the company’s resources would go to humanitarian aid rather than running the company. But it was the only possible decision, Van Boxmeer says: “The larger the company, the larger the stakes. But you have a social contract. It’s one of the crucial elements for a leader to remember and live by.”12

Secondly, if the company represents the interests of a foreign state, it might need to balance the evolution of the relationship between its home country and its host government with regard to the conflict; this relationship will have an impact on its dealings with local authorities and its host government. It might not be in a position to balance the risk/opportunity equation, but the company will remain in the country for the purposes of its home government’s national interest. Total is one of the major world oil companies, and the French government has a 15% stake in it (down from 34% in 1992). Active in Burma/Myanmar since 1992, the company’s investments in the country are guaranteed by the French government through Coface (Compagnie française d’assurance pour le commerce extérieur). Over time, Total expanded its direct investments to become the largest foreign investor in Burma after all the major MNCs left the country following boycotts. In 2002 a case was filed against Total in Brussels by four Myanmar refugees for alleged complicity in violations of human rights in the course of the construction and operation of the Yadana Gas Pipeline. Belgian authorities dropped the case in 2008.13

Thirdly, the business might simply ‘hold the market’ and secure future resources or interests, as part of a long-term business strategy in the sector or region, and as mandated by its shareholders. And, finally, the company might decide to keep its operation active in a conflict zone to gain critical learning experience and ultimately improve the way in which it operates. When he sent the French army into Mali in 2013 to deal with an insurrection in the north of the country, President Hollande recommended that French citizens should leave the country, but hardly any left. In 2010, 60 French-owned subsidiaries and companies were in Mali, mainly in Bamako. These companies were active in mining (Vinci and Bouygues via subsidiaries), banks (BNP Paribas), telecoms (Alcatel-Lucent), transport (Air France), etc. Most of them considered that if security measures were put in place early, it was possible to continue working in near-normality; for instance, to limit travel and risk, employees could move into and live in the work site. Security procedures were submitted to the local French embassy for its future evacuation plans.

Some businesses are considered better peacebuilders than others, partly because of their exit options or the amount of capital invested. Extractive industries have few options in conflict-affected areas and require high investments over decades, but they also have powerful incentives to contribute to peace. Despite this economic stimulus, the extractive industry is often criticised for continuing to work in conflict-affected areas, while industries like tourism or telecoms are regarded as better suited to peacebuilding activities.

Engaging Business in Private Diplomacy

Would world affairs benefit from integrating the private sector into a clear UN mandate or as part of a new system of governance engaging traditional and new parties to multilateral diplomacy? First and foremost, business needs to recognise that conflicts provoke many emotions, “which in turn play a crucial role in the evolution of conflict”.14 If greed and grievance are the main sources of conflict, then government and business might very well share responsibility for a conflict. Poverty, social inequality, unemployment or divided identity politics fuel conflict, particularly when accompanied by illegal behaviour on the part of governments – through corruption or illegitimate private wealth accumulation, or when divisive political leaders plant the seeds of ethnic conflict. But this can also be the case when companies indulge in illegal or irresponsible behaviour.

Governments’ interests have always gone beyond their national borders, leading to foreign conquests and in many cases causing massacres and atrocities. These conquests were mostly conducted through either direct or indirect engagement. The private sector also contributed to these conquests, with the blessing of states, for better or worse, working with governments to export alleged liberalisation and democratisation. An example of direct military engagement is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A more recent example of indirect engagement is when Nasdaq-listed companies were sent as emissaries to Iran in 201315.

