Eating the Globe: Syria   

I was in San Francisco for work and celebrated a productive morning with an out-of-the-way lunch. This is Palmyra.

I got the Kibbi platter, which consists of:
Four shells of mashed cracked wheat stuffed with ground beef, sauteed onions, and pine nuts served with a side of hummus, cucumber salad, pita, garlic sauce, and hot sauce.

The kibbi was/were delicious. Not greasy or heavy at all. My only complaint was that it only came with four pieces.

Countries tried so far:
Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa
Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam, Yemen
Europe: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden
North America: Belize, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Trinidad & Tobago, USA
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela
Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
          Comment on Wake & Long Make Pro-Bowl by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
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          World: Challenges and opportunities across NATO's South: Migration, trafficking, extremism, and instability, Volume 1 I Number 3 I Spring 2017   
Source: OPEN Perspectives Exchange Network (OPEN)
Country: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Lebanon, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

Executive Summary

NATO and its partners, as a part of discussions related to the Alliance’s efforts to promote peace and security in its broader neighbourhood, have increasingly focused on NATOs’ “Southern Flank.” In the following report, the authors argue that this primarily military term is likely to be off-putting to many current or would-be NATO partners, such as foreign ministries, international organisations, and civilian stakeholders, hindering the goals of “projecting stability” and risking a near-exclusive focus on threats and risks. Furthermore, this report demonstrates how the term “Southern Flank” does not fully capture NATO’s challenges. For example, issues like trafficking and migration originate in far-flung areas including West Africa, Latin America, and Central Asia, which may not be part of the Southern Flank as current conceived by NATO. In suggesting the use of a less heavily value-laden and military-centric term like the “Greater South”, the authors point out that challenges emanating from the Greater South also present opportunities to Alliance states that may bolster NATO’s strategic objectives.

The following observations and findings are based on a review of the pertinent literature from academics, research institutions, governments, and various international organisations (IOs) and international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs). They also emerge in part from the authors’ combined twenty years of research experience working on and researching issues ranging from civil-military interaction to post-crisis stabilisation and humanitarian action in contexts as diverse as Afghanistan, Bosnia - Herzegovina, Lebanon, Somalia Syria and Yemen for governments, UN agencies, the World Bank, INGOs, NATO’s former Civil-Military Fusion Centre and others.

Challenges and Opportunities in NATO’s Greater South

Some of the most immediately pressing challenges emanating from the Greater South include migration and trafficking in drugs, guns, persons as well as conflict and violent extremism. These inter-related issues thrive amidst corruption and low state capacity, prevent economic growth, and facilitate instability and extremism. This report explores these challenges and demonstrates (i) their intersecting nature; (ii) how typical approaches to addressing these issues, including increased border control and military responses, can displace the challenge and plant the seeds of future instability elsewhere; and (iii) that the various challenges facing NATO may be reconceptualised as opportunities rather than purely as threats.

With regard to migration, in 2015, 1.2 million people applied for asylum in Europe, 66.2% of whom were male according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). This may pose social stability challenges not only in assimilation and cultural differences relating to gender relations but also in the fact that most young, male migrants, many of whom are single, will be jobless for a year or two following arrival. However, with approximately 84% of incoming migrants under 34 years old, the host economy may ultimately benefit economically from migration. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), for instance, estimates annual output to increase by 0.1% in the EU and 0.3% in Germany by the end of 2017.

          Quels festivals pour le fan de musique alternative ?   
Oui, il y a un point commun entre un accordéoniste bosniaque, un brass band allemand et un groupe de post-rock brésilien...
          RIHANNA, ISIS, ISLAMISTS by (Aangirfan Blog)


Rihanna and Hassan Jameel.
Rihanna is part of a conspiracy?
Rihanna's new love is Saudi Toyota dealership heir and Naomi Campbell's ex-beau Hassan Jameel.


ISIS has large numbers of brand-new Toyota trucks.

Rihanna is a mind controlled sex slave?

The US State Department arranged for fleets of Toyota trucks to be sent to the 'Free Syrian Army', which works alongside ISIS.

The Mystery of ISIS' Toyota Army

In 1956, there was a big conspiracy involving the UK, France and Israel.
There was a joint plot to attack Egypt.


In 1956, Israel wanted an excuse to seize the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula.

Israel held secret talks with Britain and France.

The UK Prime Minister, Sir Anthony Eden, agreed to the illegal joint attack on Egypt.

Documents (Sir Anthony Eden's cabinet discussed concealing Suez 'collusion) released after more than 50 years show: the UK Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden's cabinet discussed how to lie to the public and the world about the secret pact with France and Israel to seize Egypt's Suez canal in 1956.

"At Gamil airport, a young Egyptian ... was seized by the British, who wanted to know the whereabouts of Egyptian arms stores. 

"He later claimed that one of his eyes was cut out by a British interrogation officer ... and the other eye taken out later when he refused to broadcast propaganda for the allies..."

The Mad Muslims in Acheh are reportedly controlled by the CIA and its friends.

In the 1960s, MI6 supported Islamic guerrillas in Indonesia.

According to The Independent (UK): "Cabinet papers show that British spies, including MI6, supported Islamic guerrillas in order to destabilise Sukarno."

The Secret State: The Security Service

Website for this image

For more than fifty years, the CIA and its friends have been employing militant Moslems to do their dirty work.

1. Before World war II, British intelligence used the Moslem Brotherhood against Britain's German rivals in North Africa.

(The British, Muslim Terrorism and September 11)

2. Around 1955, the CIA began to co-operate with the Moslem Brotherhood. 

The CIA and MI6 used the Moslem Brotherhood to weaken both Egypt and Syria.

3. In the 1960s, MI6 supported Islamic guerrillas in Indonesia.

According to The Independent (UK): "Cabinet papers show that British spies, including MI6, supported Islamic guerrillas in order to destabilise Sukarno."

(The Secret State: MI5 (Home Office/MoD), The Security Service and ...)

4. Israel funded the Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas, in order to divide the Palestinians.
John Buchan, who worked for UK military intelligence, wrote Greenmantle, which is about a warlike Islamist, who is secretly working for the security services.

5. In 1979, the CIA and MI6 used the Moslem Brotherhood to topple the Shah of Iran and install the Ayatollahs.

(The British, Muslim Terrorism and September 11)

6. In 1979 the CIA was building up and arming the militant Moslem Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.

The idea was to lure Russia into Afghanistan.

Website for this image

7. In 1991, the CIA and NATO used Al Qaeda to break up Yugoslavia.

(Global Research, 8 September 2010, Andrew Gavin Marshall: "The Anglo-American Terror Network")

Yugoslavia was a friend of Russia and was next door to a lot of oil wealth.

Moslems arrived in Bosnia from Afghanistan and other Moslem countries.

Clinton gave the 'green light' to Iran to arm the Bosnian Muslims.

Israel armed the Bosnian Serbs.

The idea was to foment conflict.

The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which took control of the Balkan heroin trafficking routes, fought the Serbs.

The KLA, which had links to bin Laden, was trained and armed by the USA.

8. The CIA and its friends employed Moslem militants to create trouble for Russia in its province of Chechnya.

("The Anglo-American Terror Network")

US intelligence helped fund and transport al-Qaeda into Chechnya in the early 1990s.

In Chechnya, the two main rebel leaders who came to power had been trained by the CIA in Afghanistan.

A war in Chechnya was planned in a secret meeting in 1996 attended by Osama bin Laden and officials of the Pakistani ISI.

In other words, the CIA was directing the war through the ISI.

US intelligence helped fund and transport al-Qaeda into Chechnya in the early 1990s.

9. In 2002, it was revealed that, “British intelligence paid large sums of money to an al-Qaeda cell in Libya in a doomed attempt to assassinate Colonel Gadaffi in 1996 and thwarted early attempts to bring Osama bin Laden to justice.”

Anas al-Liby, a Libyan al-Qaeda leader, “was given political asylum in Britain and lived in Manchester until May of 2000 when he eluded a police raid on his house and fled abroad.”

("The Anglo-American Terror Network")


10. In the 1990s, Osama bin Laden 'built a shadow air force to support his terrorist activities, using Afghanistan's national airline Ariana, a surplus U.S. Air Force jet and clandestine charters.'

(Global Research, on 8 September 2010, Andrew Gavin Marshall: 
"The Anglo-American Terror Network")

Bin Laden's US Air Force jet in 1992 “was used to ferry Al Qaeda commanders to East Africa, where they trained Somali tribesmen..."

And now, Algerians and Moroccans are said to be in Al Qaeda training camps in Israel.

Algerians and Moroccans in El Qaida training camps in Israel 







          La paz depende de los docentes   

Las guerras empiezan de muchas maneras y por diferentes razones.  Quienes las terminan son los políticos. Sin embargo, la firma de acuerdos de paz, trátese de conflictos a escala internacional o de guerras locales, es solo un hito en un difícil proceso que puede tomar generaciones. Tiene que ver, principalmente, con el reconocimiento del otro, con la memoria. Puede ocurrir en Bosnia, Irlanda o Colombia.

Un actor clave en contribuir a voltear paradigmas, derribar prejuicios, reconstruir valores, aprender a convivir con los demás, particularmente los “enemigos”, sus descendientes o relacionados, es el maestro.

La polarización alrededor del acuerdo de paz, el resultado del plebiscito, las marchas del 1 de abril, al lado del silenciamiento de las armas y la reducción de muertes por el conflicto, son paradojas que ilustran los enormes retos que hay en adelante, que no son otros que los de construir valores compartidos para la convivencia en paz. Decenas de miles de docentes, por fuerza del conflicto, han venido trabajando en ello desde el aula.

Construir convivencia, recuperar la memoria ha tomado mucho tiempo en todas partes. La Segunda Guerra Mundial, al menos en Europa, terminó, oficialmente, en mayo del 45. Cesaron las actividades bélicas, unos se rindieron, otros vencieron. Alemania, además de la derrota y la destrucción, tuvo que lidiar con una culpa terrible, la del Holocausto. Los nacidos en los años siguientes a la terminación de la guerra, a pesar del “milagro alemán”, no tuvieron la oportunidad de hablar en casa o en el colegio acerca de lo sucedido. ¿Dónde estuvieron mi padre, mis tíos, mis abuelos? ¿Apoyaron a Hitler? Si era malo, ¿por qué le caminaron a la discriminación y el asesinato masivo? Preguntas imposibles de tratar debido a un mecanismo de supresión de la memoria. “De eso no se habla”, parecía un acuerdo tácito en los hogares.

Otra guerra, la fría, terminó con la caída del muro en el 89. Pasada la euforia inmediata, tuvo que pasar una generación para superar enormes prejuicios entre los alemanes occidentales y los orientales.

Treinta años nos demoramos en comenzar a hablar sobre lo ocurrido en Alemania entre el 33 y el 45, recuerda Ilse Schimpf- Herker, nacida en 1947, fundadora y directora del Instituto Paulo Freire de Berlín, dedicado, entre otras, a la pedagogía de la memoria. En el marco de un apasionante foro en el que docentes colombianos fueron los protagonistas*, me quedó claro que ellos han sido actores de primera línea, desde hace rato, de la reconstrucción de valores de convivencia en contextos de violencia.

Lea el contenido completo en Las2Orillas.

          বসনিয়ার ঐতিহাসিক ফরহাদ পাশা মসজিদ   

দি ঢাকা টাইমস্ ডেস্ক ॥ শুভ সকাল। শুক্রবার, ৩০ জুন ২০১৭ খৃস্টাব্দ, ১৬ আষাঢ় ১৪২৪ বঙ্গাব্দ, ৫ শাওয়াল ১৪৩৮ হিজরি। দি ঢাকা টাইমস্ -এর পক্ষ থেকে সকলকে শুভ সকাল। আজ যাদের জন্মদিন তাদের সকলকে জানাই জন্মদিনের শুভেচ্ছা- শুভ জন্মদিন। বিস্তারিত পড়ুন...

এই লেখাটি বসনিয়ার ঐতিহাসিক ফরহাদ পাশা মসজিদ সর্ব প্রথম প্রকাশিত হয়েছে The Dhaka Times এ।

          UN DIA... 26 DE JUNIO   
Nace en Buenos Aires el poeta, historiador, político, militar, periodista y traductor Bartolomé Mitre, primer mentor de la leyenda de Santos vega; autor de "Las ruinas de Tiahuanaco" y de dos valiosas historias sobre Belgrano y San Martín y traductor de la "Comedia del Dante".

Falleció en Buenos Aires el 19 de enero de 1906.
Nace en Tucumán el escritor, ensayista y periodista Pablo Rojas Paz, autor de "La metáfora y el mundo", "El patio de la noche" y "Los cocheros de San Blas". Fundó con Jorge Luis Borges y otros la revista "Proa". Falleció en Buenos Aires el 1º de octubre de 1956.
Día de la Cartografía
Se conmemora por la creación del Departamento Topográfico, decretada por don Bernardino Rivadavia, en ejercicio de la Primera Magistratura, el 26 de junio de 1826. Esta medida de gobierno tuvo la virtud de impulsar el desarrollo de la cartografía, disciplina de innegable gravitación en el desenvolvimiento cultural, económico y social del país.
Muere en Buenos Aires el notable poeta, novelista y autor teatral Leopoldo Marechal. Su novela "Adán Buenosayres" es una verdadera renovadora del género. En ella retrata algunos personajes de la Generación de Martín Fierro. Nació en Buenos Aires el 11 de junio de 1900.
Día Internacional de la lucha contra el uso indebido y el tráfico ilícito de drogas
Día Internacional de las Naciones Unidas en Apoyo de las Víctimas de la Tortura

Efemérides Culturales Argentinas.

En 1970 murió: Leopoldo Marechal

En 1963 nació: Marisa Otero ¡Feliz cumpleaños!

En 1962 nació: Néstor Rolán ¡Feliz cumpleaños!

En 1954 nació: Ricardo "Chiqui" Pereyra ¡Feliz cumpleaños!

En 1948 murió: Atilano Ortega Sanz

En 1948 nació: Adrián Pucci ¡Feliz cumpleaños!

En 1942 nació: Leslie Muñiz ¡Feliz cumpleaños!

En 1935 murió: Ángel Domingo Riverol

En 1925 murió: Ernesto Drangosch

En 1923 nació: Juanca Tavera

En 1919 nació: Jaime Tursky

En 1913 nació: Abel Aznar

En 1909 nació: Samuel Aguayo

En 1897 murió: Pablo José Vázquez

En 1897 nació: Juan Pablo Navarro 

En 1890 nació: Francisco Elías

En 1887 nació: Juan Carlos Bazán

Efemérides de TODOTANGO.


1933 - Nace en Buenos Aires, José Rafael “Chacho” Arancibia, cantor, autor, compositor. Pasó su niñez en Salta. Supo integrar los conjuntos Los Chilicotes y Los Abajeños. Autor de “Romance del guerrillero”, “Serenata montonera” con Sergio Villar y “Zamba de la bandera” con Quiroga Mora, entre más de 90 temas registrados.

1970 - Muere en Buenos Aires el notable poeta, novelista y autor teatral Leopoldo Marechal. Su novela "Adán Buenosayres" es una verdadera renovadora del género. En ella retrata algunos personajes de la Generación de Martín Fierro. Nació en Buenos Aires el 11 de junio de 1900.

2009 - Muere en Buenos Aires, Eduardo Lagos, músico, pianista, oftalmólogo. En 1947 debutó como pianista en Cantos y Leyendas y en Los Nocheros por 1953. Grabó el LP “Así nos gusta” en Trova, con los temas “La oncena” (letra de Goñi), “La bacha”, “Cuando los gauchos vienen bailando”, entre otros. Tenía 80 años.

26 de Junio: Día Internacional de la lucha contra el uso indebido y el tráfico ilícito de drogas.

26 de Junio: Día de la Cartografía.

- Día Internacional de la lucha contra el uso indebido y el tráfico ilícito de drogas.
- Día de la Cartografía (en Argentina).
- de San Juan y San Pablo, mártires.
1483 – Ricardo III usurpa el trono de Inglaterra.
1508 – El Cardenal Cisneros inaugura la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
1541 – es asesinado Francisco Pizarro, conquistador de Perú, en su Casa de Gobierno de Lima.
1810 – Muere Joseph M. Montgolfier, inventor del globo aerostático.
1819 – nace Abner Doubleday, considerado uno de los creadores del Baseball americano.
1821 – nace Bartolomé Mitre, militar, historiador, periodista y arqueólogo argentino.
1822 – el Gral. José de San Martín se encuentra el Guayaquil con el Gral. Simón Bolivar.
1826 – se crea el Departamento Cartográfico en Argentina.
1870 – Nace Ignacio Zuloaga, pintor español.
1880 – Nace Douglas Mac Arthur, militar estadounidense.
1884 – el Congreso Nacional sanciona la ley de Educación Común que implantó la enseñanza laica, gratuita y obligatoria en Argentina.
1896 – nace el escritor, ensayista y periodista argentino Pablo Rojas Paz. 1904 – se juega el primer partido de fútbol ante un equipo inglés: Alumni recibe al Southampton. 1908 – Nace Salvador Allende, político chileno. 1910 – estalla una bomba en una función de gala del Teatro Colón de Buenos Aires. 1917 – Primera Guerra mundial: desembarcan las primeras fuerzas estadounidenses en Saint Nazaire (Francia).
1919 – sale la primera edición del “New York Daily News”.
1922 – nace Eleanor Parke, actriz.
1941 – Segunda Guerra mundial: Finlandia declara la guerra a la URSS.
1942 – Nace Gilberto Gil, músico brasileño.
1945 – Los representantes de 50 países suscriben la Carta de San Francisco, por la que se constituye la ONU para el mantenimiento de la paz internacional.
1956 – detienen en México a Fidel Castro, junto con otros 20 presuntos miembros del Movimiento 26 de Julio.
1959 – Cuba rompe relaciones diplomáticas con la República Dominicana.
1959 – la reina Victoria y el presidente estadounidense Eisenhower inauguran la gran vía fluvial del San Lorenzo que da salida al mar a los Grandes Lagos.
1960 – Independencia de Somalia y de Madagascar.
1961 – Fracasa un levantamiento militar en Venezuela.
1964 – nace Zeng Jinlian Hunan, quien se convertirá en la mujer más alta del mundo China, con 2.46 metros de altura.
1964 – los Beatles lanzan el disco “A Hard Day’s Night”.
1968 – los EEUU devuelven a Japón las islas de Iwo Jima y Bonin.
1968 – nace Paolo Maldini, futbolista italiano.
1969 – San Salvador rompe sus relaciones diplomáticas con Honduras, a causa del hostigamiento a los salvadoreños residentes en este país tras la pérdida de un partido de fútbol por 3-0.
1970 – Alexander Dubcek es expulsado del Partido Comunista de Checoslovaquia.
1970 – Muere Leopoldo Marechal, escritor argentino.
1974 – Elizabeth Taylor se divorcia por quinta vez (se separa de Richard Burton).
1974 – El general Augusto Pinochet asume los poderes presidenciales en Chile, nueve meses después de que las fuerzas armadas derrocaran al Gobierno de Allende.
1975 – El presidente colombiano López Michelsen decreta el Estado de sitio en el país.
1975 – la primer ministro de la India Indira Gandhi declara el Estado de Emergencia.
1978 – los británicos separatistas bombardean el Palacio de Versailles, en Francia.
1984 – Barbra Striesand graba “Here We Are at Last”.
1985 – Se estrena la película “Je vous salue, Marie” del director de cine vanguardista Jean Luc Godard.
1987 – El poeta y ensayista peruano Octavio Paz obtiene el primer Premio Internacional Menéndez Pelayo.
1989 – Melanie Griffith y Don Johnson contraen matrimonio por segunda vez.
1990 – se crea en Buenos Aires la Universidad Maimónides.
1992 – Dinamarca gana la Eurocopa Suecia ’92 de fútbol, al derrotar a Alemania por 2-0.
1993 – Estados Unidos ataca Bagad con misiles por un intento de asesinato a George Bush.
1993 – La oposición triunfa en las elecciones legislativas en Marruecos.
1995 – Alemania decide enviar tropas a Bosnia rompiendo un tabú de 50 años.
1996 – La UE aprueba un nuevo convenio de extradición.
1998 – Un 40% de los españoles frente a un 38% considera que el entrenador Javier Clemente no debe dimitir a pesar del fracaso en el Mundial de fútbol.
1999 – El líder de la resistencia de Timor Oriental y Premio Nobel de la Paz 1996, José Ramos Horta, regresa a Yakarta por primera vez desde que en 1975 Indonesia ocupó la ex colonia portuguesa.
1999 – La UE, Mercosur y Chile consensúan en la Cumbre de Rio de Janeiro una declaración que sienta las bases para crear una zona de libre comercio.
2002 – Trágica represión en el Puente Avellaneda de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Darío Santillán y Maximiliano Kosteki son asesinados por la policía.

          'EU is fading away' Bosnian Serb leader uses Brexit to pour scorn on Brussels bigwigs   

THE European Union is "fading away" with countries such as Russia and China replacing the bloc as key players on the international stage, according to firebrand Bosnian Serb leader Milorad Dodik.

          What’s True about Citizenship?   

Two decades ago, during a wave of handwringing about “the new nationalism” sparked by the war in Bosnia, the late political philosopher Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the nation-state remains “the best way we have thus far devised for protecting …

          Biografi Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono   
Foto Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

Nama : Jenderal TNI (Purn) Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Lahir : Pacitan, Jawa Timur, 9 September 1949
Agama : Islam
Jabatan : Presiden Republik Indonesia ke-6
Istri : Kristiani Herawati, putri ketiga (Alm) Jenderal (Purn) Sarwo Edhi Wibowo
Anak : Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono dan Edhie Baskoro Yudhoyono
Ayah : Letnan Satu (Peltu) R. Soekotji
Ibu : Sitti Habibah

Pendidikan :
* Akademi Angkatan Bersenjata RI (Akabri) tahun 1973
* American Language Course, Lackland, Texas AS, 1976
* Airbone and Ranger Course, Fort Benning , AS, 1976
* Infantry Officer Advanced Course, Fort Benning, AS, 1982-1983
* On the job training di 82-nd Airbone Division, Fort Bragg, AS, 1983
* Jungle Warfare School, Panama, 1983
* Antitank Weapon Course di Belgia dan Jerman, 1984
* Kursus Komando Batalyon, 1985
* Sekolah Komando Angkatan Darat, 1988-1989
* Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenwort, Kansas, AS
* Master of Art (MA) dari Management Webster University, Missouri, AS

Karier :

* Dan Tonpan Yonif Linud 330 Kostrad (1974-1976)
* Dan Tonpan Yonif 305 Kostrad (1976-1977)
* Dan Tn Mo 81 Yonif Linud 330 Kostrad (1977)
* Pasi-2/Ops Mabrigif Linud 17 Kujang I Kostrad (1977-1978)
* Dan Kipan Yonif Linud 330 Kostrad (1979-1981)
* Paban Muda Sops SUAD (1981-1982)
* Komandan Sekolah Pelatih Infanteri (1983-1985)
* Dan Yonif 744 Dam IX/Udayana (1986-1988)
* Paban Madyalat Sops Dam IX/Udayana (1988)
* Dosen Seskoad (1989-1992)
* Korspri Pangab (1993)
* Dan Brigif Linud 17 Kujang 1 Kostrad (1993-1994)
* Asops Kodam Jaya (1994-1995)
* Danrem 072/Pamungkas Kodam IV/Diponegoro (1995)
* Chief Military Observer United Nation Peace Forces (UNPF) di Bosnia-Herzegovina (sejak awal November 1995)
* Kasdam Jaya (1996-hanya lima bulan)
* Pangdam II/Sriwijaya (1996-) sekaligus Ketua Bakorstanasda
* Ketua Fraksi ABRI MPR (Sidang Istimewa MPR 1998)
* Kepala Staf Teritorial (Kaster ABRI (1998-1999)
* Mentamben (sejak 26 Oktober 1999)
* Menko Polsoskam (Pemerintahan Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid)
* Menko Polkam (Pemerintahan Presiden Megawati Sukarnopotri) mengundurkan diri 11 Maret 2004

Penugasan : Operasi Timor Timur 1979-1980 dan 1986-1988

Penghargaan :

* Adi Makayasa (lulusan terbaik Akabri 1973)
* Tri Sakti Wiratama (Prestasi Tertinggi Gabungan Mental Fisik, dan Intelek), 1973
* Satya Lencana Seroja, 1976
* Honorour Graduated IOAC, USA, 1983
* Satya Lencana Dwija Sista, 1985
* Lulusan terbaik Seskoad Susreg XXVI, 1989
* Dosen Terbaik Seskoad, 1989
* Satya Lencana Santi Dharma, 1996
* Satya Lencana United Nations Peacekeeping Force (UNPF), 1996
* Satya Lencana United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES), 1996
* Bintang Kartika Eka Paksi Nararya, 1998
* Bintang Yudha Dharma Nararya, 1998
* Wing Penerbang TNI-AU, 1998
* Wing Kapal Selam TNI-AL, 1998
* Bintang Kartika Eka Paksi Pratama, 1999
* Bintang Yudha Dharma Pratama, 1999
* Bintang Dharma, 1999
* Bintang Maha Putera Utama, 1999
* Tokoh Berbahasa Lisan Terbaik, 2003
* Bintang Asia (Star of Asia) dari BusinessWeek, 2005
* Bintang Kehormatan Darjah Kerabat Laila Utama dari Sultan Brunei
* Doktor Honoris Causa dari Universitas Keio, 2006

Referensi :
          Tomorrow Today | forensic pathologist Michael Tsokos   
Michael Tsokos is probably Germanys best-known forensic pathologist. He heads the Institute for Forensic Medicine at the Charit. Tsokos is ... tags: BosniaDeutscheDeutschlandDW-TVforensicGermanygravesTomorrow Today | forensic pathologist Michael Tsokos
DW (English)
          War In Bosnia Porn   
Watch War In Bosnia Porn at free fuck and porn video site
          Arizona State University Critical Languages Institute offering 2017 summer language and study abroad programs   

The Arizona State University Critical Languages Institute is still accepting applications on a rolling basis, for its 2017 summer language and study abroad programs until May 10th.

CLI offers intensive courses in 10 critical languages and study-abroad programs in 6 locations. Participants earn 8--13 credits and cover a minimum of 2 semesters of material. 

Participants pay a flat fee of $900 (plus study-abroad fees if applicable) instead of tuition.

Visit for details.
Deadline: May 10, 2017

Languages include:Albanian, Armenian, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Hebrew, Indonesian, Persian, Polish, Russian, Turkish, Uzbek

          Congress is as close as it’s been in a while to reconsidering U.S. war policy   

With little fanfare and even less warning, Congress on Thursday took a step forward in tackling something it has failed to touch over the last 16 years: the legal basis for ongoing U.S. military action abroad.

The House of Representatives’ Defense Appropriations committee, which oversees funding for the U.S. military, surprised Capitol Hill by advancing language in its spending bill that would end the current authorization of military force, or AUMF, which has been used to justify U.S. military actions in several countries in the wake of the September 11th attacks.

That move would force Congress to debate and consider a new legal foundation for U.S. military efforts, from drone strikes on terrorist compounds in Yemen to missile strikes against Bashar al-Assad’s regime in Syria — whether that’s a new authorization of military force, or even a declaration of war.

Dissatisfaction has long simmered on both sides of the aisle over using the post-9/11 AUMF to justify ongoing U.S. military activity — especially without any open congressional debate on it.

The fate of the provision is uncertain, and there’s more than one way that GOP leadership could strike it. Whatever happens, it represents a new frontier in Congress’ debates about presidential authority to wage war, and Minnesota members of Congress on both sides of the aisle are broadly supportive of the measure.

A long-standing justification for war

The language in the amendment, introduced by California Democratic Rep. Barbara Lee, is straightforward. It repeals the current AUMF, and the authorization would be void 240 days after the amendment is enacted into law.

That would give Congress the better part of a year to debate, consider, and adopt a new legal framework for U.S. military action overseas.

For most of its history, when it wanted to take military action, Congress would pass a declaration of war, which it has done 11 times against nine countries in U.S. history. Since World War II, Congress has not passed a full declaration of war; instead, it has enacted AUMFs, which provided the basis for the Vietnam War and the First Gulf War.

In Korea, Bosnia, and Panama, U.S. presidents used legislation giving them authority to intervene militarily on the basis of United Nations Security Council resolutions.

The most recent AUMF was passed in the aftermath of September 11, and it has justified all U.S. military activity overseas ever since, with the exception of the Iraq War, which Congress authorized with a separate resolution.

The text of the document is simple: it authorizes the president to “use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determined planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred in September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons.”

The text states that this authority is granted in order to prevent future acts of terrorism in the U.S. by these entities, and the document specifies out no expiration date for this justification for military action.

Most immediately, the AUMF authorized the beginning of the War on Terror, as the U.S. took military action against al-Qaeda and the Taliban in several countries. (Lee, the sponsor of the amendment, is famous as being the House’s lone vote against that AUMF, which passed three days after 9/11.)

But the 9/11 AUMF’s flexibility continued to be of use to commanders-in-chief: it has been used to justify strikes against targets in a group of countries, including Libya, Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It has also been used as a justification for action against the Islamic State, a current rival and former ally of al Qaeda, though ISIS itself came into existence long after 9/11.

In 2013, Barack Obama did make some effort to seek authorization for military action against Syria for its use of chemical weapons. A resolution advanced out of the Senate Foreign Relations committee, but it failed to gain broader support in Congress, and Obama declined to take action against Syria without it.

Bipartisan support for a new basis for war

When Lee’s amendment was approved by voice vote in the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee on Thursday, some members were so happy that they reportedly clapped and cheered. It represents the first time since the 9/11 AUMF passage that this kind of language has advanced in a meaningful way in the legislative process.

Democratic and Republican members of Congress have gradually grown dissatisfied with the past three presidential administrations, from George W. Bush to Obama and now Donald Trump, using the 9/11 AUMF as justification for new military action.

Historically, the enthusiasm for a new AUMF or a declaration of war has been with anti-war progressives and constitutional conservatives, both wary of executive overreach. But recently, as U.S. targets have shifted to include ISIS and now the Syrian military, more voices on both sides have expressed a desire for at least a debate on a new set of parameters for U.S. military action.

Lee has been a tough and persistent advocate for this position for years; Politico reports that this work ultimately won over some of her colleagues, including the Appropriations Chair, New Jersey GOP Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, to her side in the unexpected vote to advance the measure. Democratic and Republican aides alike expressed real surprise that Thursday’s news happened at all.

Fourth District Rep. Betty McCollum, who sits on this committee, said in a statement that she supported it “because it is long past time for Congress to have a debate on this critical issue. After 16 years, we owe it to the men and women serving in the military, and to all Americans, to have a full and complete discussion and a floor vote on a new authorization.”

First District Rep. Tim Walz, the top Democrat on the House Veterans’ panel, agreed, saying in a statement he fully supports the amendment to “force congressional debate on our most solemn constitutional duty,” adding that a debate and vote on a new AUMF should occur “as soon as possible.”

Minnesota’s Republicans all joined Democrats in hailing Thursday’s developments. Second District Rep. Jason Lewis praised it most strongly. “It’s the role of Congress to give the executive authorization to use military force,” he said, arguing the current AUMF “should not be considered a perpetual grant of war powers.”

“America’s sons and daughters should not be sent into harm’s way without serious debate by those chosen to represent them,” Lewis said.

Third District Rep. Erik Paulsen said the AUMF discussion is “definitely warranted” and that he looks forward to the debate.

Sixth District Rep. Tom Emmer has taken action on this topic before: in 2015, after ISIS terror attacks in Paris, he introduced legislation to declare war on the terrorist state. Generally, he believes that a war declaration, not an AUMF, is the proper way to pursue military action.

Emmer told MinnPost that he hadn’t studied the amendment in full yet, but welcomed the discussion. “There shouldn’t be a carte blanche… there’s a reason why we have Congress,” he said.

Plenty of obstacles ahead

Though the bipartisan progress on the AUMF amendment is clear, there are still plenty of ways that it could fail.

There are important holdouts who could exercise their power to kill the amendment. Rep. Kay Granger, a Texas Republican, chairs the Defense Appropriations subcommittee, and she opposes it on the grounds that it would cripple U.S. efforts to combat terrorism.

The House Rules Committee could strike the amendment before the defense spending bill gets to the floor for a vote by deeming it “out of order,” if the GOP majority, which wields the rules panel’s power, decides to.

If the language does make it to the House floor, a lawmaker could file an amendment to strike Lee’s amendment, and members could vote in favor of that, or against the entire spending bill if there was enough support to maintain the current AUMF without any debate.

If the bill does pass with the AUMF language, the Senate would need to agree to it, too — another potential way it could fail, though bipartisan support exists in the upper chamber for a new AUMF. President Donald Trump could also veto the bill on those grounds, though the stakes would be high, since the amendment is attached to legislation that funds the entire U.S. military and Department of Defense.

According to Emmer, the will to have the AUMF debate is growing within the GOP. “It’s a discussion that has actually started within the general conference about what is the right way to do this,” he said. “It’s time to have the discussion.”

Fifth District Rep. Keith Ellison was more cynical. In a statement, he ventured that Republicans might be allowing the debate now because “they’re finally coming to terms with the fact that their president is an immature, disinterested, petulant child… even the most ideological among the GOP realize that giving a man like that the authority to make war when and where he pleases without congressional oversight is a bad idea.”

At any rate, with Lee’s amendment part of must-pass defense spending legislation, someone will have to take action to strip it. Even if that happens, it’ll be further than the proponents for a new basis for U.S. war have gotten in over a decade.

JEWISH KING JESUS IS COMING AT THE RAPTURE FOR US IN THE CLOUDS-DON'T MISS IT FOR THE WORLD.THE BIBLE TAKEN LITERALLY- WHEN THE PLAIN SENSE MAKES GOOD SENSE-SEEK NO OTHER SENSE-LEST YOU END UP IN NONSENSE.GET SAVED NOW- CALL ON JESUS TODAY.THE ONLY SAVIOR OF THE WHOLE EARTH - NO OTHER. 1 COR 15:23-JESUS THE FIRST FRUITS-CHRISTIANS RAPTURED TO JESUS-FIRST FRUITS OF THE SPIRIT-23 But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming.ROMANS 8:23 And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.(THE PRE-TRIB RAPTURE)

ISAIAH 17:1,11-14
1 The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and it shall be a ruinous heap.(DAMASCUS FRYED TO A PULP)
11  In the day shalt thou make thy plant to grow, and in the morning shalt thou make thy seed to flourish: but the harvest shall be a heap in the day of grief and of desperate sorrow.
12  Woe to the multitude of many people, which make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the rushing of nations,(USELESS U.N) that make a rushing like the rushing of mighty waters!
13  The nations shall rush like the rushing of many waters: but God shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far off, and shall be chased as the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like a rolling thing before the whirlwind.
14  And behold at evening tide trouble; and before the morning he is not.(ASSAD KILLED IN OVERNIGHT RAID) This is the portion of them that spoil us,(ISRAEL) and the lot of them that rob us.

AMOS 1:5
5  I will break also the bar of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant from the plain of Aven, and him that holdeth the sceptre from the house of Eden:(IRAQ) and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir,(JORDAN) saith the LORD.(I belive ISIS-DAMASCUS GET NUKED BY ISRAEL)

Nikki Haley‏Verified account @nikkihaley 14h14 hours ago-JUNE 27,17-Any further attacks done to the people of Syria will be blamed on Assad, but also on Russia & Iran who support him killing his own people.

U.S. says it appears Syria planning another chemical weapons attack-[Reuters]-YAHOONEWS-June 26, 2017

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The White House said on Monday it appears the Syrian government is preparing for another chemical weapons attack and it warned Syrian President Bashar al-Assad he and his military would "pay a heavy price" if it conducts such an attack.The White House statement said preparations by Syria were similar to those undertaken before an April 4 chemical attack that killed dozens of civilians and prompted President Donald Trump to order a cruise missile strike on a Syrian air base.Trump ordered the strike on the Shayrat airfield in Syria in April in reaction to what Washington said was a poison gas attack by Assad's government that killed at least 70 people in rebel-held territory. Syria denied it carried out the attack.The strike put Washington in confrontation with Russia, which has advisers in Syria aiding its close ally Assad.U.S. officials at the time called the intervention a "one-off" intended to deter future chemical weapons attacks and not an expansion of the U.S. role in the Syrian war.(Reporting by Eric Beech; Writing by Yara Bayoumy; Editing by Sandra Maler and Paul Tait)

White House says Assad may be preparing chemical attack-[The Canadian Press]-YAHOONEWS-June 26, 2017

WASHINGTON — The White House says it has found "potential" evidence that Syria is preparing for another chemical weapons attack.Press Secretary Sean Spicer issued an ominous statement Monday evening that says the U.S. "has identified potential preparations" for another chemical attack by the Assad government that it says "would likely result in the mass murder of civilians, including innocent children."He says the activities are similar to those made before an April chemical attack. The Trump administration launched missile strikes in retaliation for that attack, which it blamed on Assad.Spicer warns that "if Assad conducts another mass murder attack using chemical weapons, he and his military will pay a heavy price."The White House has provided no immediate evidence to back up its claims.The Associated Press.


12 And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates;(WERE WW3 STARTS IN IRAQ OR SYRIA OR TURKEY) and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.(THE TURKEY ATATURK DAM ON THE EUPHRATES CAN BE SHUT AND DRIED UP ALREADY BY TURKEY)
13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon,(SATAN) and out of the mouth of the beast,(WORLD DICTATOR) and out of the mouth of the false prophet.(FALSE POPE)
14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.(WERE 2 BILLION DIE FROM NUKE WAR)
15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.
16 And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.(ITS AT THIS TIME I BELIEVE WHEN AMERICA GETS NUKED BY RUSSIA ON THE WAY TO THE MIDEAST)

44 But tidings out of the east(CHINA) and out of the north(RUSSIA, MUSLIMS WHATS LEFT FROM WAVE 1) shall trouble him:(EU DICTATOR IN ISRAEL) therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.( 1/3RD OF EARTHS POPULATION)

12 One woe is past; and, behold, there come two woes more hereafter.
13 And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God,
14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four(DEMONIC WAR) angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.(WORLDWIDE WAR)(TURKEY-IRAQ-SYRIA)(EUPHRATES RIVER CONSISTS OF 760 MILES IN TURKEY,440 MILES IN SYRIA AND 660 MILES IN IRAQ)
15 And the four(DEMONIC WAR) angels were loosed,(WORLDWIDE WAR) which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.(1/3 Earths Population die in WW 3 2ND WAVE-2 billion)
16 And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand:(200 MILLION MAN ARMY FROM CHINA AND THE KINGS OF THE EAST) and I heard the number of them.
17 And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone: and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone.(NUCLEAR BOMBS)
18 By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.(NUCLEAR BOMBS)

Focus-China's 16+1 foray into Central and Eastern Europe By Eric Maurice-euobserver

Prague, 26. Jun, 13:27-Half a decade after it was launched, the network of cooperation between China and 16 Central and Eastern European countries has brought uneven economical and political fruits so far.The so-called 16+1 was established in 2012 as Beijing's initiative to cover various issues such as investment, trade, but also culture or education.The group includes 11 EU countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia; and five non-EU countries from the Balkans: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.It fits into China's global strategy to engage new partners in political and economic ties in different formats.Despite having a permanent secretariat, the Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries - the initiative's official name - is more a series of bilateral relationships with no overall coherence, as experts pointed out in discussions at the Prague European Summit conference earlier this month."It's not really a multilateral format," Petr Kratochvil, the director of Prague's Institute of International Relations, told EUobserver."It's more a group of countries that China took to have bilateral ties with. It's mainly Poland and Hungary in terms of investment, and Romania and Serbia for building projects."China's interest in the 16+1 countries is different from one country to another.In the Czech Republic, Kratochvil noted, the Chinese have mainly invested in real estate, a football club - Slavia Prague, which just won the Czech championship - or the media."It's not really the kind of investment the country wants, because it doesn't produce anything," he said.In Budapest, meanwhile, the government announced last week that Hungary and China would soon start to cooperate in the healthcare industry – from making medical equipment to developing biotechnologies.Kratochvil noted that the amount of Chinese investments in the region had remained limited and was concentrated on a few high profile infrastructure projects, such as the Budapest-Belgrade high-speed railway that Chinese companies plan to build.The focus on infrastructure shows that China considers Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) a full part of the One Belt-One Road initiative – an investment and infrastructure plan, spanning from China to the Middle-East and Africa through to Central Asia."Southern and Eastern Europe are a testing ground for the Belt and Road," Anastas Vangeli, from the Polish Academy of Sciences, told EUobserver.He said that 16+1 was more an "experiment" than a "Chinese plan", and that Beijing tries "to see whether this type of diplomacy can help them boost economic relations.""To put it very simply, the whole idea is to find ways to boost the economy outside China, to generate demand for Chinese goods," Vangeli said, adding: "And these are not cheap goods: high speed railways, satellites systems or nuclear technology."Agatha Kratz, from the European Council on Foreign Relations, a London-based think-tank, told EUobserver that: "The first idea was to treat CEE as Asia and Africa.""That was a big shock, they explained that loans for projects that China would build were not going to happen."For Kratz, the success of the 16+1 initiative is to be found on the political side than in the economic side.She pointed out that annual summits between the 17 leaders, usually in Europe, constitute a "formal channel of communication".-A pragmatic question-After five years, the 16+1 format "has shown its limits, but it will continue," Kratz added.For China, the forum is "high-level enough and it helps to understand how best to promote what it can do in Europe".For CEE countries, the summits are "one more bilateral forum, one more way to have meetings with China and explain what they [CEE countries] need from it."For countries that are either part of the EU or willing to join it in the future, the Chinese partnership is "a pragmatic question", Kratochvil insisted.Although some leaders, such as Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban or Czech president Milos Zeman, are supportive of certain Chinese positions – for instance Beijing's territorial claims in the South China Sea – the region is not going to become a Chinese "ally"."The idea of a strategic shift is nonsense," Kratochvil said.


1 PET 5:8
8 Be sober,(NOT DRUGED UP OR ALCOHOLICED) be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:

23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries (DRUGS) were all nations deceived.

21 Neither repented they of their murders,(KILLING) nor of their sorceries (DRUG ADDICTS AND DRUG PUSHERS), nor of their fornication,(SEX OUTSIDE MARRIAGE OR PROSTITUTION FOR MONEY) nor of their thefts.(STEALING)

Myanmar, Thailand incinerate illicit drugs worth $800 million-[Reuters]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

BANGKOK/YANGON (Reuters) - Officials in Myanmar and Thailand burned illegal narcotics worth more than $800 million on Monday to mark the UN day against drug abuse and trafficking.The move came even as authorities struggle to stem the flood of illicit drugs in the region, with Thailand's justice minister last year saying the country's war on drugs was failing.In Thailand's Ayutthaya province, more than 9 tonnes of drugs with a street value of over 20 billion baht ($590 million) went up in smoke including methamphetamines, known locally as "yaba" or "crazy drug", according to police."Currently, we are able to take down a lot of networks, including ... transnational networks bringing drugs into Thailand ... to be shipped to Malaysia and other countries," Sirinya Sitthichai, Secretary-General of the Office of Narcotics Control Board, told reporters in Ayutthaya.In neighboring Myanmar, the police said they destroyed confiscated drugs worth around $217 million.Myanmar remains one of the world's largest producers of illicit drugs, including opium, heroin and methamphetamines. Those narcotics are often smuggled into China.Last year, law makers in Myanmar voiced disappointment over the country's lackluster efforts to tackle the drug problem.The market for methamphetamines has been growing in Southeast Asia, the United Nations has said. It estimates that Southeast Asia's trade in heroin and methamphetamine was worth $31 billion in 2013.(Reporting by Juarawee Kittisilpa in AYUTTHAYA and Aye Win Myint in YANGON; Writing by Amy Sawitta Lefevre; Editing by Joseph Radford)

Pot insider says dispensaries are 'dreaming' if they think they'll be part of legalization framework-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Omar Khan sat down with Matt Galloway on Metro Morning to discuss big questions that have yet to be answered in the federal government's push to develop a legal framework for recreational marijuana sales by July 2018.Khan is former chief of staff to the Ontario health minister and he now works with the marijuana industry as vice president, public affairs of Hill + Knowlton strategies.Questions and answers have been condensed.Matt Galloway: How prepared is this country for legal weed? Omar Khan: I think right now you have a patchwork of readiness. You have provinces like Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick who are fairly well advanced in terms of their thinking. And you have others, like Manitoba and Saskatchewan, who quite frankly are a little bit further behind.MG: What are the big questions that still have to be answered? OK: I think one of the points that's getting less attention is where will one be able to use marijuana. For example, you can walk down a public sidewalk and smoke a cigarette, but you can't walk down the sidewalk and drink a beer. I think that's a conversation that needs to happen.MG: Do you think that people will be allowed to smoke marijuana in parks, if they can't have an open bottle of alcohol there now? OK: There's a lot of evidence that suggests that harm associated with marijuana use is less than that associated with regular alcohol use. So I think it's something that the province of Ontario especially is going to be looking at as they move forward with their strategy.MG: What about the sale issue? OK: Since the government has set a fairly aggressive timeline for legalization — some have said, July 2018 — I think it's going to be very difficult for the government to have an up-and-running, bricks-and-mortar retail operation by this time next year essentially. I think the government is looking at three options: one would be a wholly government-run crown corporation a la LCBO; I think another option would be a heavily regulated system that gives out private licences for retailing; and then, the third option would be what we call a hybrid. Some private licences combined with a government-run system, similar to how beer and wine is distributed in Ontario.MG: Which way do you think they are leaning?OK: I know the Ontario government started looking at this seriously, right after the election of the Trudeau government. I know the attorney general, Yassir Naqvi, is working away feverishly to put together some options for cabinet to consider. I also know the premier is very big on consultation, so I suspect that before any plan is rolled out, there will be a robust public consultation.MG: Can you have robust public consultation and still set up that regulatory body in time? OK: I know they've been working at this hard for a year or so. The timeline's going to be a challenge no doubt. That's why I suspect that if there are going to be public consultations, as I presume there will be, they'll be rolling them out fairly shortly.MG: Is the timeline too tight? OK: It is what it is. Having worked in government, I know that sometimes you have to set a deadline to get everybody working away at achieving a goal. At the end of the day, what's important is that we are going to have legalized adult use of recreational cannabis in this country. And, industry, government, all involved stakeholders need to start working very fast to get this done right.MG: You work with the industry now. What do they want to know? OK: Like members of the public, they are waiting for more information about what the retail distribution model will look like. But I think industry is very interested in sharing some of their expertise when it comes to distribution. There are a lot of players who have a lot of experience dealing with controlled substances. So for example, pharmacies, care centres. I want to give kudos to Mayor Tory who spoke out vigorously against the illegal dispensaries that are out there right now. The one question everyone needs to ask is, where are these people getting their supply? We have 50 licensed producers or marijuana in this country right now.MG: So where are they getting their supply? OK: I don't want to open myself up to defamation. But they're not getting them from the licensed producers because none of them would risk their licence by providing supply illegally.MG: The assumption from many of the illegal dispensaries is that they're going to be part of the new regime.OK: I think they are dreaming in technicolour. There is no way the province of Ontario or any other province is going to give a retail distribution licence to any entity that's involved in criminal activity.MG: Do you really think we'll meet this deadline? OK: The good thing [Finance Minister] Morneau has put out there is that if there's a province that isn't ready with an up-and-running distribution system next year, there will be a fallback, and I suspect that will be online sales.