Because of the perceived shortcomings of governments and their political agendas, as well as business’s considered failure to act responsibly, new actors have entered conflict-resolution or mediation efforts: the Crisis Management Initiative, the Carter Center’s Conflict Resolution Programme, the United States Institute of Peace and the Geneva-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. These private organisations actively participate on behalf of governments in Track Two diplomacy (as part of unofficial government diplomacy), but also increasingly in Track One (official government) diplomacy initiatives, exploring new channels or contacts when the official lines of communication and negotiation have broken down. Their lack of a political mandate is recognised by all parties to mediation processes and is a welcome development in a peace market that has suffered from the presence of actors who promote peace, democracy and human rights, but do not strictly abide by the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence. Mediators themselves mention the relevance of business actors in the two diplomacy tracks and the increasing importance of business actors as economic actors and facilitators in fragile states: “local business actors may have more leverage within track 2 processes than as part of a large internationally peace mediation process.”16 From the mediator’s point of view, “it is of little relevance whether (the business) becomes engaged in a peace process for personal business interests or for more altruistic interests in peace”.17

The United Nations has frequently supported the view that the private sector can be a powerful agent of change. However, in real life the UN still considers two actors to be relevant in conflict resolution and peacebuilding processes: civil society/NGOs and armed actors. Peace operations have never been expressly mandated to consult with business or to help regulate their impact on peace, including in countries where the UN Security Council (UNSC) has imposed trade sanctions. This (voluntary?) decision by the UN and UNSC not to work with pro-peace businesses indicates a wider institutional pattern: “It is irresponsible of UN practice to ... overlook the way in which these actors might help – or hinder – near and long-term conflict transformation.”18 Combining the resources, expertise and leverage of all possible actors would probably produce a more formidable force for peace.

The only reference to business being consulted can be found in the December 2005 founding mandate of the UN Peace Building Commission (PBC); since then, neither the PBC annual session reports nor working papers for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 mention encouraging the possibility of engaging with business in any peace process – with the exception of local business, which is merely reminded of its duty to pay taxes ...! One might consider that this is because business is publicity shy on topics it considers to be of political relevance. Or it might be because business has simply not wished to be actively involved in any PBC activities. The truth lies certainly somewhere between the PBC not knowing how to engage business and business not wishing to be seen as active in what it perceives to be part of the political arena. However, since perceptions effectively constitute reality, the PBC seems to be missing out on the engagement of an important stakeholder, while business is guilty of not supporting the peace efforts of intergovernmental organisations.

The feeling is that economic transformation might exclusively be the responsibility of policymakers. The absence of the private sector in the so-called inclusive approach to peacebuilding and the absence of engagement with businesses to generate improvements represent at best an omission and at worse ignorance on what important stakeholders can potentially contribute to building peace. As things stand today, except in communication and fund-raising events, the private sector is not considered as a sound partner in peace processes. There is hardly any formal record either in UNSC mandates or UN peace operations (MONUSCO, UNOCI, UNMISS, etc.) of consulting with commercial entities such as trade professionals, purchasers, suppliers or commercial agents. UN entities only address regulatory issues through civil society monitoring. The UNSC engages states to take the necessary measures to deal with natural resources-related conflicts and invites international financial institutions to contribute to establishing regulatory governance: it does not consult on, engage with or regulate this process, and does not deal with the issue directly.

Should the UNSC adopt a wider mandate, no doubt responsible companies active in natural resources would support conflict transformation efforts in post-conflict areas, but without an “exceptional transitional business regulatory role”.19 Business could also proactively initiate networks and engage actors or trade associations in the post-conflict business sector to adopt responsible peace-related business self-regulation.

Responsible leadership

A case can be made for a new kind of responsible leadership to support integrated and comprehensive peace processes through mediation. Through a collective, cooperative approach, the underlying causes of conflict could be addressed; such an approach would include companies, NGOs, labour organisations, and local and national governments. This approach might take time to set up and implement, but it would bring hope to and positive developments for all parties involved:

It will be argued that the factors affecting the issue are not within the control of companies – it is a matter for government. Or it will be claimed that the issue is not as widespread as suggested and that things are not really so bad. Or that it would require industry-wide effort to have an impact. Companies, like NGOs, are human organisations and they suffer from the natural conservatism of all human organisations – they like to carry on doing what they have been doing successfully for years and tend to resist any change to a smoothly running system.20

Understanding possible informal engagements among political actors, mediators and business, as well as the role of each industry within the economy, must be explored in order to influence the overall process. One of the most successful ways in which business can support peace has been through trade associations, including businesspeople from both sides of the conflict. Mediators praise their direct or indirect, pragmatic, economics-focused, bridge-builder approach21 and consider that it is relevant to include business actors, depending on the context or the stage of the mediation process: early in the process as part of formal Track One initiatives or on their own initiative in a Track Two or Track Three process; during the negotiation phase, using their knowledge of economic development, trade or employment; and/or during the implementation phase, for instance by providing suitable jobs to former combatants, thus providing them with gainful options other than armed violence, or hiring people from all sides of the conflict, thus contributing to breaking down stereotypes and biases.22

Facilitating informal, off-the-record talks between mediators and businesses is also a route that needs to be systematically explored. The inspiration for these informal/briefing talks between business and mediators is as much about rebuilding trust as building knowledge and understanding on both sides. For instance, the private sector was successfully involved at the Track One level in the recent successful negotiation process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), playing an important informal role throughout these negotiations. Some businesspeople were even members of the negotiation team. The government, the FARC and the business sector themselves welcomed the private sector’s engagement: “Business leaders held off-the-record meetings of multi-sectorial groups in order to generate space for developing personal relationships.”23 Members of the business sector sponsored and were involved in public demonstrations and activities to protest against the conflict and lobbied on numerous public occasions for a peaceful settlement. Business representatives also established contact with an imprisoned leader of the other main Colombian armed opposition group, the National Liberation Army, “leading to the signing of a goodwill accord pledging the parties to seek a solution to the Colombian crisis”.24

The first major work on business-based conflict transformation is less than 20 years old.25 The World Bank has found that the first thing that must be dealt with after the restoration of peace and the examination of various fundamental social issues is the question of establishing a framework for restoring business.26 The past decade has seen an increase in initiatives to address a possible multi-stakeholder approach to conflict transformation, including MNCs and local businesses.27 On the basis of these principles, further initiatives have been launched such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles on MNCs and the International Bill of Human Rights of the International Finance Corporation, which is the World Bank’s lending arm.

But the debate is still largely dominated by policy built on examples of businesses sustaining and fuelling violent conflict – largely reported by civil society and raised as banners to condemn all businesses indiscriminately. Corporate-bashing (or brand-bashing) - as NGO-bashing - are probably not the most promising strategies to achieve inclusive dialogue. A new type of engagement is needed to avoid the institutionalisation of business models such as Greenpeace’s28, which replicate bipolar models of good versus evil. The misinterpretation of how companies perceive a peace process has, for instance, led to the publication of some negatively oriented guidance for corporate engagement in conflict transformation, i.e. “good corporate practice is about negative peace and what companies should not do”.29 There is nevertheless a growing interest in constructive ways of including companies in conflict management and peace support, recognising what business has achieved as well as understanding business’s perspectives on the potential and limits of corporate engagement.

In “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Process”,30 swisspeace identifies 14 case studies where private sector efforts complemented those of the public and civil society sectors. These were in Colombia, Cyprus, the DRC, El Salvador, Guatemala, Aceh/Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, Northern Ireland, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Sudan. There is an obvious need for more research from the business perspective, and particularly on the governance of MNCs and the role that MNCs’ local subsidiaries can play in violence prevention and conflict resolution.

Conclusion

This paper has focused on cases where the private sector supported private and/or multilateral diplomacy. Such cases indicate that building trust and engaging both traditional and new parties to peace talks might allow a better understanding of a conflict resolution and peacebuilding process and improve cooperation. The paper also explored ways in which world affairs would benefit from integrating the private sector into peacebuilding and suggested routes for a truly inclusive approach to advance peace processes.

A successful peace agreement often brings peace dividends. Liberia’s economy grew at an annual rate of 11% after peace was achieved, South Africa is still one of Africa’s most advanced economies, Aceh has become a source of economic and political innovation for its region, Mozambique has experienced an average growth of 7% (except for 2013 and 2014), and Northern Ireland experienced economic growth of 3.2% in 2005, almost twice as much as the United Kingdom as a whole. But the international community has also engaged in a number of unsuccessful attempts to build sustainable peace in war-stricken areas/ countries such as Bougainville (2001), Liberia (2003), and Sudan and South Sudan (2005). Despite comprehensive peace agreements and going through the same path of security building, governance building and transitional justice as successful peacemaking efforts, all these areas/ countries experienced outbreaks of instability and violence, in particular during elections.