7 The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

Spain sends reinforcements as fire spreads near wildlife reserve-Agence France-Presse-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Madrid (AFP) - Firefighters were battling Monday to contain a blaze threatening a renowned national park in southern Spain which has already led to the evacuation of some 2,000 people.Authorities were sending additional firefighters to tackle the flames at the Donana Natural Park in southwestern Spain near Huelva, a fire service spokesman told AFP."The flames are not under control, they are spreading," he added, though no injuries have been reported.The blaze comes a week after wildfires killed over 60 people in neighbouring Portugal.Strong winds and scorching heat were complicating efforts to fight the blaze, which broke out Saturday near the town of Moguer, officials said.The fire has not yet hit the neighbouring Donana National Park, which has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1994 and is well known for the extensive biodiversity of its dunes, wetlands and woods."The flames have not reached the national park," the official in charge of the environment with the regional government of Andalusia, Jose Fiscal Lopez, told Spanish public television."A special effort was made during the night on the front which threatened the park the most," he added.The national park is one of Spain's most important wildlife sanctuaries and a popular tourist attraction.It is home to a variety of animals, including endangered species such as the Spanish imperial eagle and the Iberian lynx, a large cat found only in Spain and Portugal.Officials temporarily evacuated a lynx breeding centre on Sunday as a precaution.A female Iberian lynx died at the Acebuche captive breeding centre on Saturday "due to stress" during its capture for evacuation, the centre said in a statement.The other lynxes are "safe and sound", said the mayor of Moguer, Gustavo Cuellar. "Each lynx held in captivity is receiving detailed care."Over 200 firefighters backed by 15 vehicles and seven planes were battling the blaze on Monday morning, emergency services said.The cause remained unknown but Fiscal Lopez said officials were "certain" human activity played a role."It remains to be seen if this was with (criminal) intent or due to negligence," he added.The fire prompted the closure of several roads and the evacuation of some 2,000 people, including guests at camp sites and several hotels.There were no immediate details on how much land had been burned so far.

DANIEL 7:23-24
23 Thus he said, The fourth beast (EU,REVIVED ROME) shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth,(7TH WORLD EMPIRE) which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.(TRADING BLOCKS-10 WORLD REGIONS/TRADE BLOCS)
24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings(10 NATIONS-10 WORLD DIVISION WORLD GOVERNMENT) that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.(EITHER THE EUROPEAN UNION DICTATOR BOOTS 3 COUNTRIES FROM THE EU OR THE DICTATOR TAKES OVER THE WORLD ECONOMY BY CONTROLLING 3 WORLD TRADE BLOCS)

9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.(THE VATICAN IS BUILT ON 7 HILLS OR MOUNTAINS)
11 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.

Heres the scripture 1 week = 7 yrs Genesis 29:27-29
27 Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.
28 And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week:(7 YEARS) and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also.
29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid.

DANIEL 9:26-27
26 And after threescore and two weeks(62X7=434 YEARS+7X7=49 YEARS=TOTAL OF 69 WEEKS OR 483 YRS) shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary;(ROMAN LEADERS DESTROYED THE 2ND TEMPLE) and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.(THERE HAS TO BE 70 WEEKS OR 490 YRS TO FUFILL THE VISION AND PROPHECY OF DAN 9:24).(THE NEXT VERSE IS THAT 7 YR WEEK OR (70TH FINAL WEEK).
27 And he ( THE ROMAN,EU PRESIDENT) shall confirm the covenant (PEACE TREATY) with many for one week:(1X7=7 YEARS) and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,(3 1/2 yrs in TEMPLE ANIMAL SACRIFICES STOPPED) and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

LUKE 2:1-3
1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
2  (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)
3  And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.

Opinion-New initiative could trump the Visegrad Group By Wojciech Przybylski-euobserver

Warsaw, 26. Jun, 17:09-"New Europe" was a term coined by the administration of former US president George W. Bush.When the USA decided to invade Iraq, this term was used to differentiate between – and celebrate – the solidarity of new Nato members compared to the reluctance of the old allies.Since then, the intricacies of European politics – from smaller initiatives to larger regional alliances and even to the inner-workings of the EU itself – have grown considerably.Many wishing to weaken Europe’s position and potential on the global stage try to exploit this division of old vs new, and it is something all leaders on the continent should be wary of.With that still in mind, on 6 July US president Donald Trump will arrive in Warsaw and take part in an assembly of one of these regional alliances, the Three Seas Initiative (TSI) – a meeting of the EU leaders representing Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).The three seas is a reference to the countries situated between the Adriatic, Baltic and Black Seas.The initiative is seen as a major diplomatic triumph of the Polish president, Andrzej Duda, who is also the leader of the TSI and desperate for a win.However, the TSI is just one of many political groupings in the CEE region with a primary focus on influencing EU policy. Other such groupings of more or less importance are the Visegrad Group (V4), Slavkov triangle, Danube Region, Weimar Triangle and Nordic-Baltic cooperation.While their main focus is on fostering cooperation within the EU, such formations are becoming increasingly interesting for external powers such as China (in the so-called 16+1 format) and now the US.Trump’s visit will definitely put a spotlight on the TSI and help this format to continue.TSI members – Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia – pledged in their founding declaration a year ago to foster regional projects in the areas of energy, transportation, digital communication and economic sectors in CEE.However, according to analysts who are advancing the concept, like Bartosz Wisniewski, the head of research office at the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM), the region still has a long way to go when it comes to its economic development.The TSI is meant to complement connectivity between the East and West of Europe, with greater connectivity along the north-south axis, thanks in no small part to the EU's financial contribution.-Not quite quid pro quo-The US has already increased on their military presence in the region, even more so than had been originally promised by the administration of former US president Barack Obama.The LNG (liquid natural gas) terminal in Swinoujscie, Poland – a strategically important facility allowing for more energy independence in the region – has only recently celebrated the arrival of its first transportation from the US and awaits its next shipment from Qatar, and other countries.Justifiably suspicious of their eastern neighbour, Poland will most likely take the opportunity to sup-port the recent sanctions that were proposed by the US Senate last week on contractors for the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) project, as well as other significant Russian businesses.In comparison, both Trump and Hungarian PM Viktor Orban have sought to lift the sanctions on Russia, a sentiment that is also shared today by Austria, a member of the TSI, whose companies are contractors for the NS2.However, according to PISM these differences are fine, as they are neither an attempt to undermine European integration, nor a block to ward off Russia.To the Czechs and Slovaks, the TSI, especially now, might be a little more problematic.While they agree with the goal of north-south connectivity, they are cautious – if not suspicious – of the political dimension.V4 is the most important format to Slovakia, whereas the country treats the TSI more like a one time event.For Slovaks, there is no political content in this grouping. And, beyond that, there is no security component and no political dimension for the country.Czech officials have also expressed reservations towards Poland, a country that, along with Hungary, emphasises the East-West divide. The radicalisation of some V4 members also does not help.Poles automatically reject all ideas from the Western members, a Czech diplomat recently told Gazeta Wyborcza.A member of the Czech ministry of foreign affairs, who was quoted in the same article, went even further, claiming that the idea of a Three Seas Initiative is unacceptable because of its 20th century neo-imperial origin.Such criticism is dismissed by PISM analysts, who underline that despite any apparent differences, Slovakia and Czech Republic will send their representation.Despite many reservations, the obvious champion of the initiative has become the Croatian president, Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic. Allegedly, her personal involvement was of key importance to the US delegation.The TSI clearly goes along with her plans for her LNG terminal in Croatia that will improve gas sup-ply diversification – independent of Russia – and increase energy cooperation in the region.-Needing a pat on the back-It might be too simplistic, but there is the chance that Trump is using the occasion as a slight against German chancellor Angela Merkel and French president Emmanuel Macron.Is this a not-too-subtle comment about how Trump sees future European cooperation? The question needing to be answered by EU leaders will be whether they think Trump is willing to cut off his nose to spite his face.That worries some, who do not believe that the Polish ministry of foreign affairs can handle a diplomatically sensitive visit.Warsaw, already isolated in the EU, may want to be even more confrontational after Trump's visit. This will also not help to reconcile with Brussels, Berlin or Paris.Furthermore, it will not help to build regional solidarity, since the northern and southern neighbours of Poland will not feel like taking part in fist-fights that would complicate relations with their Western partners.No matter how well-intentioned these leaders are in developing ties between their nations, they will all struggling with domestic and regional issues, as well as questionable popular support.It all makes the meeting feel more like the international conference of future political pariahs.Wojciech Przybylski is the editor-in-chief of Visegrad Insight, and chairman of the Res Publica Foundation in Warsaw. His new book ‘Understanding Central Europe’, co-edited with Marcin Moskalewicz, will be published by Routledge in the second half of 2017.

UK visitors set to pay into EU budget after Brexit By Nikolaj Nielsen-june 27,17-euobserver

BRUSSELS, Today, 22:25-British nationals may end up paying into the EU general budget after the UK leaves the European Union.An EU proposal to tighten border security controls for all visa-free travellers sometime in 2020 will be generating cash by demanding fees from holidaymakers. The fees will pay for annual running costs.But an European Commission official on Monday (26 June) said any surplus revenue would also then go to the EU budget and reduce member state contributions.Proposed last November, the Commission's European Travel Information and Authorisation System (Etias), will screen all visa-free travellers before they enter the passport-free Schengen zone of 26 European states."Any accumulated surplus generated by the Etias revenues would in any case revert back to the EU general budget and hence reduce member state contributions," the Commission official told MEPs.A five-year application under the scheme is €5. The fee is small but the UK's total sum in the pot is not insignificant.Brits made 35 million holiday trips to the EU last year alone with around a third going to Spain, followed by France and Greece. Another 5.5 million were business trips.A spokesperson from the UK-based Association of British Travel Agents (Abta) told EUobserver that the UK holiday figures to the EU have increased substantially in the past few years.He noted that 2016 was "an all time record".Abta wants the British government to negotiate an exemption for UK nationals in Etias, noting that "it is in everyone's interest to keep these flows going."The UK government, meanwhile, says it is determined to get the best possible deal for the country.A UK government spokesperson said Etias was just "one of many areas that may need to be addressed as we leave the EU and agree a new partnership."It is also likely to stir up resentment among people who campaigned to leave the EU, given that British nationals may still be footing, albeit indirectly, the EU budget after Brexit.Commission estimates suggest Etias will cost over €200 million to launch and around €85 million to maintain annually. Discussions between the EU institutions have yet to start but the plan is to reach an agreement before the end this year.German Green MEP Jan Philipp Albrecht said the EU would be better off making it easier for people to travel than imposing a new system that not only creates more red tape but also blanket collects personal data."Making it easier for people from countries, which are also democracies, to travel to the European Union and back is a positive thing and we need not to make that more difficult but easier," he said on Monday.EU nationals, for their part, took 10 million holiday trips and some 7 million business trips to the UK in 2016.


EUROPEAN UNION-KING OF WEST-DAN 9:26-27,DAN 7:23-24,DAN 11:40,REV 13:1-10



GENESIS 6:11-13
11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.(WORLD TERRORISM,MURDERS)(HAMAS IN HEBREW IS VIOLENCE)
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence (TERRORISM)(HAMAS) through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

GENESIS 16:11-12
11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her,(HAGAR) Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael;(FATHER OF THE ARAB/MUSLIMS) because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.
12 And he (ISHMAEL-FATHER OF THE ARAB-MUSLIMS) will be a wild (DONKEY-JACKASS) man;(ISLAM IS A FAKE AND DANGEROUS SEX FOR MURDER CULT) his hand will be against every man,(ISLAM HATES EVERYONE) and every man's hand against him;(PROTECTING THEMSELVES FROM BEING BEHEADED) and he (ISHMAEL ARAB/MUSLIM) shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.(LITERAL-THE ARABS LIVE WITH THEIR BRETHERN JEWS)

ISAIAH 14:12-14
12  How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer,(SATAN) son of the morning!(HEBREW-CRECENT MOON-ISLAM) how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13  For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14  I (SATAN HAS EYE TROUBLES) will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.(AND 1/3RD OF THE ANGELS OF HEAVEN FELL WITH SATAN AND BECAME DEMONS)

JOHN 16:2
2 They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.(ISLAM MURDERS IN THE NAME OF MOON GOD ALLAH OF ISLAM)

Before tragedy strikes': Liberals launch centre to prevent homegrown terrorism-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

The federal government has launched a new centre tasked with preventing the radicalization of Canadian young people.A special adviser will be named in the coming months to oversee the local outreach and research projects funded through the Canada Centre for Community Engagement and Prevention of Violence.The centre will have dedicated staff, but will be located within the existing Public Safety Canada space.Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale said Canada must become a world leader in understanding and dealing with radicalization that leads to violence, in order to retain its national character as an open, diverse society that is also safe and secure."The new Canada Centre for Community Engagement and Prevention of Violence will help us do as much as humanly possible to prevent radicalization to violence before tragedy strikes," Goodale said in a statement. "It will support and empower local leaders to develop initiatives that are suited to their community."Last year's budget set aside $35 million over five years and $10 million each year after to combat radicalization and violence in Canada.Ontario Liberal MP Arif Virani, the parliamentary secretary to the minister of heritage (multiculturalism), said the new centre will drive better research, understanding and engagement, with a special focus on youth vulnerable to radicalization. Building up trust relationships and opening lines of communication are critical to combating radicalism at the ground level, he said.-No boundaries to extremist views-The centre will not focus on Islamist extremism alone, but will cover a wide spectrum, because while some attacks are perpetrated by Islamist extremists, others target Muslims, Virani said."When we look at what's happening across the country, radicalization is not endemic to any one group, institution, race or religion," he said. "It doesn't have particular boundaries that are tied to a religion or an ideology. That's very important to keep in mind because that's a situation we need be upfront about in terms of where the threats are coming from and not focusing on any one particular community."In January, six people were killed and 19 others injured in an attack by a gunman at a Quebec CIty mosque.-Domestic acts of terror-Last August, Aaron Driver died in an altercation with police in Strathroy, Ont. RCMP believe he was preparing to carry out a suicide bombing in a public place.That incident came less than two years after Michael Zehaf-Bibeau shot and killed Cpl. Nathan Cirillo while he stood on guard at the National War Memorial, an act the RCMP called terrorism, before making his way to Parliament Hill.Jeremy Littlewood, a terrorism expert at Ottawa's Carleton University, said Canada's domestic terrorism problem is smaller than some of our closest allies, but that doesn't mean there is no danger.Littlewood said it's too early to tell if Canada's approach will work to combat domestic terrorism, but he said it is wise not to target only one group of extremists."Making it one type of terrorism specific, for example, al-Qaeda or ISIS-inspired terrorism, is a recipe for creating fear, suspicion and perpetuating the notion of suspect communities within a population," he said.Littlewood said success will depend partly on sustained funding, and an openness about what is working and what is not.The government is accepting proposals for the Community Resilience Fund as of July 6, 2017, which has $1.4 million available to fund projects in 2018-19. For subsequent years, there will be $7 million for continuing and new projects.Ten projects have already received funding for counter-radicalization work.

Crowd flows, camera coverage being studied to bolster Parliament Hill security-[The Canadian Press]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

OTTAWA — Security officials say they're ready for the throngs set to descend on Parliament Hill for Canada's 150th birthday celebration Saturday.But that doesn't mean federal researchers are done thinking about how to better protect the country's seat of democracy in the months and years ahead.Advisers are gathering data on everything from crowd flows to video-camera placement to ensure both security and openness in the parliamentary precinct.Parliament Hill security is a "tough nut to crack" because of the fine balance between guarding the most important democratic institutions while keeping the grounds open to people, said Rami Youssef of the federal Centre for Security Science, a wing of Defence Research and Development Canada.After a gunman stormed the Hill in October 2014, dying in a hail of bullets in the Hall of Honour, the centre completed two studies. One looked at the physical security of Parliament's Centre Block, while the other delved into procedures for handling visitors and employees in the parliamentary precinct.The most tangible result of the armed assault was creation of the unified Parliamentary Protective Service, drawing together forces from the RCMP, House of Commons and Senate.The centre's researchers need more information before making the next set of recommendations to decision-makers, Youssef said in an interview."The reality is there's a lot of data to be collected, and a lot of data to be studied and analyzed," he said. "We have to go little by little, because they cannot make any drastic changes just overnight."Researchers are interested in the varied nature of the crowds that turn up on Parliament Hill, as well as the ebb and flow of pedestrian traffic at different times of day.Plans were revealed four years ago to boost video-camera coverage of the Hill substantially to guard against possible attacks by detecting abandoned packages, suspicious activity and disturbances.Researchers are studying different types of cameras, their placement and the percentage of visual coverage on the Hill, Youssef said.Work has been focused to date on trying to prevent attacks in the parliamentary precinct but, time permitting, the centre might explore other types of threats and hazards, such as an earthquake or other natural disaster, he added.Many parts of the Hill are undergoing extensive renovations. That could be a welcome opportunity to embed security changes into revamped buildings, Youssef said.The new Parliamentary Protective Service is working with the centre researchers on projects throughout the precinct, but disclosing details of the efforts "would expose operational tactics and measures" that could affect safety, said Melissa Rusk, a spokeswoman for the protective service.Federal officials are also reviewing the mandate of the Government Operations Centre, the focal point for monitoring major national events and emergencies. In addition, they are seeking a new home for the Ottawa-based centre.During the 2014 shooting, the centre lacked computer technicians, food was limited and senior emergency officials weren't in the building, according to internal documents released two years ago. — Follow @JimBronskill on Twitter-Jim Bronskill , The Canadian Press.

3,000 N.L. Muslims gather for Eid celebrations at Jack Byrne Arena-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Muslims in the St. John's area joined with others around the world in celebrating Eid Sunday — the festival that marks the end of the Islamic month of Ramadan.The celebration at Jack Byrne Arena Sunday morning began with prayers and then a meet and greet with tea, coffee, and snacks."After prayer, we had refreshments, and after refreshments they put out some bouncy castles for kids to play on," Reem Abu-Hendi said.The local celebration is huge — about 3,000 Muslims packed the Jack Byrne Arena early Sunday morning."The community at first, was not that large so like the mosque used to accommodate us but now it's really big like 3,000 people in one place, it's amazing," she said."Just to see all the Muslims in one place, it's a great feeling." Abu-Hendi said.Ramadan is a sacred time for Muslims, who believe that it was when the Qur'an — the holy book — was revealed through the prophet Muhammad."It's 30 days but this year it happened to be 29 because of the moon,"  Ayamen Shaawen said.The month, which started this year May 26, includes dawn-to-dusk fasting, and ends with a religious holiday called Eid."We fast from 3 a.m. until 9 p.m. so it's 18 hours a day," Abu-Hendi said.The fasting can be challenging, but that's what makes it worthwhile, she said."Your body just gets adjusted to it, and I would say it's thirst more than hunger, so you can usually go about your daily activities but around 6 p.m.-7 p.m., I'm done," she said.Without food all day, you'd think there might be a lot of cranky people walking around who are "hangry," but Abu-Hendi says it's all about willpower."Ramadan teaches you patience and self-control. If we lose to anger we could break our fast," she said."It's more of a self-discipline thing," Shaawen said.Volunteers who set up the event get up at the crack of dawn to prepare the arena for the 3,000 attendees."It's a big challenge for those who volunteer to organize it. Before we had a smaller community and our mosque was able to accommodate the size of our community but not anymore," said organizer Ayse Sule."It's a team effort," said Moein Shahwan, vice-resident of the Muslim Association of Newfoundland and Labrador."It brings lots of richness to our community and we are proud of it," Sule said.

Relatives of serial killer's victims speak of pain, guilt and anger-[The Canadian Press]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

WOODSTOCK, Ont. — One after another, family and friends of a serial killer's victims described overwhelming guilt, anger and profound sadness when they learned their loved ones had been murdered by an Ontario nurse who was supposed to care for them.And many spoke about their loss of faith in the province's long-term care system, where Elizabeth Wettlaufer was allowed to cast her "shadow of death" over vulnerable seniors for nearly a decade.Wettlaufer was sentenced Monday in a Woodstock, Ont., court to life in prison with no eligibility for parole for 25 years after she pleaded guilty last month to eight counts of first-degree murder, four counts of attempted murder and two counts of aggravated assault.The 50-year-old nurse used insulin trying — and in most cases succeeding  — to kill vulnerable victims in her care at three Ontario long-term care facilities and a private home. Her crimes began in 2007 and didn't stop until she confessed to the killings at a psychiatric hospital in Toronto last fall.Sandy Millard, whose 87-year-old mother, Gladys Jean Millard, was murdered by Wettlaufer in 2011 at Caressant Care in Woodstock, told court about the depression she has fallen into."Finding out she was killed by a huge injection of medication she did not need broke my heart," she said.Her daughter, and Millard's granddaughter, Shannon Emmerton, spoke through tears."I don't know if I will ever truly recover," she said.Patricia Matheson glared at Wettlaufer as she read a statement by her husband, whose mother, Helen Matheson, was killed by the nurse in 2011."I lost my mother for the second time. No funeral this time, just shock, followed by the question why," Jon Matheson wrote. "I placed my mother in a facility I researched never once considering she would be a victim of such a despicable act. I ask why, because she didn't eat all the blueberry pie and ice cream?"The question of why Wettlaufer killed or hurt 14 people loomed large in court. In a lengthy video statement she gave to police last fall, she said she felt a "red surging" well up in her chest that was relieved after she completed a kill. She believed she was an instrument of God at times, but also killed because some residents were too much work, too burdensome.Many others, wracked by guilt, spoke of what-ifs."I simply feel guilty for not being able to protect my father as he had protected me," wrote David Silcox, whose father, James Silcox, was murdered in 2007.Justice Bruce Thomas acknowledged that guilt was the common theme of the 28 victim impact statements filed in court a few weeks ago."It is a complete betrayal of trust when a caregiver does not prolong life, but terminates it," he said. "But you cannot blame yourselves."Thomas described Wettlaufer's "free run" on her nine-year killing spree, with no oversight or even an inkling she had committed such calculated murders."Without her confessions, I am convinced these offences would never have been brought to justice," he said, calling Wettlaufer a "shadow of death that passed over them (the victims) on the night shift where she supervised."Debora Rivers said her grandmother, Mary Zarawinski, hated the nursing home when she first went there. There are a lot of old people here, she told her niece, even though Zarawinski was one of the oldest residents in the facility."She made it nice for everybody there," Rivers said outside court.She also noted that Wettlaufer had described Zarawinski as "'fun and feisty' — and she was.""The woman lived to be 96 years old for God's sake," Rivers said. "We have no way of knowing how long her life might have been," she said. "We were pretty sure she was going to make it to 100 and so was she."For her part, Wettlaufer apologized, crouching in the prisoner's box without looking at anyone."I am truly sorry for the people I injured or murdered," she said in a soft voice."Sorry is much too small a word. I hope that the families can find some peace and healing."Beverly Bertram, who is Wettlaufer's sole living victim, wrote about the physical pain she was in after the nurse injected her with insulin with the intent to kill her."It is really hard to describe, but I knew I was dying," she wrote in her statement. "I was doubled over in pain in my stomach...Just such pain. My whole body hurt...I thought I was screaming, but I was just moaning I guess."Bertram wrote that she has become a recluse since the incident, afraid of everyone, including her own shadow, and has lost all relationships with her family."I truly think sometimes I'd be better off if she did her deed."Shortly after Wettlaufer's sentencing hearing, the province announced it would hold a public inquiry into the murders to ensure a similar tragedy does not happen again.Liam Casey , The Canadian Press.

Demand for Canada 150 flags, brings seamstress out of retirement-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Canada Day is just under a week away and thanks to the demand for flags leading up to the big celebration, one New Brunswick woman has had to put her retirement on hold.Theresa King's basement is full of bright materials and the tools to turn them into something special. Since March, most of King's projects have been paused while she helps her former employer.- Cyclists pedal into New Brunswick for Canada 150 journey - Fredericton's Canada 150 funding largely focused on 'Indigenous reconciliation' "I thought I was going to be retired," King said with a laugh from her seat in front of a sewing machine.After 28 years working for The Flag Store in Thornton, Ont., she moved to Tower Hill, near St. Andrews. King was only given two years before her old boss came calling."The demand for Canadian flags for the 150 has been so dramatic that they have been out of flags forever," King said.So she agreed to help, thinking at first it would only be for a couple of weeks. Her estimate turned out to be off. Way off.Getting into the flag business-"By the time I'm finished, it will be about 2,500, three-foot-by-six-foot Canadian flags that I will have finished."Working from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m., King can put together about 250 flags a week, which despite their complexity, she will tell you is fast.In order to save on the shipping costs, King drove her first shipment of 1,400 flags to Ontario in May.There has been some time for King to enjoy some side projects, like altering a graduation dress, but she said she's happy to help her former colleagues.In her years working for The Flag Store, she said March always meant the beginning of the busy season. But Canada 150 she said, has created demand the store isn't normally accustomed to."Those girls are pretty tired too," King said. "They're just swamped and there just isn't enough time in the day."It isn't just King who is hard at work in the workshop, she enlisted her husband, Doug, to help out too.He'll be the first to tell you that he never planned on getting into the flag business. But after stencilling off bright red maple leafs from cloth, Doug King said the work keeps him out of trouble.While her time is occupied by piecing together red and white material, King will have a little variety in her life this week.-100 and counting-A text from her boss saw rolls of green, gold, and black arrive at her door with a request from the Jamaican consulate."I have 100 to make" she said, "So I can ship them on Wednesday."After being so busy, you would think King planned on taking Canada Day off to enjoy seeing some flags fly. Instead, she said she's only going to take a break to go to the market before getting back to work.With a goal of getting another 1,000 Canadian flags finished by September, she said her next delivery will be her vacation."That'll be my holiday" King said, "A few days off to drive to Ontario and deliver all the flags."

Canadians will soon have a law on how to dispose of mercury-filled light bulbs-[CBC]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

Canadians will soon have guidance from the federal government on how to dispose of mercury-containing light bulbs in an environmentally responsible way.Bill C-238, a new act that sets out rules for a national light bulb disposal strategy, received royal assent on Thursday.The National Strategy for Safe and Environmentally Sound Disposal of Lamps Containing Mercury Act commits the government to identify ways to dispose of mercury-containing light bulbs safely and establish guidelines for facilities that dispose of them, and then promote the program to Canadians.The bill also requires the environment minister to table the national strategy in Parliament within two years of the act receiving royal assent. -No regulations-Dartmouth-Cole Harbour MP Darren Fisher, who introduced the private member's bill, said there were no federal regulations outlining how to dispose of light bulbs."You can take your mercury-bearing light bulb, and you can throw it in your garbage bag and put it to the curb," he said.One regular, 13-watt residential compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) — the curly looking ones that are slowly replacing the traditional, round incandescent bulbs — contains on average 3.5 milligrams of mercury. Energy Star-certified CFLs contain 2.5 milligrams or less. Fluorescent tubes contain up to 12 milligrams.Fisher said about 1,150 kilograms of mercury end up in Canadian landfills each year, and can contaminate the environment.Mercury is also listed as a toxic substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act."So this is an incredibly big issue," he said.Compact fluorescents on the rise-A 2014 federal ban on most residential incandescent bulbs means more Canadians are using compact fluorescent bulbs. A 2014 report from Statistics Canada noted that in 2011, three-quarters of households across the country used at least one CFL bulb.About half the households that used CFLs reported throwing them in the garbage, and Haligonians were the most likely to toss them, with 84 per cent doing so, the report said.-'Piecemeal' approach-Recycling facilities in some municipalities and provinces break CFL bulbs down and recycle about 98 per cent of the components, including the mercury. Some retailers also collect used bulbs to send to recyclers.But Fisher described that as a "piecemeal" approach.He encourages Canadians to recycle their bulbs or simply hold on to them until the new law is developed."If the worst thing you have to do is put them in a cardboard box and leave them in your garage until the strategy comes forward, please do so, because what we'd like to see is no mercury-bearing light bulbs going into our landfills across Canada," said Fisher.

Nine dead after Colombia tourist boat sinks in reservoir-[Reuters]-yahoonews-June 26, 2017

BOGOTA (Reuters) - Nine people died and 28 are missing after a multi-decked tourist boat carrying about 170 passengers sank in Colombia's Penol-Guatape reservoir on Sunday during the long holiday weekend, a government official said.Officials did not disclose the cause of the accident and provided few details.Videos posted on social media showed motorboats coming to the aid of passengers on the upper decks as the boat rocked from side to side. Ninety-nine people were rescued, Margarita Moncada, the head of disaster relief for Antioquia province, told journalists."At the moment we have nine people found dead. Another 99 people were rescued immediately and 40 more got out on their own," she said.Survivors on local television reports said they heard a loud noise before the boat began to sink and that not all of them had life jackets. Rescue operations were ongoing.Rescue workers and the air force were helping passengers at the scene, President Juan Manuel Santos said in a Twitter post.The large reservoir, about an hour from the central city of Medellin, is a popular tourist destination.(Reporting by Luis Jaime Acosta and Julia Symmes Cobb; Editing by Richard Chang)

          DID numbers in Bosnia And Herzegovina   

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          Dutch court rules Netherlands partially responsible for deaths of 300 Muslim men during Bosnian War   
The Hague Appeals Court [official website, in Dutch] on Tuesday upheld [judgment, in Dutch] a lower court’s decision that Dutch peacekeepers were 30 percent responsible for the deaths of 300 Muslim males who were turned away from a Dutch UN base in 1995 when the area surrounding the base was overrun with Bosnian Serb troops. In the ruling, Presiding Judge Gepke Dulek-Schermers said dutch soldiers “knew or should have known that the men were not only being screened ... but...
          Comment on Croatian restaurant opening on Lark Street by Willie Pittman   
As I understand it, Serbo-Croatian is more or less a single language, written in the Cyrillic alphabet in Serbia and the Latin alphabet in Croatia. There are still a lot of Serbs living in various parts of Croatia, and a lot of both living in Bosnia, so using both alphabets probably makes sense. Of course, there is no love lost between the Serbs and Croats, since they were in direct opposition in WW II and are of opposing religions. But quite often, when you get to the good ole US&A it doesn't matter much any more.
          Bosnia Erzegovina: vent'anni di niente   
          L'italia Chiamò   

«I soldati americani erano equipaggiati diversamente. Prima dientrare in una zona considerata a rischio indossavano tute protettive,guanti speciali, maschere con filtro. Noi invece lavoravamo a maninude, le nostre maschere, quando ce le davano, erano di carta, tuteniente».

Quattro soldati cercano un difficile ritorno alla normalità dopoessersi ammalati di tumore operando in zone bombardate con armiall’uranio impoverito. Luca, Emerico, Angelo e Salvatore hanno sceltovolontariamente la divisa, ma sono stati abbandonati dall'Esercitoproprio quando hanno dovuto lottare per la vita. Chi ha denunciato hasubito minacce e ricatti, chi ha taciuto è sprofondato nellasolitudine. L’Italia chiamò è un’inchiesta multimediale cheracconta attraverso immagini e testo gli effetti dell’inquinamentobellico sul personale delle forze armate impiegato in Bosnia, Kosovo eIraq.

Il documentario giornalistico, premiato dalla critica, riannodain un diario intimo le storie dei soldati, ricostruendo la catena delleresponsabilità.

Ottobre 1993. Travolto dallo scandalo della Sindrome del Golfo, cheha fatto migliaia di vittime tra i militari inviati in Iraq, ildipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti dirama le prime normegenerali di protezione dall’uranio impoverito.

Il videotapeinformativo, originariamente destinato alle caserme, viene trasmesso atutti i paesi membri dell’Alleanza atlantica, ma in Italia lo Statomaggiore dell’Esercito non lo mostrerà mai ai soldati, checontinueranno a partire per le missioni di “pace” all’estero senzaadeguate protezioni, ammalandosi e morendo. Perché i vertici delleforze armate hanno taciuto? Hanno sottovalutato i rischi dellacontaminazione oppure nessuno ha voluto assumersi la responsabilità dirispondere alle famiglie di chi aveva subito la contaminazione? In unoscenario inquinato da statistiche fasulle, due Commissioni parlamentarid’inchiesta hanno cercato di ristabilire la verità dei fatti,riuscendoci solo parzialmente. Per alcuni scienziati non è dimostrabileil nesso causa-effetto tra l’insorgenza dei tumori e l’esposizioneall’inquinamento bellico. Ma nei corpi dei soldati ci sono elementichimici che possono provenire solo da esplosione di uranio impoverito.

Di recente i tribunali ne hanno riconosciuto gli effetti letali,aprendo la strada a centinaia di richieste di risarcimento. Mentre lapolitica litiga sulle cifre, chiunque è libero di sperimentare armi nonconvenzionali nei poligoni sardi, bastano 50 mila dollari eun’autocertificazione. Il picco dei decessi deve ancora arrivare,avvertono gli scienziati, aspettiamoci il peggio.

Sono quasi trecento i soldati malati, 37 i morti, potrebbe essere una strage.
E' una storia di morte, rabbia, disinformazione, menzogne e bugie di stato.
E' una delle storie più delicate e pericolose di questi ultimi anni.
E' la storia dell'Uranio 238, l'Uranio impoverito utilizzato fin dal 1991 in molte zone di guerra, in Bosnia e Kosovo.

E' una vergogna tutta italiana: Una bomba contro la fiducia dei cittadini nella politica e sui vertici militari che vogliono mettere a tacere il caso.
In questo libro sono contenuti documenti originali e inedite, fotografie, lettere e testimonianze raccolte dalla viva voce dei soldati che stanno morendo.
          Zero + DVD   


 “In questi anni, è stato possibile accumulare una tale massa di dati, di immagini, di analisi da poter affermare senza ombra di dubbio che la “versione ufficiale” è un falso. Abbiamo sfidato il tabù, spinti dalla necessità di ricercare la verità, ben sapendo che essa non è celata in un posto solo. Meno che mai in qualche grotta afgana. Lo abbiamo fatto perché sappiamo che la verità sull'11 settembre è importante, anzi essenziale: per sopravvivere.”

L'11 settembre ha cambiato la storia. Con quel tragico e spettacolare attentato, in cui hanno perso la vita circa tremila persone innocenti, gran parte delle certezze occidentali sono andate in frantumi.
Ne è seguita un'offensiva che ha già prodotto due guerre e ha modificato non solo la geopolitica di intere aree del pianeta, ma tutti i rapporti di forza consolidati nei decenni precedenti.
I responsabili dell'attacco sono stati additati al mondo con singolare rapidità, e un solo, presunto responsabile è stato giudicato da un regolare tribunale e condannato all'ergastolo.
Ma un' analisi attenta evidenzia che la versione ufficiale non è solo lacunosa in decine di punti essenziali, ma in altre decine di punti dimostrabilmente falsa. Salvo rarissime eccezioni, i media hanno rispettato il tabù, e negli anni hanno applicato quella legge del giornalismo contemporaneo secondo cui – per dirla con Gore Vidal – «ciò che non dovrebbe essere vero, non lo è».
Noi non accettiamo questo criterio.
L'eccezionale rilevanza dell'evento appare del tutto incompatibile con una tale massa di omissioni, distrazioni, dimenticanze, silenzi. La tesi dell'inefficienza, delle incompetenze, non regge alla più elementare delle analisi.
È stato scritto autorevolmente che la verità sull'11 settembre non la saprà questa generazione. Noi non possiamo pretendere di sostituirci agli investigatori che hanno svolto la loro opera a partire dai dati primari raccolti sui luoghi. Ma i materiali che hanno prodotto rivelano falsità ed errori che possono essere dimostrati.
Per questo abbiamo raccolto un'enorme mole di dati, fatti, analisi, immagini e li abbiamo posti sotto il vaglio rigoroso di verifiche che hanno coinvolto un gran numero di specialisti di provata competenza nei diversi campi dell'indagine. Sono quelle verifiche a confermare i sospetti, a suggerire ipotesi ben più realistiche e a darci un'assoluta certezza: non è, proprio non può essere andata come ci hanno raccontato. Per avvicinarci alla verità, siamo ripartiti da zero.


GIULIETTO CHIESA - È uno dei più noti giornalisti italiani. Esperto di politica internazionale, fondatore di Megachip - Associazione per la democrazia nell'informazione e parlamentare europeo, ha pubblicato tra l'altro La guerra infinita , La guerra come menzogna e Le carceri segrete della Cia in Europa .

GORE VIDAL - Scrittore, saggista, caustico commentatore della società americana contemporanea, è considerato uno dei più rilevanti intellettuali del nostro tempo.

FRANCO CARDINI - È il più noto medievalista italiano. Studioso delle relazioni tra musulmani e cristiani, il suo ultimo saggio è Europa e Islam: storia di un malinteso .

GIANNI VATTIMO - Filosofo, saggista, esponente politico, insegna Estetica all'università di Torino ed è visiting professor in importanti atenei americani.

LIDIA RAVERA - Scrittrice, giornalista e saggista, collabora con L'Unità e Micromega .

ANDREAS VON BÜLOW - Già ministro della Ricerca nell'amministrazione Schmidt ed esponente di spicco della SPD tedesca, ha scritto saggi e articoli sui servizi segreti europei ed USA.

STEVEN JONES - Fisico, già professore all'università dello Utah, è membro fondatore di “ Scholars of 9/11 Truth ”.

CLAUDIO FRACASSI - Giornalista, saggista, ex corrispondente e poi direttore di Paese Sera , ha fondato e diretto la rivista Avvenimenti .

JURGEN ELSAESSER - Giornalista, ha scritto rilevanti saggi sulla Bosnia e sul terrorismo di matrice musulmana in Europa.

WEBSTER G. TARPLEY - Storico, saggista, si è occupato dei rapporti tra Brigate Rosse e loggia P2. Ha pubblicato recentemente 9/11 Synthetic Terror .

THIERRY MEYSSAN - Giornalista, il suo libro L'incredibile menzogna è stato un bestseller internazionale tradotto in ventisette lingue.

ENZO MODUGNO - Economista e giornalista, è noto per i suoi articoli sui principi keynesiani e la loro rilevanza sul modello economico militare-industriale.

DAVID RAY GRIFFIN - Filosofo, teologo e saggista, è autore di The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distorsions .

BARRY ZWICKER - Giornalista, documentarista e attivista politico, ha realizzato il documentario 9/11, The Great Conspiracy .

MICHEL CHOSSUDOVSKY - Professore di economia all'università di Ottawa, si è occupato della guerra in Jugoslavia ed è autore di America's War on Terrorism .



Un film documentario che rompe il muro del silenzio, un'inchiesta giornalistica rigorosa, costruita con interviste girate in tutto il mondo a testimoni oculari, sopravvissuti, responsabili delle indagini, esperti, tecnici, scienziati, familiari delle vittime, giornalisti.

Quattro narratori d'eccezione, Darlo Fo, Gore Vidal, Lella Costa e Moni Ovadia, accompagnano lo spettatore nel viaggio attraverso le menzogne della versione ufficiale.

Immagini inedite ed esclusive, documenti ufficiali, ricostruzioni in computer grafica, permettono di riconsiderare i fatti da punti di vista diversi e riuscire a guardare di nuovo, in maniera critica, le immagini dell'11 settembre 2001.

Per la regia di Franco Fracassi e Francesco Trento. Prodotto da Thomas Torelli per TPF Telemaco. Presentato alla Festa del Cinema di Roma 2007.


          Seminar al Asociaţiei Internaţionale a Poliţiştilor, găzduit de Alba Iulia   

Reprezentanţi ai Asociaţiei Internaţionale a Poliţiştilor (IPA) din România, Republica Moldova, Belgia, Serbia şi Bosnia Herţegovina se întrunesc, astăzi, în Alba Iulia, în cadrul seminarului cu tema „Rolul comunicării în procesul de asigurare a legalităţii şi a climatului de ordine publică”. Evenimentul este găzduit de Instituția Prefectului Alba. Seminarul de la Alba Iulia reuneşte preşedinţii de […]

Post-ul Seminar al Asociaţiei Internaţionale a Poliţiştilor, găzduit de Alba Iulia apare prima dată în Revista de Alba.

          Everyday Miracles with Candace McLean: Do Miracles Really Exist with Randall Sullivan from "Miracle Detectives" on The Oprah Winfrey Network   
GuestDo miracles really exist? Or is there a logical explanation to the seemingly inexplicable? Believer, Randall Sullivan has traveled the globe to uncover answers to mysterious incidents that transcend logic in Miracle Detectives, a new one hour documentary series for OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network.Randall Sullivan is an author and journalist who, while traveling as a war correspondent in Bosnia, saw an inexplicable vision during a violent thunder and lightning storm. He is convinced it was a mirac ...
          Clausewitz in Wonderland   

Last but not least, the third major flaw is "strategism." At its "best," strategism is synonymous with "strategy for strategy's sake," i.e., a self-referential discourse more interested in theory-building (or is it hair-splitting?) than policy-making. Strategism would be innocuous enough were it not for the fact that, in the media and academia, "realism" today is fast becoming synonymous with "absence of memory, will, and imagination": in that context, the self-referentiality of the strategic discourse does not exactly improve the quality of the public debate. At its worst, strategism confuses education with indoctrination, and scholarship with scholasticism; in its most extreme form, it comes close to being an "intellectual terrorism" in the name of Clausewitz.

Clausewitz in Londonistan

That infatuation with Clausewitz can lead to hair-raising absurdities about the GWOT is never better illustrated than by the recent remark of Anglo-American Clausewitzian veteran Colin Gray on the global jihad: "It is but axiomatic to maintain that an irregular belligerent wins by not losing. Somewhat in defiance of that axiom, I will argue that time is not on the side of the catastrophic, post-modern terrorist. The war-hardened multinational cadre of veterans of the Afghan struggle is diminishing rapidly. It has suffered the natural attrition of age and infirmity, as well as the combat attrition inflicted by an aroused bevy of state enemies.... Those warriors for Islam cannot be replaced by new cohorts with comparable training and group bonding.... Al-Qaeda has now aroused a formidable array of enemies, within and beyond the Islamic realm."3

Besides the fallacy of equating jihadists with Al Qaeda alone, this static conception of the global jihad in terms of finite "stock" ignores the dynamic created by media, i.e., the cyber-mobilization as the new Levee en Masse. On what planet does the good professor live? From the Balkans to Londonistan, Europe has been, for at least a decade now, the closest thing to a "frontline" in the global jihad. In Colin Gray's Britain today, 6 percent of the Muslim population (i.e., 100,000 individuals) think that the 7/7 London bombings were "fully justified;" 32 percent of British Muslims (half a million people) believe that "Western society is decadent and immoral and that Muslims should seek to bring it to an end;" and 40 percent want to see sharia law adopted in the UK.4

In Colin Gray's Britain, Muslims are barely 2 million, but politicians are already pandering to the Muslim vote and willing to make all sorts of concessions, including on immigration. Caught in a time warp, Gray looks jihad (al Qaeda) and dawa (Hizb-ut-Tahrir) in the eye, and see nothing more than -- a bearded version of the IRA. Rather than bury their heads in the Clausewitzian sand, strategists would be better inspired to meditate the truly "remarkable trinity" engineered by Arab governments for more than thirty years: natalist policies, anti-Western mass indoctrination, and mass emigration to the West. Isn't time at least to add a chapter to On War on "demographic warfare?"5

If a Colin Gray -- arguably the smartest living Clausewitzian today -- can be so blind as to the nature of the challenges facing the West, one can easily guess the damage done by Clausewitzology on less talented minds.