Less than half of the peace agreements referred to above included an economic dimension in their settlement:31 there was no mention of reinvigorating post-war economies, no ways of supporting the reconstruction of a local private sector, no plans to revive a war-torn society, and no reference to economic reforms. If state‐building must rightly remain an internally driven process, economic recovery remains a turning point between success and failure in peacebuilding, because failure retards development and holds back foreign investment. Surely it is time for comprehensive peace agreements to become truly comprehensive and include the private sector as one of the most important sources of the widespread economic empowerment that is needed to mitigate the effects of conflict and violence?

Notes

1 An NGO, also known as a civil society organisation, is a non-governmental organisation even though its funding might be provided by a government. An NPO uses its extra funds for the purposes of the organisation, rather than dividing it among the shareholders and owners of the organisation. Examples of NPOs are universities, trade unions or charitable organisations. However, an NPO might operate in conjunction with a government.  

2 TDRP (Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program), “5 Democratic Republic of Congo”, in Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies, December 2011, p.31, http://www.tdrp.net/ PDFs/Informal_Economies_Dec2011-5.pdf

3 C. Samba-Panza, interim president of the Central African Republic, “The Central African Republic: ‘Land of Wealth and Opportunity’”, transcript of her speech during the handover ceremony to President-elect Faustin-Archange Touadéra, 30 March 2016, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/ speech/2016/03/30/the-central-african-republic-is-a-land-of-wealth-and-opportunity

4 E. Jonas, “The Role of the Private Business Sector in Peace Negotiations: Lessons from Guatemala”, Sicherheit und Frieden/ Security and Peace, Vol.4, 2007.  

5 O. Balch, “Businesses have a role promoting peace in conflict zones”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www. theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/sep/22/businesses-role-promoting-peace-conflict-zones-drc-palestine  

6 J. Hatcher, “Goma Peace Concert Criticised for Overshadowing DR Congo’s Grim Reality”, The Guardian, 23 September 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/sep/23/goma-peace-concert-dr-congo-jude-law  

7 See D. Jamali, R, Mirshak, “Business-Conflict Linkages: Revisiting MNCs, CSR, and Conflict”, Journal of Business Ethics (2010) 93:443–464; A. Graf & A. Iff, “Conflict-Sensitive Business; Review of Instruments and Guidelines”, swisspeace, January 2013  

8 A. Iff, R. Alluri and S. Hellmüller, “The Positive Contributions of Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace”, swisspeace Working Paper 2/2012, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/ user_upload/Media/Publications/WP2_2012.pdf

9 Ibid., p.15, quoting L. Zandvliet, “Conflict Transformation and the Corporate Agenda – Opportunities for Synergy”, in B. Austin, M. Fischer and H.J. Giessmann (eds), Advancing Conflict Transformation. The Berghof Handbook II, Opladen/Framington Hills, Barbara Budrich, p.360.  

10 What managers can do strategically depends on where they are located. National influences limit corporate behaviour in important ways.  

11 J. Banfield, C. Gündüz and N. Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace: The Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector, London, International Alert, 2006.