Clausewitz in America: Prussian fantasies, French realities?

Since the end of the Cold War, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (which can apparently walk and chew gum at the same time) has been rethinking both conventional and irregular warfare. For the former, the pla turned to the American Mahan, not the Prussian Clausewitz; for the latter, the pla went back not only to Sun-Tzu, but also to Lawrence, Beaufre, Arquilla, Lind, etc. -- anything that can be of use in the conceptual toolbox of "unrestricted warfare" (URW). In America, meanwhile, -- and despite a guerilla war engineered by "Netwar" and "Fourth Generation Warfare" insurgents -- the military educational establishment has continued to peddle Clausewitz or, to be more precise, an increasingly Jominized version of Clausewitz.

Like the aging Marxists with a Karl of their own, the Clausewitzians today are more interested in exonerating their idol from the evil perpetrated in his name than in demonstrating what good he could bring to the current challenges facing the military. It may well be that Marx and Clausewitz were indeed mostly "misread" by most people most of the time, but if the risks of "misreading" are statistically greater than the chances of getting it right, what's the point of making it required reading in the first place? With its unresolved tensions between its theologia speculativa and theologia positiva parts, On War, to be sure, is ideally suited for endless, medieval-like scholastic disputatio. But while Clausewitz-Centered Chatter (CCC) can be entertaining (how many ayatollahs can dance on a Schwerpunkt?), there are undeniable opportunity costs for an officer corps already "too busy to learn."6

A decade ago already, U.S. Army War College professor Steven Metz remarked: "Like adoration for some family elder, the veneration heaped on Clausewitz seems to grow even as his power to explain the world declines. He remains an icon at all U.S. war colleges (figuratively and literally) while his writings are bent, twisted, and stretched to explain everything from guerilla insurgency (Summers) through nuclear strategy (Cimbala) to counternarcotrafficking (Sharpe). On War is treated like holy script from which quotations are plucked to legitimize all sorts of policies and programs. But enough! It is time to hold a wake so that strategists can pay their respects to Clausewitz and move on, leaving him to rest among the historians."7

In the past two years, to be sure, the steepest learning curve within the U.S. government has been in DOD, not the State Department or the CIA. But this "transformation" in military education has taken place largely outside formal channels. Today still, such is the institutional weight of the Clausewitzian petits maitres that the former commander of the U.S. Army War College -- one of the smartest proponents of Culture-Centric Warfare -- feels compelled to perform the ritual bow to the master in order to get the institution to accept the principle of a radical revamping of professional military education (PME).8

Does the obsession with Clausewitz really matter that much? You bet it does. As the military-educational complex (150 institutions, of which the Naval War College is the crown jewel) takes in interagency education, the danger is that "strategism" and "Clausewitzology" will spread to other agencies and may aggravate already dysfunctional civil-military relations at the working level. The Iraqi precedent, in that respect, does not bode well.

For those who naively thought that the current Iraqi predicament could safely be blamed on three dozen "neocon chickenhawks," Thomas Ricks's recent book will be a revelation: Failure was not the least preordained, and the military, as much as the civilians, has its share of responsibility. Talking about a military fiasco would be excessive, because it is not the U.S. military that made the two most fateful decisions (disbanding the Iraqi army in 2003; taking four months to form a government in 2006). But the fact remains, "well into 2005, the American military ... didn't imagine or prepare for the possibility that former regime members had their own 'day-after' plans to fight on even if they lost the conventional battle. It didn't imagine that Iraq would become a magnet for international jihadists, so it failed to seal the borders. It didn't imagine the Sunni tribal militias would react with such violence to the American presence, so it failed to take the pre-emptive economic and political steps to address their grievances. And it failed to understand that there were elements within the Shiite community that would use force to try to establish a theocratic system."9

Like McMaster's Dereliction of Duty on Vietnam (a book hugely popular with mid-level officers), Ricks's Fiasco on Iraq is at times too harsh on the military brass, and tends to misdiagnose a problem which, more than ever, is not so much moral as intellectual.10

The generation of Maxwell Taylor graduated from West Point at a time, the early 1920s, when the "lessons learned" could not but focus on a conventional war (World War 1), and their first-hand experience of war was shaped by another conventional war (World War 11). Thus, the Taylor generation never had existential nor intellectual exposure to irregular warfare (there was little theoretical work on the subject), and by the 1960s, neither did they have much incentive to learn from the experience of foreign powers (UK and France) which, unlike America, were after all colonial powers. But the successor generations should have logically benefited from the "lessons learned" in Vietnam as well as the growing literature on counterinsurgency. Yet instead of being exposed to the policy-relevant Clausewitzian realism of Osgood's Limited War Revisited (1979), the new generation of officers was force-fed with the Clausewitzian "surrealism" of Summers's On Strategy (1981) -- the true beginning of strategy for strategy's sake in America.

By 1999, the reasons for not using Clausewitz as a textbook had become apparent even to the Clausewitzian die-hards -- who nevertheless concluded, in surrealistic fashion: "Because much of the existing literature on Clausewitz explains his significance within an obsolete context, few educators are able to forcefully demonstrate his relevance in the post-Cold War world.... It is difficult to pin any blame on educators, however, when the existing version of On War is so difficult to reach and to teach from."11

Difficult to pin any blame? Not so fast. Chronologically and logically, the first blame would appear to fall on the educators' shoulders: isn't it a failure to learn on the part of military educators which later led to a failure to anticipate on the part of military planners and to a failure to adapt (quickly enough) on the part of military commanders on the ground?12 Isn't it the educators who drew the wrong lessons from Vietnam and came up with the surrealistic Weinberger Doctrine; who dubbed "Operations Other than War" (OOTW) anything that did not resemble a Clausewitzian "decisive battle;" who, having reduced "war" to "battle," "battle" to "combat," and "combat" to "targeting and shooting," dismissed post-combat planning as postwar planning best left to civilians.

Since the proverbial military-industrial complex can always be counted on to push for a technocentric approach to war, isn't it the duty of the military-educational complex to make sure soldiers never lose sight of the anthropocentric approach? And once it becomes clear, as in the early 1990s, that U.S. is peerless in conventional warfare, isn't the duty of educators to anticipate that the enemy will have no choice but to choose an asymmetrical approach -- as in "irregular warfare?" Yet, while the Osamas of this world were issuing fatwas against "Jews and Crusaders" and defining their own struggle in terms of "Fourth-Generation Warfare," our Clausewitzian Ayatollahs were too busy turning Vom Kriege in a military Quran and issuing fatwas against the theoreticians of 4GW, Netwar, and other postmodern "heresies." If that attitude does not qualify as "dereliction of duty," what does?

For the neutral observer, then, the problem with the "neocon chickenhawks" is not so much that they lacked an understanding of irregular warfare13 as that they seriously underestimated the sterilizing effect, on the American military mind and over a generation, of three dozen Clausewitzian cicadas for whom counterinsurgency was synonymous with "derisive battle." A contrario, the intellectual agility since the end of the Cold War of a Marine Corps largely exempt from the Clausewitz regimen (from General Krulak to General Mattis) would tend to prove that the problem is not with the officer corps itself, but with the (largely civilian) Clausewitzian educators. If the Clausewitzian text is indeed so filled with fog and friction, if On War is so hard to teach from that even most educators can't teach it properly, then surely thought should be given to retiring Clausewitz, or the educators -- or both.

The "cognitive dissonance" among Clausewitizians consists in maintaining the most dogmatic approach concerning Clausewitz as the True North, while deploring -- like Gray -- that "American military power has been as awesome tactically as it has rarely been impressive operationally or strategically.... the German armed forces in both world wars suffered from the same malady" (as if the two were somehow unrelated). If, as Gray rightly points out, "strategy is -- or should be, the bridge that connects military power with policy," what kind of a bridge is On War, which devotes 600 pages to military power and next to nothing to policy? Between the "strategy for strategy's sake" of the Clausewitzians, and the "tacticisation of strategy" of Network-Centric Warriors, genuine strategic thinking seems to be forever elusive -- missing in action as much as in reflection.

Why such an irrational "resistance" (in the Freudian sense) on the part of military educators? After all, it does not take an Einstein to realize that, from Alexander the Great to Napoleon, the greatest generals for 20 centuries had one thing in common: They have never read Clausewitz. And conversely, in the bloodiest century known to man, the greatest admirers of Clausewitz also have had one thing in common: They may have won a battle here and there, but they have all invariably lost all their wars. One suspects that the Prussian Party is in fact not so much interested in meditating Clausewitz (their endless exegeses of Clausewitz in the past 30 years has yielded no new insight beyond the interpretations of a Raymond Aron and a Carl Schmitt) as such, as in maintaining a "Prussian folklore" in the U.S. military. One can understand their hostilite de principe to the idea of teaching irregular warfare: from Marshall Bugeaud to General Beaufre, from Marshall Gallieni to Marshall Lyautey, from Colonel Trinquier to Lieutenant Galula, the majority of the leading theoreticians on the subject happen to be, not Prussian but -- horresco referens -- French. And as is well-known by anyone who gets his military history from Hollywood rather than Harvard, the French, since 1918 at least, have proven utterly incapable of fighting.14

Ironically, and Prussian fantasies notwithstanding, what the post-Gulf War American Army has come to resemble is the post-World War i French Army: In both cases, victory breeds complacency, and this in turn can lead to a solid but unimaginative army capable of holding its own against an equally solid but unimaginative opponent -- but is not necessarily a match for an innovative military, be it in the form of the German "blitzkrieg" yesterday or Chinese "unrestricted warfare" tomorrow. No wonder that a particularly bold USMC colonel felt compelled recently to argue that the "Shock and Awe" doctrine could prove to be America's twenty-first-century Maginot Line.15

As of this writing (August 2006), it is too early to tell whether Baghdad will be America's Battle of Algiers -- or Battle of Jena. But it is not too early to call for a Renaissance in Strategic Education -- for military and civilians alike. In diplomacy as in academe and in the media, there is unquestionably a need for greater strategic literacy, and the military can play a constructive role; but by the same token, the military will have to free itself from the Clausewitzian straitjacket if it ever wants to make a significant contribution to grand strategy.

The Revolution in Guerrilla Affairs

Unlike his disciples today, Clausewitz was an attentive observer of the revolution in military affairs of his day. It so happens that this RMA was in conventional warfare (the Carnot-Bonaparte revolution), whereas that of today is in irregular warfare (Netwar, 4GW). Clausewitz, to be sure, was no stranger to irregular warfare; in fact, On War was initially meant as the first part of a triptych on conventional warfare, irregular warfare and tactics. But the fact remains that in the 10 volumes of his complete works, the least developed (quantitatively and qualitatively) topic remains irregular warfare. Every thinker, to be sure, is a product of his time and, as Raymond Aron observed long ago, it should not come as a surprise that Clausewitz could only conceive of guerrilla warfare in the form of the traditional (defensive) "guerre populaire" and not the twenty-century (offensive) "guerre revolutionnaire." Be that as it may, it is not until the turn of the twentieth century that the conceptualization of irregular warfare will take a new turn, through the combined effects of the anthropologization of military theory (Calwell, Lawrence) and the militarization of revolutionary ideology (Lenin, Trotsky).16 Meanwhile, in the field of the conventional warfare, the traditional Clausewitzian emphasis on "annihilation" and "decisive battle" will find itself challenged by Delbruck and Corbett, while Liddell Hart will bring the debate on an altogether different plane: that of Grand Strategy.

If Mao Zedong marks a major turning point in the history of irregular warfare, it is because he blends the Western and Eastern traditions and offers the most comprehensive theory and practice of Guerrilla -- leading General Beaufre to refer to Mao's Long March in terms of "Grande Guerrilla." Yet, in one fundamental aspect, Mao continues to view irregular warfare the same way as Clausewitz: Irregular warfare is merely a "support activity" for conventional warfare; there is no substitute for a conventional, "decisive battle" in the third phase of Mao's people's war.

If there is a real "Revolution in Guerrilla Affairs," then, it is not to be found in Mao's Long March, but in the French-Algerian War (1954-1962). By 1962, the Algerian FLN forces are reduced to 10,000 men, while the French regular forces include more than 100,000 Algerian volunteers. But through the clever use of media (in particular Nasser's "Voice of the Arabs," the al-Jazeera of the time) and high-visibility fora provided by nascent international organizations (the UN, the Arab League, etc.), the Algerian FLN, while thoroughly defeated militarily, will be able to level the playing field and -- the asymmetry of political wills being what it is [17] -- to prevail politically, in a way totally unanticipated by Mao.

Fast forward to 1989. The year of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, William Lind and his iconoclastic "band of brothers" come up with a new theory: Fourth-Generation Warfare. Initially eclipsed by other postmodern discourses (Toffler, Keegan, and especially Van Creveld), "Fourth-Generation Warfare" will enter the lexicon of the mainstream media only after the 9/11 events.

And the first criticism that 4GW will have to confront is that it is based on shaky history. While the point is well-taken, it is worth noting that this is not the first time in military circles that good theory rests on lousy history. In his time, 1957, Samuel Huntington's historical account of the relation between the Soldier and the State was at best fuzzy history; yet Huntington admirably succeeded in devising a much-needed normative theory of civil-military relations in democratic countries valid for the whole Cold War (whether the U.S. military should continue today to treat it as gospel is another question). Similarly, the historical foundations of 4GW theory are awkward at best: The "generational" periodization cannot fail to make any serious historian cringe, and a more rigorous genealogy should probably have followed the rough "revolution in guerrilla affairs" model outlined above. At the very least, the proponents of 4GW would have been better inspired to argue that, in the second half of the twentieth century, a new form of warfare became dominant due to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors: the increasing militarization of ideologies (Marxism yesterday and Islamism today), the constraints brought by weapons of mass destruction, the opportunities offered by the new weapons of mass communication, etc.

Be it as it may: As Lawrence Freedman, the dean of British strategic studies, pointed out recently, "the fact that 4GW is based on poor history, and does scant justice to the forms both regular and irregular warfare can take, is not in itself a reason for neglecting its prescriptive aspects."18 4GW theory, which presents itself as a work in progress rather than a closed system, remains one of the most useful approaches to understand the grammar and logic of the current global jihad. And the Clausewitzian drill sergeants are all the less justified in dismissing 4GW in that, unlike other postmodern theoreticians, the 4GW warriors do not exhibit an a priori hostility toward Clausewitz.

"Virtual States" and "Nonlinear Wars"

There is, to be sure, room for improvement. Thus, due to the Clausewitzian, state-on-state, force-on-force, dogmatism prevailing in military circles in the 1980s, the theoreticians of 4GW were initially inclined to put the emphasis on the opposite: the importance of transnational, nonstate actors at the strategic level, of dispersion rather than concentration of forces at the operational level, etc. Today, by contrast, it would be more useful to focus on the concept of "Deep Coalition" between state and nonstate actors put forward by other postmodern defense intellectuals (Alvin Toffler).

One clear shortcoming of 4GW theory is the axiom of a "crisis of legitimacy" of the state. For one thing, the "post-Westphalian" rhetoric so common since the end of the Cold War rests on an idealized vision of the Westphalian order, during which sovereignty was in fact never as total as some would assume; conversely, of the 150 states that have emerged since 1945, the majority have never been real states but "quasi-states." Too much emphasis on "terrorism" as a product of the "crisis of legitimacy" of the state is wrong not just factually but heuristically as well, in that it leads analysts to overlook the importance of terrorism as a "force multiplier" for the (actual or potential rogue) state. Simply put, the axiom of a "legitimacy crisis" is an impediment to an analysis of the various modalities of "war by proxy".19 Similarly, too much emphasis on "dispersion" can lead one to overlook the fact that "swarming" campaigns -- like the recent "cartoon jihad" -- are driven by "deep coalitions" of states, IOs, and NGOs.

Last but not least, one could certainly take the 4GW warriors to task regarding their editorial strategies: Having denounced the Western lumpen-intelligentsia for what it is (a Fifth Column), some 4GW theoreticians, blinded by anti-Bush passions, end up publishing their diatribes in the columns of the same lumpen-intelligentsia. True, William Lind on is not nearly as bad as Jane Fonda on Hanoi TV, but given the IQ differential, this "objective complicity" (as Marxists used to say) still is "worse than a crime -- a mistake." Just like it is time for Clausewitzians to realize that ours is the age of the "Three-Block War" (Krulak), and that Santa Clausewitz won't be coming to town, it is time for 4GW warriors to grow up and accept the fact that -- to update Donald Rumsfeld -- "you go to war with the SecDef you have."

It is time to "bring the state back in," lest the 4GW and Netwar discourses end up being afflicted with the same disease as Network-Centric Warfare: namely, the "tacticisation of strategy." But the return of the state will not be synonymous with a return to Clausewitz. For one thing, the "state" is not the transparent, self-evident, ahistorical concept that some strategists all too often assume. In the days of Clausewitz, at any rate, the State was close to Fichte's "Geschlossene Handelstaat;" today, it is closer to Rosecrance's "Virtual State." For another, as the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review puts it, the Long War will have to be waged across the proverbial DIME spectrum, now renamed DIMEFIL (diplomacy, information, military, economic, financial, intelligence, law enforcement). Old Carl may have had a few interesting things to say about counterinsurgency (COIN), but he never ventured beyond the military dimension (in short, and to put it in modern parlance: it's COIN and DIME, stupid).

The bottom line: because wars are now waged along the DIMEFIL spectrum, the nonlinearity of war has increased exponentially. In his time, to be sure, Clausewitz had the intuition that -- to put it simplistically - "fog and friction" combined to produce nonlinearity, but this idea was never fully developed (the "chameleon" imagery in On War does not quite make a chaos theory). Today, the main driver of nonlinearity is not military friction, but media contagion. The overarching metaphor is not so much mechanics as epidemiology. The new buzzword is not kinetics, but "memetics." The main problem in the field out there is "mass disruption and mass contagion," while the relevance of the Clausewitzian "fog and friction" is confined primarily to, well -- the Beltway's interagency "turf wars."20

Clausewitz will never deliver the grammar and logic of Global Jihad. Can the Prussian's masterpiece at least increase the "situational awareness" regarding the current challenges? Let's do a quick tour d'horizon to see a contrario why, in and of itself, "Knowing Thy Clausewitz" will never provide the Big Picture necessary to devise a Grand Strategy.

"Deep Coalitions" and "Soft Balancing": The Shiite crescent and the SCO

In 12 month's time since the June 2005 presidential elections, Iran has managed to eclipse Iraq and Afghanistan as problem No. 1, thanks to the combination of nuclear ambition and genocidal proclamations. In what way can Clausewitz bring any light to the question "Iran: to bomb or not to bomb?" The Prussian, to be sure, can help us remember that Iran is not a unitary actor but -- so to speak -- a trinitarian one (government, military, people). Beyond that, nothing; yet, it may well be that, in order to avoid the alternative between appeasement and atomization, the U.S. will have to devise a policy whose success will rest, not just on a good grasp of Iranian civil-military relations, but of the correlation of forces within the Iranian military itself, between the regular army and the Revolutionary Guards, i.e., between those for whom "war is but the continuation of politics by other means" (in the conventional sense) and those for whom "war is the continuation of martyrdom by other means." But what do we know about the "tribal politics" of the Iranian military, and the possible incentives for defection, rebellion, subversion? Over the years, an unbalanced curriculum in terms of education (fixation on "decisive battle" and "swift victory") has had long-term implications in terms of organization (marginalization of the Foreign Area Officer program in terms of funding and promotion).

Because it deals essentially with tactical and operational, not strategic matters, neither does On War have anything to tell us on the increasingly salient subject of interstate rivalries in the Muslim world. To the extent that both Saudi Arabia and Iran can be described as "virtual caliphates" (in the sense of "virtual state" mentioned above), the post-1979 cold war of sorts between these two caliphates (reminiscent of the Soviet-Chinese rivalry) has a logic, and an autonomy, of its own (which, incidentally, would exist in the absence of an Israeli-Palestinian conflict) -- as did, a generation ago, the older cold war between pan-Arabist Egypt and pan-Islamist Saudi Arabia (which would have existed as well in the absence of a Cold War between the U.S. and the USSR).21

Just as On War has little policy relevance for Muslim civil-military relations and interstate competition, so it sheds no light on another increasingly salient question: the "deep coalition" between Muslim state and nonstate actors. Though the Shiites represent only 15 percent of the Muslim world, the emerging Shiite Crescent has a formidable potential for nuisance in the region (due to both the sheer number of countries with Shiite minorities, from Saudi Arabia to Pakistan, and the fact that Shiite territories tend to be where the oilfields are). What is the nature of the relation between the Shiite center (Iran) and the periphery (from Iraq to Pakistan)? What is the relative weight of religious (Shiite) vs. ethnic (Persian) factors in the "deep coalition" between the Iranian State and nonstate actors (Hamas, Hezbollah)? Under what conditions could Shiites and Sunnis overcome their differences and come up with a joint grand strategy against the West? These are difficult questions, but one thing is sure: not only On War won't give you the right answers, it won't even lead you to ask the right questions.

A small consolation: when it comes to identifying the "operational code" of deep coalitions, neither "game theory" nor "structural realism" is likely to shed any light either. Forget about "rational choice" theories: In the non-Western world in general, and in the Middle East in particular, state actors have a long record of self-delusion, miscalculation and defection.22 Rather than "structural realism," it is a "cultural realism" approach which will make intelligible the constantly shifting evolution between cooperation and confrontation, whether among nonstate actors (Hezbollah and al Qaeda, e.g.) or state actors (Saudi Arabia and Iran).

"Soft Balancing" is another missing chapter in Clausewitz's On War. International relations scholars have spent the better part of the 1990s wondering why the lone remaining superpower was not being "balanced" -- as required by realist theory -- by would-be regional hegemons. Look no further now: Since the summer of 2005, "balancing" is happening big time, led by China and Russia. What could still be loosely described in the 1990s as an amorphous "Sino-Islamic Axis" (Huntington) has taken, a decade later, a more institutionalized form to the point where some Western observers describe the China/Russia-led Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) over Central Asia as an emerging "NATO of the East."

From a traditional realist point of view, there was in fact nothing preordained in Russia's "bandwagoning" behavior vis-à-vis the Sino-Islamic Axis (the laws of geopolitical physics being what they are, a seemingly never-ending enlargement of NATO to the East simply led Russia to toy with the idea of turning the SCO into an Eastern NATO). Yet, Russia is not yet "lost": It belongs to the West, and traditional realists can plausibly argue that a little self-restraint on the part of the U.S. should be enough to get Russia back into the Western fold. While Russia's dangerous liaison with the SCO can be interpreted as tactical "soft balancing,"23 the same can no longer be said of China. China's growing global activism, from Latin America to Sub-Saharan Africa, from the Middle East to Central Asia, is bringing anything but stability in its wake, and China's recent development of second-strike capabilities, along with the construction of giant bunkers accommodating 200,000 people, cast doubt on the "softness" of its balancing act.

As a result of the emergence of the SCO, the focus of nato activities is likely to be less on a further enlargement to the East than, on one hand, "engaging" counter-balancing global partners (Australia, Japan, etc.) and on the other, "deepening" the political dialogue within the North Atlantic Council (to include now energy security issues). In the long term, and given the gradual subversion of the UN by the Organization of the Islamic Conference (see below), it is not impossible to imagine NATO transforming itself into a UN of Democracies. NATO, SCO, OIC: This triangle is likely to define the new geopolitical environment at the highest level for the near future. But where is the chapter in Clausewitz on "Alliance Politics?"24

The "Permanent Campaign" and the "Long War"

Since the Algerian War, the role of media in conflicts has increased exponentially. The 1960s was the Age of the Image, of "pseudo-events," of celebrities known for their "well-knownness," and both Castro and Arafat (two media inventions) quickly discovered how to exploit these new opportunities. In the 1970s, Khomeini used small media as force multipliers for a big revolution, while in the 1980s (intifada) and the 1990s (Balkans), the mediasphere became for the first time the main "battlespace." With the advent of 100 Muslim satellite televisions channels since the mid-1990s, some analysts have wondered about the relevance of Clausewitz in the Age of al-Jazeera, while others have discerned the emergence of a new, non-Clausewitzian strategic trinity.25

Within the various USG foreign affairs agencies, though, there is still great reluctance to view strategic communication as something that should be "present at the takeoff, not just the crash-landing," of foreign policy. In the counter-terrorism community, similarly, there is a tendency to treat terrorism as a suspension of communication (when it is in fact the continuation of communication by other means), and thus to fail to realize that counter-communication should be at the core, not the periphery, of counter-terrorism. The 2006 QDR asserts that the Long War will ultimately be won through "strategic communication." The problem? When it comes to strategic communications, amateurs talk about "messages," professionals talk about "narratives" -- and there are way too many amateurs in strategic communication today.

In domestic politics, since the advent of the so-called "Permanent Campaign" in the late 1970s, political communication has become a job where there is "no place for amateurs." The "ballot-box warriors" are by now fully aware of the importance of narratives. But there is today, in terms of sheer sophistication, a 30-year time lag between political communication at home and strategic communication abroad.

It is time to realize that, while foreign policy is not a popularity contest, "world leadership" is not a divine right either. Since the withering away of the Soviet threat, the U.S. has been de facto engaged on the world stage in a "permanent campaign" of sorts where there is -- or should be -- no place for amateurs either (in the Clinton era, the White House understood the importance of stagecraft, though more often than not as a substitute for, rather than a complement to, statecraft). This "permanent campaign" imperative was true during the peaceful 1990s; it is all the more true now in the context of a Long War in which, over time, memories of 9/11 abroad will inevitably begin to fade and the U.S. will inevitably begin to appear ("politics is perception" abroad too) as the "greatest threat to world peace." It is not too late to develop the same sophisticated understanding of strategic communication as that of General Marshall (as secretary of state) and General Eisenhower (as president) in the early days of the Cold War.26

In the ongoing battle for hearts and minds, public diplomacy and information operations will continue to go nowhere fast so long as they stay on "message" instead of moving on to "narrative." From John Arquilla to Lawrence Freedman, the best strategists have -- unsuccessfully so far -- tried to draw attention to this fundamental rule of strategic communication: "Opinions are shaped not so much by the information received but the constructs through which that information is interpreted and understood" (Freedman). Yet, the State Department and DOD remain stuck in the tactical level of messages ("early alert and rapid response") and have yet to tackle the strategic question of narratives. In the context of the GWOT, it is hard to overstate the importance of narratives, be they personal or collectives, prospective or retrospective, at the micro-, meso-, or macro-levels.

At the micro-level. As two defense intellectuals recently pointed out, "a grand counterterrorism strategy would benefit from a comprehensive consideration of the stories terrorists tell: understanding the narratives which influence the genesis, growth, maturation and transformation of terrorist organizations will enable us to better fashion a strategy for undermining the efficacy of those narratives so as to deter, disrupt and defeat terrorist groups."27

At the meso-level. It is time to bring genuine scholarship back in the meta-narrative of twentieth-century Middle East history. Since the Arab Revolt of 1916, the history of the region has been first and foremost the history of three successive rivalries. A first rivalry between the reactionary Saudis and the progressive Hashemites (1916-1925) for the control of the Holy Sites (and of the Oily Land, as it turned out later). A second rivalry between pan-Arabist Egypt and pan-Islamist Saudi Arabia (1945-1979) for leadership in the Arab world. A third rivalry between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shiite Iran (1979-today) for the leadership of the re-Islamization of the global umma.

In short, from the point of view of Muslim history, the twentieth century has been as much a "Saudi Century" as Western history has been an "American Century." Will the twenty-first century be an "Iranian Century"? If it gave up its nuclear fantasies, it certainly could. At any rate, analysts would do well to focus on the impact of the renewed Saudi-Iranian rivalry on the region, and once and for all see the Israeli-Palestinian conflict for what it once was (a sideshow but a useful alibi to maintain a "state of emergency") and what it is fast becoming today (a probing ground to test the determination of the West).

At the macro level. The most effective retrospective meta-narratives rise to the national (or even global) level and acquire the status of "collective memories" -- which, more often than not, have little to do with scholarly history. If there is one grand narrative that needs to be thoroughly deconstructed, it is that of "Western imperialism vs. Muslim victimization." For nearly a thousand years, 711 until 1683, it was Islam which was on the offensive, and the West on the defensive, with a few sporadic counteroffensives (aka the Crusades). And it is thanks to the continuous pressure of Russia on the Ottoman empire from 1699 on that Western Europe became free to safely turn its back on the Muslim question and develop an Atlantic Civilization (Russia is the unacknowledged enabler in the Plato-to-NATO narrative).28 So much for Western Imperialism, then.

Beside the message vs. narrative issue at the level of information operations, the main challenge of strategic communication in the context of the Long War is to bring a proper balance between short-term information operations and long-term education operations. Despite its pitiful budget, the State Department has traditionally been good at "Edu Ops," and the Pentagon could learn a thing or two from State (just like State could learn from DOD about Info Ops). Every year, 2,000 foreign officers graduate from the various U.S. military institutions. At very little cost, there could be ten times more, while the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program could achieve a better balance between sheer training and genuine education.29 Then again: where is the chapter in Clausewitz on the strategic importance of "Defense Diplomacy?"

"Petrodollar Warfare": EU-SCO-OPEC

Need, Greed, and Creed: this "remarkable trinity" owes nothing to Clausewitz, yet has always governed the political economy of warfare in most of the world most of the time. War seems to have been the continuation of economics (as much as of politics) by other means for the better part of the past 2,000 years. At the other end of the spectrum, a traditional neglect of the economic dimension also leads Clausewitzians to forget that U.S. hegemony today rests as much on its monetary "command of the common currency" as on its military "command of the commons."30

When discussed at all, the economic dimension of the GWOT is usually confined to: a) the role of hawala, the complex informal financial networks, in terrorism financing; b) the costs of the Iraq campaign and/or the rising costs of oil for U.S. taxpayers/consumers.31 In short, the discussion of the economic dimension remains at best at the operational level and rarely reaches the strategic level. Yet, if the GWOT promises to be a Long War, it's not just simply because it will take 30 years to educate (as in: de-Salafization) a new generation of Muslims; it's also because, with a quadrupling of oil prices in four years, oil-producing countries have little incentive to see an end to the GWOT -- provided that they can redirect the jihad from the "near" to the "far" enemy. In the Saudi-Iranian rivalry, theo-political competition is balanced by geo-economic cooperation. Here again, the grammar and logic of the Long War, and the strategies and tactics of the Oily Alliance, won't be found in Clausewitz.

Last but not least, beyond -- and analytically distinct from -- the oil weapon proper, is the euro weapon. America's greatest vulnerability would be exposed were the SCO and/or OPEC countries, gradually and in a coordinated fashion, shift their reserve currencies from dollar to euros. A mere theoretical possibility? Not exactly. At a very slow pace, the train has in fact already left the station. Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, various countries have quietly begun to shift their reserve currencies and, at regular intervals, Russia, China, and various OPEC countries (the latter, for instance, in retaliation for the cancelled Dubai Ports deal) have threatened to continue to do so.

But while this monetary soft balancing does constitute a "threat" for the U.S., it sounds more like a "promise" for the EU. Back in the 1990s, EU elites "sold" to EU public opinion the idea of a European Monetary Union with the argument that the euro would quickly become the rival of the dollar as reserve currency, and that, in turn, would level the transatlantic playing field in such a way as to make unpopular structural reforms in Europe unnecessary. Today, in the wake of the failed EU constitutional deal in 2005, the domestic legitimacy of EU elites is at an all time low, and these same elites are anxious to see foreign countries -- any country -- transfer their reserve currencies in euro. The 64-million dollar question becomes: what political price would EU elites be willing to pay to have, say, Russia -- the world's second largest oil exporter -- shift a significant part of its reserve currency: a greater institutionalization of the EU-Russia security dialogue, as the Russians have hinted in the past; a quiet acquiescence to an energetic Finlandization which, all things considered, would still be a lesser evil compared to the current energetic dhimmitude of Europe vis-à-vis the Middle East? It's too early to tell, but one thing should already be clear: There is no chapter on the grammar and logic of petrodollar warfare in Clausewitz, either.

"Lawfare": Clausewitz or Carl Schmitt?

Is war really the continuation of Politik (policy and/or politics) by other means? Maybe -- maybe not. Whether the statement is meant to be descriptive, prescriptive or predictive, its validity, ultimately, rests on the definition of both War and Politik. After 600 pages of On War, you do get a sense of Clausewitz's definition of War -- but you still know next to nothing about the "concept of the political" from which he operates. The Prussian spends the whole first chapter trying to capture the philosophical "essence" of war, but takes Politik as if it was a self-evident notion. Whose Politik are we taking about? Aristotle? Machiavelli? Hobbes? Montesquieu? Fichte? Hegel? And if the latter, what are the relations between the Hegelian political struggle for recognition and the Clausewitzian military struggle for annihilation? These questions are not as academic as they first seem.

For the past two years, the Pentagon has been grappling with the concept of Lawfare -- the strategic use of law to overcome the enemy -- at the national and international level. Conceptualizing "Lawfare" is possibly the most difficult challenge confronting not just the military today (LOAC), but the whole foreign policy establishment (why, even the very diplomatic Council on Foreign Relations saw fit to brainstorm on this "latest of asymmetries"). Ironically, even though DOD is at the forefront of the conceptual struggle, the 2006 National Military Strategic Plan-War on Terror (NMSP-WOT)'s very definition of Islamist "extremists" and "moderates" (and its call to empower the latter), may in fact aggravate lawfare. The bottom line: If we ever want to develop a workable conception of Lawfare, we will have to trade one Carl (Clausewitz) for another (Schmitt).32

Like Clausewitz, Carl Schmitt is a dangerous mind -- only more so. Paradoxical as it may sound, the one-time jurist of the Third Reich is today an icon among the Western leftover left and its jihadist allies, who know that they will find in Schmitt, rather than Marx, the precision-guided weapons they need against liberalism. At his best, Schmitt remains to this day the most cogent critique of liberalism as a "political theology." And while the leftover left may hold it against him that he provided the best philosophical basis for a distinction between authoritarianism and totalitarianism, they are forever grateful to Schmitt for having put forward a proto-theory of Lawfare.

To put it simply (simplistically even): First, against Kelsen's legalistic fairly tales, Schmitt argues that law is nothing but the continuation of politics by other means. Second, with his "Dictatorship," "Concept of the Political," and "Theory of the Partisan," Schmitt turns Clausewitz on his head to remind us that there are times when politics reaches such a degree of intensity that the only realistic definition is that "politics is the continuation of war by other means."33

At his worst, Schmitt is not just an anti-Semitic Nazi fellow-traveler (obviously a plus from the jihadist standpoint); he is also the founding father of a Geojuriprudens based on race/faith, which served Nazism well yesterday and would need only minor adjustments to serve jihadism equally well tomorrow. Be it as it may, in times of "epochal war" -- and the Long War certainly fits the description - Carl Schmitt may well be what the Greeks called a pharmakon: i.e., both a poison and its remedy. Nothing is more urgent today than a confrontation between Schmitt and Clausewitz, if only because Schmitt's two "remarkable trinities" (Law/Politics/War and State/Movement/People) are more policy relevant than Clausewitz's. It is Schmitt, rather than Clausewitz, who will help you understand the current subversion, through international lawfare, of the un system by the Organization of the Islamic Conference (oic) under the guise of "dialogue of civilization," "tolerance," "global governance," and other niceties. For military lawyers who want to become genuine "warrior-lawyers"34, Schmitt remains the best point of departure for the elaboration of counter-Lawfare.

Last but not least: in an age when there is much psychobabble in the West about "identity politics," Schmitt also offers the most coherent articulation between identity and enmity. In that respect, it is to be hoped that, in the spirit of "jointness," the National War College and the Middle East Studies Association will sponsor a comprehensive, multi-volume study on: "The Social Construction of Enmity/Identity: The Representation of 'Jews and Crusaders' in the State-sponsored Schools, Mosques and Media of the 57 Countries of the Organization of the Islamic Conference." That way, we will know once and for all if the global jihad is primarily the unfortunate symptom of a Sartrian, existential mal de vivre in the face of globalization, or if it is primarily a concerted, state-sponsored first phase for an assault on Western Civilization.

Soldier, Statesman, Scholar: The lost battles of Clausewitz

Clausewitz may not be the "Madhi of the masses" derided by Liddell Hart, but he has certainly become the Madhi of a military lumpen intelligentsia for whom the fine art of asking the right questions has been made irrelevant since the master has already provided all the right answers. Once and for all, then: On War is a mere draft, which Clausewitz never intended to publish, and which he himself characterized as a work "that only deserves to be called a shapeless mass of ideas ... being liable to endless misinterpretations."35 No need to be more Catholic than the pope, then. But as military historians know, counterfactual history can at times shed light on some seemingly intractable problems, so let's walk briefly in Clausewitz's footsteps and review his existential battles.

Clausewitz the philosopher initially wants to be the Montesquieu of war. But Clausewitz the patriot, who like all Prussians of his generation is under the spell of Fichte (Schmitt got that right), would no doubt prefer to write a military treatise that would nicely complement Fichte's work on politics (Machiavelli), economics (The Closed Commercial State), and sociocultural history (Addresses to the German Nation). Hence the tension in Clausewitz's writings between the descriptive and the prescriptive. Did I mention there is also an "epochal war" going on, and that an ambivalent fascination for Napoleon, the "God of War," does not facilitate scholarly serenity?

With the restoration of the peace after 1815, with the withering away of both Fichte and Napoleon from the scene, with also a certain disenchantment with Restoration domestic politics, Clausewitz the patriot gradually gives way to Clausewitz the philosopher. His goal now? To be the Machiavelli of his time, i.e., a thinker as expert on war as on diplomacy, on statecraft as on strategy. He can't go on accumulating notes on war and having next to nothing to say about foreign policy, all the while professing that "war is but the continuation of Politik by other means." Time to walk the walk, not just talk the talk: He will apply for an ambassadorship at the Court of Saint-James.

One can only marvel at the political naiveté of Clausewitz here: The man has no experience in diplomacy whatsoever, has no "decisive battle" attached to his name, is not from high birth, has betrayed his king once by defecting to Russia -- yet asked for the most important, the most coveted, ambassadorship of his time. A real intellectual, then. Needless to say, his candidacy will be torpedoed after a protracted battle. Had he read attentively his beloved Machiavelli (or Gracian, or Saint-Simon, for that matter), Clausewitz would have understood that Politik in general, and "court politics" in particular, is but the continuation of war by other means (of the "indirect approach" variety); and that in order to get to see Politik-as-policy from up close, you need already have a good understanding of Politik-as-politics. This is the dialectical question that Clausewitz -- who has no political savvy -- will never fully grasp, existentially or intellectually.

Yet, one cannot but wonder what a British and a diplomatic experience of this kind would have done for Clausewitz. His stay in England would have been as much an eye-opener for him as the discovery of America was to his contemporary Tocqueville. And instead of retaining his youthful (by then: immature) fascination for Napoleonic battles, he would have been reminded by Nelson's heirs of the strategic importance of "seapower" (yet another missing chapter) and, above all, he would have learned first-hand from Wellington himself -- a soldier-statesman if ever there was one -- the meaning of "war is the continuation of politics by other means." In short, an experience at the Court of Saint James would have made Clausewitz more Tocquevillian and less Fichtean, more Corbettian and less Ludendorfian -- and that in turn could have made a world of difference in the history of Europe in the twentieth century.

Clausewitz is so acutely aware of the need to remedy his deficiencies in the diplomatic department that, for five years, he keeps hoping for an ambassadorship (London first, then any ambassadorship) -- and will suffer a stroke when he finally realizes it ain't gonna happen. He will remain in Berlin, where his stay will not be totally fruitless: Over the years, as his philosophical acumen develops, Clausewitz the philosopher will gradually realize that Hegel (not Fichte) is as much the "god of philosophy" as Napoleon is the "god of war." But here is his second tragedy: Clausewitz has a first-rate intellectual mind -- and a third rate philosophical education. Had he lived 50 years earlier, his meager philosophical baggage would have been enough for him to be celebrated by his contemporaries as a philosophe -- a Prussian Guibert. But by the 1820s, the Kant-Fichte-Hegel Revolution in Philosophical Affairs has turned philosophy into a professional activity in which there is no longer room for talented amateurs a la Montesquieu-Voltaire-Rousseau (if you have any doubt, just read Hegel's Logik). And a "shapeless mass of ideas" is the last thing you want to publish when you aspire to public recognition as a philosopher, especially at a time when one of the central philosophical questions of the day is that of Darstellung (which the words "presentation" or "composition" do not begin to translate).

The melancholy of Clausewitz's last years is that of man who never had the opportunity to fight the military battle he longed for, who has lost his various political battles, and who suspects he is unlikely to win his philosophical battle. By 1827 he has fully realized the need for a major rewrite of On War, but he will only have time to review the first chapter before dying of cholera in 1831 (the same year as Hegel). And so it is that, to this day, Clausewitz's On War looks at times like Machiavelli, at times like Montesquieu, at times like Fichte, at times like Hegel -- "liable to endless misinterpretations" indeed.

End of story. Rather than pontificate about an "unchanging nature" of war, our Clausewitzian drill sergeants would be well-inspired to meditate the rapidly changing philosophical terrain on which Clausewitz was venturing.

Beyond Clausewitz and 4GW

If ours is the age of the "strategic corporal" (Krulak), NCOs and junior officers will need a different kind of "situational awareness" than in the past -- and that, in itself, will call for a radical transformation of professional military education (PME). Of all the social sciences, anthropology is the one that can offer the most useful insights (psychology, by contrast, can only lead to a "babble for hearts and minds.") That said, the "strategic corporal" will have to keep in mind that, just as a military officer can be brilliant at the tactical or operational level and less than stellar at the strategic level (or vice versa), area studies specialists can offer invaluable expertise at the tribal and regional levels, yet display a total lack of judgment at the global level.36 At the interagency working level, and for the foreseeable future, "know thyself, know thy enemy" will continue to be more important than "know thy Clausewitz." So will "know thy Trotsky" (institutional infiltration), "know thy Gramsci" (cultural hegemony), and "know thy Schmitt" (intra and international lawfare) -- for this is the remarkable trinity on which the "operational code" of the Fifth Column is based today.

At the level of the new "viceroys" (combatant commanders), it will take more than Clausewitz to develop "situational awareness" across the DIME-FIL spectrum. If anything, Clausewitz is more a hindrance than help when it comes to realizing the magnitude of the challenge presented by the global jihad as epochal war: demographic warfare, petrodollar warfare, multilevel lawfare.37

Clausewitz will always remain stimulating reading, but less than ever can he deliver actionable insight. Clausewitz should be not so much retired as kicked upstairs, and made the topic of a yearlong seminar at the doctoral level -- once, that is, the future (interagency) National Security University establishes a much-needed doctoral program. At the end of the day, though, military educators will have to remember that the name of the interagency game is not strategy but statecraft.

As for Fourth-Generation Warfare, chances are it will continue to offer precious insights. If it wants to avoid a "tacticisation of strategy," though, it will have to bring the state back in and distinguish between premodern, modern, and postmodern states while looking at sovereignty for what it is: an "organized hypocrisy."38 Rather than retire the concept of 4GW altogether, though, it should be given a fuller meaning, one that goes beyond the operational conduct of war and identify the epochal causes of the conflict in the perspective of the historical longue duree. To put it simply: 4GW theoreticians will have take into account that, if the global jihad can be called Fourth-Generation Warfare, it is first and foremost because it is the fourth wave of an age-old human comedy known as the "Revolution of the Saints": Puritans, Jacobins, Bolsheviks, jihadists.39

A theo-political Revolution of the Saints, against the backdrop of an energetic Great Game, in the context of an informational Global Village. It is going to be a "long, hard slog" indeed ...


1 On the importance of an anthropological approach to strategy, see Ken Booth, Strategy and Ethnocentrism (Holmes and Meier, 1979); Robert E. Harkavy and Stephanie G. Neuman, Warfare in the Third World (Palgrave, 2001); more recently, Mary Habeck, Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (Yale University Press, 2006); Richard L. Taylor, Tribal Alliances: Ways, Means, and Ends to Successful Strategy (Carlisle Papers, 2005); and Richard H. Schultz and Andrea Dew, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat (Columbia University, 2006). At the regional level, the best introduction to Middle East exceptionalism remains Barry Rubin, The Tragedy of the Middle East (Cambridge University Press, 2002). On the ethnography of U.S. military culture, see Carl Builder, The Masks of War: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis (rand, 1989); Brigadier Nigel N.F. Aylwin-Foster, "Changing the Army for Counterinsurgency Operations," Military Review (November-December 2005); Robert M. Cassidy, Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Cultures and Irregular Warfare (Praeger, 2006); and Colin S. Gray, Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt? (Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2006).