12 P. Vanham, “How Heineken’s CEO Went from Congo to the Company’s Top Spot”, LinkedIn, 22 July 2015, https://www. linkedin.com/pulse/how-did-heinekens-ceo-go-from-congo-global-peter-vanham

13 Business and Human Rights Resource Center, “Total Lawsuit in Belgium (re Myanmar)”, 2014, https://business-humanrights. org/en/total-lawsuit-in-belgium-re-myanmar  

14 G. Carbonnier, Humanitarian Economics: War, Disaster and the Global Aid Market, London, Hirst, pp.30-32.

15 General Motors traveled to Iran on this occasion, drafting contracts for the resumption of GM’s activities In Iran. To ensure US success, President Obama signed the Executive Order Act 13645 on 3 June. This presidential decree sanctioned any foreign entity that sold or supplied parts or services to the Iranian automobile sector but did not prohibit the supply of vehicles. Renault being the main foreign operator with 90,000 cars produced in 2012, the US decree clearly targeted France. Furthermore, United Against Nuclear Iran summoned Carlos Ghosn, the boss of Renault, to withdraw from Iran under penalty of American sanctions (G. Malbrunot, “En Iran, l’offensive discrète des entreprises américaines”, Le Figaro, 4 October 2013)  

16 A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.24, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/ Media/Publications/WP2_2010.pdf

17 swisspeace/CS ETH Zurich, “Peace Mediation Essentials: Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, December 2010, p. 2, http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Topics/ Mediation/Resources/Peace_Mediation_Essentials_Business_ Actors.pdf  

18 J. Ford, Regulating Business for Peace: The United Nations, the Private Sector, and Post-conflict Recovery, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.  

20 M. Moody-Stuart, Responsible Leadership: Lessons from the Front Line of Sustainability and Ethics, Oxford, Greenleaf, 2014, p.36.

21 swisspeace/CS ETH, Peace Mediation Essentials, p.8.

22 Ibid., p.12.  

23 A. Rettberg, “Local Business’ Role in Formal Peace Negotiations”, in Banfield, Gündüz and Killik (eds), Local Business, Local Peace, p.51.

24 A. Rettberg, 2007, p. 486 in A. Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers? Business Actors in Mediation Processes”, swisspeace Working Paper No. 2/2010, p.16, http://www. swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Publications/ WP2_2010.pdf

25 J. Nelson, The Business of Peace: The Private Sector as a Partner in Conflict Prevention and Resolution, London, Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, International Alert and Council on Economic Priorities, 2000.

26 J.-D. Wolfensohn, Statement during a special session on the role of business in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, UN Security Council, 15 April 2004, http://siteresources.worldbank. org/INTCPR/214578-1112884026494/20482671/Role+of+WB+in+Conflict+and+Development.pdf

27 J. Ruggie and T. Nelson, Human Rights and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: Normative Innovations and Implementation Challenges, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 66, May 2015, p.5. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/ index.php/content/download/76202/1711396/version/1/file/ workingpaper66.pdf

28 See the Greenpeace campaign against Timberland in J. Swartz, “Standing up to 65,000 Angry Activists”, Harvard Business Review, September 2010; and W.M. Hoffman, R.E. Frederick and M. Schwartz (eds), Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality, Chichester, John Wiley, 2014).

29 A. Iff, “What Guides Businesses in Transformations from War to Peace?” in A. Pigrau and M. Prandi (eds), Companies in Conflict Situations, Barcelona, International Catalan Institute for Peace, pp.153-78.

30 Iff et al., “Money Makers as Peace Makers?”, pp.16-19.  

31 UN Development Programme and Crisis Management Initiative, “Peace Processes and Statebuilding”, in J.-K. Westendorf (ed.), Why Peace Processes Fail: Negotiating Insecurity after Civil War, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 2015, p.17.  

About the Author

Misha Nagelmackers-Voïnov is a member of Woodz Public Affairs and an Executive-Fellow-in-Residence with Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP


          Lab Scientist at Global Vision for Women and Children   
Global Vision for Women and Children is a community Based Organization (CBO), an amended version of Belleh District Women Development Agency established and registered in February 2005 under the Laws of the Republic of Liberia. GOVWAC seeks to address issues that affect women and children in Liberia. Until our amendment in January 2013, we worked in the interest of our rural women, children and communities Job Description Provides test results for patient diagnosis and treatment by operating chemistry equipment performing hand chemistries. Provides physician with information for treatment of patient infection by performing technical procedures for the identification or susceptibility of bacteria, parasites, fungi, and mycobacteria.
          Offer - Merchant Navy Training and Placement - INDIA   
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          Se vende - Gap Boho Camiseta Rosa con Dibujo de Búho 5 4... - Subasta   

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          Product For Sale: Liberia: Descent Into Hell – The Liberian Civil War 1989-1996   

by alexsr

$34.95 for Board Game: Liberia: Descent Into Hell – The Liberian Civil War 1989-1996
Condition: Very Good
Location: United States
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          5 Kapal Laut Terbesar di dunia   
1. “Pierre Guillaumat”

Kapal Terbesar Yang Pernah Dibuat adalah 4 supertanker kelas Batillus buatan Perancis pada akhir 70-an, berbobot mati 555.000 ton dan panjang 414 meter. Diluncurkan dari galangan kapal Chantiers de l’Atlantique di Saint Nazaire.

Satu-satunya kapal yang lebih besar adalah si jumbo “Knock Nevis”; ex “Jahre Viking”, ex “Seawise Giant”, ex “Porthos”, di tahun 1981. Tapi, supertanker dari kelas Batillus mempunyai tonase kotor yang lebih besar, sehingga bisa dianggap lebih besar dari Knock Nevis.

Keempat kapal dari kelas Batillus itu adalah sebagai berikut:
• Batillus, buatan 1976, diistirahatkan 1985.
• Bellamya, buatan 1976, diistirahatkan 1986.
• Pierre Guillaumat, buatan 1977, diistirahatkan 1983.
• Prairial, buatan 1979, (juga dikenal dengan sebutan “Hellas Fos” dan “Sea Giant”)



2. “Super Tanker Knock Nevis”

Inilah raja dari segala supertanker, dan mungkin jika dilihat dari dimensinya merupakan kapal terbesar yang pernah dibuat . Yang jelas untuk yang masih beroperasi, memang kapal inilah yang terbesar. Cerita perjalanan karirnya-pun cukup menarik.

Pertama-tama kapal ini punya banyak nama sebutan:
• “Seawise Giant”
• “Porthos”
• “Happy Giant”
• “Jahre Viking”
• “Knock Nevis”

Knock Nevis, or T.T. Jahre Viking adalah kapal terbesar yang pernah dibuat. Ini adalah super tanker dengan kelas ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier), kapal ini berukuran panjang 485 meter (1503 feet), apabila kapal ini berdiri maka kapal ini akan lebih tinggi dari Petronas Twin Tower .

Jahre Viking mempunyai kedalaman sarat muatan penuh 25 meter. Karena ukurannya yang besar ini, Jahre Viking tidak bisa melewati terusan Panama maupun terusan Suez bahkan Selat Inggris-pun tidak bisa dilewati. Cargo capacity (deadweight tonnage) dari Jahre Viking adalah 564,763 ton, Jahre Viking dapat mengangkut sekitar 650,000 m³ (4.1 juta barrel) minyak mentah (crude oil) sekali berlayar.

Jahre Viking pada mulanya dibangun dengan displacement of 480,000 tons oleh Sumitomo Heavy Industries Yard di Jepang pada 1975 dengan nomor lambung 1016, yang kemudian diberi nama Seawise Giant.Sebagai gambaran, lihat perbandingan skalanya dengan menara Eiffel dan Empire State Building:


3. “Cargo Ship Emma Maersk”

Salah satu Container Ship terbesar di dunia tentu saja dimiliki oleh perusahan pemilik Container Ship terbesar MAERSK-Group. Kapal ini diberi nama EMMA MAERSK, merupakan Container Ship terbesar yang sudah dioperasikan.

Kapal ini mampu memuat hampir 11,000 TEU’s (Twenty feet Equivalent Unit), tidak kurang dari 1,400 container lebih banyak dari pada kemampuan muat kapal lain. Itu menurut batas stabilitas kapal sesuai dengan kebijaksanaan perusahaan, dengan asumsi berat per container 14 ton. Tetapi pada dasarnya kapal ini didesain mampu memuat 14,500 TEU’s.