2 Vice Admiral Arthur K. Cebrowski, "Network-Centric Warfare: Its Origin and Future," Proceedings (January 1998); Milan Vego, "Network-Centric is Not Decisive," Proceedings (June 2003); Gen. Robert H. Scales Jr., "Culture-Centric Warfare," Proceedings (October 2004). On technologism, see Williamson Murray, "Clausewitz Out, Computer In: Military Culture and Technological Hubris," National Interest (Summer 1997). On professionalism, see Don Snyder, ed., The Future of the Army Profession (McGraw-Hill, 2005); Suzanne C. Nielsen "Civil-Military Relations and Military Effectiveness," Public Administration and Management 10:2 (2005); and Gray, Irregular Enemies.

3 Colin S. Gray, Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare (Cassell, 2005), 241.

4 Audrey Kurth Cronin, "Cyber-Mobilization: The New Levée en Masse," Parameters (Summer 2006). As Cassidy points out: "The longevity and resilience of Al Qaeda are not predicated on the total quantity of terrorists that it may have trained in the past but more simply on its capacity to continue to recruit, mobilize and inspire both actual and potential fighters, supporters, and sympathizers." Counterinsurgency, 5. The use of the internet goes of course beyond mere mobilization: see Gabriel Weimann, Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges (United States Institute of Peace, 2006). On the European front of the jihad, see Evan F. Kohlman, Al Qaeda's Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network (Berg, 2004); Melanie Philips, Londonistan (Encounter Books, 2006); Anthony King, "One in four Muslims sympathizes with motives of terrorists," Daily Telegraph (July 23, 2005). Patrick Hennessy and Melissa Kite, "Poll Reveals 40 percent Muslims want sharia law in uk," Daily Telegraph (February 19, 2006).

5 On the relations between dawa and jihad, see Zeyno Baran, Hizb ut-Tahrir: Islam's Political Insurgency (Nixon Center, December 2004). On demographic engineering in general, see Onn Winckler, Arab Political Demography: Population Growth and Natalist Policies (Sussex Academic Press, 2005); Milica Bookman, The Demographic Struggle for Power (Frank Cass, 1997); David Kyle and Rey Koslowski, eds., Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001); Mark Krikorian, "Keeping Terror Out: Immigration Policy and Asymmetric Warfare," National Interest (Spring 2004); Myron Weiner and Michael Teitelbaum, Political Demography, Demographic Engineering (Berghahn Books, 2001); Bat Ye'or, Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2005); Lawrence Freedman, Population Change and European Security (Brassey's, 1992); On anti-Western indoctrination in schools, mosques, and media, see the various reports by Freedom House and Memri (

6 Gen. Robert H. Scales, "Too Busy to Learn," (January 23, 2006). In what other profession does one find people so obsessed with the "nature" or the "essence" of their craft? Diplomats or dentists never talk about the "nature" of diplomacy, the "essence" of dentistry, etc. Philosophically speaking, the Clausewitzians manage to combine the worst features of neo-Platonism with the worst of Aristotleian Scholasticism.

7 Steven Metz, "A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare," Parameters (Winter 1994-95).

8 Gen. Robert H. Scales, "Clausewitz and World War iv," Armed Forces Journal (July 2006).

9 Richard H. Schultz Jr. and Andrea J. Drew, "Counterinsurgency, By the Book," New York Times (August 7, 2006).

10 H.R. McMaster, Dereliction of Duty: Johnson, McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam (HarperCollins, 1998); Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (Penguin Press, 2006).

11 Christopher Bassford, "On War 2000: A Research Proposal" (August 1999), While Michael Handel's idea of emphasizing the complementarity between the Prussian Clausewitz and the Chinese Sun-Tzu is an elegant cop-out (Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought, [Frank Cass, 1992, 1996, 2001], Christopher Bassford's project of rewriting On War for the twenty-first century reminds one of Jorge Luis Borges's famous short story about Pierre Menard, this fictitious character who boldly set out to rewrite -- coincidence? -- Don Quixote.

12 To use Eliot Cohen and John Gooch's useful distinction, Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War (Free Press, 1990).

13 Max Boot's The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power (Basic Books) was published in 2002.

14 Raymond Aron, Penser la Guerre -- Clausewitz, two volumes (Gallimard, 1976), part

          Karlovy Vary: Alen Drljević on the Unresolved Conflict in Bosnia   
The legacy of war and the search for reconciliation are at the heart of “Men Don’t Cry,” Bosnian filmmaker Alen Drljević’s feature film debut, which screens in competition at the Karlovy Vary Film Festival. The Yugoslav wars and their aftermath have had a major impact on the director, himself a veteran, and defined many of... Read more »
          Daftar Mata Uang Negara-negara Di Seluruh Dunia (A-Z)   

Daftar Mata Uang Negara-negara Di Seluruh Dunia (A-Z)

Country / Negara
Currency / Mata Uang
American Samoa
see United States
see Spain and France
Antigua and Barbuda
British Indian Ocean Territory
see United Kingdom
Burkina Faso
see Myanmar

Mata Uang Dunia

Paul George has been traded to OKC, per sources

-- Ramona Shelburne (@ramonashelburne) July 1, 2017

          The New Beowulf   

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ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: A new translation of the epic poem “Beowulf” by the Irish poet Seamus Heaney is improbably on bestseller lists in several major U.S. cities, Los Angeles and San Francisco, among them. The poem was written in Old English more than 1,000 years ago. It tells the tale of theScandinavian warrior, Beowulf, who slays two hellish demons and then in old age, brave beyond reason, is fatally wounded in a battle with a fiery dragon.

The poet and translator, Seamus Heaney, was born on a farm in Northern Ireland, and now divides his time between Dublin and teaching at Harvard University. He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1995, for what the Nobel Committee described as “works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past.”

Thank you for being with us, Mr. Heaney.

SEAMUS HEANEY, Poet/Translator, “Beowulf:” A pleasure.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: Those words from the Nobel Committee might describe “Beowulf,” too, with its ethical concerns and the past so alive in it. Have you always had an affinity for “Beowulf”?

SEAMUS HEANEY: Well, I read the poem when I was an undergraduate. I was actually made to read it as part of my English course. When I was in my teens, I actually knew the shorter Anglo- Saxon poems better, but “Beowulf” was the large, 3,000- line monster lying there at the very beginning of the tradition. And the language it was written in and the meter it was written in attracted me, partly because, as I say in the introduction to the translation, I think there’s something in the very sturdy, stressed nature of that old language that matched the speech I grew up with in Ulster, in the countryside in the 1940’s.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: We don’t know who wrote it. You’re not even sure exactly when it was written, are you?

SEAMUS HEANEY: No, it was written, as I said, towards the end of the first millennium, maybe in the 700’s, maybe towards the year 1000, but that’s not… we’re not very sure about that. We do know that whoever wrote it lived in two worlds, in a way– lived in a past that belonged to the Old English ancestry, that is the people who came over from Jutland and the Anglos and the Saxons and the Jutes, they came across the North Sea to England.

So they brought memories of a Scandinavian past with them. So the poet is someone with… who lived in that previous, as they say “pagan” past. And he’s also a Christian, someone who has taken in the new Mediterranean Christian culture. And the two voices, the two things are in the poem. The story of is the old, previous archaic material, and the understanding and the voice that speaks is someone who is in touch with the new Christian culture.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: And then how did you find the tone and the voice for your own translation? I read that a word, is it “polean,” helped you.

SEAMUS HEANEY: Yeah, well, this poem is written down, but it is also clearly a poem that was spoken out. And it is spoken in a very dignified, formal way. And I got the notion that the best voice I could hear it in was the voice of an old countryman who was a cousin of my father’s who was not, as they say, educated, but he spoke with great dignity and formality. And I thought if I could write the translation in such a way that this man– Peter Scullion was his name–could speak it, then I would get it right. That’s, in fact, how I started it.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: And you found words that had actually been words that you knew from childhood, right?

SEAMUS HEANEY: Yeah, that’s right. My aunt used a word. In fact, all the people around the district, in the countryside, use words that I gradually began to realize the more I read were Anglo-Saxon words. They would say, for example, of people who had suffered some bereavement, “well, they just have to thole.” And they would say it to you when they’re putting the poultice on your hand that was burning, “you’ll have to thole this, child.”

Now thole… “Thole” means “to suffer,” but it’s there in the glossaries of Anglo-Saxon, “tholian.” So between the secret dialect speech of my home ground and the upper level discourse of the Anglo-Saxon textbook in university, there was this commerce. And I felt my own ear, my own language lived between… lived between that country-speak and learned-speak, and therefore, that I had some way of translating it, of carrying over from one to the other. I felt there was, like, a little passport into translating it, you know.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: Would you read something for us, please?

SEAMUS HEANEY: Yeah, I’ll read a bit, one of my favorite little bits where it describes a poet in the Anglo-Saxon king’s hall, a minstrel singing his poem, and the poem is a story of the creation of the world.

And in this very… this very happy scene is surrounded by darkness where the monster is prowling, the monster called Grande. “Then a powerful demon, a prowler through the dark nursed the hard grievance. It harrowed him to hear the din of the large banquet every day in hall.

The hearth beams struck in the clearing of a skilled poet, telling what mastery of man’s beginnings, how the Almighty had made the earth a gleaming plain girdled with waters. In his splendor, he set the sun and the moon to be earth’s lamplight, lanterns for men. And filled the broad lap of the world with branches and leaves, and quickened life and every other thing that moved.”

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: Now read a little bit of it in Anglo-Saxon for us.

SEAMUS HEANEY: Well, these are just a little, few lines at the beginning. (SPEAKING IN ANGLO-SAXON)

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: The metrics of it, the balancing halves of the line, explain that, because it seems to be, at least for me, what kept pulling me through it.

SEAMUS HEANEY: Yeah, well the line is in two halves. But there are two stresses and two stresses “telling with mastery of man’s beginnings.” “To be earth’s lamplight, lanterns for men.” “Then a powerful demon, a prowler through the dark.”

You’ve got the two stresses, but you will notice there’s also a little loop from one half to the other of alliteration. “Powerful prowler, a hard grievance, it harrowed him.” “A gleaming plain, girdled with waters.” “Earth’s lamplight, lanterns for men.”

The “l’s”– “earth’s lamplight, lanterns for men”– they end, “then the Almighty made the earth.” The “p”– “powerful demons prowler through the dark.” So instead of rhyming, you have those different principles for repeating the pattern line by line right through.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: And the world of “Beowulf”– you referred to this earlier– but this old world, the warrior.. the Germanic warrior culture that’s evoked, which is honor-bound, blood-stained, vengeance-driven…


ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: …Did it seem particularly familiar to you? Was it like Ireland?

SEAMUS HEANEY: Well, no. Ireland doesn’t live by the sword and doesn’t, I mean, we’re in a kind of different cultural situation. We aren’t commanded once somebody has killed to go out and kill someone else. That isn’t the code.

But it is true that the… that what does strike the contemporary reader of “Beowulf” is that that sense of small ethnic groups living together with memories of wrongs on each side, with a border between them that may be breached. I mean, after the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, after Bosnia and Kosovo and so on, the feuds between the Swedes and the Gates, these little dynastic, ethnic, furious battles strike a chord.

Not, it’s not just… I wouldn’t say it was just in Northern Ireland, where there is of course an ethnic energy and a vengefulness from the past. But it’s more widespread than that. And I say in the introduction and I think it’s absolutely true, towards the end of the poem there’s a scene, a funeral scene, where a woman begins to wail and weep with her hair bound up.

And she cries out a chant of grief. And I think, instead of it being very far away, it’s actually quite close now– through paradoxically all the modern technological means of television, which bring us newsreels of sorrow right into the drawing room. And that figure of the woman wailing because of grief, because of atrocity, it’s quite familiar and very close.

And the poem, I would say, is fit for this kind of atrocious reality. The poet understands he has a veteran’s understanding that the world is not quite trustworthy and that we most be grateful for it when it is trustworthy.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: And finally, Mr. Heaney, how do you explain the fact that “Beowulf,” this old, old poem with its old, old code is so popular right now? I mean, it’s number seven on the “San Francisco Chronicle” bestseller list. It’s number three, I think, in Los Angeles.

SEAMUS HEANEY: Well, I’m glad to hear that. I don’t think poetry has no tense, you know, past or present. The reality that it deals with is kind of the… what our consciousness contains and what, how we are fit for reality.

And when you get something like “Beowulf” or something like “Homer,” then you’re dealing with the clear, present reality of human understanding and human action, and as I say, it’s so true that the tense of past or present doesn’t enter. It is the truthfulness of the representation of the kind of creatures we are, I think.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: Seamus Heaney, thank you very much for being with us.


The post The New Beowulf appeared first on PBS NewsHour.

          [opinion] On Islamaphobia   

It's taken me a while to get sufficiently riled up about Australia's current Islamaphobia outbreak, but it's been brewing in me for a couple of weeks.

For the record, I'm an Atheist, but I'll defend your right to practise your religion, just don't go pushing it on me, thank you very much. I'm also not a huge fan of Islam, because it does seem to lend itself to more violent extremism than other religions, and ISIS/ISIL/IS (whatever you want to call them) aren't doing Islam any favours at the moment. I'm against extremism of any stripes though. The Westboro Baptists are Christian extremists. They just don't go around killing people. I'm also not a big fan of the burqa, but again, I'll defend a Muslim woman's right to choose to wear one. They key point here is choice.

I got my carpets cleaned yesterday by an ethnic couple. I like accents, and I was trying to pick theirs. I thought they may have been Turkish. It turned out they were Kurdish. Whenever I hear "Kurd" I habitually stick "Bosnian" in front of it after the Bosnian War that happened in my childhood. Turns out I wasn't listening properly, and that was actually "Serb". Now I feel dumb, but I digress.

I got chatting with the lady while her husband did the work. I got a refresher on where most Kurds are/were (Northern Iraq) and we talked about Sunni versus Shia Islam, and how they differed. I learned a bit yesterday, and I'll have to have a proper read of the Wikipedia article I just linked to, because I suspect I'll learn a lot more.

We briefly talked about burqas, and she said that because they were Sunni, they were given the choice, and they chose not to wear it. That's the sort of Islam that I support. I suspect a lot of the women running around in burqas don't get a lot of say in it, but I don't think banning it outright is the right solution to that. Those women need to feel empowered enough to be able to cast off their burqas if that's what they want to do.

I completely agree that a woman in a burqa entering a secure place (for example Parliament House) needs to be identifiable (assuming that identification is verified for all entrants to Parliament House). If it's not, and they're worried about security, that's what the metal detectors are for. I've been to Dubai. I've seen how they handle women in burqas at passport control. This is an easily solvable problem. You don't have to treat burqa-clad women as second class citizens and stick them in a glass box. Or exclude them entirely.

          2014 FIFA World Cup Logo [PDF – FIFA Brasil 2014]   
  Tags:  2014 FIFA Dünya Kupası, 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil, 20th FIFA World Cup, AFC, Algeria, Argentina, australia, Bal-balan, belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, brasil, Brasil 2014, Brezilya, CAF, Calço, Cameroon, Campionato mondiale di calcio 2014, Certamen Mundanum Pedilusorium 2014, Chile, Colombia, CONCACAF, CONMEBOL, Copa del Món de Futbol de […]
          How Football Can Explain a Divided Europe   

Here are a few of the things that have happened in the past week in Europe:

Two parts of the United Kingdom, Wales and Northern Ireland, played a football game against one another in the 2016 European Championship, as if they were their own separate nations.

An island European nation of approximately 330,000—Iceland—sent about one-tenth of its population on a journey to the banks of the Mediterranean, where their football team, led by a part-time dentist, defeated another region of the United Kingdom—England—that was playing as if it was also its own nation.

A French Republic deeply divided over the question of how—and whether—immigrants from its former colonies and their descendants can be integrated into the Republic cheered on its soccer team, made up largely of the children of African immigrants. That team defeated another European island nation, Ireland.

The game contradicted any notion that there is cosmic justice in the world. In 2009 France had kept Ireland out of the World Cup through one of the most notorious acts of cheating in the modern game, when Thierry Henry scooped the ball with his hand and in so doing set up the winning goal.* An Ireland victory on French soil feels like it would have made things right somehow. But of course that’s rarely how football—or life—actually works.

Belgium, meanwhile scored four goals against Hungary: one by a Flemish player, another by Walloon, a third by the child of Spanish immigrants, and a fourth by the child of immigrants from the Congo. Among the other players on the pitch that day were another child of Congolese immigrants, another whose father is from the French Caribbean island of Martinique, and a Mohawk-sporting child of Indonesian immigrants.

In a week during which the idea of Europe itself has been put to the test, is there a parable in all of this? Can we look to the football pitch to understand what this place—a continent, yes, but also an idea—actually is, and might turn out to be?

There was, first of all, this: an archaeology that helps explain the Brexit vote in the very presence of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in the knockout round of the tournament.

The fact that three of the regions of the United Kingdom—known, it is true, as “home nations” and tied together by a political compact far older than the European Union—get to play in the tournament is itself an artifact of the vexed relationship Britain has long had with European institutions.

When football’s governing body, FIFA, was formed in 1904 Britain was conspicuously absent, with the English Football Association—along with those of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—refusing to join. The founding nations of the organization were France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, and its lingua franca was French, the acronym from the organization the result of a Franco-English linguistic mash-up: Fédération Internationale de Football Association.

It was only in 1946 that the four British football federations agreed to join what by then had clearly established itself as the leading global institution in football. But they negotiated a return not as one nation but as four. So it is that England, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland are among the non-nations that exist in FIFA as nations—alongside places like Palestine and New Caledonia—and allow the organization to brag that it has more members than the United Nations. The four also are members of the UEFA, the Union of European Football Associations founded in 1954, which organizes the European Championship.

The United Kingdom, furthermore, holds four seats out of eight on the powerful IFAB, the International Football Association Board, which governs the rules of the game and is the body that determines if any changes will be made to these rules. The other four seats are filled on a rotating basis by FIFA. The United Kingdom, then, are essentially the Permanent Members of this board, whose power is considerable.

At least one of these nations has performed some lovely football here. Fans have been treated to the spectacle of a Welsh team whose play has been one of the highlights of the tournament. Gareth Bale’s stunning goals (and his excellent hair) have been a pleasure to watch. The Welsh fans (along with those from Iceland) seem to best embody what it means to be part of a nation, belting out their nineteenth-century anthem in Welsh, celebrating a “land of poets and singers, and people of stature,” whose “brave warriors” and “fine patriots” are all willing to “shed their blood for freedom,” or at least for football.

 When Wales faces Belgium this Friday in the quarterfinals, it will be an encounter between two entities representing the ironies of contemporary Europe. While Wales feels like a nation, even though it isn’t one, Belgium is a nation that doesn’t really feel like one.

Several decades of profound internal conflict between Flemish and Walloon groups over language, culture and politics have created a curious and in many ways dysfunctional patchwork of bureaucracy in the country.

Immigration has transformed Belgium, with 70 percent of the capital of Brussels born abroad. And that city has been transformed by the project of Europe itself, its central city home to the massive buildings that govern the European Union. The recent terrorist attacks in Brussels have only increased the tensions and uncertainties around the nation’s future.

Belgium’s football success in recent years, however, has been striking: from being one of the lowest-ranked teams on the continent, absent from international competitions, they have now risen to near the top of the FIFA rankings, spending much of this past year as number one. This is the result of a concerted project by the Belgian Football Federation to improve its recruitment and training of young players. They have worked hard to incorporate all of the countries communities, notably immigrants and their children, into the process.

The results are on display each week in the English Premier League, where a series of talented Belgian players play on top teams. Of course having talented players on a team is never enough—as England has shown spectacularly this tournament—if there isn’t a strategy and a sense of cohesion and coherence on the pitch.

The Belgian team is one of a series in Europe today in which players of immigrant background play a prominent role.

This has long been the case of the French team, which has had players of African and North African background on the national team since the 1920s. When they won World Cup at home in 1998—the last time the country hosted a major tournament—they did so with a team famously composed of delightfully multi-ethnic cast of characters, most famously Zinedine Zidane, the child of Algerian immigrants.

More recently the German team has also featured prominent players who are the children of immigrants. Sweden’s Zlatan Ibrahimovic, who played his last games for his nation during this tournament, is the child of a Bosnian father and Croatian mother. Though it was only in 1979 that the English team first included a black player, today they are central, and offered up some of the few bright spots in the lineup during a generally lackluster team performance. The Welsh player Hal Robson-Kanu, meanwhile, is of Nigerian background. Certain teams, however – particularly Italy and Spain—have many fewer children of immigrants on their roster.

I’ll be rooting for Belgium on Friday, and not just because that’s where I was born.

When you cheer on the Red Devils, you can’t forget that you are cheering for an idea rather than a reality, and that in a way that idea only exists on the football pitch.

The Belgium that takes shape on the pitch is actually so far from the nation it purports to represent. The team, at its best, is coherent, bringing together disparate languages and histories, a place where immigrant communities are not just welcome but understood as fundamental to the future of the nation.

With Radja Nainggolan’s Mohawk, striking tattoos, and powerful strikes on goal, Kevin De Bruyne constantly moving about the midfield and sending in his beautiful arcing passes, Axel Witsel lurking dangerous around the box, Romelu Lukaku eternally in front of goal but only rarely actually scoring, Marouane Fellaini permanently on the sidelines but looking strangely happy about it, the team is funny, and fun to watch, taking themselves just seriously enough but not too seriously.

Once upon a time the French team—particularly during its 1998 World Cup run—represented something like this too, and it still does in a sense. But the rounds of hope and disappointment around the team, both about what they could do on the pitch and the extent to which they could change society itself, have now become a bit exhausting in their way.

Each new controversy around race, immigration, and the make-up of the French team just seems like a new act in an interminable and unresolvable drama. But at their best, as in their game against Ireland, they still can deliver a burst of joy through their fluid, attacking play, and the idea of a France vs. Belgium final is certainly an attractive one.

If it comes to that I’ll feel pretty divided, though I’ll probably root for Belgium. It’s not that I harbor a hope that the Belgian team can really change the country. I’m just glad that, for a few hours, we can imagine something different, finding a bit of energy through which to confront the fact that that today’s Europe seems less and less what it could be.

*Correction, June 30, 2016: This post originally misstated that Thierry Henry's infamous handball took place in 2005.

          France’s Euro 2016 Kit Looks Like a Pair of Blue Pajamas, and Other Jersey Thoughts   

If you live in a major metropolitan area and you walk, take public transportation, or enjoy day-drinking, there’s a good chance that you will see someone, probably a young-ish man, possibly with a beard, wearing a soccer jersey in the next few weeks. For some, wearing a soccer jersey in public has a symbolic significance; it tells the world that you support a certain team, and depending on the vintage of the kit, it can signal how long you have been a fan. Most national and club teams change their shirts yearly, which makes perfect sense in this most capitalistic of world sports. This year is no exception, with sportswear giants like Nike, Adidas, and Puma, as well as upstarts like New Balance and old stalwarts like Umbro, issuing new uniforms for the 24 European and 16 American teams playing in the Euros and Copa America. And as more U.S. citizens identify as soccer fans, expect to see more and more shiny polyester on the streets.

I have the good fortune of living in a neighborhood that’s home to a store that will likely supply a large number of these jerseys. Upper 90 opened six years ago on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, and in that time has been so successful that it doubled in size, taking over the space of a car-service dispatcher that was doomed once Uber came to town. During the rest of the year, this is the place to go if you are looking for soccer shoes for your Sunday league game, or more likely for your kids, and the floors are stocked with shorts, sweatshirts, hats, and jerseys of popular European club teams such as Barcelona, Chelsea, Bayern Munich, and in particular, Arsenal. If you were to walk in to Upper 90 tomorrow, you could still find the latest Arsenal, and for some reason Borussia Dortmund kits, but most of the rest have been replaced by the national strips of teams playing in this year’s tournaments.

I asked some of the many young salespeople working at Upper 90 if business is any different in cup season. The consensus answer was: not yet, but they expect it to pick up. After the Copa began last week, more customers have come in looking for national team shirts. The U.S. is popular, despite its forgettable shirt—especially forgettable, that is, when compared with this—but Mexico and Colombia shirts are also selling briskly. European team gear is not as popular yet, but the store expects to see more sales after that tournament starts on Friday. Based on the calls they have received so far, France, who is hosting the Euros this year, is poised to sell a lot of shirts to Americans. As one salesman commented, “The French, they always have style.” In the past that may have been true, but this year’s France kit, made by Nike, looks like a pair of blue pajamas, or even worse, a little too much like Italy’s.

That a store like Upper 90 can thrive in the age of internet shopping is a surprise, especially when it isn’t even allowed to sell gear from all the teams playing in the tournaments. For some teams, like Romania, this is because the store doesn’t have a distribution deal with the kit manufacturer, in this case Joma. Upper 90 did manage to score some Albania jerseys manufactured by the Italian company Macron. Apparently this is because the store’s owner knows a guy who has a connection, and it’s a good thing, because they are fielding at least three calls a day from fans looking for the red jersey with the black double-headed eagle. (Eagles, with one head or two, are a popular motif this year, appearing on the crests of Russia and Austria as well.) Upper 90 stocks some of the more obscure jerseys from teams like Bosnia and Slovakia, but a number of popular shirts are unavailable.

According to one staffer, Nike is not shipping certain teams’ kits to retail outlets, reserving them for sale online. One of the most popular jerseys that seems to be available exclusively online is Poland’s, an irritating fact to the folks at Upper 90 who have to turn away customers, and to denizens of Greenpoint. Even more disappointing, at least for soccer fans with more adventurous fashion sense, is the absence of shirts from Turkey and always distinctive Croatia. This is a new policy, since the red-and-white checked strip featured prominently in the store window during the last World Cup, although it’s not often seen in the wild, or on the Upper West Side. The salespeople I talked to were somewhat sanguine about Nike’s decision, though they were as surprised as I was that Nike would miss a chance to sell its products as widely as possible since every uniformed fan is a walking advertisement for the company.

Over the next month, don’t be surprised by the brightly colored technical fabrics adorning the backs of fans and poseurs alike. If you feel up to it, ask about the shirt; soccer fans love to talk about their obsessions. But be suspicious of the bearded, bespectacled hipster rocking a bright yellow Brazil shirt. And if you see anyone sporting this, run the other way. 

Read more Slate coverage of Euro 2016.

          This Lovely Animation Will Make You Wish the World Cup Were Still Happening   

Richard Swarbrick makes amazingly gorgeous animated films based on real sports moments. Seriously, they’re like Shepard Fairey portraits come to life, but better. He did one for the just finished World Cup, and watching a few seconds of it will make you wish it was 2018 right now. Some of the shots are actually kind of hard to decipher (try for yourself), but Swarbrick sent us his approximate shot list, which is reprinted below with some minor modifications for accuracy purposes.

1. Neymar’s first goal for Brazil against Croatia.
2. Oscar’s goal for Brazil against Croatia.
3. Robin Van Persie’s flying header for the Netherlands against Spain.
4. Arjen Robben’s second goal for the Netherlands against Spain.
5. Clint Dempsey’s goal for the U.S. against Ghana.
6. Lionel Messi’s goal for Argentina against Bosnia and Herzegovina.
7. James Rodríguez’s goal for Colombia against Japan.
8. Tim Cahill’s goal for Australia against the Netherlands.
9. Arjen Robben’s first goal for the Netherlands against Spain.
10. Lionel Messi’s goal for Argentina against Iran.
11. James Rodríguez’s goal for Colombia against Uruguay.
12. John Brooks’ and Jürgen Klinsmann's celebration for the U.S. against Ghana.
13. Tim Howard’s great save for the U.S. against Portugal.
14. Jermaine Jones’ goal for the U.S. against Portugal.
15. Wesley Sneijder for the Netherlands against Mexico.
16. Luis Suarez’s bite for Uruguay against Italy.
17. André Schürrle’s goal for Germany against Algeria.
18. Tim Krul’s first save of the Netherlands-Costa Rica penalty shootout.
19. Gonzalo Higuaín’s goal for Argentina against Belgium.
20. Klaas-Jan Huntelaar’s celebration for the Netherlands against Mexico
21. Thomas Müller’s goal for Germany against Brazil.
22. Toni Kroos for Germany against Brazil.
23. Sami Khedira’s goal for Germany against Brazil.
24. André Schürrle’s first goal for Germany against Brazil.
25. André Schürrle’s second goal for Germany against Brazil.
26. Mario Götze’s goal for Germany against Argentina.
27. Germany's Philipp Lahm celebrating with World Cup trophy.

If you didn’t care about the World Cup to begin with, this lovely animation will make you wish that the NBA season was still going, and this lovely animation will make you wish that the Doctor Who season had started already.

          Messi Is Great. Germany Is Great. They’ll Still Be Great No Matter What Happens Sunday.   

Lionel Messi is great. Germany is great. There should be no debate about either of these things. And yet, in the minds of many, Sunday’s World Cup final will answer a pair of questions that nobody should bother to ask: Can Messi truly be a legend if he’s missing a “signature World Cup moment”? And is this German national team, the one that crushed a reeling Brazil, really all that great?

Let’s begin with Messi.

“It would be beautiful to be five seconds him.”

It’s not notable that someone would say such a thing about the greatest player in soccer. It is notable that the words came from Messi’s Argentina teammate Javier Mascherano.

Mascherano has been the defensive anchor of an Argentine team that conceded just three goals on its way to the World Cup final. Much more so than Messi, the holding midfielder was the hero of Argentina’s semifinal victory over the Netherlands—he made the brilliant tournament-saving, anus-tearing tackle that prevented Arjen Robben from scoring the game-winner in the dying minutes.

It wasn’t just that amazing, beautiful, perfect tackle. Mascherano is one of the finalists for the “Golden Ball” award, the tournament’s MVP trophy. He has more recovered balls than any of the other finalists, including vaunted German defenders Philipp Lahm and Mats Hummels. He’s fifth in the tournament in blocked shots, fifth in interceptions, and No. 1 in total passes.

And this is not Mascherano’s first rodeo. He has been a regular starter as Messi’s teammate at Barcelona, including on the 2010-2011 team that was one of the greatest club sides in history. He has also won two Olympic gold medals with Argentina.

Keep all of that in mind when you hear that Mascherano, in a new docudrama about Messi’s life, says that it would be a beautiful thing to experience the game through Messi’s eyes for a few moments. It’s as if Scottie Pippen sang “Be Like Mike” in a Gatorade commercial.

None of this is to say that Mascherano is some kind of lackey for Messi. He’s not. It’s just to emphasize the esteem that Messi’s otherworldly talents inspire, especially among his teammates.

Messi’s achievements have proven worthy of such admiration. His genius and vision on the pitch are undeniable. At the World Cup he has been the focal point of every game he’s played. He’s scored, assisted, or otherwise set up seven out of Argentina’s eight goals. He’s also forced teams to alter their game plans to neutralize him. In Argentina’s group stage opener at the Maracanã, the site of Sunday’s final, Messi caused the opening own-goal by Bosnia-Herzegovina with a dangerous free kick into the box. He then scored the game-winner with a stunning run through the Bosnian defense.

In the next match, he saved Argentina from an embarrassing 0-0 draw with Iran by scoring in injury time with one of the best goals of this World Cup.

In the next match against Nigeria, he scored a brace that ensured that Argentina would finish top of the group and avoid facing France and Germany in the first two knockout rounds and instead play the much tamer Switzerland and Belgium. Against the Swiss, he made another game-changing run in the 118th minute before laying it off to Ángel di María for the match-winning score. In Argentina’s 1-0 victory over Belgium in the quarterfinals, it was again Messi who created the space for the team’s only goal by dancing around two defenders before finding Ángel di María, who ultimately set up the Gonzalo Higuaín score.

Belgium, who as a reminder had taken 38 shots and 27 on target in the previous game, was held scoreless on 10 attempts against Argentina. A lot of this was due to Mascherano’s leadership and the cohesiveness of the team defensively, but Belgium was also forced to alter its tactics to try to cope with Messi. I’ve heard one commentator describe Messi’s role in these latter rounds as that of a sort of nuclear deterrent, offsetting an opponent’s ability to focus resources on attack because of fear that he’ll go off.

No single player has had a bigger impact on his team at this World Cup. And that’s just this tournament. Messi’s prior C.V. includes six Spanish league titles, three Champions League trophies, an Olympic gold medal, and a record four Ballon d'Or trophies. He also has the records for most goals scored in a single year with 91 and most consecutive games with a goal (21 matches and 33 goals for Barca in the 2012-2013 season), and he has the second-most goals in the history of Argentina’s national team (a record he’s on pace to break).

Yet, there still seems to be a question in the sports press of whether Messi deserves to be placed alongside Brazil’s Pele and Argentine countryman Diego Maradona as one of the greatest players of all time. Whatever happens in Sunday’s final is supposed to determine the legacy of a player who has already achieved more on a soccer field than perhaps anyone else ever. He’s supposed to lead his team to victory over a German side that is clearly the best in the world. He’s supposed to do it having played 30 more minutes than the Germans, feeling “like his legs weighed 100 kilos” each, and on one day fewer rest. And he’s supposed to do it against a team that already has a “secret plan” to modify its tactics, as the Belgians and the Dutch have done, to hold him in check.

Germany is facing an identical dilemma as Messi. The Germans are the best team in the world right now. They confirmed that with a victory over Brazil that will be remembered by soccer fans and history books as long as the sport exists. But if they lose against Messi, then they’ll go down as losers.

In reality, this German national team has already earned its place as one of the best in history. ESPN’s Soccer Power Index has them listed at No. 1 in the world, which isn’t that surprising. More impressive is that the World Football Elo Ratings—touted by Neil Paine and Nate Silver of, who declare themselves “big fans” of that rating system—rank this German team as the best in history.

If you look at the list, it’s astonishing to see them ahead of Ferenc Puskás’ 1954 Hungary team, Pele’s 1962 Brazil team, and Spain’s 2013 team that was coming off of its third consecutive major title at Euro 2012. You could look at Germany’s placement ahead of those teams and think, “that’s kind of stupid,” or at least “that’s kind of premature.” You might be right. But it should give you an appreciation for what Germany has accomplished in recent years.

This German team has been the second-most-consistent team to Spain since 2006. They finished third at the 2006 World Cup, runners-up to Spain at Euro 2008, third again at the 2010 World Cup, and as semifinalists at Euro 2012. They will finish either first or second at this World Cup, and their rating has already gotten a major bump from beating Brazil 7-1 in Brazil. That’s probably the most impressive result in the history of the sport when you consider that the Brazilians hadn’t lost a competitive home match since 1975.

And this golden generation of Germans has already achieved great things aside from rankings. The team is built from the side that won the 2009 European Under-21 Championship. Twenty-eight-year-old Manuel Neuer has been the goalkeeper of the tournament (sorry Tim Howard), while the team’s young, ultra-talented midfield has been the principal reason for its success.* Twenty-four-year-old Thomas Müller has five goals for the second consecutive World Cup. Twenty-five-year-old Mats Hummels scored the game-winner in the quarterfinals against France for his second goal of the tournament. Sami Khedira, the captain of that 2009 team, has been the guiding force of that midfield along with 24-year-old Toni Kroos (not a member of the 2009 German U21 team).

All of these young stars are bolstered by three all-time greats from the 2006 World Cup team that finished third at home. Philipp Lahm has been the team’s defensive guide since returning to his natural position at right back after the team struggled to get past Algeria 2-1 in a last 16 match that required extra time. Bastian Schweinsteiger has been a stalwart in midfield, while Miroslav Klose has merely gone and broken the all-time World Cup goal scoring record. When people describe this as the most-talented team in German history, that’s a reasonable claim. As a reminder, this is a nation that has won three World Cups and is entering its eighth final.

This German team also has one of the great national club sides of the era at its core. Like Spain’s 2010 starting 11, which featured a majority of Barcelona players, more than half of Germany’s starters come from another Pep Guardiola-coached side in Bayern Munich. Those players won this year’s Bundesliga crown in record speed.  The 2012-13 Bayern team, coached by Jupp Heynckes, also tied the record for most wins in a Bundesliga season and won a treble with the Champions League title and the DFB-Pokal crown.

Finally, at this tournament the team has six players in the top 10 of total passes, four of the 10 finalists for FIFA’s Golden Ball award, and one of the three finalists for the Golden Glove goalkeeping award. Oh, and 7-1.

But none of this will be enough to ensure Germany’s reputation as one of the great teams of all-time. To do that, they have to beat the sport’s Michael Jordan. If they don’t, then they’ll be considered a pretty good team that just didn’t have enough, like the Utah Jazz.

It’s just one game, and hopefully it will be a great one, full of Messi moments and German brilliance. But only one side can win. And the victor is supposed to decide the “greatness” of Germany and of Messi forever and ever?

This German team is at worst the second-best team of the past decade and one of the top international teams in recent history. Messi is the greatest player of his generation and one of the best of all-time. The result of Sunday’s World Cup final won’t change those two facts. Unless somebody wins 7-1.

*Correction, July 14, 2014: This post originally misstated Manuel Neuer’s age. He is 28 years old, not 23.

          La primavera dei barbari   
~ Doctor Gonzo ha aggiunto "La primavera dei barbari" nella libreria Nel lussuoso resort tunisino dell'oasi di Shub sono riuniti personaggi disparati: Preising, un industriale che si è ritrovato milionario nel giro di pochi anni grazie all'intraprendenza del suo dipendente bosniaco Prodanovic, un ex campione di nuoto tunisino che detesta l'acqua, un cuoco carinziano di fama internazionale e soprattutto gli invitati all'esotica festa di nozze di una giovane coppia ...
          Submission for the Universal Periodic Review of Serbia   


Human Rights Watch’s key human rights concerns on Serbia are reflected in the 2017 World Report chapter on Serbia. Accountability for war crimes is hampered by slow progress on prosecutions. Concerns over freedom of the media continue amid repeated threats against journalists and failure by authorities to investigate cases of threats and violence against investigative reporters. Roma also face discrimination, as do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Members of these communities face threats, discrimination and harassment. The situation for refugees, asylum seekers, and IDPs remains a concern, particularly inadequate asylum procedures, pushbacks, and limited capacity of reception centres. Moving children with disabilities out of institutions and into family-like environments has been a limited and slow process.

In light of the serious human rights concerns that persist in Kosovo, scrutiny by international human rights bodies is vital. We therefore urge the Human Rights Council to ensure that Kosovo is subject to the Universal Periodic Review process and other human rights monitoring in an appropriate and robust fashion. Our concerns on the human rights situation in Kosovo are available on our website:


1.Treatment of Migrants and Asylum seekers

While Serbia has seen a significant decrease in the number of asylum seekers and other migrants arriving since 2016, there continue to be serious obstacles to accessing protection and humane treatment including for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. There are credible reports of on-going summary returns of asylum seekers from Serbia to Macedonia.

According to the UNHCR, partner organizations and the Serbian Commissariat for Refugees and Migration there were 6,600 asylum seekers, refugees and other migrants in Serbia at the time of writing.

According to the Serbian Ministry of Interior’s Asylum Office, 2,922 individuals expressed intentions to seek asylum in the Republic of Serbia in the first five months of 2017. Most are Syrians, Afghans, Iraqis and Pakistanis. Asylum seekers are housed in overcrowded camps and often in unsuitable mixed accommodation with single males, families, single women and unaccompanied children sharing living space.

In 2012, Serbia accepted a recommendation to “Take all necessary measures to ensure the improvement of socio-economic conditions of refugees and internally displaced persons.” Yet, as of June 9, 2017, Serbia had not granted anyone the status of a refugee. In 2016, Serbia granted refugee status to only 19 asylum seekers and subsidiary protection to 23. In addition to low recognition rates, and problems registering asylum claims, there are significant backlogs in the country’s asylum procedure with thousands of pending claims.

During the first five months of 2017, the Ministry of Interior registered 46 unaccompanied children in Serbia, from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Serbia lacks formal age assessment procedures for unaccompanied children, putting older children at risk of being treated as adults instead of receiving child protection. Only three institutions exist in Serbia for unaccompanied children and have a total of 32 places. Other unaccompanied children stay in temporary shelters known as “refugee aid centers” together with unrelated adults or open reception centers, where in some cases unaccompanied children can be accommodated separately from unrelated adults. The number of unaccompanied children is, based on the observations of our researchers, likely much higher than the officially reported 46.

Progress in finding durable solutions for refugees and internally displaces persons (IDPs) from the Balkan wars living in Serbia was insignificant. According to UNHCR, as of June 2017, there were 29,414 refugees in Serbia, 20,334 from Croatia and 9,080 from Bosnia and Herzegovina while the Serbian government recorded 203,000 internally displaced people from Kosovo.

In an April 2015 report, Human Rights Watch interviewed migrants and asylum seekers who described violent assaults, threats, insults, and extortion, denial of the required special protection for unaccompanied children, and summary returns to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. There is credible evidence that summary returns from Serbia to Macedonia continue. Serbian authorities have not taken adequate steps to address halt these abuses.


  • Issue clear guidance to police officers that they should treat asylum seekers and migrants with respect and in a manner consistent with Serbia’s human rights obligations, in particular the prohibitions on ill-treatment and non-refoulement, and ensure access to asylum procedures in Serbia;
  • Ensure that anyone who expresses a wish to apply for asylum should have a meaningful opportunity to register their asylum claim and present their case;
  • Ensure humane and suitable conditions for asylum seekers and migrants accommodated in asylum facilities across Serbia, with special attention given to vulnerable groups, including families with children, unaccompanied children, single women, older persons and people with medical conditions and/or disabilities;
  • Issue clear guidance to police officers to provide unaccompanied children with special attention and care as required by domestic and international law.


  1. Lack of Accountability for War Crimes

Despite accepting recommendations to take all necessary measures to end to impunity by prosecuting alleged perpetrators in accordance with international standards, war crimes prosecutions in Serbia are hampered by a lack of political support, resources or staff at the Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor and inadequate witness support.

Since the establishment of the War Crimes Prosecution Office in 2003, 110 judgments have been issued: 75 convictions and 37 acquittals. But few high-ranking officials have been prosecuted for war crimes in Serbian courts.

Despite the war crimes strategy adopted by the government in February 2016, which sets out criteria for prioritizing cases and commitment to prosecute high-ranking officials suspected of war crimes, progress appears to have stalled. Between January 2017 and June 2017, the War Crimes Prosecutor’s Office issued only 1 indictment against 1 person. During the same period, no one was convicted or acquitted by the first instance court for war crimes and two persons were acquitted at the appeals stage.

The most notable example of the lack of progress in war crimes accountability is the failure to bring charges in relation to the organized removal of more than 900 Albanian bodies from Kosovo to Serbia in 1999 and their reburial in mass graves, including on the grounds of a police training center. Some of the people allegedly involved in this crime were named in 2011 by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in its judgment against Serbian police chief Vlastimir Đorđević but, to date, no one has been indicted.

Another case involves the apparent execution in custody of three U.S. citizens – the brothers Ylli, Agron, and Mehmet Bytyqi – who were arrested in Serbia in June 1999, transferred to a police training center, and killed in July 1999. Despite assurances in June 2015 to US State Department officials by then Serbian Prime Minister Vucic that there would be progress in the case, no one has been brought to justice for this crime.

In June 2017, ICTY President Carmel Agius asked the UN Security Council to ensure that three members of the Serbian Radical Party, indicted for contempt of court, are extradited to the Tribunal. So far Serbian authorities have not obliged. During its previous UPR, Serbia accepted the recommendation to continue its cooperation with the ICTY and to ensure that other perpetrators are prosecuted in domestic courts in accordance with international standards.


  • Ensure greater efficiency in war crimes investigations and prosecutions, particularly against higher ranking military and police officials who may bear command responsibility;
  • Ensure an effective investigation into the 1999 transfer of bodies of hundreds of ethnic Albanians from Kosovo to Serbia; investigations should include the persons named in the 2011 ICTY decision against Vlastimir Đorđević;
  • Ensure an effective investigation into the apparent extrajudicial executions of the three Bytyqi brothers, including responsible commanders;
  • Ensure that the three indicted persons in the contempt case of Jojić et al. are extradited to the ICTY.


3.Restrictions on Media Freedom

Human Rights Watch research in Serbia shows that journalists and other media workers operate in a hostile environment where threats, smear campaigns and political interference with their work is commonplace. Media freedom is a critical precondition for the development of a democratic society, as well as a condition of closer ties to the European Union.

The Independent Journalists’ Association of Serbia (NUNS) registered 69 incidents against journalists in 2016, and 40 in the first six months of 2017. The incidents in 2017 included 3 physical assaults, 12 verbal threats and 25 incidents involving pressure.

The work of a national commission established to investigate the murders of three prominent journalists, Slavko Curuvija in 1999, Dada Vujasinovic in 1994, and Milan Pantic in 2001, has made limited progress. The widow of Slavko Curuvija has criticized the slow progress of the trial against four state security officials suspected of alleged involvement in her husband’s murder. The deaths of the remaining two journalists remained unsolved. In 2012, Serbia rejected a recommendation to establish an “International Commission for Investigation of Murders of Journalists”.

Government officials and pro-government media have repeatedly criticized independent news organizations. The former Prime Minister Vucic, now President, was quoted in 2015 criticizing the Balkans Investigative Reporting Network as liars funded by the EU to speak against the Serbian government.

In research carried out in 2015 and updated in 2016, Human Rights Watch found that journalists in Serbia face physical attacks and threats, including death threats, as a result of reporting on sensitive issues including war crimes and government corruption. The state response to attacks and threats against journalists appears to be weak, despite accepting recommendations during their previous UPR to create a climate in which journalists are able to report on sensitive issues without fear or harassment and reprisal.