Kapal ini dibuat oleh Odense Steel Shipyard Denmark pada 2006. Ada fakta yang menarik ketika kapal ini sedang dibangun, dimana terjadi kebakaran besar di dek akomodasi dan bridge deck yang menyebabkan banyak kerusakan. Tetapi semuanya dapat diperbaiki dengan cepat dan kapal diselesaikan tepat waktu. Kapal ini diberi nama EMMA MAERSK, yang merupakan nama dari istri Maersk Mc-Kinney pendiri MAERSK-Group.


4. “Cruise Ship Queen Mary II”

Kapal Pesiar termewah dan terbesar yang beroperasi untuk saat ini adalah Quenn Mary 2. Queen Mary 2 beroperasi dibawah bendera Cunard Line, yang merupakan pemilik kapal pesiar terbesar sebelumnya The Queen Mary. Queen Mary 2 ter-registrasi di Suthampton, United Kingdom.

Pembangunan Queen Mary 2 menelan biaya sekitar 900 juta US dollars, itu merupakan salah satu kapal termahal yang pernah dibuat. Tetapi biaya pembangunan yang segitu besar sebanding dengan kemewahan yang ditawarkan, Queen Mary 2 adalah “The most luxurious pearl in the crown of cruise liners”.

Eksterior dari Queen Mary 2 ditangani oleh arsitek handal Stephen Payne. Ukuran yang sangat besar menjadi halangan terbesar dalam menciptakan kenyamanan bagi penumpang. Sebagai contoh, chimney kapal harus di-desain agar gas buang yang dihasilkan mesin kapal tidak menimbulkan polusi di sekitar upper deck yang merupakan public area paling ramai di kapal itu.



5. “Berge Stahl”

Berge Stahl terdaftar di Stavanger, Norwegia. kapal ini sebelumnya terdaftar di Monrovia, Liberia. kapal ini dibangun pada tahun 1986 oleh Hyundai Heavy Industries. Kapal ini sekarang dimiliki perusahaan Singapura BW Group.karena ukurannya yang sangat besar, Kapal ini hanya dapat merapat penuh di dua pelabuhan didunia yaitu, Terminal Marítimo de Ponta da Madeira di Brazil dan Europoort dekat Rotterdam di Belanda.

          Comment on Monteverde Road Conditions: Driving To Santa Elena and Around Monteverde by Ilya   
Hi! Thank you for a lot of great info, spent so much time going through the website getting ready for the first to Costa Rica. For the trip from Liberia to Monteverde, do you think Hyundai Creta 4x2 will have enough clearance, there will be 2 adults and young teenager, but very lightly packed? Expected travel very early August Thanks in advance
          Buque de fertilizante a 40 pies de calado   
La estación marítima se posiciona como la puerta de ingreso de los fertilizantes a Argentina y Uruguay Con el arribo del buque de bandera liberiana DRAGONGATE y su atraque en el Sitio 9/10 de la...

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          Paintwork: young Liberians slap on any message you want   
Standing in sweltering heat for hours at a time, painted head-to-toe in the colours of the tax authority, Emmanuel Howard has become a fixture at traffic junctions in Liberia's capital Monrovia.
          CAF League: Sundowns, Esperance, Sahel advance   

    Title-holders Mamelodi Sundowns of South Africa and Esperance and Etoile Sahel of Tunisia became the first qualifiers for the Caf Champions League quarter-finals Saturday. Gangling Liberian Anthony Laffor scored five minutes from time to earn Sundowns a 1-0 Group C victory over Saint George of Ethiopia in a packed 30 000-capacity Addis Ababa […]

The post CAF League: Sundowns, Esperance, Sahel advance appeared first on New Telegraph Online.


           Au Liberia, le "salaire de la peau" des mannequins publicitaires de rue    
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          Au Liberia, le "salaire de la peau" des mannequins publicitaires de rue   
Immobile, peint de pied en cap aux couleurs d'une administration du Liberia, Emmanuel Howard brave la chaleur et les gaz d'échappement de la circulation. A Monrovia, des dizaines de jeunes hommes vendent un espace publicitaire encore...