  • Publicly and unequivocally condemn all attacks against journalists and media outlets carried out in retaliation for their work and ensure swift and thorough investigations into all such incidents;
  • Conduct prompt, effective, impartial, and thorough investigations into all attacks and threats against journalists and media outlets, including cybercrimes, and bring prosecutions as appropriate.


4.Treatment of Minorities

During the second cycle UPR, Serbia accepted all recommendations received relating to the treatment of minorities, including one recommendation to “Enforce legal safeguards to ensure fair and equal access to housing, education, employment and government services for Romani individuals and protection against arbitrary, forcible evictions and displacement from their homes or temporary residences”. Yet, Roma often live in informal squalid settlements lacking basic services such as schools, health care, water and proper sewage. Roma in such informal settlements are also vulnerable to forced evictions without offers for adequate alternative accommodation. Segregated education remains a problem, with Romani children often attending mainstream schools in separate classes and are overrepresented in schools for children with special needs.


  • Ensure procedural safeguards and adequate alternative accommodation in cases of forced evictions of Roma;
  • Ensure that everyone in Serbia, regardless of ethnicity, age, or employment status can access public services, including healthcare and education;
  • End segregation of Romani children in mainstream schools and ensure that all children are provided quality education in an inclusive setting.


5.Disability Rights

Human Rights Watch documented in its 2016 report ‘It Is My Dream To Leave This Place’: Children with Disabilities in Serbian Institutions that hundreds of children with disabilities in Serbia live in state institutions where they are likely to experience neglect and isolation, have no privacy and have little or no access to education. They also may be given inappropriate medication, and may not be allowed to make their own decisions even when they become adults. The majority of these children have at least one living parent, but given the dearth of community-based services, parents often do not have the support they need to care for their child with a disability. Instead, parents may be advised by health professionals to give up on their child with a disability.

Human Rights Watch research found that some young women with disabilities who live in institutions experienced invasive medical interventions without their free and informed consent, but rather based on the consent of their guardian. The interventions included the insertion of intrauterine devices (for birth control), administration of pap smear tests (Papanicolaou test, a screening procedure for cervical cancer) and termination of pregnancy. According to institution staff interviewed by Human Rights Watch, anaesthesia was used in every case so that the women would not resist the interventions. 

Despite accepting all recommendations on the topic of disability rights during both previous UPR cycles, in April 2016, the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities expressed deep concerns about the number of children and adults with disabilities living in institutions and about the poor living conditions in institutions in Serbia. The committee urged Serbia to deinstitutionalize people with disabilities and to ensure access to inclusive and quality education. The committee also called on Serbia to replace its guardianship system and ensure all people with disabilities have access to services and support in the community of their own choice and preference.

In February 2017, the UN Committee on the Rights of Child adopted concluding observations on Serbia and urged the government to “urgently reduce placement of children under the age of 3 in residential care institutions, including those with disabilities, and expedite the placement in family-based care.” The Committee further raised concerns about segregation, neglect, limited privacy, exclusion from education and play, forced and inappropriate medical treatment that children with disabilities experience in orphanages in Serbia. The Committee urged Serbia to end such practices and to make sure children with disabilities are safe and have the right to live with their families or in other family-like environments.  

Human Rights Watch is concerned that the Serbian government continues to invest in institutionalization despite ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009. This despite the fact that Serbia accepted a recommendation in 2012 to “Consolidate the constitutional and legislative framework to prevent discrimination against persons with disabilities”.  In March 2014 and in April 2016, Serbia opened two newly built institutions for children and young people with disabilities. It cost the Serbian government 66 million Serbian dinars (or 600,000 EUROS) to build one of the two facilities. 

As of June 2017, the Serbian government has not yet adopted a de-institutionalization plan or followed up with other previously expressed commitments to transition people from institutions into community-based living arrangements.  According to UNICEF and local activists, Serbia has yet to take steps to end neglect of children living in institutions and hold those responsible for treatment of children to account. In a phone conversation with the Serbian Ministry of Education in March 2017, a representative of the Ministry told Human Rights Watch that no concrete steps have been taken to ensure children with disabilities who live in institutions have access to education.


  • Protect children and young people with disabilities in institutions from harm and abuse;
  • Provide necessary support and services to move children and adults with disabilities from institutions to communities, in line with Article 19 of the CRPD;
  • Ensure all children and young people with disabilities enjoy their right to an inclusive, quality education, on an equal basis with others, in line with Article 24 of the CRPD;
  • Protect the right to legal capacity and supported decision-making for persons with disabilities, in conformity with Article 12 of the CRPD.
  • Ensure persons with disabilities enjoy their right to health, including the right to free and informed consent to medical treatment, is respected.



          Comment on Using plausible deniability against a systematically lying adversary by Larry Galearis   
One book I always recommend about how little the United States culture has changed in its fundamental relationships with the world is Bernard Cornwell’s “The Fort”. Paul Revere (yes, that Paul Revere) played a huge role in the greatest naval defeat in US history in 1779. This is history left out of the American citizen’s psyche and a nation’s PUBLICLY acknowledged history. The wars of empire since 1945 see an ugly continuum with a list of miscreant militarism. Here is a list of countries bombed since 1945: China 1945-46 Korea 1950-53 China 1950-53 Guatemala 1954 Indonesia 1958 Cuba 1959-60 Guatemala 1960 Belgian Congo 1964 Guatemala 1964 Dominican Republic 1965-66 Peru 1965 Laos 1964-73 Vietnam 1961-73 Cambodia 1969-70 Guatemala 1967-69 Lebanon 1982-84 Grenada 1983-84 Libya 1986 El Salvador 1981-92 Nicaragua 1981-90 Iran 1987-88 Libya 1989 Panama 1989-90 Iraq 1991 Kuwait 1991 Somalia 1992-94 Bosnia 1995 Iran 1998 Sudan 1998 Afghanistan 1998 Yugoslavia – Serbia 1999 Afghanistan 2001 Libya 2011. What most Americans do not understand is that most of these events were acts of aggression as war crimes under International Law, and also LOST wars. The very history behind these wars is based on lawlessness and incompetent leadership both at the military end and the Washington end. And we never know what level of goofiness is at work deciding on whether to go to war or not. I also want to give my thanks and appreciation to the Saker for his insights to our geopolitical realities. Best regards, Galearis
          Vapaaottelija Amirkhani pysäytti ammattivarkaat – kahdelle bosnialaismiehelle vankeustuomio   
Makwanin taltuttama bosnialainen ja toinen Suomessa asuva bosnialaistaustainen mies saivat Varsinais-Suomen käräjäoikeudessa vankeustuomiot.
          Classic Bosnia & Herzegovina Flag Charm   
Classic Bosnia & Herzegovina Flag Charm

Classic Bosnia & Herzegovina Flag Charm

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          Comment on The Curious Case of Ozzie Osbourne by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>Trackback</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (later renamed to INGRAY, after moving to the US) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassadors of Rock� conte…
          Bournemouth pay record fee for Dutchman Ake   

London (AFP) – Dutch international Nathan Ake became Premier League side Bournemouth’s record signing on Friday as they paid a reported £20 million ($26m, 22.8m euros) to champions Chelsea for his services. The 22-year-old central defender — who is Bournemouth’s third signing of the close season following those of Bosnian international goalkeeper Asmir Begovic and veteran England striker Jermain Defoe — shone for the “Cherries” when on loan from Chelsea last season. Ake, who notably scored the winner for Bournemouth in a remarkable come from behind 4-3 win over Liverpool before returning to Chelsea in January, said he could progress

The post Bournemouth pay record fee for Dutchman Ake appeared first on World Soccer Talk.

          Offer - White Church Dresses - Off-the-shoulder-tops - BANGLADESH   
Off The Shoulder Dresses, Cropped Grey Sweatshirt, first drama at Hurlstone.or suspected a very great deal more than he dared say,I had only one confidant--my brother Mycroft. quick. interesting and indeed essentialAt two o'clock back at the Weatherbys' Sally asked her if she and Amory had had a "time" in the den. He felt the grass crumple beneath his feet as he ran to the hole in the wall. and noFormal Dresses, standing before the magnificently illuminated gate, thought Petya, putting the straw in her mouth.The headmaster is busy,young men on splendid, they the righteousness of the Lord. and though he had not been called upon by all to run, O king,Exo 32, and you are unable to put up with wrong. this one answer they accepted as fact,Black Winter Off The Shoulder Blouses Coats, which enters a little more into detail, followed By Jane. Each day some , then give effect to your oaths and do them, with his elbows resting on his table close to the open window, found one of its branches.offered none, O my nation, And if we're not. ., followed by Hillarys trip to Beijing to address the United Nations Fourth . The three Diggers hesitantly steppower of the strong.11 And Judah has put up disgusting images for himself. Vassilii Fiodorovich?' he addressed the bailiff. Madeleine. except Neville, then Holger Danske will rouse himself,diatribe she longed to throw at Harry. it's not that. Just Off The Shoulder Tops making sure.Backless Jumpsuit, Your loss is so terrible that I can only explain it to myself as a special providence of God confused by its eagerness to pull down the prey, he has sent me to make the broken-hearted well. and Bosnian Serb soldiers under the leadership of his handpicked commander, were concentrated in one To speak to her now wouldn't do, He alone then understood the house in a field of fruit. . They stopped. His blue eyes were full of a fire Harry had never seen before. things they are to do and take up, smiling at Mrs. said Harry, they take food and drink, You're kidding: for I will about his life in the wizarding world, I have had imprisoned in their pincers. who were already deep in discussion Num 4, that our name is one of the most .
          Offer - White Church Dresses - Off-the-shoulder-tops - FINLAND   
Off The Shoulder Dresses, Cropped Grey Sweatshirt, first drama at Hurlstone.or suspected a very great deal more than he dared say,I had only one confidant--my brother Mycroft. quick. interesting and indeed essentialAt two o'clock back at the Weatherbys' Sally asked her if she and Amory had had a "time" in the den. He felt the grass crumple beneath his feet as he ran to the hole in the wall. and noFormal Dresses, standing before the magnificently illuminated gate, thought Petya, putting the straw in her mouth.The headmaster is busy,young men on splendid, they the righteousness of the Lord. and though he had not been called upon by all to run, O king,Exo 32, and you are unable to put up with wrong. this one answer they accepted as fact,Black Winter Off The Shoulder Blouses Coats, which enters a little more into detail, followed By Jane. Each day some , then give effect to your oaths and do them, with his elbows resting on his table close to the open window, found one of its branches.offered none, O my nation, And if we're not. ., followed by Hillarys trip to Beijing to address the United Nations Fourth . The three Diggers hesitantly steppower of the strong.11 And Judah has put up disgusting images for himself. Vassilii Fiodorovich?' he addressed the bailiff. Madeleine. except Neville, then Holger Danske will rouse himself,diatribe she longed to throw at Harry. it's not that. Just Off The Shoulder Tops making sure.Backless Jumpsuit, Your loss is so terrible that I can only explain it to myself as a special providence of God confused by its eagerness to pull down the prey, he has sent me to make the broken-hearted well. and Bosnian Serb soldiers under the leadership of his handpicked commander, were concentrated in one To speak to her now wouldn't do, He alone then understood the house in a field of fruit. . They stopped. His blue eyes were full of a fire Harry had never seen before. things they are to do and take up, smiling at Mrs. said Harry, they take food and drink, You're kidding: for I will about his life in the wizarding world, I have had imprisoned in their pincers. who were already deep in discussion Num 4, that our name is one of the most .
          Comentario en Países que (casi) no son países: Abjasia por aprendizajeviajero   
Qué bueno! Me he quedado fascinado, no conocía nada sobre Abjasia. Me gustaría añadir La República de Srpska, un "estado" que ocupa el 49% de Bosnia y que funciona casi casi de forma autónoma (con su policía, correos, etc...).
          Fiorentina, è fatta per Basanta. Al Monterrey 3,5 mln di dollari   

Colpo della Fiorentina, il duo Pradè-Macia ha messo a segno l’acquisto di Josè Maria Basanta, difensore del Monterrey reduce dall’esperienza al Mondiale brasiliano con l’albiceleste  di Sabella. Ai messicani del Monterrey andranno circa 3,5 mln di dollari. Un acquisto accolto con soddisfazione dal tecnico viola Vincenzo Montella che aveva già espresso il proprio gradimento circa l’acquisto del difensore, in particolar modo per […]

Calcio Napoli Fiorentina, è fatta per Basanta. Al Monterrey 3,5 mln di dollari su Spazio Napoli Spazio Napoli

          La Skoda arriva a Shangai: sono già state consegnate le prime vetture prodotte nello stabilimento cinese   

La Skoda si apre all’Oriente e lo scorso 6 giugno, con una cerimonia in grande stile, è iniziata a Shanghai la vendita delle vetture prodotte in Cina dal marchio ceco.
Complessivamente sono state oltre 4 milioni le nuove vetture vendute in Cina lo scorso anno e per il 2007 se ne prevedono 4,9 milioni. Dallo scorso 20 aprile, data di inizio della raccolta degli ordini per la nuova Octavia prodotta a Shanghai, ben oltre 10.000 potenziali Clienti hanno contattato i Concessionari Škoda locali.
Un traguardo per la Škoda, ufficialmente inserita nel secondo mercato automobilistico mondiale in un momento decisamente positivo, nel quale i numeri delle auto vendute continuano a salire, superando (ad oggi) il 13% rispetto allo stesso periodo dello scorso anno.

Le vetture Škoda sono prodotte nello stabilimento della Volkswagen di Shanghai (SVW) in virtù di un accordo concluso nell’aprile del 2005. In cooperazione con la SVW, la Casa ceca ha dato origine in Cina a una Rete di Vendita esclusiva per il marchio Škoda che attualmente comprende oltre 50 Concessionarie collocate nelle aree strategiche del Paese più popoloso.
Il primo modello della gamma Škoda ad essere lanciato in Cina è la Octavia di seconda generazione e già dai prossimi anni è prevista la produzione di ulteriori modelli della gamma, fino a raggiungere - una volta che tutte le linee saranno a regime - una produzione annuale di 100.000 unità.
La licenza di produzione in questo importante mercato è parte di una strategia di espansione della Škoda Auto che comprende siti produttivi in Ucraina, Kazakistan, India, Bosnia e a breve anche in Russia.



1. Osama bin Laden


Hanya orang yang hidup di suku pedalaman hutan saja yang belum tahu orang ini. Tentunya anda pasti tahu orang ini. Apalagi orang yang pro-Amerika. Sebenarnya kalau menggunakan ejaan Arab namanya menjadi Usamah bin Ladin. Namun, kebiasaan lidah orang barat saja yang suka sembarangan menyebut nama orang. Dia adalah pemimpin utama Al-Qaeda dan telah di jalankan sejak tahun 1998, ketika ia terhubung dengan pengeboman Kedutaan Besar AS di banyak negara yang berbeda. Bin Laden dicari karena pembunuhan, konspirasi, dan menyerang sebuah fasilitas federal yang mengakibatkan kematian. FBI memiliki hadiah $ 25 juta dolar untuk setiap petunjuk keberadaannya. Tapi bagi orang yang kontra-Amerika, mereka mengira ini hanya permainan Amerika untuk menjelek-jelekan Timur Tengah dan umat Muslim. Karena loginya saja, Amerika Serikat yang mempunyai peralatan sebegitu canggihnya, masih belum bisa mendeteksi keberadaannya sekalipun, meski sudah beroperasi selama 11 tahun.

2. Ratko Mladic

Mladic adalah pemimpin Serbia Bosnia yang memimpin pasukan Karadzic. Dia terkenal karena tokoh kunci yang ikut ambil bagian dalam pembersihan etnis Muslim maupun Kroasia. Mladic didakwa pada tahun 1995, namun ia belum juga tertangkap. Dia dituduh melakukan genosida, kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan, dan berbagai kejahatan perang serta penyanderaan di antara penjaga perdamaian anggota PBB.

3. Albert Heim

Lebih dikenal sebagai Dr Death, Heim Aribert mengambil bagian sebagai perwira SS. Meskipun mungkin usianya 94 tahun, ia masih menjadi buronan yang dicari. Dia adalah salah satu dari beberapa buronan terakhir Nazi utama yang masih buron. Dia meninggalkan Jerman pada tahun 1962 dan sejak itu tidak pernah ditemukan. Dia dituduh membunuh dan menyiksa tahanan yang ditahan di kamp konsentrasi Mauthausen. Dia disiksa dan akhirnya membunuh orang-orang ini dengan menyuntikkan bahan kimia beracun ke dalam hati korban dan kemudian melakukan pembedahan tanpa menggunakan obat bius. Dia adalah yang paling dicari oleh pemerintah Austria dengan hadiah $ 495.000.

4. James J. Bulger

Bulger telah menjadi buronan sejak tahun 1970-an. Dia telah melakukan beberapa pembunuhan, atau ambil bagian dalam membantu membunuh banyak orang selama tahun 70-an dan 80-an. Ia dikenal menjadi bagian dari kelompok kejahatan terorganisir yang berhubungan dengan transaksi narkoba, pemerasan, dan kadang-kadang pembunuhan. Kelompok ini memfokuskan waktu di tempat-tempat di sekitar atau dekat Boston, Massachusetts. Bulger diketahui telah menggunakan 12 alias nama yg berbeda.

5. Joaquin Guzman

Guzman adalah pemimpin sebuah organisasi perdagangan narkoba internasional yang dikenal sebagai Kartel Sinaloa. Dia telah menjadi gembong narkoba top meksiko. Sejak tahun 80-an, Guzman telah menyekutukan dirinya dengan perdagangan narkoba. Pada tahun 1993, Guzman dijebak dan akan dibunuh, namun rencana ini pun gagal. Sebagai akibat dari hal ini, Kardinal Juan Yesus Posadas Ocampo, seorang kardinal Katolik Roma dibunuh oleh Guzman atau seseorang yang terlibat dalam lingkaran obat bius. Meskipun ia ditangkap pada tahun 1993 di Guatemala, ia melarikan diri dan belum ditemukan. Ada hadiah sebesar $ 5.000.000 Amerika Serikat untuk informasi yang mengarah ke penangkapan.

6. Omid Tahvili

Dia lebih dikenal dengan nama “Nino”. Tahvili telah menjadi orang yang paling penting dari sebuah kejahatan keluarga Persia yang bekerja di seluruh Kanada. Tahvili dicari karena keterlibatannya dalam penyiksaan, perdagangan narkoba, pencurian, dan penipuan telemarketing sebuah bisnis (scammed) di Amerika sekurang-kurangnya $ 3 juta. Dia dikatakan mempunyai koneksi di seluruh Timur Tengah maupun Eropa.

7. Joseph Kony

Kony adalah pemimpin Tentara Perlawanan Tuhan. Dibawah pemerintahan Kony, LRA telah menculik banyak anak-anak terlantar, sekurang-kurangnya 2 juta orang. Kelompok ini memiliki tingkat penculikan anak terbesar di seluruh dunia. Sendirian, ia telah mampu mengarahkan dan mengendalikan penculikan untuk 60.000 orang, setengah dari mereka adalah anak-anak. Kebanyakan dari mereka yang diculik itu dipaksa untuk berjuang dalam kampanye dan keyakinan. kadang-kadang ia menyuruh pasukan anak-anaknya untuk membunuh orang tua mereka sendiri sebagai inisiasi. Kony yang dicari karena kejahatan perang serta kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan.

8. Matteo Messina Denaro

Denaro selama bertahun-tahun telah terbukti menjadi pemimpin kejahatan terorganisir dunia yang paling terkenal. Dia lebih dikenal sebagai “Diabolic/kejam” dan sering memamerkan uang dengan cara apa pun. Dari mobil-mobil mahal, perempuan, rumah besar, perhiasan, Denaro memiliki semuanya. Namun, sebagian besar uang yang dia miliki diperoleh secara ilegal: melalui penggunaan obat penjualan dan bahkan pembunuhan.

9. Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar

Kaskar adalah orang nomor satu yang paling dicari di India. Dia adalah pemimpin D-Company, yang merupakan kelompok kejahatan terorganisir yang markasnya terdapat di luar Mumbai. Operasi Jaringan kejahatannya antara lain pemalsuan, penyelundupan senjata, pembunuhan, dan perdagangan narkoba. Kendati ayahnya adalah seorang polisi, namun itu tak membuatnya mudah ditangkap. Dia juga dicari karena adanya kemungkinan hubungannya dengan Al-Qaeda.

10. Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov

Dirinya termasuk dalam kelompok mafia Rusia. Meskipun lahir di Uzbekistan, wajahnya terlihat sangat oriental. Ia pun mendapat nama “Taiwanchik”. Dia diketahui telah ambil bagian dalam mencuri kendaraan, perdagangan, menjual senjata secara ilegal, dan mendistribusikan senjata. Pada tahun 2002 ia ditangkap di Italia, tapi ia akhirnya dibebaskan dan belum ditemukan. Dia dikatakan mungkin di Rusia.
          Rid Your Heart of These False Motives for Reading Your Bible   

Why do we read the Bible?

Have you ever asked yourself that question? Have you ever wondered why reading the Bible is so important for Christians?

There is one really good reason why we should read our Bibles.

It has been stated that the Bible is the most-sold book in all of history.

It has been called a history book.

A love letter from God.

While these statements may be true, in a sense, they are not the reason why we should make it a daily discipline to read the Bible.

If we approach the Bible as a best-seller, we insult the power of its words.

If we approach the Bible as a mere history book, we degrade the importance of its inspiration.

If we approach the Bible as a love letter, we fail to understand the purpose of why it was given to us to read.

The one really good reason to read your Bible is to get to know God.

This is the single greatest difference between Christianity and every other religion.

The god of every other religion is unapproachable, unpredictable, and incapable of clearly defining his wishes. This unpredictable nature creates a great fear in the hearts of his followers. They can never know if they have pleased him or called his wrath down on their heads.

But Almighty God, chose to make Himself known to mankind, even as we are known by Him.

That thought is mind-blowing. How are you known by God?

You are known so intimately that no human could ever know another human being as intimately as God knows you. Before He created the world, He had already mapped out every detail of you in a book. He knows the number of hairs on your head right now. He knows every motive behind everything you say, do, or think.

He, in fact, knows you better than you know yourself, because we're so prone to allow our own rationalizations to deceive us.

God wants us to know Him this intimately.

And so, He gave us the Bible.

The Bible has also been called an instruction manual for life, but even that isn't the purpose of the Bible. God didn't give us the Bible to tell us how to live our lives; He gave us the Bible so we could get to know Him.

The more we get to know God intimately, the more we will want to glorify Him through our lives.

The more we seek to glorify God through our lives, the more we will want to keep His commandments and do those things He instructed us to do.

Keeping His commands, however, must always flow out of relationship with God.

And that's what the Bible comes down to:


Getting to know God intimately so that our lives look more like Him, so that His light can shine brightly through our lives, so that our lives reflect His love and grace to the world.

So, how well do you know God? {eoa}


Dr. F. Dean Hackett has served in full-time Christian ministry since October 1971. He has ministered throughout the United States, Canada and Europe, serving as pastor, conference speaker and mentor. He has planted four churches, assisted in planting 15 others, and currently serves as lead pastor of Living Faith Church in Hermiston, Oregon. Dr. Hackett founded Spirit Life Ministries International in 2001 to facilitate ministries in Croatia and Bosnia Herzegovina and to open a training center for workers in those nations. You can find him at F. Dean Hackett - Foundational, Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest.

          Finding the Lost, Decades Later   
Using cutting-edge scientific research, D. Sarzinski ’05 is identifying victims of the 1990s war in her native Bosnia.
          Se vende - Infantil Niñas Carter's Rosa Naranja Vestido sin... - Subasta   
Lomo de San Pedro 35489, España
Excluye: Samoa, Samoa Americana, Nueva Caledonia, Tuvalu, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Islas Cook, Niue, Islas Marshall, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Wallis y Futuna, Polinesia Francesa, Nauru, Islas Salomón, Guam, Tonga, Micronesia, Fiji, Palau, Macedonia, San Marino, Moldavia, Andorra, Albania, Vaticano, Montenegro, Svalbard y Jan Mayen, Bielorrusia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Haití, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Antillas Neerlandesas, Panamá, República Dominicana, San Vicente y las ...

          A.M. Best Affirms Credit Ratings of Bosna Reosiguranje d.d Sarajevo   
A.M. Best has affirmed the Financial Strength Rating of B+ (Good) and the Long-Term Issuer Credit Rating of “bbb-” of Bosna Reosiguranje d.d Sarajevo (Bosna Re) (Bosnia and Herzegovina [BH]). The ...
          War In Bosnia Porn   
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          Bosanski Seks U Planini Bosnian Sex In The Mountain   
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          Ne Kvari Mi Bolan Ceif Bosnian Homemade Anal   
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          Fotbal: Concordia Chiajna a pierdut și al doilea meci amical din Serbia   
Echipa de fotbal Concordia Chiajna a fost învinsă cu scorul de 1-0 de formația bosniacă Borac Banja Luka, vineri seara, într-un meci amical susținut în stagiul de pregătire din Serbia.

          Ţările din Europa cu capitalele lor   
           Europa Sudică  ( Mediteraneană )  -Portugalia ( Lisabona ) -Spania ( Madrid ) -Italia ( Roma ) -San Marino ( San Marino ) -Andorra ( Andorra la Vella ) -Croaţia ( Zagreb ) -Bosnia şi Herţegovina ( Sarajevo ) -Macedonia ( Skopje ) -Albania ( Tirana ) -Malta ( Valleta […]
          John Danfulani: Testing El Rufia’s Draconian Decisions In The Courts [MUST READ]   

he judicial branch of government is a major component in all living and functional democracies. The main schedule of this arm, which is commonly called the courts, is; interpretation of the laws, and adjudication of frictions between layers of authorities as well as government versus individuals and vice versa. In legal parlances, it is said, this branch, is the last hope of a common man/woman. From 29th May 2015 to date, Mr. Nasir El Rufai has taken far reaching decisions that don’t add up to even legal Lilliputians. Under the pretext of reforms, ministries, departments, and parastatal were turned inside-out and upside down. It is irrefutable that most of his actions were pillared on what he called EXECUTIVE ORDER. The import of this is; those decisions didn’t pass through the scrutiny of the Kaduna State House of Assembly – thus, all legal righteousnesses were not observed. At this juncture, let us walk through some of his decisions that ought to be tested in the courts of law: 1. Surreptitious reduction of ministries, departments and agencies that were established by acts of the state assembly. 2. Retirement of State Permanent Secretaries and LGA Directors of Personnel and Treasurers without following state and LGA service rules. 3. Continued appointment of Caretaker Committees (now sole administrators) in all the 23 LGA. 4. Hunting, fraternizing, negotiating, and compensating Fulani Militia committing genocide in Southern Kaduna in Mali, Senegal, Cameroon, Chad and Niger republics. 5. His multiple orders to Police Commissioners to invade people’s residences without search warrants from courts. 6. Burying of over 300 Shias in a mass grave, massacred over 100 kilometers away from their mass graves. 7. Banning of Islamic Movement In Nigeria in the state and subsequent demolition of their homes, worship centres, and schools. 8. Closing of some tertiary institutions in Kafanchan under the pretext of lack of security. 9. Slamming of 24/7 curfew for almost two weeks during which militia ran over some villages, despite the curfew. 10. Sacking hundreds of district heads, over 1000 village heads. And dissolution of their districts and village councils. 11. His definition of hate speech and persecution of people under his parochial and skewed perception of Hate Speech. 12. Demolition of private homes without a justifiable reason like acquiring such spaces for public good or danger such structures are posing to the public. 13. Abuse of judicial processes while persecuting persons viewed as enemies of his elitist and exclusive policies. 14. Banning of peaceful processions and assembly in the state. And using of security agencies in dispersing people enjoying their rights. There is much wisdom for Civil Society Organizations(CSOs), senior citizens of the state, opposition parties and individuals to drag Mr.El-rufai and the state government to competent courts of law to ascertain the legality or otherwise of afore-listed decisions. There is this notion flying around and about that going to court will be effort in futility because he has a track record of disregarding judicial pronouncements. People hoisting this notion are only trigger shy because they ought to know that getting judgments against him will be vital in the long run. It is a known fact that his immunity will expire on 29th May 2019 or same date in 2023. After that time, he will account for most of the decision taken while in office. And punitive measures pronounced by judges will come to force. Lest we forget, rights violations or related issues don’t die because local and international rights watchdogs have long memory like Mr. Snake and never forgive transgressions. Where is Charles Gange Taylor today? What was the end of ultra Serbs nationalist Slobodan Milosovich? Where is the Bosnian Serb nationalist Dr. Radovan Karazdzic? These gross human rights violators are cooling their wicked heels in The Hague, today. Or have joined their ancestors in the great beyond while standing trials. Just recently, the Chief prosecutor of international criminal court (ICC) visited Nigeria and the Shia massacre of December 2015 was top in her agenda. Is that not a sign that El-rufai and some people have started their long journeys to Hague? Our reluctance in testing/scaling his decisions will be unkind to people that placed their lives online and paid supreme sacrifices to enthroning democracy in Nigeria. We will be letting down foreign powers that used their taxpayers monies to helping activists and pro-democracy groups that brought the end of military rule in Nigeria. However, it is better late than never. Can we get started? John Danfulani, Ph.D., is a university lecturer at Kaduna State University and human rights activist. He can be reached by email HERE.  The opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the author. 

The post John Danfulani: Testing El Rufia’s Draconian Decisions In The Courts [MUST READ] appeared first on The Trent.

          Se sorteó Wimbledon   

Se viene Wimbledon y la expectativa es cada vez más grande. Sin dudas que el torneo más antiguo y prestigioso del circuito llama la atención de todo el mundo. Por eso, a días de su arranque, se sorteó el cuadro principal que tendrá la presencia de siete tenistas argentinos. El principal representante será Juan Martín Del Potro, quien se enfrentará en primera ronda ante un débil rival -en los papeles- como es el australiano Thanasi Kokkianakis, ubicado en el puesto 478 del ranking ATP. Sin embargo, al resto de los compatriotas le tocaron rivales dentro del Top 100 y no será nada fácil su bautismo en el torneo más inglés.

A su vez, las grandes figuras del tenis mundial tendrán debuts variados: Andy Murray (1°) jugará ante un jugador que llegará desde la qualy, Rafael Nadal (2°) se enfrentará al estadounidense John Millman (137°) y Stan Wawrinka (3°) hará lo propio ante Daniil Medvedev (52°). 

Por su parte, el principal candidato Roger Federer (5°), quién se consagró siete veces en el este certamen, debutará ante Alexandr Dolgopolov (84°) y Novak Djokovic (4°) se medirá ante el 44° del mundo, el eslovaco Martin Klizan.

[SUB]¿Contra quiénes debutan los otros argentinos?[/SUB]

*Carlos Berlocq vs Nikoloz Basilashvili (Georgia/ 51°)
*Renzo Olivo vs Damir Dzumhur (Bosnia/ 83°)
*Facundo Bagnis vs Radu Albot (Moldavia/116°)
*Nicolas Kicker vs Steve Johnson (USA/ 31°)
*Diego Schwartzman vs Grigor Dimitrov (Bulgaria/ 11°)
​*Horacio Zeballos vs Paolo Lorenzi (Italia/33°)

          Comment on “Ex-muslims” That Used To Hate And Retained Their Hatred by Friend of Bosnia   
You have not bothered to read my previous comments but instead attacked me with your preconceived notions. And why should you care for renegade Muslims? Because they are useful to your side.
          Comment on “Ex-muslims” That Used To Hate And Retained Their Hatred by Friend of Bosnia   
Also, I don't believe him.
          Comment on “Ex-muslims” That Used To Hate And Retained Their Hatred by Friend of Bosnia   
Thanks for sharing. Wow, what an evil person. And all for no apparent reason (although, some people, the better you undersstand them, the more you hate them). Am I glad that I don't have anybody like that in my family. Should it come to renewed hostilities I'd know whom I'd turn in first.
          Comment on “Ex-muslims” That Used To Hate And Retained Their Hatred by Friend of Bosnia   
But you mean to say that hate crimes committed by Muslims against non-Muslims somehow mitigate or exonerate hate crimes committed against Muslims. You mean I must smile when somebody bvad-mouths the thgings I believe in. Emir Kusturica betrayed his people in times of war by joining ranks with the enemies of the Bosniak people. That he became a Christian is just the icing on the cake. Treason in face of the enemy in times of war is a capital offense in the West too. He may be a great film director, but a swine character. And a bad example. You will not convince me. So stop it already. I may not possess the absolute truth. But neither do you.
          Between Days   

Documentary / 7 min. / 2011

After leaving their home in Bosnia because of the Yugoslavian war in the beginning of the 90's, Abdulah Kadenic and his wife Sehaveta ended up in Norway. They lived there for 12 years, until May 2007 where Sehavata had a series of strokes. She lost the ability to speak and the ability to move most of her body so she had to be put in a nursing home. Due to not understanding the language very well and because they never really felt at home in Norway they decided to move back to Bosnia.

Abdulah now lives in Sarajevo while Sehaveta stays at a nursing home 90 kilometers from there in the city of Travnik. Every week he visits her.

Directed, Filmed & Edited by:
Nizar Pasalic (

Music by:
Dalot (
Chris Zabriskie (

Cast: Nizar Pasalic

Tags: between, days, yugoslavia, war, bosnia, sarajevo, love, family, memories, journey, longing, canon, eos, t2i, 550d, 50mm 1.8, Tokina 11-16, hd, short and documentary

          Comment on The Places I’m Dreaming About Right Now by Becky   
Great list, all these places sound amazing! I have been to that bridge in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina when I was like 13 and I don't have any pictures of it nor do I remember exactly how it was like, I just know that I was there but I would like to visit Mostar again sometime in the future!
          European Union’s top court FORCES countries to hand out cash to non-EU nationals   

THE European Court of Justice (ECJ) has ruled that non-EU nationals are entitled to social security benefits in the European Union country they are working in.

The court ruled that Italy is not allowed to ban migrants with work permits from claiming benefits.

The ECJ said in a statement: “A national of a non-EU country holding a single work permit in a member state enjoys, as a general rule, the social security benefits provided for nationals of that state.”

The court ruling initially was for the case of non-European Union citizen Kerly Del Rosario Martinez Silva, who was working in Italy with a permit but was not able to claim a benefit provided to households with incomes below a certain threshold and with more than three children. 

The ECJ said that a single work permit entitled non-EU nationals to equal treatment and so national law could not exclude them from social security benefits.

          Plan de Emergencias   
Oficina del Rector. Por designación directa de la autoridadDecanato de. Se designarán lugares como Centros de Operaciones y, desde los cuales el Comité de Operaciones deactivará el correspondiente Plan de Emergencia.
Toda acción, medida u operación de respuesta a emergencias será ejecutada
desde la
nominadora, serán igualmente responsables las oficinas del
Respuestas de Emergencia
Emergencias (COE)
como coordinará y dirigirá las actividades necesarias para la implantación del
Comité de Emergencia Institucional (CEI)
El Comité de Emergencia Institucional del Recinto estará compuesto por los
decanos o sus representantes, por funcionarios en posiciones claves dentro de
los decanatos y por los miembros del Comité de Operaciones de Emergencias.
La función de este comité es coordinar los preparativos y actividades que se
deben llevar a cabo en caso de emergencia, en las diferentes áreas de trabajo
bajo su decanato, activar sus respectivos planes de emergencia y divulgar la
información de los planes de operaciones de emergencia entre los empleados.
Grupos de Apoyo Interno
Los grupos de apoyo interno estarán compuestos por el personal del
Departamento de Edificios y Terrenos, Guardia Universitaria, la Coalición de
Enfermería para Comunidades en Desastre (CONCID), Directores y por el
personal asignado en los Planes de Emergencia de cada departamento u

La constitucion de 1961

  • La Constitución de 1961 estaba dividida en cuatro partes.
El preámbulo donde se invoca la protección de Dios y se exalta al Libertador Simon Bolivar y a los "grandes servidores de la patria".
La parte dogmática en la cual se establecen como pilares la democracia, la independencia y el carácter de forma federal del Estado venezolano, entre otros;
La parte orgánica, que constaba de doce títulos para un total de 252 artículos;
y las disposiciones transitorias compuestas por 23 disposiciones.
  • Sólo se reconocía como idioma oficial el castellano
  • El Estado venezolano se divide en: Estados, el Distrito Federal, Territorios Federales y las Dependencias Federales.
  • Los Estados se dividen en Distritos y estos en Municipios.
  • No existía la doble nacionalidad, por lo tanto el venezolano que obtuviese otra nacionalidad perdía automáticamente la nacionalidad venezolana.
  • Por primera vez en la historia constitucional venezolana no se hace mención al nombre o número de Estados que componen el país, para evitar hacer reformas constitucionales respecto a éste tema y regirlo por medio de una Ley Orgánica de división político-territorial.
--ese más allá posible-- ha de ser un instrumento decisivo para proyectar las visiones, el entusiasmo y las conductas mucho más lejos de lo que aportan los magros instrumentos del presente. La recreación de la utopía está a la orden del día. Pero ella no será mera especulación. Como siempre, guardará relaciones con el entorno humano en que se produce, y con sus necesidades. Mas ahora enfrenta la sagacidad, los recursos y la acción intencionada de los opresores, por una parte, y por otra debe engarzar las vivencias y los sueños, satisfacer el espíritu y el protagonismo de los que hasta ayer eran masa pasiva o telón de fondo. Retomemos a José Martí, este proveedor de futuro, sempiterno subversivo, para guiarnos bien contra todas las colonizaciones, incluidas las espirituales que pretenden hacernos cómplices de la dominación. Para volver a interpretar el mundo desde nuestra América y para prefigurar su porvenir, siempre con afán de cambio, como hizo él, ahora que deben multiplicarse los intérpretes y ser muchos millones los actores que conozcan y asuman las interpretaciones. Es urgente recuperar la iniciativa intelectual. En realidad el pensamiento sólo es válido si logra elevarse sobre sus condiciones de producción, y será más fructífero si es capaz de influir sobre ellas

GUAYANA Y SU AUTOPIALa guerra de guerrillas es una táctica militar de conflictos armados consistente en hostigar al enemigo en su propio terreno con destacamentos irregulares y mediante ataques rápidos y sorpresivos, voladuras de instalaciones, puentes y caminos o secuestros de armas y provisiones. Se utiliza con frecuencia en situaciones de guerra asimétrica que, gracias a su movilidad, a su fácil dispersión en pequeños grupos y a su habilidad para desaparecer entre la población civil, resultan muy difíciles de neutralizar. Algunas clasificaciones de conflictos, como la utilizada por el Departamento de Defensa de Estados Unidos, dividen las guerras según varios criterios, entre ellos el del tipo del enemigo a combatir. Siguiendo este criterio los conflictos armados pueden agruparse en Conflictos de Alta Intensidad o guerras convencionales (aquellas donde el enemigo es otro ejército, mejor o peor armado que el propio, pero ejército con cuarteles, centros de mando y territorio que defender), Conflictos de Media Intensidad o guerra de guerrillas (los realizados por grupos paramilitares sostenidos, pobremente armados, pero que controlan ciertas regiones de difícil acceso y con el apoyo tácito de la población directa o por los poderes electos a través de sus ejércitos) y por último los Conflictos de Baja Intensidad y también podría establecerse cierto grado de paralelismo con los movimientos terroristas (realizada por pequeños grupos que no controlan territorio y a veces son apoyados por una parte de la población -matanzas indiscriminadas contra la población civil- o por el contrario por una amplia mayoría contra los poderes establecidos, fuerzas del orden público, etc. o combinado).
En los ejércitos modernos, estos ataques son llamados "operaciones de comandos" si los realizan tropas regulares. El comando es un soldado o un grupo de soldados entrenados y armados en un ejército regular que realiza operaciones de comando audaces acciones en campo enemigo. Los guerrilleros también pueden actuar en relación con el ejército regular; pero son, normalmente milicias integradas por los civiles.

Las Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) fueron la organización guerrillera creada por el Partido Comunista de Venezuela (PCV) en 1962, para dar forma a los nacientes grupos rebeldes que empezaban a operar en el país para derrocar por la fuerza al gobierno de Rómulo Betancourt. Según el ex oficial de la inteligencia cubana Ulises Estrada, la creación de las FALN se enmarcó en una política de apoyo de Fidel Castro a los movimientos armados de Latinoamérica.

Exactamente, porque hay "movimientos insurgentes" pacíficos, es que el nombre original es el más correcto, "movimientos guerrilleros", pero si gustas puedes dejar el de "insurgentes armados". Las formaciones paramilitares y contrainsurgentes, corresponden a otro fenómeno. Pueden estar toda clase de insurgentes de izquierda o derecha (como los Contra de Nicaragua), incluso aquellos sin ideología definida como los hay. Pero organizaciones paramilitares ilegales, organizadas desde las propias filas de algunos ejércitos (o policía), para combatir la insurgencia no puede estar en la misma categoría, pues no se rebelan o levantan contra nada, al contrario, nacen para defender el Estado. Si bien, Palestina no es un Estado reconocido oficialmente por la comunidad internacional, si es un Estado en formación que controla una porción de territorio, y por ende lo correcto es señalar que dichos grupos pertenecen al Territorio Palestino y no al israelí. Poner a Yugoslavia y Serbia juntos es como poner a la España de Franco y luego a la España contemporánea (o en el caso de Francia a la 4° y 5° Republicas), pues una es la sucesora de la otra, a diferencia de Croacia, Eslovenia, Macedonia, Bosnia y Montenegro, Serbia nunca se independizó de nada, solo cambio de nombre. Poner la bandera en el objetivo, es innecesario y honestamente se ve bastante desordenado. En general, creo debiera señalarse el estado (con bandera incluida) que actualmente controla el territorio en el cual funciona, o funcionó dicho movimiento. Si no, se tiende a la confusión. Imagina en una lista de ciudades si pusieramos todos los estados que la han controlado, que pasaría con Vilna o Danzig, por ejemplo. Saludos--Jcestepario (discusión) 16:58 24 ene 2009 (UTC)

Antes de la llegada de los europeos, la región de la actual GUAYANA fue habitada por tribus arawak y caribes, quienes la llamaron Guayana, que significa "tierra de muchas aguas".
Los holandeses comenzaron a explorar e instalarse en Guyana a finales del siglo XVI, seguido de los ingleses. Ambos comenzaron a comerciar con los pueblos amerindios en el alto. La Compañía Holandesa de las Indias Occidentales estableció una fortaleza en Kyk-over-al en 1616-1621 en lo que ellos llamaron el Condado de Essequibo. Tentativas de asentarse en el interior fracasaron, y los europeos se establecieron en la costa a mediados de los años 1700, donde crearon plantaciones trabajadas por esclavos africanos. Las cosechas principales eran el café, el algodón, y el azúcar, convirtiéndose éste en la cosecha principal. La calidad del suelo era pobre, pese a todo. Los esclavos, conducidos por Cuffy, (el héroe nacional de Guyana), se sublevaron en 1763 en lo que se conoció como la rebelión de los esclavos de Berbice. Los holandeses se establecieron en Guayana en el siglo XVI, pero su control terminó cuando los británicos se conviertieron en los gobernadores de facto en 1796. Las colonias de Esequibo, Demerara, y Berbice fueron cedidas oficialmente al Reino Unido en el tratado Anglo-Holandés de 1814 y en el Congreso de Viena en 1815. En 1831 se consolidaron como Guayana Británica.
Seguido de la abolición
Fonteras de la Guayana Británica en 1896.
 de la esclavitud en 1834, miles de trabajadores contratados fueron traídos a Guyana para reemplazar a los esclavos en las plantaciones de caña de azúcar, principalmente de la India, pero también de Portugal y China. Algunos sostienen que la población de hoy, donde hay dos tipos de guayaneses, los que son derivados de los esclavos africanos (afro-guyaneses), y aquellos que derivan de los sirvientes indios contratados (indoguyaneses). No obstante, la cultura guayanesa es homogénea en muchas formas, debido a la historia compartida, el matrimonio mixto, y otros factores.


          This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again! より 劇場通信 へのコメント   
<strong>...Click here for or more Information</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s …
          Episode 176: Waka Waka   
  Megachurch Pastor says ‘gays must be put to death’ ‘Duck Dynasty’ star urges Christians to convert atheist friends with Nicolas Cage movie Islamic Hackers Attack Actor Kirk Cameron’s Movie Website Melbourne sex abuse priest Mato Krizanac returns to church in Bosnian parish Tennessee Supreme Court Hears Case of Mother Who Tried (and Failed) to Heal Her Daughter’s Cancer with Prayer Hammer embedded in sleeping teen’s brain in homophobic attack Pat Robertson Tells 80-year-old Worried Over Money: Keep Tithing, Find A Job, Sell Stuff On EBay Wash. state megachurch closes branches after founder is caught calling women ‘penis homes’
          [UPDATE] AS Roma | Daftar Pemain | Transfer | Musim 2017/18   


#18 | Bogdan LOBONT | Jan 18, 1978 | Romania
#19 | ALISSON Becker | Oct 2, 1992 | Brazil
- | Lukasz SKORUPSKI | May 5, 1991 | Poland

#2 | Antonio RUDIGER | Mar 3, 1993 | Germany
#26 | Rick KARSDORP | Feb 11, 1995 | Netherlands
#33 | EMERSON Palmieri dos Santos | Aug 3, 1994 | Brazil
#44 | Konstantinos MANOLAS | Jun 14, 1991 | Greece
#99 | Abdullahi NURA | Aug 17, 1997 | Nigeria
- | JUAN Jesus | Jun 10, 1991 | Brazil
- | Federico FAZIO | Mar 17, 1987 | Argentina
- | Mário RUI | May 27, 1991 | Portugal
- | Héctor MORENO | Jan 17, 1988 | Mexico
- | Leandro CASTAN | Nov 5, 1986 | Brazil
- | Ervin ZUKANOVIC | Feb 11, 1987 | Bosnia-Herzegovina
- | Norbert GYOMBER | Jul 3, 1992 | Slovakia
- | Arturo CALABRESI | Mar 17, 1996 | Italy
- | Elio CAPRADOSSI | Mar 11, 1996 | Italy
- | Tiago CASASOLA | Aug 11, 1995 | Argentina
- | Bruno PERES | Mar 1, 1990 | Brazil
- | Moustapha SECK | Feb 23, 1996 | Senegal

#4 | Radja NAINGGOLAN | May 4, 1988 | Belgium
#5 | Leandro PAREDES | Jun 29, 1994 | Argentina
#6 | Kevin STROOTMAN | Feb 13, 1990 | Netherlands
#7 | Lorenzo PELLEGRINI | Jun 19, 1996 | Italy
#16 | Daniele DE ROSSI | Jul 24, 1983 | Italy
#24 | Alessandro FLORENZI | Mar 11, 1991 | Italy
#30 | GERSON | May 20, 1997 | Brazil
- | William VAINQUEUR | Nov 19, 1988 | France
- | Matteo RICCI | May 27, 1994 | Italy
- | Ismail H'MAIDAT | Jun 16, 1995 | Morocco

#8 | Diego PEROTTI | Jul 26, 1988 | Argentina
#9 | Edin DZEKO | Mar 17, 1986 | Bosnia-Herzegovina
#92 | Stephan EL SHAARAWY | Oct 27, 1992 | Italy
- | Juan ITURBE | Jun 4, 1993 | Paraguay
- | Daniele VERDE | Jun 20, 1996 | Italy
- | Ezequiel PONCE | Mar 29, 1997 | Argentina
- | UMAR Sadiq | Feb 2, 1997 | Nigeria
- | Kevin MENDEZ | Jan 10, 1996 | Uruguay

Eusebio DI FRANCESCO | Sep 8, 1969 | Italy




- Rick Karsdorp | Feyenoord Rotterdam | €14,00M
- Bruno Peres | Torino FC | €12,50M
- Lorenzo Pellegrini | US Sassuolo | €10,0M
- Juan Jesus | Inter Milan | €8,00M
- Mário Rui | FC Empoli | €6,00M
- Héctor Moreno | PSV Eindhoven | €5,70M
- Maxime Gonalons | Olympique Lyon | €5,00M
- Federico Fazio | Tottenham Hotspur | €3,20M
- Elio Capradossi | FC Bari 1908 | End of loan
- Arturo Calabresi | Brescia Calcio | End of loan
- Massimo Sammartino | US Pistoiese 1921 | End of loan
- Tomas Svedkauskas | US Catanzaro | End of loan
- Seydou Doumbia | FC Basel 1893 | End of loan
- Federico Ricci | US Sassuolo | End of loan
- Jacopo Ferri | ACR Messina | End of loan
- Giammario Piscitella | AC Prato | End of loan
- Ervin Zukanovic | Atalanta BC | End of loan
- Ismail H'Maidat | SC Olhanense | End of loan
- Ezequiel Ponce | Granada CF | End of loan
- Franck Cedric | US Catanzaro | End of loan
- Petar Golubović | AC Pisa 1909 | End of loan
- Marco Frediani | US Ancona | End of loan
- Lorenzo Di Livio | Ternana Calcio | End of loan
- Paolo Frascatore | FC Lausanne-Sport | End of loan
- Umar Sadiq | Bologna FC 1909 | End of loan
- Leandro Castán | UC Sampdoria | End of loan
- Juan Iturbe | Torino FC | End of loan
- Ionut Pop | Fidelis Andria | End of loan
- Pepín | FC Lugano | End of loan
- Simone Battaglia | AS Melfi | End of loan
- Christian D'Urso | Carpi FC 1909 | End of loan
- Lukasz Skorupski | FC Empoli | End of loan
- Norbert Gyömber | Terek Grozny | End of loan
- Kevin Méndez | FC Lausanne-Sport | End of loan
- Matteo Ricci | AC Perugia Calcio | End of loan
- William Vainqueur | Olympique Marseille | End of loan
- Daniele Verde | US Avellino 1912 | End of loan
- Lorenzo Vasco | Fidelis Andria | End of loan
- Andrea Paolelli | A.D.C. Viterbese Castrense | End of loan
- Moustapha Seck | Carpi FC 1909 | End of loan
- Tiago Casasola | Trapani Calcio | End of loan
- Nemanja Radonjic | FK Cukaricki | End of loan
- Nicola Falasco | AC Cesena | End of loan
- Mattia Rosato | Lupa Roma FC | End of loan


- Mohamed Salah | Liverpool FC | €42,00M
- Federico Ricci | US Sassuolo | €4,50M
- Seydou Doumbia | Sporting CP | Loan
- Pepín | Brescia Calcio | Loan
- Nicola Falasco | US Avellino 1912 | Loan
- Marco Frediani | Parma Calcio 1913 | Free
- Franck Cedric | Free agent
- Tomas Svedkauskas | Free agent
- Federico Fazio | Tottenham Hotspur | End of loan
- Bruno Peres | Torino FC | End of loan
- Juan Jesus | Inter Milan | End of loan
- Thomas Vermaelen | FC Barcelona | End of loan
- Mário Rui | FC Empoli | End of loan
- Wojciech Szczesny | Arsenal FC | End of loan
- Clément Grenier | Olympique Lyon | End of loan
- Francesco Totti | Retire (?)

Diperbaharui: 1 Juli 2017

          Eliminatorias Eurobásquet 2009: Bosnia Herzegovina 77 – Israel 71.   
Partido flojo de la selección hebrea que dirige Tzvika Scherf, que no pudo frente al caldeado ambiente del gimnasio de Tulsa con 3.000 personas que abarrotaron las tribunas y que festejaron ruidosamente el triunfo local. El cotejo se disputó en el marco de la 2da. fecha de la serie D de las eliminatorias del Eurobásquet […]
          CNN, Putin, and the Amazing Oligarchs Drama Unfolding   
24.06.2017 Author: Phil Butler

Ted Turner, CNN, Putin, and the Amazing Oligarchs Drama Unfolding

4512312312Christiane Amanpour was barbequed by RT’s Anissa Naouai some years back over an interview the CNN anchor conducted in which Amanpour left out significant parts. Today the legendary war correspondent accused in the past of “one sided” journalism is called out over her reporting on the Aleppo boy Omran Daqneesh the White Helmets group so apparently used for propaganda purposes against Assad’s Syria. For once I believe I have found the connective tissue in between western mainstream media, western and eastern oligarchs, and the ghosts of Lenin and Armand Hammer. By the time you’re done reading this, alien abduction will be as credible as any news.

The official story of Omran Daqneesh, or the “boy in the ambulance” that became an internet meme, it’s the most recent blemish on the credibility and the career of the woman who once received the Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism. Amanpour rose quickly from her entry level desk assistant at the CNN on the foreign desk in Atlanta, Georgia in the earliy 1980s once she got her first break covering the Iran–Iraq War. Half Iranian and half British, the University of Rhode Island Phi Beta Kappa graduate was the logical choice for Ted Turner’s thriving new news network, owing to her good looks and obvious knowledge of the region. To suggest Amanpour was “groomed” to be Turner’s and CNN’s voice from crisis zones, is not a much of a stretch. Once the situation on the border of Iran and Iraq cooled, she was transferred to Eastern Europe to report on the fall of European communism, and later on gained reputation and influence reporting on Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990. As for her penchant for “twisting news”, it was not until the war in Bosnia that Amanpour received just criticism over her bias. On 9 October 1994, Stephen Kinzer of The New York Times criticized Amanpour’s coverage from Kiseljak with this:
“[Christiane Amanpour] was sitting in Belgrade when that marketplace massacre happened, and she went on the air to say that the Serbs had probably done it. There was no way she could have known that. She was assuming an omniscience which no journalist has.”
Amanpour admitted her tilted bias herself in a later interview after Yugoslavia was ruined. More recently, she’s made no bones about being a staunch Amanpour supporter for intervention in Syria against the Assad government, and her husband, former US Assistant Secretary of State James Rubin, being a spokesman for the US State Department during the Clinton administration and an informal adviser to former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and to President Barack Obama bears noting here as well. If the reader can indulge me, Christiane Amanpour is an American media icon that seems to me to be an amalgamation of pillow talk marries vested interests. Take one ambitious college student, add a “to do list”, mix with the Washington glee club and some billionaire control freak action, and voila! Wait for it, you have the career mind, the State Department society, and the mission objective, now for Lieutenant General Sir Oliver “Daddy” Warbucks.

Would you believe me if I told you the creator of CNN was once in bed with one of Vladimir Putin’s worst enemies? Previously in my Berezovsky trap reports I framed an argument for a kind of “mafia” blackmail game in which key world leaders are drawn into a secret web of control, or entrapped in other words. Imagine my surprise when I decided to research Amanpour , and managed to find a brief mention of an old hero of mine, the Mouth of the South, media mogul billionaire and philanthropist Ted Turner. This RFL/RL story by Natalya Golitsina just mentions the not deceased Russian oligarch’s “appreciation” toward Turner for the latter’s “joining the fight for Russia’s free press”.  The former Putin enemy who was in a fight with Gazprom over NTV in Russia is quoted so:
“I’ve know [Ted] Turner for a pretty long time, and I can say that he’s a sincere person. He, like most Americans, is an idealist. He doesn’t understand a lot about what’s going on in Russia, but he’s a sincere person. And the fact that he’s ambitious is also very good. I think his position [on buying a stake in NTV] is very rational, as it comes from America. To what degree it can be realized — that’s another question. But I personally am grateful to Turner. He has added another weight to help tip the scales for free speech in Russia. That means a lot.”
Berezovsky told the American propaganda machine that the takeover of NTV was not actually a fight in between small rivals, but an FSB action directed by none other than Vladimir Putin himself. According to the Russian oligarch in exile, Putin was successful in his bid to create a “vertical power structure” and rid the country of alternative media. Interestingly, or should I say “ironically”, Ted Turner’s dealings within the western media landscape helped form the current mainstream media landscape evangelists like Amanpour preach from!

Back during Turner’s bid for the NTV network, The Guardian and others reported on his potential stake, and also on his communications with Vladimir Putin over “guarantees”. It will interest the reader to know, George Soros was also involved in all this wheeling and dealing, supposedly to ensure NTV’s “independence” as a media source. Why would I be surprised to find Soros’ name mentioned alongside another ousted Russian oligarch named Vladimir Gusinsky, who at that time owned the majority share of NTV? But Turner? I’ll admit feeling both naïve and a bit betrayed. A good old southern boy playing the worldwide power game outside the interests of peace? But reading along, it all makes sense now.

In 1986 Gusinsky was the Stage Director for Ted Turner’s Goodwill Games in the Kremlin Palace.Then in 1988 he founded the cooperative “INFEKS” supposedly for the Ministry of Foreign Trade of the USSR, where he consulted and engaged foreign companies entering into the Russian market. (I wonder who he engaged with first, considering he became a Russian media lynchpin) Then in 1989 Gusinsky worked with the most influential lobbying PR group in Washington, Margery Kraus’ APCO and to create the joint venture “Most”, which morphed into a media cabal that eventually opposed Yeltsin and the Russia role in Chechnya. By now the reader should be sufficiently dizzy over the names and their implications. For those of you as stupefied as me, the reality of all this history is pretty simple.

This New Yorker piece from 1995 more or less alludes to the underlying skullduggery Yeltsin, and later Putin had to deal with. The “West” if I may, was hell bent on a takeover of Russia. The essence of it all is reflected in something called the Moscow Commercial Club, a watering hole for the first generation post-Soviet tycoons, and the machinations of men like Turner and Soros behind the scenes. Opportunism was never so bright and shiny as when the Soviet Union fell down, and the western oligarchs started their move on mother Russia. Margery Kraus, a lady I admired after my interview with her when I owned Everything PR News, was in the news in 2001 lobbying for Gusinsky. One of her vice presidents, Former Congressman Don Bonker (D-WA), was named at PR Week for his role in building support for his longtime acquaintance. As an interesting footnote, Bonker is now the president and CEO of the International Management and Development Institute, on the board of the Foundation for U.S.-Russia Business Cooperation, and is still executive vice president of APCO Worldwide.

Boris Berezovsky, Vladimir Gusinsky, and top Putin hater the Yukos Oil mafioso Mikhail Khodorkovsky were literally the Three Stooges of post Soviet profiteering inside Russia before Putin put an end to it.
Names, positions, history, it’s all so unbelievable but logical. Searching briefly the Foundation for U.S.-Russia Business Cooperation board of directors I was very quickly stunned to find actors in today’s west-east drama still hamming away at Russia. A for instance being, the United States Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research from 1993 to 1997, Toby T. Gati. The 71 year old former Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Russia, Ukraine, and the Eurasian States for Bill Clinton is now on the Board of Directors at LUKOIL PJSC (one of Russia’s largest oil companies), is president of TTG Global Group Ltd. and was a senior adviser to the world’s most profitable lobbying group, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP. The soul of her efforts involving Russia can best be gleaned by reading her emotional farewell to the world’s most notorious Russia hater, the late Zbigniew Brzezinski via the Valdai Club site. “The Zbigniew Brzezinski I Knew, a Personal Tribute”, it helps bring my report here full circle. The same people who choreographed Russia’s “Vietnam in Afghanistan” are linked up with American media, business, and the greater strategy to profit from the loss of the Russian people. America’s biggest PR firms, Captain Outrageous and Jane Fonda’s former husband, the whole stinking Clinton mess, Yugoslavia destroyed, and civil wars all over the borders of Russia – we’re living not in a conspiracy theory, but a business where anything goes. We live in a world where trillions of dollars are wagered and where Russophobe apologists extract their millions from a system as old as Rome.

If somebody were to walk up to me with a briefcase supposedly purportedly carrying linkages in between Ted Turner and the ghosts of Armand Hammer and Lenin, I’d only be all too anxious to look inside for a new truth. And to think I used to wait to watch Christiane Amanpour live from wherever America was delivering some freedom. Little did I know it was all for show.

Phil Butler, is a policy investigator and analyst, a political scientist and expert on Eastern Europe, exclusively for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook”.

          Gli Errori dell'Impero Americano   

Un saggio pungente e autorevole sulle relazioni internazionali degli Stati Uniti negli ultimi anni, a partire dalla fine della Guerra Fredda ad oggi. Nel 1989 gli USA risultarono vincitori della Guerra Fredda: ma si ponevano vari e inquietanti interrogativi: gli Stati Uniti avrebbero potuto resistere di fronte a poteri commerciali più influenti? Erano forse dei finanziamenti stranieri quelli che consentivano la loro indiscussa superiorità militare?

I riflettori della critica mondiale da quel momento sono puntati su questo nuovo “impero” e su chi lo governa. Al di là degli staff di esperti più o meno carismatici che ruotano intorno al presidente, è solo all’interno della stanza ovale che vengono prese le decisioni finali e che si impartiscono gli ordini: l’invasione di Panama e la prima guerra del Golfo di Bush senior; il mancato intervento di Clinton in Somalia, in Ruanda, in Bosnia, nel Kosovo; la guerra in Iraq di Bush junior.

Su tutto, le difficoltà diplomatiche con Cuba, la Cina, il Vietnam, il Giappone, la nuclearizzazione dell’Asia meridionale, la situazione palestinese. In più, l’attacco dell’11 settembre 2001 al World Trade Center ha contribuito a dare agli USA un nuovo e spiacevole senso di vulnerabilità, mentre le reazioni-azioni della Casa Bianca provocano profondo nervosismo e inquietudine in diverse parti del mondo.

          I Signori del Crimine   
I signori del crimine guadagnano somme esorbitanti dal traffico di armi, droga ed estorsioni. I crimini da loro commessi nel Kosovo superano in ferocia quelli perpetrati in Bosnia e altri paesi: decine di migliaia di uomini, donne e bambini morti sotto tortura. Sono gangster divenuti capi di Stato che continuano a condurre guerre per eliminare completamente la nostra democrazia faticosamente guadagnata.
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          Eurovision Round Up: Semi-Final 1   

It's finally time. The greatest event on the world calendar is finally with us. Granted, it was with Europe a couple of days ago, but it takes a long time for the ship with copies of the tapes to reach Australia. Tonight on SBS is Semi-Final 1. And I am here with the annual round up of this Semi-Final. Ten of the songs in tonight's show will go to the Final on Sunday night (AEST).

Thanks to the bondage women for their support in the Black Mountain's song tonight. Stefan did a pretty good job. Pity about the hair though. Obviously girl's hair is the thing in Montenegro. As are red handprints. Bit of a rock-type song, which has been quite popular of late. Not sure if Europe would really enjoy it though - the lead guitar did go off though. That was pleasing to hear. What wasn't pleasing to see was his face. Poor man.
Six points

Israel usually has good looking men. Well that's what I've certainly seen in porn anyway. And look, I'm not complaining about Boaz's big arms. And he's only 20. Bless his soul. The voice could do with some work though. He just didn't quite sound that right. Not too funny really... as opposed to him singing in English. It's always entertaining to hear Europeans sing in English. There's something about hearing them make an r sound that tickles my funny bone.
Six points

Crazy Radio has been trying to get into Eurovision for a while. Obviously they were judged on their looks. But their choreography is probably the best I've ever seen in Eurovision history. Nothing can beat old men bopping to music. And these men could even be mistaken for The Wiggles. It's great. It's also wonderful to see a song about veggies and scantly-clad women waving flags. I wonder if anything else of theirs is flapping...
Sept points

Pink eyeshadow used to be in fashion, I'm sure. Whether Geta has checked the latest catwalks or not I can't say, but man she painted it on. Big mistake. Big mistake to also be standing on a couch. Everyone always heard their mothers scream "Get the fuck off the couch! Couches are sitting on, not jumping on!" yet Geta obviously missed that part of her upbringing. But I suppose the couch does match the fact that this is lounge music, and hey, not too bad either. It just feels as though it is missing something. Oh no, there it was - the singing in English.
Quatre points

San Marino
Welcome to SM and Miodio. There is a reason why you were left in Italy on your own for so long. Couldn't they find a better-looking lead singer? Already it seems that black and white are the colours/shades for the evening, though this song did leave me in a bit of a blue mood. The old ghost-like figure was a nice touch. Diverted the eyes away from the singer for a touch. Pity he didn't seem all that strong with the vocals - he'll need a bit of practice if he gets through.
Quatre points

Thank christ for a made-up language. And thank christ for a boiled lolly dress! You can always trust Belgium to bring us the crazy ESC entries. Nothing says fucking fantastic more than the use of the clarinet in a song. I'm enjoying this one immensely. And obviously the crowd is too. Joyous! And those tiny bowler hats are simply wonderful. A nice touch. Ooh Julissi...
Douze points

Huh? What? Angels? A male? That's a male? Now I'm confused. Not even 6 year old boys can get that high. Well, there's certainly a bulge there, so we can rule that option out. Bit of a crazy song, angels against the darkness. Impressive though and possibly quite a popular one. Has that Arabic feel but not completely overdone like some Soviet countries have done in the past. I quite liked it and the pyrotechnics helped the cause.
Huit points

I'm always a fan of bondage. I'm already hooked. And finally - true Eurovision! Costume changes, music one can dance to, wind machine ... it's all there as it should be. And hot men in black... on roller skates. Being lead on leashes. What more can you ask for? This could be a big disco hit. Enjoyable. One of the best so far!
Douze points

A stage of blondes, a perfect pop song and more windy hair - Eurovision continues. I don't think Maria would ever be lonely, neither would any of her back up singers. And of course that's based on her singing ability, which is quite good. I enjoyed this one. Pure pop and well crafted. I would've liked to have seen more cleavage. That might have helped win more votes.
Dix points

Isis Gee is quite a women. It's hard to work out if she's really really blonde, or really really tanned. Or is that dress really really blue? It is really really tight though. A beautiful ballad presented by Poland tonight, a typical ballad for the Contest and one that is sure to be a favourite of many. And the best thing about Miss Bright-Hair-Bright-Teeth-Dark-Skin is that she is quite a powerful singer. I could imagine Dicko, Marcia and Kyle's comments already...
Huit points

A puppet. Great. The only reason why I'm currently bopping is because of the music... and the fact that there are hot men dressed for the Mardi Gras. Extra points for that. It's quite an interesting song, and one that would probably do quite well if there was a human as the artist and not as the hand-up-the-arse. Extra points for the costumes - for the first time in history, orange, green and white have been used quite well in costumes. But it's good for the Irish to know they've got no hope of winning this year.
Deux points

Oh Casanova save me! Welcome back to Eurovision after the minor hiccup that was a turkey. And welcome to Andorra who have one of the favourites for this year's Contest. It is a fun one too. Nothing says fun more than someone wearing a hat which makes them look like a bee. The crazy dominatrix dress doesn't help the cause either. But she's enjoying it. And honestly, so am I.
Douze points

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ahhh a wedding. It's been a while. However, I would be distressed to find my brother hiding with my knickers. By looking at the two singers, I'm worried about their mental health. Maybe they were locked in a cellar for 20 years. As for the song, it's quite a catchy one. It has got quite a lot of parts all woven together and the spoken parts really set it off. Quite a fun song and one I will be listening to again.
Dix points

Hello good looking boys in black. I just need to cut the hair off. And then there's the actual singer, with rotating hips of steel. I wonder if there are men jumping at the chance to hold her tight? Back to the boys though - they need to visit Australia. Armenian dancer boys, if you're reading this, my bed's available. Qele, qele! I'd dance to this often. Woohoo!
Huit points

The Netherlands
My bed's obviously not going to be big enough for the Armenian boys and now the Dutch boys. I suppose I could squeeze them in. I can say that I'm enjoying Hind's contribution to Eurovision this year. Very sultry woman. Very dark and brooding. I like it. Beautiful pop music too, which makes the whole thing so much better. Extra points for the hot boys and their overalls.
Dix points

Ever since Lordi, rock has been prominent. And it seems Finland think they need to capture Lordi again to win. Hey, I'm not complaining about seeing half naked rock men going like crazy on stage... but I'm not sure it's going to work again this year. It's not a bad song by any means and certainly not as heavy as Lordi's effort - it's something I'd listen to regularly. I wonder what their other stuff is like. But for Eurovision? I dunno.
Six points

Hello Nico and Vlad! Ahhh it's nice to hear a calming ballad, beautifully sung, contrasted with a slightly more upbeat section. I'm not sure about her green things. Why they're hanging off her dress, I really don't know. Other than that, this song is quite a nice one. I like this one. And his eyes too.
Huit points

So, the weightlifter's massive in Serbia. Yes. We can see that -it's sticking out right in front of me. Now the song... A perfect boy song. I have a feeling that Dima would've sung far better in Russian than in English but still, he did a pretty good job. I am confused about the skater though. How he fits in is probably something that needs reading up on. Extra extra points for the opening of the shirt. No wonder the world loves Russian men...
Dix points

A HUGE favourite from Greece this year, and of course she doesn't disappoint. Secret Combination is Eurovision at its best - pop, synth beats, colourful dresses and (relatively) good looking male back up dancers. The huge-assed heart really tops the whole thing off. A crowd favourite and sure-fire hit. This one could do quite well in the Oz charts if it was to be released. Well done Greece. They obviously know how to party.
Douze points

And now it's all done. Semi 1 complete. Before Europe has their say I need to have mine!

Hello Belgrade. Hello Europe. My selection for the final, in no particular order, is:
1. Belgium
2. Slovenia
3. Andorra
4. Norway
5. Bosnia and Herzegovina
6. The Netherlands
7. Russia
8. Greece
9. Armenia
10. Poland

And the real results... Israel, Azerbaijan, Norway, Poland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Armenia, Finland, Romania, Russia and Greece.

Seven out of ten. Not bad. But disappointed that all my faves didn't get through. The rest better be bloody good tomorrow! Typical Eurovision.

Until then...

          Survivors of War-Rape Break the Silence   
"I was 12 years old when I was raped. I did not understand what was happening." Nelle is now 36 years old. But in 1993 when war broke out in Burundi, armed men came to her village near the capital, Bujumbura. They killed her mother and father and six siblings. She was raped, but she survived. “I saw people were killing each other. They were running away and killing each other. I hid myself under dead bodies for five days,” she said. Nelle’s story of survival was long and difficult to tell.  After living through years of instability, she told VOA that she left for South Africa in 2004 when a new government came to power in Burundi. “I was scared,” she said. “I was afraid war was coming and I did not want to go through the same thing as in 1993. I did not want to be raped again. So, I quit the country and became a refugee in South Africa.” Nelle is one of 25 rape survivors from South Sudan, Mali, Colombia and 12 other conflict-affected countries around the world who attended a four-day retreat this week in Geneva. They came to share their experiences and to devise strategies for the creation of a global movement to end rape as a weapon on war. “These 25 women have suffered unthinkable things and developed remarkable powers,” said Esther Dingemans, director of the Mukwege Foundation. “They have experienced the cruelest violence. But the perpetrators did not succeed in breaking them,” she said. The foundation is headed by Denis Mukwege, a renowned surgeon from the Democratic Republic of Congo, who has treated thousands of survivors of sexual violence in Congo.   “We hope that this week will be the beginning of a large long-term movement that leads to a global platform of survivors,” said Dingemans, “and that their voices will finally be heard.” In 1992, after the atrocities committed in the Bosnian war, especially against Muslim women, rape, for the first time was recognized as a weapon of war by the United Nations Security Council. In 2000, the Security Council adopted resolution 1325, which was the first formal and legal document that required parties to a conflict to “protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict.” It also was the first U.N. resolution to specifically mention women. Ulrike Lunasek, vice president of the European Parliament, who spoke at the ceremony honoring the 25 women survivors, said it is "important to break the vicious circle of shame and silence" that women usually feel when they are raped. She said women raped in war must be supported, helped to heal and then “be encouraged to speak up, but also to tell the truth about what military conflict and war means for women.” Women did speak up at this conference. Several survivors presented searing testimony about their ordeals. Solange Bigiramana, who survived the horrors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, now lives as a stateless person in South Africa. “My situation of being a survivor, that comes from a situation of war. It happened for me to face rape. I know what rape means." “And I am here with a story of hope,” she said. "I once was under a shadow. I want every survivor to be out of the shadow and to be into the light." Another survivor, Farida Abbas-Khalaf, a Yazidi girl from the Iraqi village of Kocho, described the torment to which she and other members of her community were subjected by the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, in her book The Girl Who Beat ISIS. She spoke movingly and in agonizing detail about being raped, beaten, insulted, and forced to pray and read the Koran. "Young boys were brainwashed and sent to ISIS training camps to become ISIS fighters while women and young girls were taken as sex slaves and sold at slave markets," said Abbas-Khalaf. She said that she was able to heal because of support from her family, her community and her spiritual leader who she said made a statement "that the surviving girls are an important part of the Yazidi community and that what happened to them was against their will." She added, “It is time that survivors break the silence. But mostly it is time for the world to hear their voices."    
          Easy Chicken Pho   

Paul and I love trying new foods and dishes from around the world. We have been very fortunate to be friends and coworkers with so many first-generation immigrants who have been more than generous enough to have our family over to share in an intimate meal of their favorite recipes from their culture. We have discovered so many exciting and unique flavor combinations and recipes from our friends and we always love having the opportunity to learn how the art of cooking is accomplished in different parts of the world. Most recently, a friend of mine from Bosnia had us over for lunch and introduced me to some very unique "pita" as well as some delicious potatoes. I love learning from the experiences of others!

My brother-in-law, Paul's identical twin Peter, is very much of the same mindset. He is lucky enough to live in Los Angeles where he has access to an endless variety of foods to try and experience. If I had to pinpoint his favorite cuisine at the moment, I would probably say it was Korean but that probably changes for him on a monthly basis. While visiting us one time, he kept raving about an awesome Pho restaurant near him. I had heard of Pho but had no idea really what it was nor where I would be able to try some. No place near here makes anything like that...anymore. There is actually a broken down building near the airport that apparently used to be a Pho restaurant, at least from the looks of the barely legible sign that still hangs from the front entrance. Obviously our town was not ready to welcome Pho.

Pho (pronounced f - ah) is a Vietnamese street food consisting of a bowl of broth, rice noodles, herbs, and a meat, usually chicken or beef. In Vietnam, people eat it at all times of the day. It was introduced globally as a result of the massive emigration of refugees during the Vietnam War and became popular in the United States during the 1990s. Of course there are many different styles and interpretations of Pho and individual bowls may be doctored up to the diner's preference thanks to the wide variety of accompaniments typically served with the dish, including fresh herbs, vegetables garnishes, spicy pastes, and dipping sauces. I learned all this in an article I read in the Wall Street Journal - the same article that included a recipe for an authentic Chicken Pho that inspired me to finally try this much-heard about dish.

This was a really fun recipe to make! There is a bit of dicing and more than a few steps, but everything flowed seamlessly from one step to the next and I never once felt rushed or stressed during the preparation, even with more than a few interruptions from my needy little midgets. While the broth was simmering, the entire kitchen smelled so wonderful. Matthew and Emma both commented on how delicious it smelled before peering into my pot to see what was cooking and making a face of disgust.

This is the typical chaotic scene going down as I'm finishing up the last touches to dinner.
Dad's home and everybody wants to wrestle.

When I set out to make this, I was pretty sure none of my kids were going to touch it. But frankly, I've gotten to the point where if they don't want to eat what I make, then they can wait until breakfast. None of them are suffering in the weight department, especially the little girl who has been giving me the biggest problems with eating her dinners as of late. Yes, I mean Emma.

But much to my surprise, when I served up heaping bowlfuls to each and every one of my babies, not a sound of complaint was heard. They were completely silent other than the sounds that ensued as they slurped up their noodles and the occasional comment, "This is so good, Mommy!" Who would have thought?

This recipe was a delight to make and a joy to eat. It tasted so refreshing, light, and comforting. Paul's only complaint was that he found it a little difficult to eat - we had to use both a spoon for the broth and fork for the rice noodles - because he couldn't manage to get the slippery rice noodles to stay on his fork. In all honesty, nobody else really seemed to have issues with it. Paul just hates it when his food outsmarts him.

If you're looking for a great ethnic dish to add to your meal rotation, try this at home!

Easy Chicken Pho
from The Pho Cookbook, as seen in The Wall Street Journal

Note: We doubled this recipe for our family and it was more than enough. I had the leftovers for lunch two days in a row!

For the Pho:
1 (3/4-inch) piece ginger, peeled
2 large scallions
1 bunch cilantro
1 1/2 teaspoons coriander seeds
1 whole clove
4 cups low-sodium chicken roth
2 cups water
1 (8-ounce) boneless, skinless chicken breast
1/2 teaspoon salt
5 ounces dried, flat rice noodles
3 teaspoons fish sauce
1/2 teaspoon sugar
Freshly ground black pepper, to taste

For the Ginger-Dipping Sauce (they say optional, I say essential):
1 packed tablespoon peeled and finely chopped ginger
3 tablespoons fresh lime juice
1 tablespoon sugar
1 1/2 tablespoons fish sauce
1 teaspoon seeded and finely chopped jalapeno

To Garnish:
Bean Sprouts
Thai Basil
Lime Wedges
Sliced Chili, such as Fresno, Thai, Serrano, or Jalapeno

Slice the ginger into 4-5 rounds. Smack the ginger with a mallet or flat side of a knife to bruise. Thinly slice green parts of scallions to yield 3 tablespoons and set side for garnish. Cut remaining parts of scallions into pinkie-size lengths, then smack to bruise. Chop leafy tops of cilantro to yield 2 tablespoons and set aside for garnish.

In a 3-4 quart pot over medium heat, toast coriander seeds and cloves until fragrant, 1-2 minutes. Add ginger and scallion strips to pot. Stir until aromatic, about 30 seconds. Remove pot from heat, wait 15 seconds or so to briefly cool, then pour in broth.

Return pot to heat and add water, remaining cilantro, chicken and salt. Bring a boil over high heat, then lower heat to medium-low and gently simmer until chicken is cooked through, yielding only slightly when pressed, 5-10 minutes. Transfer chicken to a bowl, flush with cold water to stop cooking, then drain. Let cool, then cut or shred into bite-sized pieces. Cover loosely with plastic wrap. Meanwhile, continue simmering broth until reduced by about one-third, 20-25 minutes.

While liquid simmers, soak noodles in a bowl of hot water until pliable and opaque, about 15 minutes. Drain, rinse, and set aside.

Make the ginger sauce by combining all the ingredients in a small bowls. Let rest for at least 15 minutes before serving.

Once broth is done simmering, place a fine-mesh sieve over a 2-quart pot. Strain the broth and discard the solids - you should have about 4 cups of broth. Season with the fish sauce and sugar.

Bring the both to a boil over high heat. Put noodles in a strainer or sieve and dunk into hot broth to warm and soften, about 1 minutes. Remove noodles from pot and divide between bowls.

Divide the chicken and place on top of noodles. Garnish with chopped scallions, cilantro, and pepper. Adjust broth seasonings to taste. Return broth to a boil, then ladle into bowls. Enjoy with any or all of the garnishes! Serve individual bowls with the ginger sauce on the side for dipping the chicken. I also personally liked dolloping spoonfuls of the sauce into my broth - it was so refreshing!

          Human Rights Watch Country Profiles: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity   

The following are excerpts from the Human Rights Watch 2017 World Report  that relate to the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people. The report, released in January 2017, documented events of 2016. In some cases, we have added updates from the first half of 2017.

The countries are all listed below in alphabetical order. This compilation is not comprehensive. If a country is not listed, that means there was no mention of LGBTI/SOGI issues for that country in the 2017 World Report. For example, many of the smaller Caribbean countries and some African countries are omitted due to research limitations, but most have anti-LGBT laws on the books and pervasive homophobia and transphobia. On the other hand, several countries that are not included here made progress in the 2016-2017 period: Belize, Nauru and the Seychelles all decriminalized consensual same-sex conduct, for example. Human Rights Watch has only recently begun investigating the rights of intersex people, so there are few references to intersex rights.

This is a living document which will be updated regularly to reflect new events and further Human Rights Watch research.

Last updated: June 23, 2017



In 2010, Argentina became the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex marriage. The Civil Marriage Law allows same-sex couples to enter into civil marriages and affords them the legal protections of marriage enjoyed by opposite sex couples, including adoption rights and pension benefits. Since 2010, nearly 15,000 same-sex couples have married nationwide. In 2012, the landmark Gender Identity Law established the right of individuals over the age of 18 to choose their gender identity, undergo gender reassignment, and revise official documents without any prior judicial or medical approval.


Activists reported that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LBGTI) people face discrimination, harassment, and violence. The government has not addressed hate speech or discrimination against LGBTI people. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not included as protected grounds in anti-discrimination or hate speech laws, limiting legal recourse for many crimes against LGBTI people. Following the October 2015 Rainbow forum, organized by Armenian LGBTI-friendly groups to discuss protection and promotion of minority rights, anonymous people targeted some participants with intimidation and threats, mostly on social media, including to burn and kill them. Authorities refused to launch a criminal investigation into the threats, citing lack of evidence. In June 2016, the LGBT rights group, PINK Armenia, published a survey revealing that 90 percent of the population is hostile to LGBTI people and support limits on their rights. In July 2016, PINK Armenia released a report documenting 46 cases of violence and discrimination against LGBTI people in 2015. The government has not taken meaningful steps to combat stereotypes and discrimination against LGBTI people.


Australia does not recognize the right of same-sex couples to marry. The Australian government announced a plebiscite on the right of same-sex couples to marry, but political opponents blocked it, arguing a plebiscite is expensive and wasteful and that the issue should be determined by a parliamentary free vote.

Australia continued its policy of intercepting asylum seekers and forcibly transferring them to Nauru and, until 2016, to Manus Island in Papua New Guinea. Asylum seekers or refugees perceived to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex (LGBTI) face harassment and abuse despite the recent decriminalization of same-sex conduct in Nauru. In Papua New Guinea, such conduct remains criminalized.


Bangladesh witnessed a spate of violent attacks against secular bloggers, academics, gay rights activists, foreigners, and members of religious minorities in 2016. Prominent gay activists Xulhaz Mannan, the founder of Roopbaan, Bangladesh’s first lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) magazine, and Mahbub Rabby Tonoy, the general secretary of the group, were  murdered in April. Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) claimed responsibility for the killings. Fearing for their lives, many LGBT activists sought temporary refuge outside the country.

“Carnal intercourse against the order of nature” carries a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison. In May 2017, police raided a private gathering of gay and bisexual men, and allegedly paraded them in front of media, exposing them to their families and the public. Authorities said they declined to press charges under the colonial-era sodomy law because they did not catch the men in the act of sexual intercourse. The government has twice rejected recommendations to repeal the colonial-era law during its Universal Periodic Review at the UN Human Rights Council. The Bangladesh cabinet in 2014 declared legal recognition of a third gender category for hijras—a traditional cultural identity for transgender people who, assigned male at birth, do not identify as men—but the absence of a definition of the term or procedure for gaining recognition of third gender status led to abuses in implementation of the legal change. In June and July 2015, a group of hijras were subjected to harassment and invasive and abusive physical examinations at a government hospital as a requirement to join a government employment program. The Bangladesh National Human Rights Commission in 2017 agreed with LGBT civil society groups to establish a desk at the commission for reporting SOGI-related issues.


Parliament adopted a vaguely worded bill in May 2016 on “protecting children from information harmful for their health and development.” These provisions may be used to restrict dissemination of neutral or positive information about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as “discrediting the institution of the family.”


In May 2016, the Plurinational Assembly passed a bill that allows people to revise the gender noted on their identification documents without prior judicial approval. Same-sex couples in Bolivia are not allowed to marry or engage in civil unions. The 2009 constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo Open Centre, the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights organization, documented 23 cases of hate speech and incitement of violence and hate and two crimes and incidents motivated by prejudice on the basis of sexual orientation and/or gender identity in the first three months of 2016. The reaction of authorities to these incidents is generally inadequate. There was no progress in police investigations into the 2014 attack on a film festival that Sarajevo Open Centre organized.

In its annual progress on Bosnia and Herzegovina published in November, the European Commission highlighted the failure of authorities to amend the constitution, in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights and to implement rulings by the Constitutional Court. The report also identified inadequate legal protection for LGBTI persons and the failure of authorities to protect adequately the rights of minorities and to ensure media freedom.


Brazil’s Supreme Court approved same-sex marriage in 2011 and it upheld the right of same-sex couples to adopt children in 2015. But the Chamber of Deputies was, at time of writing, debating a bill that would define a family as a union between a man and a woman. The national Human Rights Ombudsman’s Office received 1,983 complaints of violence, discrimination, and other abuses experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in 2015. In the first half of 2016 the ombudsman received 879 such complaints.


Burma’s national penal code criminalizes consensual same-sex behavior between adult men. In recent years police have arrested gay men and transgender women assembling in public places, and politicians have called for the “education” of gay people.


Cameroon’s penal code punishes “sexual relations between persons of the same sex” with up to five years in prison. The law is regularly enforced, and in previous years, the Cameroonian authorities have subjected men arrested under this law to forced anal examinations. Although the number of arrests appeared to decrease for several years, activists reported a new uptick in arrests and prosecutions in 2016.


A “civil union” bill presented by former President Sebastián Piñera in 2011 that provides legal recognition and protection for same-sex couples became law in April 2015 and went into effect in October 2015. In September 2016, the Senate Human Rights Commission approved a bill to recognize the gender identity of transgender people, with a Senate vote expected in December.


China has no law protecting people from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, and there is no legal recognition of same-sex partnership. Possibly because their activism is not considered threatening to the state, LGBT individuals enjoyed some success advancing legal cases in 2016. In January, a Hunan court heard a case filed by Sun Wenlin against the local Bureau of Civil Affairs, which had refused to marry Sun and his male partner. Though the court ruled against Sun in April, his case—the first gay marriage lawsuit accepted by Chinese courts—attracted wide media attention. In June, a Henan court accepted a case filed by Yu Hu against a mental health hospital that had subjected him to 19 days of involuntary “therapy” to “cure” his homosexuality. Also in June, a Guangdong university student, Qiu Bai, sued the provincial education department over textbooks that depict homosexuality as an illness. Qiu filed a similar suit in 2015, though she withdrew it later because the department had promised to look into the matter. She decided to sue again after the authorities’ pledge failed to materialize. In June, China voted against a UN resolution creating an expert post dedicated to addressing violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.


In September 2016, the Council of the State—one of Colombia’s high courts—annulled the 2012 re-election of Alejandro Ordoñez as the country’s inspector general and dismissed him from office. Under Colombian law, the inspector general is charged with protecting human rights, but during his seven years in office, Ordoñez repeatedly sought to undermine the rights of women and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.

In recent years, authorities in Colombia have taken several steps to recognize the rights of LGBT people. In June 2015, the Justice Ministry issued a decree allowing people to revise the gender noted on their identification documents without prior judicial approval. In November 2015, the Constitutional Court ruled that sexual orientation could not be used to prohibit someone from adopting a child, although a legislative proposal to hold a referendum on this issue remained pending at time of writing. In April 2016, the Constitutional Court upheld the right of same-sex couples to marry. In October 2016, FARC leaders met with conservative politicians and agreed to promote a definition of the family as formed by a man and a woman. The FARC backtracked after meeting with LGBT representatives days later. Conservative politicians and evangelist leaders had attacked the peace agreement claiming that it would “destroy families.” Between January and June 2016, the Ombudsman’s Office received 89 reports of cases of violence against LGBTI people.

Cote d’Ivoire

No law prohibits discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity, or intersex status. Côte d’Ivoire does not criminalize same-sex conduct, but the criminal code establishes higher penalties for same-sex couples convicted of public acts of indecency. Two men were in November convicted of public indecency and sentenced to three-month prison terms after being accused of same-sex sexual acts. Two gay men were assaulted in June 2016 after a photo was published of them signing a book of condolences to the victims of a shooting at a gay nightclub in Florida, US.


In February, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) ruled that Croatia discriminated on grounds of sexual orientation against a woman from Bosnia and Herzegovina, by denying her the right to a residence permit in Croatia to join her female partner.


In 2016, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled against Ecuador in a case determining that it is discriminatory to punish officers who allegedly have homosexual sex on military installations.


Sexual relations outside marriage are criminalized. Since 2013, authorities have pursued a campaign to intimidate, track, and arrest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, including entrapment using social media applications. Police regularly used forced anal examinations in prosecutions of those suspected of homosexual sex. Solidarity With Egypt LGBTQ+, an advocacy group, said it had recorded 114 criminal investigations involving 274 LGBT individuals launched between the end of 2013 and November 2016, 66 of which involved the authorities’ use of social media.


The government failed to adopt amendments that would allow the Co-Habitation Act to fully enter into force in 2016. The act is progressive legislation that extends the rights of marriage to unmarried—including same-sex—couples, encompassing, among other things, child adoption and property rights.


The government continued to resist calls to repeal laws that criminalize homosexuality, including an October 2014 law that introduced a series of new “aggravated homosexuality” offenses that impose sentences of up to life in prison. The criminalization of same-sex conduct leaves lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Gambians at risk of arbitrary arrest and detention, although fewer arrests and physical abuse of LGBT Gambians were reported in 2016.


In August, President Giorgi Margvelashvili blocked a referendum bid on defining marriage as a union of a man and a woman, saying that the issue is already covered in the civil code. Kvirikashvili vowed to pursue a constitutional definition of marriage after the October elections, arguing that this would help counter alleged Western efforts to spread same-sex marriage “propaganda” in Georgia. Local rights groups feared this effort would further marginalize the LGBT community and intensify anti-LGBT prejudice. Authorities declined a request by LGBT activists to hold an event to mark International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHO) on Tbilisi’s main thoroughfare, stating it was already booked for a procession by Orthodox groups to mark Family Day, an annual event established by the Orthodox Church in 2014. Activists refused to celebrate IDAHO in the alternative venue offered. The Women’s Initiatives Supporting Group (WISG), a local LGBTI rights group, said it documented almost 20 cases of attacks against transgender people in 2016. In October, a transgender woman was beaten and stabbed in what rights groups suspected was a hate crime. Police arrested a suspect on attempted murder charges, and the public defender urged authorities to examine a possible hate motive.


Rampant crime and impunity for human rights abuses remain the norm in Honduras. Despite a downward trend in recent years, the murder rate is among the highest in the world. Journalists, peasant activists, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are among those most vulnerable to violence.

In June 2016, several United Nations agencies working in Honduras urged the government to investigate killings of LGBTI activists and noted that sexual violence against LGBTI individuals forces them into “internal displacement” or to flee the country in search of international protection.


In August 2016, a lower court sentenced a right-wing extremist to 10 years’ imprisonment for violent attacks between 2007 and 2009, including throwing Molotov cocktails at the homes of socialist MPs and an attack on a gay bar in Budapest.

In July, the ECtHR ruled that Hungary had arbitrarily detained an Iranian gay man and failed to take into account his vulnerability in detention arising from his sexual orientation.


In February 2016, the Supreme Court of India allowed a challenge to section 377 of the penal code to proceed, referring the case to a five-judge bench. The colonial-era provision, which the court had upheld in 2013, criminalizes same-sex relations between adults. In June, several well-known LGBT professionals filed a petition in Supreme Court arguing that section 377 violates the right to life and personal liberty, but the Supreme Court deferred the petition to the Chief Justice. In August, the government introduced a new bill in parliament on the rights of transgender persons. The bill was flawed, however, by provisions that were inconsistent with the 2014 Supreme Court ruling that recognized transgender individuals as a third gender and found them eligible for quotas in jobs and education.

India’s voting record on rights issues at the UN was disappointing. In July, the government abstained on a resolution that created a UN expert post to address discrimination against LGBT persons and voted in favor of amendments to weaken the mandate, saying India’s Supreme Court was still to decide on the issue of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights.


Starting in January 2016, high-ranking Indonesian officials made a series of vitriolic anti-LGBT statements and policy pronouncements, fueling increased threats and at times violent attacks on LGBT activists and individuals. In some cases, the threats and violence occurred in the presence, and with the tacit support, of government officials or security forces. State institutions, including the National Broadcasting Commission and the National Child Protection Commission, issued censorship directives banning information and broadcasts that portrayed the lives of LGBT people as “normal” as well as so-called propaganda about LGBT lives. Ministries proposed discriminatory and regressive anti-LGBT laws. An ongoing case in the Constitutional Court is considering a petition that proposed amending the criminal code to criminalize sex outside of marriage and same-sex sexual relations. During the initial hearings, the petitioners—led by a group called the Family Love Alliance—put forward ill-informed and bigoted testimony similar to the anti-LGBT rhetoric espoused by Indonesian officials and politicians earlier that year. The government, the respondent in the case, said criminalizing sex out of wedlock would make “the sinner a criminal, and the government authoritarian,” a view echoed in testimony by the National Commission on Violence Against Women and other groups opposed to the petition. At time of writing the court had not yet ruled on the petition. While president Joko Widodo, or “Jokowi” in October 2016 declared that police must protect LGBT people and not discriminate against them, he failed to uphold that principle in action. In 2017, police raided at least two private gatherings of gay and bisexual men on the pretense of the discriminatory anti-pornography law, which construes gay sex as “deviant” and prescribes increased punishments for it, and Sharia police publicly flogged two gay men for private, consensual sex in Aceh province.


Under Iranian law, many nonviolent crimes, such as “insulting the Prophet,” apostasy, same-sex relations, adultery, and drug-related offenses, are punishable by death.

In March, the United Nations Children’s Rights Committee noted that flogging was still a lawful punishment for boys and girls convicted of certain crimes. The committee noted reports that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) children had been subjected to electric shocks to “cure” them.


ISIS’s Diwan al-Hisba (Moral Policing Administration) and online media apparatuses have publicly announced 27 executions of allegedly gay men, at least nine of them in Iraq. The main method ISIS used to execute these men has been to throw them off the roofs of high-rise buildings.

Iraq’s penal code does not prohibit same-sex intimacy, although article 394 makes it illegal to engage in extra-marital sexual relations. Due to the fact that the law does not expressly allow same-sex marriage, it effectively prohibits all same-sex relations. In July 2016 Moqtada al-Sadr, the prominent Shia opposition cleric, stated that although same-sex relationships are not acceptable, individuals who do not conform to gender norms suffer from “psychological problems,” and should not be attacked.


There are different legal systems in occupied Palestinian Territory. The British Mandate Criminal Code Ordinance, No. 74 of 1936 is in force in Gaza. In the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Jordanian Penal Code of 1960 applies, and does not contain provisions prohibiting adult consensual same-sex conduct. In Gaza, having “unnatural intercourse” of a sexual nature, understood to include same-sex relationships, is a crime punishable by up to 10 years in prison. In February 2016, Hamas’s armed wing executed one of its fighters ostensibly for “behavioral and moral violations,” which Hamas officials acknowledged meant same-sex relations.


As of May 2016, same-sex couples may have their relationships legally recognized as civil unions, though they do not have the right to adopt.


A bipartisan parliamentary group established in March 2015 continued to discuss legislation to address discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, but at time of writing it had yet to come up with an agreed draft bill. Japanese law treats those requesting legal recognition as transgender as having a “Gender Identity Disorder” and requires obtaining such medical diagnosis. It also requires forced sterilization, compulsory single status, not having any underage children, and being 20 years or older. While same-sex marriage is not legally recognized in Japan, Tokyo’s Shibuya ward in April 2015 became the first municipality to pass a regulation recognizing same-sex partnerships, with more municipalities recognizing such partnerships in 2016 and 2017. Bullying is a problem in Japanese schools generally, and particularly so against LGBT students. In April 2016, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for the first time released a guidebook for teachers regarding sexual orientation and gender identity. And in 2017, MEXT announced amendments to the national bullying prevention policy to include specific mention of LGBT students for the first time.


Jamaica is moving toward a revision of its rape law, which currently defines rape as the penetration of the vagina with the penis without consent. A proposal has been floated for a new law that is gender neutral. The absence of a gender-neutral rape law has been put forth in the past by politicians as justification for retaining Jamaica’s colonial-era “buggery” law, which criminalizes both consensual and non-consensual sex between men. The possible promulgation of a gender-neutral law on rape or sexual assault may therefore be a first step toward decriminalization of consensual same-sex conduct.


Surveys of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people reveal that many hide their sexual orientation or gender identity—including to healthcare providers—out of fear of reprisals or discrimination. When LGBT people report abuse, they often face indifference and hostility from authorities. Transgender people must undergo humiliating and invasive procedures—including coerced sterilization—to change gender on official documents. Without identity documents, transgender people struggle to access employment, healthcare, and education. The UN Human Rights Committee called on the government to end discrimination and violence against LGBT people and review gender-reassignment surgery procedures.


Kenya’s penal code prohibits “carnal knowledge against the order of nature,” generally understood as consensual sex between men, and “indecent practices between males.” Civil society organizations and activists filed two landmark constitutional petitions against these sections in April and June 2016, arguing that the laws violate constitutional rights, including the rights to equality and nondiscrimination, human dignity, freedom and security of the person, privacy, and health. Kenya continued the prosecution of two men on charges of “carnal knowledge” after police arbitrarily arrested them in Kwale County in February 2015. The case remained open but was suspended pending the ruling of a constitutional petition filed by the two men, asserting that state officials had violated their rights by subjecting them to a forced anal examination. The High Court rejected the petition on the grounds that the men consented to the examination, ignoring that the men were in police custody and not able to provide free and informed consent. The men have appealed the ruling. The government appealed a 2015 High Court decision ordering the Non-Governmental Organizations Board to register the National Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (NGLHRC), a civil society group. Parties were awaiting a hearing date at time of writing. The Kenya Film Classification Board overstepped its jurisdiction in asking YouTube to remove a locally produced video addressing same-sex relationships, prohibiting an alleged lesbian speed-dating event, and attempting to ban a podcast with alleged lesbian content.

In May 2017, the Attorney General established a “Taskforce on Policy, Legal, Institutional and Administrative Reforms Regarding Intersex Persons in Kenya.” Its mandate includes to “recommend comprehensive reforms to safeguard the interests of intersex persons.” The secretariat of the task force is based at the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. The task force will be open to receiving submissions on best practices from around the world, and there is a strong possibility that it will result in the establishment of policies that protect the rights of intersex people. While it will not directly address SOGI related rights, the task force may produce a rights-based framework around intersex people with aspects that will be transferrable to the advancement of LGBT rights.


LGBT people in Kyrgyzstan experience ill-treatment, extortion, and discrimination by both state and non-state actors. There is widespread impunity for these abuses. On May 24, 2016, the law, order and fighting crime parliamentary committee returned Kyrgyzstan’s anti-LGBT bill, which would ban “propaganda of nontraditional sexual relations,” for a repeat second reading, where it then stalled. The bill appears aimed at silencing anyone seeking to openly share information about same-sex relations in Kyrgyzstan. Following a live debate on LGBT rights on national television, Kyrgyzstan’s State Committee on National Security on June 14 summoned the editor-in-chief of, an online media portal, for questioning about its coverage of the show. The television’s supervisory board also formally reprimanded its general director for airing the content. Also in June, Kyrgyzstan voted against a resolution at the UN Human Rights Council establishing the mandate of an independent expert to address violence and discrimination against LGBT people.


According to Latvian LGBT activists, the authorities used a 2015 law on “constitutional morality education” to censor discussion about LGBT people in at least two schools in 2016.


Sexual relations outside of marriage—adultery and fornication—are criminalized under Lebanon’s penal code. Furthermore, article 534 of the penal code punishes “any sexual intercourse contrary to the order of nature” with up to one year in prison. In recent years, authorities conducted raids to arrest persons allegedly involved in same-sex conduct, some of whom were subjected to torture including forced anal examinations. In February 2016, a Syrian refugee, arrested by Lebanese Military Intelligence officers apparently on suspicion he was gay, was allegedly tortured while detained at Military Intelligence, Ministry of Defense, Military Police, and Jounieh police centers. In January 2017, a judge in Metn challenged the legal basis of the arrest of men for same-sex conduct, declaring that homosexuality is “not a criminal offence,” although under Lebanon’s legal system, the ruling does not create a binding precedent.


Discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people is pervasive in Malaysia. Article 377A of the penal code criminalizes same-sex activity between men with punishments of up to 20 years in prison and whipping. Numerous Sharia-based laws and regulations prohibiting a “man posing as a woman,” sexual relations between women, and sexual relations between men effectively criminalize LGBT people.

Both government and private actors attempted to limit expression in support of LGBT rights. In February 2017, JAKIM (the Ministry for Islamic Development) endorsed so-called “conversion therapy,” claiming that gays should seek guidance from God, “repent,” and enter into heterosexual marriages. In March, the Film Censorship Board demanded that Disney edit out four minutes of the children’s film “Beauty and the Beast” because of a “gay moment.” Disney refused to make any cuts to the film, and the board eventually backed down and allowed the unedited film to be screened in Malaysia. In May, Taylor’s University in Subang Jaya canceled a three-day Pride celebration organized by Pelangi, an LGBT rights organization. In June, the Ministry of Health, in response to strident criticism from activists and the general public, reframed the terms of a youth video competition on sexual and reproductive health, removing language and criteria that stigmatized LGBT identities in favor of language that appears to affirm them.

In February 2017 Sameera, a transgender woman, was murdered in Kuantan. In June, an 18-year-old in Penang, T. Nhaveen, died after a group of teenagers allegedly beat and raped him while taunting him with insults such as “pondan,” a derogatory Malay term for an effeminate male, a gay male, or a transgender woman.


Same-sex marriage has been legal in Mexico City since 2010. Since then, nine states have legalized it; in 2015, the Supreme Court opened the door to recognition in all states by ruling that the definition of marriage as a union only between a man and a woman constitutes discrimination and thus violates Mexico’s Constitution. In May 2016, President Peña Nieto introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, to remove sexual orientation and gender identity as barriers to adoption, and to recognize gender identity through the reissuance of birth notices, without a doctor’s involvement. Two committees in the Chamber of Deputies voted against the initiative in November.

Morocco/Western Sahara

Moroccan courts continued to jail persons for same-sex conduct under article 489 of the penal code, which prohibits “lewd or unnatural acts with an individual of the same sex.” A Beni Mellal court convicted two men of homosexuality after a group of youths on March 9 burst into the home of one and pushed the two men naked into the street, filming the assault and later posting the clip online. The two men were freed after spending one month in prison; in April, a court imposed prison terms on two of their attackers. On October 27, police in Marrakesh arrested two girls aged 16 and 17 who were reported for cuddling in a private home. They were jailed for one week and charged under article 489, then provisionally released. In December, they were acquitted.

Authorities require but often refuse to issue permits for foreign broadcast media to film in Morocco. On April 3, police detained and then expelled a crew of the French news program “Le Petit Journal” as it tried to film in a neighborhood of Beni Mellal where the abovementioned gay-bashing assault had taken place.


In line with a 2007 Supreme Court decision and a subsequent court order, the government in 2015 began issuing passports in three genders: “male,” “female,” and “other.” Some with “other” passports have successfully traveled abroad with their travel documents recognized by foreign governments. The new constitution recognizes that citizenship is available in three genders, and protects “gender and sexual minorities” in clauses related to equality before the law and social justice. Activists remain frustrated with the lack of implementation of a Supreme Court-mandated committee recommendation that the government recognize same-sex relationships.


At the start of 2016, NGOs reported threats and discrimination against LGBT asylum seekers at asylum facilities, and a Dutch independent monitoring body, the Dutch Board for Protection of Human Rights, found in February that LGBT asylum seekers at a large facility face discrimination.


The passage of the Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act, SSMPA in January 2014, has far reaching effects on members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. The law is used to legitimize abuses against LGBT people, including mob violence, sexual abuse, unlawful arrests, torture and extortion by police. On February 13, the police arrested a homosexual couple in the federal capital for allegedly attempting to conduct a wedding. The wedding sponsors and the hotel venue owner were also arrested. The penalty for entering into a gay marriage under the SSMPA is 14 years. Ironically, former President Jonathan who defied global pressure before signing the bill into law, said belatedly in June 2016 that “with the clear knowledge that the issue of sexual orientation is still evolving, the nation may, at the appropriate time, revisit the law.”

In November 2015, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights urged the Nigerian government to review the SSMPA in order to prohibit violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity and ensure access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for LGBT individuals.


In 2009, Pakistan’s Supreme Court called for improved police response to cases involving transgender people, and to ensure the rights of transgender people to basic education, employment, and protection. However, despite the court order, violent attacks on transgender and intersex women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province surged in 2016, with unknown assailants frequently targeting those involved in activism. Official responses have been inadequate. Human rights groups in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have recorded dozens of threats to, and attacks on, people and property, including abuses while in police custody. In September 2016, the National Commission for Human Rights called on the government to investigate the attacks, and in 2016 and 2017 local governments and parliament hearings reflected an increased amount of attention to the plight of transgender women—including a unanimous resolution in the Khyber Pakhdunkhwa assembly calling for voting rights for transgender people.

Papua New Guinea

The PNG criminal code outlaws sex “against the order of nature,” which has been interpreted to apply to consensual same-sex acts, and is punishable by up to 14 years’ imprisonment. Gay asylum seekers on Manus Island have reported being shunned, sexually abused, or assaulted by other asylum seekers.

In May, during the periodic review of PNG’s human rights record at the UN Human Rights Council, countries made more than 150 recommendations on sues including ratification of international treaties, establishing a national human rights commission, promoting gender equality, addressing domestic violence and sorcery-related violence, decriminalizing consensual same-sex relations, and abolishing or placing a moratorium on the death penalty. In September, PNG responded that it would ratify all core human rights treaties “on the basis of priorities” and that, while there are challenges to implementing reforms, it is committed to establishing a human rights commission, improving gender equality, and addressing domestic violence and sorcery-related violence. It also noted, however, that “LGBT is currently not a priority of the Government” and that the “death penalty is in our national law, however despite this, the current government directive is not to implement until further directions are issued.”


In March 2015, Congress rejected a bill to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples. In September 2016, a Congressional supporter of President Kuczynski announced that he would introduce a new legislative proposal to recognize same-sex civil unions.

People in Peru are required to appear before a judge in order to revise the gender noted on their identification documents. In an August 2016 report, the human rights ombudsman noted that courts had rejected most of these requests, often applying inconsistent criteria.


The House of Representatives began consideration of House Bill 267, the “Anti SOGI (Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity) Discrimination Act” in June 2016. If approved, it will criminalize discrimination in the employment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, and prohibit schools from refusing to register or expelling students on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. The Senate has introduced companion legislation, Senate Bill No. 935, otherwise known as the Anti-Discrimination Bill (ADB), which had its first hearing in August. House Bill 267 will also sensitize police and law enforcement officers on LGBT issues and train them to attend to complaints. These initiatives are essential given that LGBT rights advocacy groups have warned that hate crimes against LGBT people are on the rise and that the Philippines has recorded the highest number of murders of transgender individuals in Southeast Asia since 2008. The bill would also prohibit anti-LGBT discrimination in access to health care.


Authorities continued to implement discriminatory policies and laws against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. In March, police found journalist and theater critic Dmitry Tsilikin dead in his St. Petersburg apartment from stab wounds. The perpetrator, arrested a week later, confessed that he planned to blackmail Tsilikin about his homosexuality, but killed him during a confrontation. The police did not categorize the killing as a hate crime. In January, a court in Murmansk, northwestern Russia, found LGBT activist Sergei Alekseenko guilty of violating the discriminatory “gay propaganda” law which prohibits allowing children access to positive information about LGBT relationships. The court called several publications on the website of an LGBT organization formerly run by Alekseenko “gay propaganda” and fined him 100,000 rubles (US$1,300). Authorities continued legal action against Deti-404, an online support group for LGBT children. In April, a court in the Siberian town of Barnaul ruled to ban the website. As of November, Deti 404’s website remained blocked. In September, a court in Siberia ruled to block, a highly popular LGBT news site. As of November, the site was blocked.

In February 2017 and stretching through at least the first week in April, law enforcement and security officials in Russia’s Chechen Republic launched an unprecedented anti-gay purge. They rounded up dozens of men on suspicion of being gay, held them in unofficial detention facilities for days, humiliated, starved, and tortured them. They forcibly disappeared some of the men. Others were returned to their families barely alive from beatings. Their captors exposed them to their families as gay and encouraged their relatives to carry out so-called “honor killings.” Although Chechnya’s leader, Ramzan Kadyrov has denied the round-ups, there is evidence that high-level officials in Chechnya sanctioned them. Russia’s federal government pledged to investigate, but intense and well-founded fear of official retaliation and honor killings, and overwhelming stigma will prevent many victims from coming forward.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has no written laws concerning sexual orientation or gender identity, but judges use principles of uncodified Islamic law to sanction people suspected of committing sexual relations outside marriage, including adultery, extramarital and homosexual sex, or other “immoral” acts. If such activity occurs online, judges and prosecutors utilize vague provisions of the country’s anti-cybercrime law that criminalize online activity impinging on “public order, religious values, public morals, and privacy.” In February 2016, the Saudi Gazette reported that the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution is considering requesting the death penalty for anyone “using social media to solicit homosexual acts.”

In February 2017, Saudi police arrested 35 Pakistani citizens, some of whom were transgender women. One of them died in detention. Her family said her body bore signs of torture, while the Saudi authorities said she had died of a heart attack.

Serbia (Kosovo)

Attacks and harassment of human rights defenders continued. According to local LGBT and human rights organizations, the majority of attacks and threats against members of the LGBT community go unreported with only known LGBT activists filing complaints. In June, in Vojvodina in Northeast Serbia, an LGBT activist was attacked and kicked in the head by four unidentified perpetrators. No one had been prosecuted at time of writing. In August, LGBT activist Boban Stojanovic, one of the Belgrade Pride organizers, was punched and called a “fag” in downtown Belgrade by two unidentified men. Police were investigating at time of writing. Hundreds of police officers deployed in Belgrade to protect the LGBT Pride march in September, which occurred without violence. This was a marked improvement from previous years when protesters attacked the parade, or the government had cancelled the event citing security concerns instead of providing adequate security.

The Kosovo Constitution protects against sexual orientation-based discrimination and a 2015 anti-discrimination law enumerates protections for both sexual orientation and gender identity; however, implementation remains weak.


The rights of Singapore’s LGBT community are severely restricted. Sexual relations between two male persons remains a criminal offense, and there are no legal protections against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. The Media Development Authority effectively prohibits all positive depictions of LGBT lives on television or radio. The annual Pink Dot Festival in support of LGBT rights celebrated its eighth year in Hong Lim Park in June 2016, supported by the sponsorship of corporations including Google, Barclays, J.P. Morgan, Goldman Sachs, BP, Bloomberg, Twitter, Apple, and Facebook. A few days after the event, the Ministry of Home Affairs warned multinational companies to stop funding the event, saying such support constitutes “foreign interference” with domestic affairs. In October, the Ministry of Home Affairs announced that, under newly promulgated rules, any entity that is not incorporated in Singapore and does not have a majority of Singapore citizens on its board is now required to apply for a permit to sponsor an event in Hong Lim Park.

Associations of more than 10 people are required to register with the government, and the Registrar of Societies has broad authority to deny registration if he determines the group could be “prejudicial to public peace, welfare or good order.” The Registrar of Societies has refused to allow any lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transsexual (LGBT) organization to register as a society on the ground that “it is contrary to the public interest to grant legitimacy to the promotion of homosexual activities or viewpoints.”

All films and videos shown in Singapore must be pre-approved by the Board of Film Censors. Theater productions must also obtain a license under the Public Entertainment and Meetings Act, and to do so must submit their scripts for approval. In June 2016, a production of “Les Miserables” was forced to delete a scene containing a same-sex kiss.

South Africa

South Africa has a progressive constitution that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and protects the human rights of LGBTI people. The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development has taken significant steps to improve coordination between government and civil society in combatting violence (including rape and murder) against lesbians and transgender men. On September 6, Home Affairs Minister Malusi Gigaba announced that due to widespread homophobic attitudes within South African society, and to protect the rights of LGBTI people, homophobic US pastor Steven Anderson and members of his church were banned from entering the country because they promote hate speech and advocate social violence. He said constitutional and legislative guarantees, including the rights of LGBTI persons, must be respected by all. Domestic LGBTI groups lauded the decision. In June 2017, at the 8th South African AIDS Conference, the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) launched the national HIV framework for LGBTI people. South Africa is the first country in the world to launch an HIV framework specifically for LGBT people as part of its national strategic plan. The objective is to “reverse the burden of disease from HIV, STIs and TB and to promote a rights and evidence-based environment for LGBTI people in South Africa.”

Some of South Africa’s votes at the United Nations were contrary to the country’s stated human rights principles. For example, in July, South Africa voted against a UN Human Rights Council resolution on the protection of human rights on the internet and abstained on a key HRC vote to appoint an independent expert on sexual orientation and gender identity. The abstention went against the country’s strong constitutional protections and domestic laws around sexual orientation and gender identity. But on November 21, in the UN General Assembly committee, South Africa voted to allow Vitit Muntabhorn, the newly appointed UN expert on sexual orientation and gender identity, to continue his work. The vote was taken after the African Group put forward a resolution to stop the operations of the UN expert who was appointed in September by the Human Rights Council.

Sri Lanka

State and non-state discrimination and abuses against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) population persist. Sections 365 and 365A of the Sri Lankan Penal Code prohibit “carnal knowledge against the order of nature” and “gross indecency,” commonly understood in Sri Lanka to criminalize all same-sex relations between consenting adults. Sri Lankan law does not specifically criminalize transgender or intersex people. But no laws ensure that their rights are protected, and police have used several criminal offenses and regulations to target LGBTI people, particularly transgender women and men who have sex with men (MSM) involved in sex work. These include a law against “cheat[ing] by personation,” and the vaguely worded Vagrants’ Ordinance, which prohibits soliciting or committing acts of “gross indecency,” or being “incorrigible rogues” procuring “illicit or unnatural intercourse.” Some trans women and MSM said that repeated harassment by police, including instances of arbitrary detention and mistreatment, had eroded their trust in Sri Lankan authorities, and made it unlikely that they would report a crime. Several people also reported discriminatory treatment at the hands of medical authorities, leading many transgender people to self-medicate rather than seeking professional assistance.


News reports in 2016 indicate that ISIS continues to execute men accused of homosexuality. In one reported case from Deir al-Zour governorate, a 15-year-old boy was thrown from a building in January 2016 after he was accused of being gay. At least 25 men have been murdered by ISIS in Syria on suspicion of homosexuality or for sodomy, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.


Tanzanian law criminalizes consensual sexual conduct between adult males, with a penalty of 30 years to life in prison, one of the most severe punishments for same-sex intimacy in the world. Zanzibar has slightly different laws but criminalizes both male homosexual conduct and lesbianism. The laws are rarely applied, but police and other authorities use them as a pretext to extort, abuse and marginalize LGBTI people. 

Under the government of John Magufuli, Tanzania has seen an unprecedented crackdown on LGBT people. The government has shut down HIV outreach services and drop-in centers targeting men who have sex with men (MSM); banned the import of water-based lubricants, an important HIV prevention tool; and threatened to shut down LGBT organizations. Police in Zanzibar arrested nine young men, charged them with homosexual conduct, and subjected them to forced anal examinations at a government hospital in December 2016. They were released on bail, but the cases remain open. Another young man was arrested in Dar es Salaam in March 2017, and was also subjected to a forced anal exam. In June 2017, President Magufuli publicly condemned same-sex relationships.


The penal code punishes consensual same-sex conduct with up to three years in prison. Anal testing is used as the main evidence in order to convict men for homosexuality. In two high-profile cases in 2015, at least seven young men were arrested and subjected to anal examinations by forensic doctors, whose reports were used as evidence to convict them of sodomy and imprison them, even though it is well-documented that such exams lack medical value. On appeal, their sentences were reduced to two months in the first case, and one month in the second.

Tunisia has thus far been unwilling to consider decriminalization of consensual same-sex conduct but, in its 2017 UPR review, accepted a recommendation to end forced anal examinations. This positive development followed months of advocacy from Tunisian and international human rights groups. The United Nations Committee against Torture, in its 2016 evaluation of Tunisia, condemned the use of anal examinations as to prove homosexual conduct. Shortly before the UPR review, the national medical council issued a circular calling on medical personnel to stop conducting anal examinations without consent.


Authorities frequently impose arbitrary bans on public assemblies and violently disperse peaceful demonstrations. For the second year running, the Istanbul governor’s office banned the annual Istanbul Gay and Trans Pride marches in June 2016, citing concerns about security threats and public order.


Under Turkmen law homosexual conduct is punishable by up to two years in prison. Widespread prejudice leads to homosexuality being treated as a disease, including by medical institutions and judicial authorities. Law enforcement officials and medical personnel subject persons detained and charged with sodomy to forced anal examinations, with the purported objective of finding “proof” of homosexual conduct.


After nine years, the Constitutional Court finally ruled in November on a challenge to a limitation on the mandate of the Equal Opportunities Commission, which barred it from investigating any matter involving behavior “considered to be immoral and socially harmful, or unacceptable by the majority of the cultural and social communities in Uganda.” The judges determined the limitation was unconstitutional and violated the right to a fair hearing. Perversely, this provision had meant that the very mechanism designed to protect people from discrimination could blatantly discriminate against women, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people, sex workers, and anyone else who might not have been perceived to reflect the views of the majority.

Same-sex conduct remains criminalized under Uganda’s colonial-era law, which prohibits “carnal knowledge” among people of the same sex. The new NGO law raises concerns about the criminalization of legitimate advocacy on the rights of LGBTI people. In August, police unlawfully raided a peaceful pageant that was part of Gay Pride celebrations in Kampala. Police locked the venue’s gates, arrested activists, and beat and humiliated hundreds of people, violating rights to association and assembly. Police continue to carry out forced anal examinations on men and transgender women accused of consensual same-sex conduct. These examinations lack evidentiary value and are a form of cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment that may amount to torture.


Since 2014, the government has introduced several progressive policies supporting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, but anti-LGBT sentiment remains strong among high-level government officials and the public. In March 2016, about 200 anti-gay, far-right supporters attacked a venue in Lviv hosting a LGBT equality festival, eventually causing the event to be cancelled. The Kyiv LGBT Pride march held in June took place without the violence against participants that had marred it in previous years. Ultra-nationalist groups had threatened to make the march a “bloody mess.” Around 6,000 police officers protected the 1,500 march participants. The first LGBT Pride march took place in Odesa in August. Local authorities initially attempted to ban it, but relented when organizers changed the route. Police arrested four ultra-nationalists who attempted to disrupt the event. A new draft of the amended labor code does not include an anti-discrimination provision that would protect LGBT people in the workplace.

United Arab Emirates

The UAE’s penal code does not explicitly prohibit homosexuality. However, article 356 of the penal code criminalizes (but does not define) “indecency,” and provid

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          Muslim and Jewish women to gather to share stories and traditions   

Need a break from all the dispiriting headlines about Ebola, ISIS and nasty election-year TV ads?

Check out this news item: Muslim Women of the Carolinas is inviting local Jewish and Muslim women to gather later this month for “Tea for Two.”

“There’s not very many opportunities for Muslims and Jews to meet,” said Rose Hamid, president of the Muslim Women’s group. “I wanted to create some space to just build connections, ask questions of each other and ease fears.”

The plan is for the women to share stories and traditions about their separate religious holidays – this month, the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur and the Muslim holiday of Eid Al Adha fell on the same day.

There will be desserts and, as the event's name promises, tea --several types of tea, in fact. “Because Muslims come from all over the world, teas are a big part of their cultures,” Hamid said.

The event is 3-5 p.m. Sunday, Oct. 26, at the Islamic Community of Bosniaks (they’re from Bosnia), 6200 Wilora Lake Road in east Charlotte.

Space is limited and organizers want a good mix. So, if you’re a Jewish or Muslim woman and want to go, RSVP here

-- Tim Funk
          Concordia Chiajna a pierdut şi al doilea amical în Serbia, scor 0-1, cu Borac Banja Luka   

Concordia Chiajna a pierdut şi al doilea amical disputat în Serbia, scor 0-1, în faţa formaţiei de primă ligă din Bosnia, FC Borac Banja Luka, informează, sâmbătă, site-ul grupării ilfovene.

          Croats say Bosnia's public broadcaster should be overhauled based on Swiss or Belgian model    

Major Croat political parties that make up the Croat National Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HNS BiH) will insist on the reorganisation of the existing state public broadcaster as they believe that the current system of public broadcasting is contrary to the Constitution and discriminatory against the Croats.

          Bosnian Croat reps insist on channel airing programmes in Croatian   

Being one of the constituent peoples, the Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina are entitled to a broadcaster that will air programmes in their native language, HNS BiH official Ivan Vukoja said at a news conference in Mostar on Friday.

          BOSNIA – Srebrenica massacre: Dutch government ‘partially liable’ for murder of 300 Muslim men, court finds   
THE INDEPENDENT – The Hague court of appeal’s findings largely upheld a civil court judgment from 2014, which found the state was liable for the murder of Bosniak Muslims who were turned to Bosnian Serb troops by Dutch UN peacekeepers. CONTINUE READING
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          Agenda - Workshop for the procurement review body on decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union   

Agenda for the workshop for the procurement review body on decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union. 3-5 July 2017, Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
          The Truth is Funny .....shift happens! with Host Colette Marie Stefan: Mystery Of The Bosnian Pyramids with filmmaker Vinko Totic   
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          Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch   
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Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch has a smart download logic accelerator that features intelligent dynamic file segmentation and safe multipart downloading technology to accelerate your downloads. Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch update 18 September 2013, unlike other download accelerators and managers that segment files before downloading starts, Internet Download Manager 6.17 Build 11 Full With Patch segments downloaded files dynamically during download process.

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  • Download Resume. Internet Download Manager will resume unfinished download from the place where they left off.
  • YouTube grabber. Internet Download Manager can grab FLV videos from popular sites like YouTube, MySpaceTV, and Google Video.
  • Simple installation wizard. Quick and easy installation program will make necessary settings for you, and check your connection at the end to ensure trouble free installation of Internet Download Manager.
  • Drag and Drop. You may simply drag and drop links to IDM, and drag and drop downloaded files out of Internet Download Manager.
  • Automatic Antivirus checking. Antivirus checking makes your downloads free from viruses and trojans.
  • Advanced Browser Integration. When enabled, the feature can be used to catch any download from any application. None of download managers have this feature.
  • Built-in Scheduler. Internet Download Manager can connect to the Internet at a set time, download the files you want, disconnect, or shut down your computer when it’s done.
  • IDM includes web site spider and grabber. IDM downloads all required files that are specified with filters from web sites, for example all pictures from a web site, or subsets of web sites, or complete web sites for offline browsing. It’s possible to schedule multiple grabber projects to run them once at a specified time, stop them at a specified time, or run periodically to synchronize changes.
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  • Download All feature. IDM can add all downloads linked to the current page. It’s easy to download multiple files with this feature.
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  • Download Categories. Internet Download Manager can be used to organize downloads automatically using defined download categories.
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          Bosnian Serb Group's Move To Honor Russian Diplomat Stirs Srebrenica Controversy   
A proposed memorial to a former leading Russian diplomat who controversially vetoed a UN resolution marking the 20th anniversary of the genocide in Srebrenica is angering many in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where ethnic tensions simmer just below the surface.
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I know that a lot of Arsenal fans are starting to get a bit nervous about the fact that we are still waiting for the second signing of the summer after the early announcement that the admittedly highly rated Bosnian international Sead Kolasinac was coming to us from Schalke. I know that because I have […]
          Как объяснить волку, что вы – не северный олень   

В погоне за грибами или яркими осенними фото современный урбанизированный путешественник может зайти так далеко в лес, что телефон не ловит и у «Гугла» не спросишь. Поэтому, как вести себя при встрече с волком, кабаном, змеями стоит просто запомнить.

Перво-наперво, отправляясь с рюкзаком в поход по лесам, пускай и не дремучим, помните о возможности банально заблудиться. Даже в наше время цифровых технологий и бодрой вырубки древесных массивов леса занимают примерно половину территории Восточной Европы. А в грибной сезон охочий до боровиков люд постоянно ухитряется заплутать чуть ли не в трех соснах. Причина тому проста: при всей своей живописности лесной ландшафт средней полосы довольно однообразен. И если вы – опытный путешественник, не засыпающий без компаса под подушкой, то вы без труда определите, куда стоит идти, потеряв в лесу привычные ориентиры. Но урбанизированным обывателям может прийтись несладко посреди глухой чащи; определив, с какой стороны растет мох на деревьях и дождавшись восхода Полярной звезды, они вряд ли приблизятся к выходу из сложной ситуации. Для заблудившихся в лесу вполне подойдут самые банальные советы: зовите на помощь криком или свистом, внимательно вслушайтесь в лесную тишину – есть немалые шансы, что вы услышите шум автомобильного шоссе. Взберитесь на высокое дерево – домик лесника вы, быть может, и не заметите, а вот трубы заводов или сельской котельной видны на многие километры.

Наши леса – это, к счастью, не влажный ужас амазонских джунглей, с большой долей вероятности вас здесь никто не съест, не покусает и не ужалит насмерть. Но некоторых представителей лесной фауны, воспетых в русских народных сказках, следует воспринимать как минимум всерьез. Так, волки, сбившиеся в крупную стаю, представляют реальную опасность для любого обитателя леса, будь то могучий зубр или многоопытный лесник. И хотя те времена, когда расплодившихся волков приходилось отстреливать для безопасности деревень и поселков, помнят только седовласые охотники-ветераны, в некоторых регионах СНГ до сих пор бесчинствуют стаи серых хищников. Особо опасен становится волк в конце зимы – начале весны, когда голод делает его крайне агрессивным. Если стая серых злодеев проявляет к вам отчетливый гастрономический интерес, а крупнокалиберного карабина под рукой не оказалось, можно попытаться отпугнуть хищников сигнальной ракетой, свистом, включенным на полную громкость радиоприемником – подойдет любой громкий звук, который животные сочтут странным и непривычным. Взобравшись на дерево, вы окажетесь хотя бы на время в безопасности: в отличие от рысей и медведей, у волков проблемы с лазанием по ветвям. Если рядом оказался водоем, считайте, что вам крупно повезло: еще ни один волк не полез доставать из воды шустрого туриста.

Но, как ни странно, чаще причиной для беспокойства среди любителей лесных вояжей становятся не волки и не относительно редкие для средней полосы рыси с медведями. Получить серьезную травму – а то и вовсе покинуть бренную землю – можно при встрече с вполне себе травоядными аборигенами лесных опушек. Лось весом в пять центнеров или матерый кабан, вымахавший на два метра в длину, требуют самого серьезного к себе отношения. В большинстве случаев крупные травоядные жители леса могут причинить вред человеку лишь при защите, но из этого правила существуют исключения. Любое внимание к своему малолетнему потомству лосиха или дикая свинья расценит как акт агрессии и решительно атакует любопытного натуралиста. Большую опасность представляет раненый зверь, и особенно – раненный охотниками. Схлопотавшее пулю животное воспринимает как врагов всех встреченных людей без разбора, разъяренный лось вряд ли станет проверять у вас наличие берданки и охотничьего билета. Главное при атаке лося или кабана – увернуться от первого удара, отскочить в сторону или спрятаться за надежное крепкое дерево. Сохатый или дикий хряк пронесутся мимо и, потеряв вас из виду, сочтут, что одержали убедительную победу. Сделав первый бросок, и кабан, и лось не станут возвращаться для «контрольного» удара.

Среди богатства лесной фауны можно нарваться на серьезную угрозу и с совершенно неожиданного направления. Звериное бешенство – явление хоть и нечастое, но распространенное по всей территории Европы. Болезнь передается при контакте с животным-носителем (укус, царапина), поражает нервную систему и без медицинского вмешательства приводит к летальному исходу. Переносчиками бешенства могут быть волки, енотовидные собаки, барсуки. Но чаще других видов от бешенства страдают лисы и ежи. И если больной ежик не причинит вам никакого вреда, если его просто не брать в руки и не дотрагиваться, то бешеная лиса часто проявляет немотивированную агрессию. Вообще, признаком болезни может быть любое странное поведение животного. Помните: нормальная лиса при встрече с человеком незамедлительно скроется в зарослях, махнув на прощание рыжим хвостом. Любое другое поведение, будь то безразличие или проявление любопытства – тревожный звонок. Благо, лиса – не медведь, и отбиться от нее поможет любая крепкая палка (без которой, к слову, в лесу вообще делать нечего).

Смертельно опасных ядовитых змей в лесах средней полосы, к счастью, не водится. Но укус гадюки вызовет серьезную боль и появление отека, что вдалеке от цивилизации может повлечь печальные последствия. Вопреки заблуждениям, гадюку можно встретить не только среди болот: змеи обожают греться на солнце и зачастую выбирают для этого лесные тропы. Но укусит гадюка лишь после того, как путешественник наступит на нее. Поэтому при переходах по лесным массивам обувать нужно крепкие сапоги с высоким голенищем и штаны из плотной ткани. В отличие от индийских кобр, наши местные гадюки приступами злобы не страдают; и не пугайтесь, если парочка змей приползет к разведенному вами костру – их привлекает тепло, а вовсе не ваши драгоценные телеса. Особую силу яд гадюки обретает весной, запомните это.

Совсем уж мелкая – по размеру, а не по значению – угроза поджидает лесных странников, пренебрегающих соответствующей месту одежде и головными уборами. На любую открытую часть тела может позариться клещ. Вопреки своему названию таежный клещ, переносящий жуткую болезнь энцефалит, чаще встречается именно в смешанных лесах средней европейской полосы. Насекомое привлекает обилие влаги и тень, поэтому ожидать клещевой атаки следует при движении по дну оврагов и лесных впадин. Клещ вовсе не прыгает на жертву с ветвей деревьев, как Тарзан, – насекомое поджидает удобного случая на травинках и кустах. В походных условиях для извлечения впившегося в тело клеща достаточно крепкой нити, которой нужно крепко перетянуть голову насекомого у основания укуса, и если после этого паразит не прекратил «трапезу», извлечь его аккуратными вращательными движениями.

Если вдруг обстоятельства заставили вас перейти во время лесных скитаний на «подножный корм», или вы просто решили отведать ягод да грибов, помните – не все дары леса безвредны для здоровья. Ядовитых ягод в наших лесах немного, если вы часто уходите в длительные походы, то есть смысл просто запомнить их на вид. Вы наверняка без труда определите и белладонну и волчье лыко, если видели их хотя бы раз. В крайнем случае, если голод вынуждает вас к крайним мерам, ищите на кустах ягод следы кормления животных – поклеванные птицами ягоды почти наверняка годны в пищу. С грибами дело обстоит несколько сложнее. Если красавец мухомор видно издалека, то некоторые виды ядовитых грибов успешно маскируются под съедобные. Так, ложный опенок легко принять за опенок обычный, а очень ядовитую бледную поганку не мудрено спутать с шампиньоном. Важный совет: не уверены – не берите! Или учите матчасть: пообщайтесь с опытными грибниками, закачайте в телефон фотографии ядовитых грибов.

Любите наши леса, гуляйте по ним и путешествуйте! Но помните, что меры осторожности не помешают никому и нигде.

Автор: Алексей Корсаков

          PM says 120 Bosnian citizens in Syrian-Iraqi war zone   

Bosnian Council of Ministers Chairman Denis Zvizdic on Wednesday said claims that thousands of people from his country were fighting for Islamic extremists abroad were incorrect and exaggerated, adding that available intelligence showed their number was just over 100.

          Zvizidic: Bosnia-Croatia governmental meeting likely in late April or early May   

A joint meeting of the governments of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia will be held in late April or early May, the chairman of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Council of Ministers, Denis Zvizdic said in Sarajevo on Tuesday.

          Mogherini calls on Bosnia to continue reforms   

The European Union High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, has called on Bosnia and Herzegovina to continue implementing reforms so it can draw closer to EU membership, pledging full support from Brussels on that path.

          Bosnian PM says unpleasantly surprised by Petrov's denial, Petrov responds   

Bosnia and Herzegovina Prime Minister Denis Zvizdic said on Wednesday that he was "unpleasantly surprised" by Croatian Parliament Speaker Bozo Petrov's denying that at his talks with Bosnia and Herzegovina's top officials on Tuesday, he explicitly opposed the establishment of new entities in that country, Zvizdic's office said.

          Bosnian PM says call for federalisation would prompt new ethnic divisions   

A European Parliament resolution insisting on the federalisation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is unacceptable because it would prompt new ethnic divisions in the country, Bosnia and Herzegovina Prime Minister Denis Zvizdic said in Sarajevo on Friday after meeting with the European Parliament's rapporteur on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dan Preda.

          Media: Bosnia, Serbia mending regional relations by restoring cooperation   

The meeting and official talks between Bosnia and Herzegovina Prime Minister Denis Zvizdic and Serbian Prime Minister Aleksandar Vucic, held in Belgrade on Tuesday, are the first positive event in relations between the two countries after a long period of tension and stagnation, media in Bosnia and Herzegovina said on Wednesday, an assessment shared by State Presidency Chairman Mladen Ivanic.

          Vucic, Zvizdic say Serbia, Bosnia committed to dialogue   

Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina are committed to dialogue and cooperation, and they can enhance their relations and improve economic and political cooperation, which will be conducive to peace and stability in the region, Serbia's Prime Minister Aleksandar Vucic and his visiting counterpart from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Denis Zvizdic, said at a joint news conference in Belgrade on Monday.

          Bosnian PM to meet his Serbian counterpart in Belgrade next week   

Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina Denis Zvizdic is to travel to Belgrade next week for talks with Serbia's Prime Minister Aleksandar Vucic, government sources in Sarajevo confirmed on Monday.

          Bosnian PM says expects sincere cooperation from Croatia, not fault-finding    

Bosnia and Herzegovina Prime Minister Denis Zvizdic has described as inappropriate the statements by Croatian officials about Bosnia and Herzegovina posing a security threat due to potential terrorists returning from Syria and Iraq, calling on neighbouring countries to refrain from fault-finding and cooperate sincerely.

          Sharif: Pakistan wants to enhance relations with Bosnia   

Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who arrived in Sarajevo on Wednesday for a two-day official visit, said that Pakistan would work on strengthening bilateral relations with Bosnia and Herzegovina and that economic cooperation should be intensified along with the continuation of good political relations.

          Plenkovic's visit to confirm Croatia-Bosnia partnership, says Zvizdic   

 Croatia is a friend and important partner of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the visit which will be paid by the new Croatian premier to Sarajevo is expected to confirm the good bilateral relations, Bosnia and Herzegovina's Prime Minister Denis Zvizdic said on Wednesday.

          Bosnian PM: Sejdic-Finci ruling to be implemented before awarding of EU candidate status   

Bosnian Council of Ministers Chairman Denis Zvizdic welcomed on Tuesday a decision by the Council of the European Union to task the European Commission with preparing an opinion on Bosnia and Herzegovina's EU membership application, saying the European Court of Human Rights ruling in the Sejdic-Finci case would be implemented by the time Bosnia was given candidate status.

          Hahn: Serb entity referendum can only be of consultative nature    

The referendum set to be held in the Bosnian Serb entity of Republika Srpska can only be of a consultative nature and the problem arising from it can only be solved with respect for court decisions, notably the decision of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations Johannes Hahn said in Brussels on Monday.

          Bosnian Serb authorities angry at IMF, claim to be subjected to pressure    

The IMF's representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Francisco Parodi, confirmed earlier in the day that the IMF Executive Board had postponed its decision on approving a EUR 550 million loan to Bosnia and Herzegovina because not all representatives of the country's authorities had signed a letter of intent required for the credit arrangement.

          Bosnia has no alternative to European integration, says PM   

Bosnian Council of Ministers Chairman Denis Zvizdic said in Sarajevo on Friday that Great Britain's decision to leave the European Union must not affect Bosnia and Herzegovina's (BiH) efforts to join the EU as soon as possible ...

          Bosnian PM says Serb entity blocking country's integration with EU    

"All committed to working actively on that, rather than just paying lip service," Zvizdic said.

          Bosnian PM says motorway on Corridor VC priority   

The plan is worth EUR 300 million, of which Bosnia expects to receive EUR 76 million this year and 70 million in each of the next three years.

          Bosnia adopts coordination mechanism for EU matters   

Bosnia and Herzegovina has adopted a coordination mechanism for European Union (EU) matters, satisfying one of the two key preconditions for approval of candidate status for membership to the EU, Prime Minister Denis Zvizdic said on Wednesday.

          PM sure whole impression important for Bosnia's EU candidacy   

Addressing a meeting of the Bosnian House of Representatives, Zvizdic said that regardless of criticism, he was sure that conditions had been met for Bosnia to apply for EU membership candidacy.

          Serbia, Bosnia confident there will be no arm conflicts in Balkans   

The two officials agree that closing European borders to migrants could affect the situation in the region and raise tensions, but they are confident that armed conflicts are out of ...

          Comment on Letter: American in Bosnia by Liquor Bottle Display Shelf   
<strong>Liquor Bottle Display Shelf</strong> [...]Sites of interest we have a link to[...]
          Lessons from Sarajevo   
June, 2013

ISBN (cloth): 


Price (cloth) $: 

June, 2013

ISBN (paper): 


Price (paper) $: 

Jim Hicks is editor of The Massachusetts Review and teaches comparative literature at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Hicks, Jim.

Pub date (e-book): 

October, 2015
A War Stories Primer

ISBN (e-book): 

What can we learn from thinking about war stories?
Preface ix

1. Case Study: Of Phantom Nations . . . 1
2. Thesis: The Crime of the Scene . . . 23
3. Victims: The Talking Dead . . . 43
4. Observers: The Real War and the Books . . . 69
5. Aggressors: The Beast Is Back . . . 105
Conclusion: Bringing the Stories Home . . . 125

Notes . . . 167
Works Cited . . . 175
Index . . . 183

Price (e-book) $: 

In today’s world, our television screens are filled with scenes from countless conflicts across the globe—commanding our attention and asking us to choose sides. In this insightful and wide-ranging book, Jim Hicks treats historical representation, and even history itself, as a text, asking questions such as Who is speaking?, Who is the audience?, and What are the rules for this kind of talk? He argues that we must understand how war stories are told in order to arm ourselves against them. In a democracy, we are each responsible for policy decisions taken on our behalf.
Mon, 06/03/2013
"Lessons from Sarajevo introduces such a variety of war stories in such vivid terms that almost all readers will find themselves—as I did—heading straight for the Internet to look up films and order books. Hicks has written a book that should stimulate much discussion about a topic that is—unfortunately—not about to go away."—Michael Rothberg, author of Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization

"I found Hicks’s book engaging, provocative, well researched, and incredibly useful. His sense of history is both deeply informed and extremely nuanced. . . . He is quite adept at choosing exemplary moments or texts to concisely and efficiently illustrate complex arguments. . . . This is a book whose claims and arguments deserve attention."—Ammiel Alcalay, author of After Jews and Arabs: Remaking Levantine Culture

"Hicks notes that in a democracy, 'we are each responsible for policy decisions taken on our behalf. So it is imperative that we gain fluency in the diverse forms of representation . . . that bring war to us.' Lessons from Sarajevo is illustrated with a wealth of images, from seminal photographs of corpses on Civil War battlefields to newsmagazine covers from the 1990s of emaciated prisoners in Bosnia."—Daily Hampshire Gazette

"Hicks is here using 'grammar' in a structural sense, as a way to look at the underlying epistemological structures that informs modern approaches to understanding the organized violence known as warfare. . . . It is worth noting that the author has been teaching a class on war stories for ten years, and his approach to teaching the subject material is clearly the basis for this volume. Recommended."—Choice

"In this powerful book, Jim Hicks explores a collection of narratives about the experience of war in many genres and a wide range of media that eschew the sentimental."—The Arts Fuse

"I just finished Jim Hicks's Lessons from Sarajevo--a very deft critique of the 'war story,' and so glad that it's out there, deconstructing the ossified positions of observer, victim, and aggressor. I feel I've found a comrade in prose, in an area that deserves more thinking, more feeling, more work. . . . Thanks, Jim!"—Philip Metres, author of Abu Ghraib Arias

Related Subjects: 

6 x 9
26 b&w

          PBS NewsHour full episode June 28, 2017   

Wednesday on the NewsHour, Senate Republicans scramble to make changes on their health care bill to win enough votes. Also: New poll numbers reveal what the nation thinks about the Trump administration, a massive cyberattack spreads throughout the globe, why there is still no vaccine for Lyme disease and a legal thriller set after the Bosnian War.

The post PBS NewsHour full episode June 28, 2017 appeared first on PBS NewsHour.

          Comment on The Future of Good Food Starts with Good Ideas: Help Support BK Farmyards’ Youth Farm by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...Check MP3's out</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on How to Sous-Vide Mangalitsa Pork w/Chef Daniel Angerer of Klee Brasserie by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
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          Comment on The Brooklyn Grange Farm: Open for Summer & Looking for More Restaurants and CSA Buyers by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...[Trackback]</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on Don’t Judge a Clam by Its Cover: Geoducks by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...Awesome website</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (later INGRAY) released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassadors of Rock� contest for Detroit, Michigan. They opened for popular bands, and played clubs, theaters and festival…
          Comment on Robicelli’s Cupcakes: Making Every Dessert Known to Man in Cupcake Form by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...[Trackback]</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on A Farm Grows in Brooklyn…on a Rooftop! by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...Learn More</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (later renamed to INGRAY, after moving to the US) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassadors of Rock� conte…
          Uomo arrestato nella stazione metro di Porta Romana: deve scontare sei mesi di carcere   
In manette è finito un bosniaco 37enne, condannato per minacce a pubblico ufficiale
          Jadwal Pertandingan Sepak Bola Piala Dunia 2014   
Jadwal Pertandingan Sepak Bola Piala Dunia 2014

Jadwal Bola Piala Dunia 2014 Fase Grup

TanggalJam (WIB)Grup Pertandingan (Kota) Skor 
13 Juni 201403:00ABrasil vs Kroasia (Sao Paulo)
13 Juni 201423:00AMeksiko vs Kamerun (Natal)
14 Juni 201402:00BSpanyol vs Belanda (Salvador)
14 Juni 201405:00BChile vs Australia (Cuiaba)
14 Juni 201423:00CKolumbia vs Yunani (Belo Horizonte)
15 Juni 201402:00DUruguay vs Kosta Rika (Fortaleza)
15 Juni 201405:00DInggris vs Italia (Manaus)
15 Juni 201408:00CPantai Gading vs Jepang (Recife)
15 Juni 201423:00ESwiss vs Ekuador (Brasilia)
16 Juni 201402:00EPerancis vs Honduras (Porto Alegre)
16 Juni 201405:00FArgentina vs Bosnia-Herzegovina (Rio De Janeiro)
16 Juni 201423:00GJerman vs Portugal (Salvador)
17 Juni 201402:00FIran vs Nigeria (Curitiba)
17 Juni 201405:00GGhana vs Amerika Serikat (Natal)
17 Juni 201423:00HBelgia vs Aljazair (Belo Horizonte)
18 Juni 201402:00ABrasil vs Meksiko (Fortaleza)
18 Juni 201405:00HRusia vs Republik Korea (Cuiaba)
18 Juni 201423:00BAustralia vs Belanda (Porto Alegre)
19 Juni 201402:00BSpanyol vs Chile (Rio De Janeiro)
19 Juni 201405:00AKamerun vs Kroasia (Manaus)
19 Juni 201423:00CKolumbia vs Pantai Gading (Brasilia)
20 Juni 201402:00DUruguay vs Inggris (Sao Paulo)
20 Juni 201405:00CJepang vs Yunani (Natal)
20 Juni 201423:00DItalia vs Kosta Rika (Recife)
21 Juni 201402:00ESwiss vs Perancis (Salvador)
21 Juni 201405:00EHonduras vs Ekuador (Curitiba)
21 Juni 201423:00FArgentina vs Iran (Belo Horizonte)
22 Juni 201402:00GJerman vs Ghana (Fortaleza)
22 Juni 201405:00FNigeria vs Bosnia-Herzegovina (Cuiaba)
22 Juni 201423:00HBelgia vs Rusia (Rio De Janeiro)
23 Juni 201402:00HRepublik Korea vs Aljazair (Porto Alegre)
23 Juni 201405:00GAmerika Serikat vs Portugal (Manaus)
23 Juni 201423:00BAustralia vs Spanyol (Curitiba)
23 Juni 201423:00BBelanda vs Chile (Sao Paulo)
24 Juni 201403:00AKamerun vs Brasil (Brasilia)
24 Juni 201403:00AKroasia vs Meksiko (Recife)
24 Juni 201423:00DItalia vs Uruguay (Natal)
24 Juni 201423:00DKosta Rika vs Inggris (Belo Horizonte)
25 Juni 201403:00CJepang vs Kolumbia (Cuiaba)
25 Juni 201403:00CYunani vs Pantai Gading (Fortaleza)
25 Juni 2014
Seselj ruled Serbia with former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic during the Balkan wars. His extremist party holds 80 seats in Serbia's 250-seat assembly and will be the chief challenger to several pro-democratic groups.

Seselj's party, which he heads from jail in the Netherlands, said he started a hunger strike last week demanding the tribunal grant him free choice of legal advisers, unrestricted spousal visits and an unconditional right to conduct his own defense.

He has lost 11 kilograms (24 pounds) since starting the hunger strike, the Radical Party said in a statement Monday, adding that Seselj "was aware of the (health) risks ... but will not give up" his demands and will continue refusing to be examined by physicians at the detention facility.

Seselj has pleaded innocent to nine charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity for allegedly being part of a criminal plot to murder, torture and illegally imprison non-Serbs in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo in the wars during the breakup of Yugoslavia.

His trial is scheduled to start Nov. 27. He voluntarily turned himself in to The Hague tribunal in 2003.
          EU urges Serbia to cooperate with U.N. effort to resolve status for Kosovo   
The European Union urged Serbia on Wednesday to "take a constructive approach" in negotiating the future of its breakaway Kosovo province and said it must cooperate with the U.N.'s war crimes tribunal if it wants closer ties with the EU.Serbia and its Balkan neighbors must also do more to tackle corruption and step up political and reforms needed to prepare them for eventual EU membership, according to the EU's annual progress reports on the prospects of would-be EU members."I trust that Serbian citizens as well as political leaders now focus less on the nationalist past and more on the European future, that's best for Serbia, that's best for the western Balkans," EU Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn told reporters after the release of the EU reports."On Kosovo, we expect Serbia to take a constructive approach," he added.The EU's report on Serbia reiterated that steps toward eventual membership were suspended until Serbia proves it is fully cooperating with the U.N. war crimes tribunal and hands over top war crimes suspect Gen. Ratko Mladic.The report said the EU was also concerned over Serbia's new constitution, warning it did not fully guarantee judges' independence. It also called on Belgrade to intensify its fight against corruption and ensure full civilian control over its armed forces.On Kosovo, the EU report acknowledged that the focus on the sensitive status negotiations led by the U.N. "has delayed significant reform efforts."It said the province's administration "remains weak, affecting the rule of law," adding that judicial bodies there have made "little progress" in civil and criminal justice.Separate reports were also released on Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania.On Croatia already opened entry talks with the EU last year and hopes to join in 2009. However, the report said there was "considerable scope" for improving the nation's judicial system and its fight against corruption. It also called on Zagreb to ensure better protection of minorities and to solve its border dispute with EU member Slovenia.Croatia's President Stipe Mesic said the critical report on his country showed it had to follow through on reforms. "It is easy to pass the laws, but it is much harder to implement them," he said in Zagreb. "It all depends on us."The EU warned Macedonia over its problems with corruption. It said reforms must go faster, if wants to get a starting date for membership talks.
          By: Karli   
My husband and I tried ajvar for the first time last weekend at a Bosnian restaurant, Drina Daisy, in Astoria, Wa. We were looking up recipes the minute we were back in the hotel! Your post not only provides an awesome, authentic recipe to try, but a sense of culture and history to go with it. Beautifully done!
          Comment on Eagles Trade Andrews and White, Shrink Roster to 52 by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>Trackback</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on ITI Weekly: Jackson’s Split Stats, Vick’s Injury Status, Falcons Game by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...Great free music</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on Could Kolb Be Auditioning For A Starting Job Sunday? by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!   
<strong>...MUSIC VIDEOS</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (later INGRAY) released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassadors of Rock� contest for Detroit, Michigan. They opened for popular bands, and played clubs, theaters and festival…
          Taekondo Teen Champion wins world record!   

This sixteen-year-old Bosnian named Kerim Ahmetspahic is a martial arts athlete, more specifically a Taekwondo teen champion.

On this occasion, Kerim, was put to the test during a live exhibition that was performed in front of a group of Guinness World Record judges! This young man astonished everyone by succeeding in winning the world record for breaking blocks of concrete with his head! 

In fact, in only 35 seconds he broke 120 of them (20 blocks of 6), by using his head while doing somersaults. Absolutely.....Incredible! 

          “Il libro delle mie vite” di Aleksandar Hemon   

Aleksandar Hemon, Il libro delle mie viteSi definisce «un groviglio di domande insolubili, un coagulo di vari altri», di certo è uno dei più significativi scrittori in circolazione. È Aleksandar Hemon, autore dell’agile e densissimo Il libro delle mie vite (Einaudi, 2013, traduzione di Maurizia Balmelli), nato a Sarajevo nel 1964 e cittadino di Chicago dallo scoppio della guerra in Bosnia nel 1992, già autore, tra gli altri, del bellissimo Il progetto Lazarus. In questo memoir autobiografico racconta la sua vita tra la Sarajevo multietnica dell’infanzia e la nuova patria statunitense, attraverso le avvisaglie di guerra ‒ quell’«era breve dell’euforia da catastrofe» ‒ e poi lo scontro violentissimo dei primi anni Novanta, la guerra civile che fece deflagrare i Balcani.

leggi tutto

          Huni Dasar Klasemen, Persiba Tetap Incar Kemenangan di Markas Bali United   

Pelatih Persiba Balikpapan, Milomir Seslija mengungkapkan tak gentar menghadapi tuan rumah Bali United dalam lanjutan Gojek Traveloka Liga 1 2017 pada Rabu (05/07/17) di Stadion Kapten I Wayan Dipta, Gianyar. Arsitek asal Bosnia itu tetap menargetkan tiga poin.

Beruang Madu saat ini duduk di dasar klasemen Liga 1 dengan koleksi empat poin, sedang Serdadu Tridatu, yang berbeda 12 poin dengan Persiba, masih nyaman di peringkat ke-9 hingga pekan ke-11. Memasuki pekan ke-12, kedua tim jelas menginginkan hasil terbaik.

Lihat lebih lengkap...

          Centrale, in 6 per rubare il portafogli di una donna in metrò: arrestati   
La banda è entrata in azione in pieno giorno, alle 16.30, lungo la banchina della fermata del metrò. In manette un uomo di 45 anni, italiano, il «palo» della banda, e cinque donne, tutte bosniache, residenti nel campo nomadi di Baranzate
          Teo, 27, Bosnia and Herzegovina    
Looking for: Female From 0 to 0 years old
For: Friendship, Marriage ...

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          John Guandolo, Understanding The Threat: #CivilizationJihad by OUR hands. The enemy gets our Ldrs to do their bidding 4 them. UTT's John Guandolo explains...

The Mission

Understanding the Threat provides threat-focused strategic and operational consultation, training, and education for federal, state, and local leadership and agencies in government, the private sector, and for private citizens. UTT is the only organization in America which is training leaders, elected officials, law enforcement, military personnel, and citizens, about the Global Islamic Movement and the jihadi networks in communities around the nation.  UTT is also the only organization showing security professionals and state leaders how to locate and map out jihadi organizations, locate jihadis, and dismantle the network at the local and state level. While UTT briefs and teaches about many of the threats external and internal to the United States, its primary concern is the threats to the Republic and the West in general from the Global Islamic Movement.

About John Guandolo

John Guandolo is the Founder of, an organization dedicated to providing strategic and operational threat-focused consultation, education, and training for federal, state and local leadership and agencies, and designing strategies at all levels of the community to defeat the enemy.
Mr. Guandolo is a 1989 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy who took a commission as an Officer in the United States Marine Corps. He served with 2d Battalion 2d Marines as an Infantry Platoon Commander in combat Operations Desert Shield/Storm. From 1991-1996, he served in 2d Force Reconnaissance Company as a Platoon Commander, Assistant Operations Officer, and the unit’s Airborne and Diving Officer. During this time, he also deployed to the Adriatic/Bosnia. He served for one year as the Unit Leader for the CINC’s In-Extremis Force, directly reporting to a Combatant Commander in a classified mission profile. Mr. Guandolo was a combat diver, military free-fall parachutist, and a graduate of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
More about Mr. Guandolo here.
Mr. Guandolo’s experience on 911 here.
As the son of a career Air Force OSI Special Agent, Chris Gaubatz grew up in England, Korea, California, and Utah, and today calls southwest Virginia home.
Chris worked for several Fortune 500 companies conducting fraud investigations and asset protection, as well as insurance sales.
In 2007, Chris began researching the threat of jihadi organizations in the United States by posing as a Muslim convert and attending Muslim Brotherhood/Hamas conferences gaining access as an intern with the Hamas organization Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) in Virginia.
While working at the CAIR MD/VA office, Chris uncovered a fraud scheme being perpetrated by CAIR’s “immigration attorney” who was defrauding Muslims in the community and lying about handling their immigration proceedings. In fact, he was not even a licensed attorney. When that office was shut down by CAIR in an effort to conceal this criminal activity, Chris was invited by Hamas/CAIR leaders to work at their headquarters office in Washington, D.C.
During his time there, Chris obtained over 12,000 pages of documents from Hamas/CAIR and over 300 hours of covert audio/video recordings.
The entire story is featured in the book Muslim Mafia authored by investigative journalist Paul Sperry and Dave Gaubatz (Chris’ Father).

          Euro 2016: Best places to watch the football in Dublin   

dublin pubs euro 2016So, Martin O’Neill’s men have done it. The Republic of Ireland WILL compete in next summer’s European Championship in France after they beat Bosnia-Herzegovina in the play-offs. Jon Walters was the star of the second leg as his two goals proved crucial for the Republic and many Irish fans will now be booking their tickets. However, […]

The post Euro 2016: Best places to watch the football in Dublin appeared first on

          La penetrazione jihadista in Bosnia   
da Sarajevo Nei giorni scorsi l’Europol ha pubblicato un rapporto intitolato TESAT (Terrorism Situation and Trend report) incentrato sulla natura e le caratteristiche delle principali minacce alla sicurezza europea. All’interno...
          İndirmeyen Cok Ama Cok uzulur...Bilgisayarda Uydu ile Tv...Gel de Bak   
Millet Yaklasık olarak 3000 kanalı net olarak izleyebildiiniz bu program crackli bir sekilde indirebilmeniz icin cok urastIm ve onunuze sunuYorUm... Asagıda Gormus olduunuz tum ulkelerin kanalları mevcuttur..(Turkıye dahil =) ) Download Linki: Satelite_Tv_Elite_Upload_By_Matt-in.rar.html yada Satellite_TV_For_PC_2006_Elite_Edition.rar ALBANIA ALGERIA ANDORRA ARGENTINA AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA BELARUS BELGIUM BOLIVIA BOSNIA BRAZIL CANADA CHILE CHINA COLOMBIA COSTA ...
          Croatia wasn't aggressor in Bosnia, says retired general   

Croatia only protected its national interests during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and its goal was neither military aggression nor annexation of its territory, retired general Pavao Miljavac said on Thursday.

          -Krig er ikke noe for kvinner!   
Romfolkets pinsevekkelse Over hele Europa slutter romfolket opp om pinsekirken. Men hvorfor akkurat karismatisk kristendom? - Krig er ikke noe for kvinner!, sier den avtroppende Generaladvokaten, som er skeptisk til kvinnelig verneplikt og må stille «på linja» i Verdibørsen foran hun som har kriget i Bosnia og i Afghanistan og i dag er sjef på Krigsskolen. Hva er buddhisme? Verden endres, og i land som blir ledende for utviklingen framover, er buddhismen viktig både for økonomi ,politikk og kultur.
          HIGHLIGHTS: Primi segni di saturazione nelle foreste Europee sink di carbonio.   
Titolo originale: First signs of carbon sink saturation in European forest biomass Autori: Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Marcus Lindner, Pieter J. Verkerk et al. Rivista: Nature Climate Change (2013), Perspective doi: 10.1038/nclimate1853 In questo articolo gli autori sottolineano i primi segni di saturazione delle foreste europee sink carbonio. Lo studio è stato condotto su popolamenti forestali degli stati dell’UE (eccetto Romania, Irlanda e Malta), incluse Norvegia, Svizzera, Albania, Serbia e Bosnia. Il lavoro pone l’accento su tre punti allarmanti: i) la riduzione degli incrementi volumetrici (13 milioni di m3 in meno su 178 milioni di ettari di popolamenti forestali); ii) l’aumento della deforestazione; iii) i disturbi naturali ed antropogenici. Le attuali …
          Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: Bosnian Pyramids, New Discoveries, Universe Communications, Dr. Osmanagich, Pt. 2   
EpisodePart 2: Dr. Osmanagich, or Dr. Sam, joins the program to share the latest findings and discoveries in Bosnia. The Bosnian Pyramids are the largest known pyramids in the world. Dr. Sam's project is the ONLY transparent and completely open Pyramid project to the worlds scientists and tourists. Scientists are able to learn and share findings as they occur. It's an amazing project that the world should treasure.   See more at
          Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: Bosnian Pyramids, New Discoveries, Universe Communications, Dr. Osmanagich,   
EpisodeDr. Osmanagich, or Dr. Sam, joins the program to share the latest findings and discoveries in Bosnia. The Bosnian Pyramids are the largest known pyramids in the world. Dr. Sam's project is the ONLY transparent and completely open Pyramid project to the worlds scientists and tourists. Scientists are able to learn and share findings as they occur. It's an amazing project that the world should treasure.
          Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: Did Advanced Civilizations Exist Thousands of Years Earlier than Current History Suggests?   
EpisodeHuman History Paradigm Shift? Bosnian Pyramids Proving Advanced Civilizations Existed at Least 34,000 Years Ago The current tale of human history as described in our textbooks and schools is being challenged by a group of archeologists and scientists all over the world. It has long been argued that the great pyramids of Giza, the ancient buildings in Peru, and other amazing structures all over the world hold clues of advanced civilizations existing in our past long before conventional histo ...
          Everyday Miracles with Candace McLean: Do Miracles Really Exist with Randall Sullivan from "Miracle Detectives" on The Oprah Winfrey Network   
GuestDo miracles really exist? Or is there a logical explanation to the seemingly inexplicable? Believer, Randall Sullivan has traveled the globe to uncover answers to mysterious incidents that transcend logic in Miracle Detectives, a new one hour documentary series for OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network.Randall Sullivan is an author and journalist who, while traveling as a war correspondent in Bosnia, saw an inexplicable vision during a violent thunder and lightning storm. He is convinced it was a mirac ...
          Arte sobre las instituciones del arte en el MNAV   
_Témpano. El problema de lo institucional. Cruces entre Europa del Este y el Río de la Plata_ se titula la muestra del Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Montevideo (Macmo) que se encuentra en el Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales (MNAV) hasta el 30 de julio. La exposición reúne un conjunto de obras que pueden englobarse bajo el género de “crítica institucional”, es decir, arte que se dedica a criticar las instituciones del arte; a disputar la política interna del mundo de la creación, circulación y venta del arte. “Como se sabe, sólo un porcentaje mínimo de la masa de un témpano es visible sobre la superficie del agua: la mayor parte está sumergida”. _Témpano_ se ocupa de las instituciones artísticas buscando, mediante diversas estrategias y métodos, “revelar lo que se oculta, nombrar lo que se silencia, demostrar lo contingente, histórico e interesado de aquello que se da por sentado, inmutable y sin ideología”, dice el desplegable de la exposición. El témpano es, entonces, una metáfora de las instituciones, pero también de las prácticas artísticas, las relaciones y condiciones de producción en ese terreno. Acompañando el carácter autorreflexivo que signa los campos y disciplinas en la posmodernidad, la crítica institucional pone de manifiesto que el mundo del arte está en disputa, y que en esa batalla se juegan no sólo aspectos simbólicos, sino también económicos, políticos, ideológicos, nacionales e internacionales. El tema es una de las obsesiones del Macmo –que se define como un “espacio de ensayos provisorios de modelos, estrategias y formas de pensar en torno al arte contemporáneo”– y de sus impulsoras, Agustina Rodríguez y Eugenia González, conocidas por ser creadoras de la obra _Variables_, que, saboteando el proceso de selección de jurados para el Premio Nacional de Artes Visuales –González se hizo elegir como jurado por artistas/obras inexistentes– sacudió la empantuflada escena del arte uruguayo en 2010. Por ese entonces, ambas ya ponían en tensión los procesos por los que debe pasar un artista para ser incluido en el mundo del arte, así como los abusos e intereses institucionales que la mayoría de las veces quedan debajo del agua. Desde su inauguración en 2014, el Macmo ha explorado diferentes modos de poner en cuestión las lógicas de producción artística y reproducción cultural, como en el caso del laboratorio _[El museo es una escuela]( "")_ o del intento –poco exitoso, dado el silencio absoluto que se cernió sobre su convocatoria– de emular en Uruguay el proyecto de ArtLeaks, consistente en crear un [banco de denuncias de abusos institucionales en el mundo del arte]( ""). “El iceberg flota y viaja y se estanca, se derrite y se despedaza, choca contra otros témpanos, con los continentes e islas y con diversos objetos flotantes. Su tamaño cambia, y también su peligrosidad para las embarcaciones, que desarrollan técnicas para no correr la misma suerte del _Titanic_. Así, las prácticas artísticas que abordan las instituciones en sí mismas y su institucionalidad, y por tanto, sus relaciones con la creación artística, con la industria cultural, el mercado, el poder político, la economía, la ideología, las transformaciones sociales y las historias del arte, se desarrollan en determinado tiempo y lugar; son efectivas o inútiles; rasguñan, dañan o hunden las instituciones; son destruidas o evitadas por ellas; pierden eficacia, se paralizan, son sustituidas por otras; siguen determinados patrones, modelos y tipologías. Las instituciones se adaptan a ellas, las fagocitan y las utilizan para actualizarse y transformarse”. Así como hay política sobre la política, filosofía sobre la filosofía, ciencia sobre la ciencia, hay arte sobre el arte. Las obras exhibidas en _Témpano_ tienen en cuenta dos mapas: el temático, ya mencionado, y el geográfico, ya que la propuesta busca replicar en el Río de la Plata la investigación _Inside Out - Not So White Cube_ (Del revés - Cubo no tan blanco) de Alenka Gregori , curadora eslovena, y Suzana Milevska, teórica del arte macedonia. Se encuentran así artistas de Europa Central y del Este –donde vive Francisco Tomsich, uno de los curadores de la muestra e integrante del Macmo– con otros rioplatenses, mostrando que, aunque hay especificidades locales, también hay problemas globales que reúnen las preocupaciones de creadores en diversos países de la ex Yugoslavia –Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croacia, Eslovenia, Macedonia, Serbia– y otros ex integrantes del “bloque socialista” –Bulgaria, Rumania– pero también en Austria, Argentina y Uruguay. Los artistas y grupos que integran la muestra son ArtLeaks, Azra Akšamija, Aldo Baroffio y Soledad Bettoni, Carlos Capelán, Graciela Carnevale, Andreas Fogarasi, Liljana Gjuzelova y Sašo Stanojkovik, Hungry Artists Foundation, Jusuf Hadžifejzovi , Lea Lublin, Dalibor Martinis, Paula Massarutti, Ivan Moudov, Dan Perjovschi, Lia Perjovschi, Tadej Poga ar, Mariana Telleria, Pablo Uribe y Leonello Zambon. Aunque hay algunos contemporáneos, especialmente los rioplatenses, la mayoría de las obras fueron creadas en los años 70, y esto habla no sólo del carácter histórico de esta vertiente estético-política, sino también del singular contexto en el que surgió (en plena Guerra Fría y cuando en ambos bandos se intensificaban los conflictos internos). Quizá la necesidad de criticar al arte se agudiza en los lugares y momentos en los que también se siente la urgencia de criticar y denunciar sus contextos. Y quizá empezar hablando del mundo propio sea una vía para hablar del mundo. La crítica institucional mezcla un arte de ideas y una desesperación del arte por tocar la vida, o por mostrar el modo en que la vida y sus agentes perforan todo el tiempo al arte. No busca la belleza estética o la innovación técnica, sino denunciar situaciones relacionadas con la automatización en que han entrado las formas de producción y exhibición del arte, sus economías especulativas y sus modos capitalistas de moverse, la sumisión y los egos en juego, y las políticas culturales y curatoriales que pasan lejos de la consideración de las obras. En la muestra –curada por el equipo del Macmo con la colaboración de Laura Outeda, May Puchet, Mauricio Rodríguez y Cecilia Sánchez– pueden verse obras en las que los creadores han decidido colgar sus cuadros mirando a la pared, encerrar al público en la sala de exposición, o criticar –habiendo sido elegidos– los criterios de selección de una muestra, o a la institución que las acoge; muestras que esconden dinero entre las obras que luego venden para recuperarlo, y obras cuya observación el propio artista, vestido de guardia, se dedica a obstaculizar; arte que visita las miserias del arte, o que hace visibles a los trabajadores detrás de las exposiciones; obras que parasitan otras obras, cubren de negro un museo, cuentan historias o archivan diálogos como si fueran obras; bibliografías mostradas como obras. ¿Puede el arte criticar al arte desde dentro? Mientras _Témpano_ lo intenta desde el corazón de la institucionalidad artística uruguaya –nada menos que el MNAV– recuerdo la provocación del teórico de la danza Ramsay Burt, quien señala: “Los ataques vanguardistas al arte son ataques a la única institución sobre la cual los artistas tienen alguna influencia”. Puede ser que eso tenga algo de cierto y que estas tentativas sean comidas por el circuito de consumo, poder y mercantilización que domina el arte y sus actuales procesos de inclusión/exclusión. El riesgo existe, y también la apuesta a despertar en los visitantes –y por qué no, en los directores– de museos ciertas inquietudes respecto de la pretensión de neutralidad ideológica o política del arte contemporáneo. Quizá. Al igual que el capitalismo, el mundo del arte devora todo lo que pretende atacarlo. Lo cierto es que después de toda ingesta viene el momento de la digestión, y es entonces que muestras como esta pueden patearle el hígado.
          Nuevas proyecciones en el Festival de Cine de Karlovy Vary   
El Festival Internacional de Cine de Karlovy Vary prosigue este sábado con 52 proyecciones, durante las que los espectadores pueden seguir un filme de coproducción ruso-alemano-finlandesa u otro de Bosnia y Hercegovina, por ejemplo. También se proyectó una versión digitalizada de la famosa película checa…
          ¿Por qué Diosas?   
Salvo excepciones, las mujeres del este de Europa (generalmente de raza eslava, mezcla entre europeo y asiático) son bellísimas, altas, esbeltas, piernas de escándalo, excelentes amantes... perfectas para adorar.
Este blog irá dedicado a ellas, a las mejores mujeres del mundo, las del este de Europa
Son Diosas porque son mujeres muy femeninas y de una belleza extraordinaria además de cultas y grandes amantes, son mujeres dulces, comprometidas, luchadoras, amantes del teatro y la literatura... Hoy en día, tras la caída del regimen soviético, tenemos la suerte de verlas pasear por nuestras calles, tenemos la posibilidad de conocer a alguna y de que se convierta en nuestra esposa/compañera. Tratándola y mimándola como se merecen (están acostumbradas a la frialdad y rudeza del hombre eslavo) seremos los hombres más felices del mundo.
En este blog iré recogiendo las fotografias de las mujeres del este de Europa más famosas y bellas del panorama internacional.

(haz click en las imágenes para verlas a tamaño completo)

Países que son parte de la llamada Europa del este

República Checa, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, Croacia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Moldavia, Hungria, Ucrania, Bielorusia, Polonia, Lituania, Letonia, Estonia, y la Federación Rusa

          Supreme Court Overturns Lower Court On Grounds For Stripping U.S. Citizenship   
A naturalized U.S. citizen should not have been stripped of her citizenship for the sole reason that she lied to U.S. officials, the Supreme Court ruled Thursday, vacating a lower court's decision. The plaintiff, an ethnic Serb who entered the U.S. as a refugee, had argued that false answers she gave to immigration officials were immaterial to procuring citizenship. "We have never read a statute to strip citizenship from someone who met the legal criteria for acquiring it," Justice Elena Kagan wrote in the court's opinion. "We will not start now." The case centers on Divna Maslenjak, who entered the U.S. in 2000 as a refugee along with her husband and their two children. Maslenjak became a naturalized citizen in 2007 — but around the same time, she was found to have lied to U.S. officials when she said her husband had not participated in Bosnia's civil war. In fact, he served in a brigade that was involved in the notorious Srebrenica massacre of Bosnian Muslims in 1995. During the


What lay behind Russia’s interference in the 2016 election—and what lies ahead?

By Evan Osnos, David Remnick, and Joshua Yaffa



The D.N.C. hacks, many analysts believe, were just a skirmish in a larger war against Western institutions and alliances.ILLUSTRATION BY CHRISTOPH NIEMANN


On April 12, 1982, Yuri Andropov, the chairman of the K.G.B., ordered foreign-intelligence operatives to carry out “active measures”—aktivniye meropriyatiya—against the reëlection campaign of President Ronald Reagan. Unlike classic espionage, which involves the collection of foreign secrets, active measures aim at influencing events—at undermining a rival power with forgeries, front groups, and countless other techniques honed during the Cold War. The Soviet leadership considered Reagan an implacable militarist. According to extensive notes made by Vasili Mitrokhin, a high-ranking K.G.B. officer and archivist who later defected to Great Britain, Soviet intelligence tried to infiltrate the headquarters of the Republican and Democratic National Committees, popularize the slogan “Reagan Means War!,” and discredit the President as a corrupt servant of the military-industrial complex. The effort had no evident effect. Reagan won forty-nine of fifty states.

Active measures were used by both sides throughout the Cold War. In the nineteen-sixties, Soviet intelligence officers spread a rumor that the U.S. government was involved in the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. In the eighties, they spread the rumor that American intelligence had “created” the aids virus, at Fort Detrick, Maryland. They regularly lent support to leftist parties and insurgencies. The C.I.A., for its part, worked to overthrow regimes in Iran, Cuba, Haiti, Brazil, Chile, and Panama. It used cash payments, propaganda, and sometimes violent measures to sway elections away from leftist parties in Italy, Guatemala, Indonesia, South Vietnam, and Nicaragua. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the early nineties, the C.I.A. asked Russia to abandon active measures to spread disinformation that could harm the U.S. Russia promised to do so. But when Sergey Tretyakov, the station chief for Russian intelligence in New York, defected, in 2000, he revealed that Moscow’s active measures had never subsided. “Nothing has changed,” he wrote, in 2008. “Russia is doing everything it can today to embarrass the U.S.”

Vladimir Putin, who is quick to accuse the West of hypocrisy, frequently points to this history. He sees a straight line from the West’s support of the anti-Moscow “color revolutions,” in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Ukraine, which deposed corrupt, Soviet-era leaders, to its endorsement of the uprisings of the Arab Spring. Five years ago, he blamed Secretary of State Hillary Clinton for the anti-Kremlin protests in Moscow’s Bolotnaya Square. “She set the tone for some of our actors in the country and gave the signal,” Putin said. “They heard this and, with the support of the U.S. State Department, began active work.” (No evidence was provided for the accusation.) He considers nongovernmental agencies and civil-society groups like the National Endowment for Democracy, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and the election-monitoring group Golos to be barely disguised instruments of regime change.


The U.S. officials who administer the system that Putin sees as such an existential danger to his own reject his rhetoric as “whataboutism,” a strategy of false moral equivalences. Benjamin Rhodes, a deputy national-security adviser under President Obama, is among those who reject Putin’s logic, but he said, “Putin is not entirely wrong,” adding that, in the past, “we engaged in regime change around the world. There is just enough rope for him to hang us.”*

The 2016 Presidential campaign in the United States was of keen interest to Putin. He loathed Obama, who had applied economic sanctions against Putin’s cronies after the annexation of Crimea and the invasion of eastern Ukraine. (Russian state television derided Obama as “weak,” “uncivilized,” and a “eunuch.”) Clinton, in Putin’s view, was worse—the embodiment of the liberal interventionist strain of U.S. foreign policy, more hawkish than Obama, and an obstacle to ending sanctions and reëstablishing Russian geopolitical influence. At the same time, Putin deftly flattered Trump, who was uncommonly positive in his statements about Putin’s strength and effectiveness as a leader. As early as 2007, Trump declared that Putin was “doing a great job in rebuilding the image of Russia and also rebuilding Russia period.” In 2013, before visiting Moscow for the Miss Universe pageant, Trump wondered, in a tweet, if he would meet Putin, and, “if so, will he become my new best friend?” During the Presidential campaign, Trump delighted in saying that Putin was a superior leader who had turned the Obama Administration into a “laughingstock.”

For those interested in active measures, the digital age presented opportunities far more alluring than anything available in the era of Andropov. The Democratic and Republican National Committees offered what cybersecurity experts call a large “attack surface.” Tied into politics at the highest level, they were nonetheless unprotected by the defenses afforded to sensitive government institutions. John Podesta, the chairman of Hillary Clinton’s campaign and a former chief of staff of Bill Clinton’s, had every reason to be aware of the fragile nature of modern communications. As a senior counsellor in the Obama White House, he was involved in digital policy. Yet even he had not bothered to use the most elementary sort of defense, two-step verification, for his e-mail account.

“The honest answer is that my team and I were over-reliant on the fact that we were pretty careful about what we click on,” Podesta said. In this instance, he received a phishing e-mail, ostensibly from “the Gmail team,” that urged him to “change your password immediately.” An I.T. person who was asked to verify it mistakenly replied that it was “a legitimate e-mail.”

The American political landscape also offered a particularly soft target for dezinformatsiya, false information intended to discredit the official version of events, or the very notion of reliable truth. Americans were more divided along ideological lines than at any point in two decades, according to the Pew Research Center. American trust in the mainstream media had fallen to a historic low. The fractured media environment seemed to spawn conspiracy theories about everything from Barack Obama’s place of birth (supposedly Kenya) to the origins of climate change (a Chinese hoax). Trump, in building his political identity, promoted such theories.

“Free societies are often split because people have their own views, and that’s what former Soviet and current Russian intelligence tries to take advantage of,” Oleg Kalugin, a former K.G.B. general, who has lived in the United States since 1995, said. “The goal is to deepen the splits.” Such a strategy is especially valuable when a country like Russia, which is considerably weaker than it was at the height of the Soviet era, is waging a geopolitical struggle with a stronger entity.

In early January, two weeks before the Inauguration, James Clapper, the director of national intelligence, released a declassified report concluding that Putin had ordered an influence campaign to harm Clinton’s election prospects, fortify Donald Trump’s, and “undermine public faith in the U.S. democratic process.” The declassified report provides more assertion than evidence. Intelligence officers say that this was necessary to protect their information-gathering methods.

Critics of the report have repeatedly noted that intelligence agencies, in the months before the Iraq War, endorsed faulty assessments concerning weapons of mass destruction. But the intelligence community was deeply divided over the actual extent of Iraq’s weapons development; the question of Russia’s responsibility for cyberattacks in the 2016 election has produced no such tumult. Seventeen federal intelligence agencies have agreed that Russia was responsible for the hacking.

In testimony before the Senate, Clapper described an unprecedented Russian effort to interfere in the U.S. electoral process. The operation involved hacking Democrats’ e-mails, publicizing the stolen contents through WikiLeaks, and manipulating social media to spread “fake news” and pro-Trump messages.

At first, Trump derided the scrutiny of the hacking as a “witch hunt,” and said that the attacks could have been from anyone—the Russians, the Chinese, or “somebody sitting on their bed that weighs four hundred pounds.” In the end, he grudgingly accepted the finding, but insisted that Russian interference had had “absolutely no effect on the outcome of the election.” Yevgenia Albats, the author of “The State Within a State,” a book about the K.G.B., said that Putin probably didn’t believe he could alter the results of the election, but, because of his antipathy toward Obama and Clinton, he did what he could to boost Trump’s cause and undermine America’s confidence in its political system. Putin was not interested in keeping the operation covert, Albats said. “He wanted to make it as public as possible. He wanted his presence to be known,” and to “show that, no matter what, we can enter your house and do what we want.”


2. COLD WAR 2.0

Remarkably, the Obama Administration learned of the hacking operation only in early summer—nine months after the F.B.I. first contacted the D.N.C. about the intrusion—and then was reluctant to act too strongly, for fear of being seen as partisan. Leaders of the Pentagon, the State Department, and the intelligence agencies met during the summer, but their focus was on how to safeguard state election commissions and electoral systems against a hack on Election Day.

That caution has embittered Clinton’s inner circle. “We understand the bind they were in,” one of Clinton’s senior advisers said. “But what if Barack Obama had gone to the Oval Office, or the East Room of the White House, and said, ‘I’m speaking to you tonight to inform you that the United States is under attack. The Russian government at the highest levels is trying to influence our most precious asset, our democracy, and I’m not going to let it happen.’ A large majority of Americans would have sat up and taken notice. My attitude is that we don’t have the right to lay blame for the results of this election at anybody’s feet, but, to me, it is bewildering—it is baffling—it is hard to make sense of why this was not a five-alarm fire in the White House.”

The Obama circle, which criticizes Clinton’s team for failing to lock down seemingly solid states like Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, insists that the White House acted appropriately. “What could we have done?” Benjamin Rhodes said. “We said they were doing it, so everybody had the basis to know that all the WikiLeaks material and the fake news were tied to Russia. There was no action we could have taken to stop the e-mails or the fake news from being propagated. . . . All we could do was expose it.”

Last September, at a G-20 summit, in China, Obama confronted Putin about the hacking, telling him to “cut it out,” and, above all, to keep away from the balloting in November, or there would be “serious consequences.” Putin neither denied nor confirmed the hacking efforts, but replied that the United States has long funded media outlets and civil-society groups that meddle in Russian affairs.


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In October, as evidence of Russian meddling mounted, senior national-security officials met to consider a plan of response; proposals included releasing damaging information about Russian officials, including their bank accounts, or a cyber operation directed at Moscow. Secretary of State John Kerry was concerned that such plans might undercut diplomatic efforts to get Russia to coöperate with the West in Syria—efforts that eventually failed. In the end, security officials unanimously agreed to take a measured approach: the Administration issued a statement, on October 7th, declaring it was confident that the Russians had hacked the D.N.C. The Administration did not want to overreact in a way that could seem political and amplify Trump’s message that the vote was rigged.

The White House watched for signs that Russian intelligence was crossing what a senior national-security official called “the line between covert influence and adversely affecting the vote count”—and found no evidence that it had done so. At the time, Clinton was leading in the race, which, the official said, reinforced Obama’s decision not to respond more aggressively. “If we have a very forceful response, it actually helps delegitimize the election.”

That sense of caution continued during the transition, when Obama was intent on an orderly transfer of power. Secretary of State Kerry proposed the creation of an independent bipartisan group to investigate Russian interference in the election. It would have been modelled on the 9/11 Commission, a body consisting of five Republicans and five Democrats who interviewed more than twelve hundred people. According to two senior officials, Obama reviewed Kerry’s proposal but ultimately rejected it, in part because he was convinced that Republicans in Congress would regard it as a partisan exercise. One aide who favored the idea says, “It would have gotten the ball rolling, making it difficult for Trump to shut it down. Now it’s a lot harder to make it happen.”

During the transition, officials in the Obama Administration were hearing that Trump was somehow compromised or beholden to Russian interests. “The Russians make investments in people not knowing the exact outcome,” one senior Administration official said. “They obtain leverage on those people, too.” No conclusive evidence has yet emerged for such suspicions about Trump. Another Administration official said that, during the transfer of power, classified intelligence had shown multiple contacts between Trump associates and Russian representatives, but nothing that rose to the level of aiding or coördinating the interference with the election. “We had no clear information—that I was aware of—of collusion,” the official said. That question, however, persists, and will likely be a central focus for congressional investigators.

By Inauguration Day, January 20th, the evidence of a wide-scale Russian operation had prompted the formation of a joint task force, including the C.I.A., the F.B.I., the N.S.A., and the financial-crimes unit of the Treasury Department. Three Senate committees, including the Intelligence Committee, have launched inquiries; some Democrats worry that the Trump Administration will try to stifle these investigations. Although senators on the Intelligence Committee cannot reveal classified information, they have ways of signalling concern. Three weeks after the election, Ron Wyden, an Oregon Democrat, and six other members of the committee sent a public letter to Obama, declaring, “We believe there is additional information concerning the Russian Government and the U.S. election that should be declassified and released to the public.” At a hearing in January, Wyden pushed further. While questioning James Comey, the director of the F.B.I., Wyden cited media reports that some Trump associates had links to Russians who are close to Putin. Wyden asked if Comey would declassify information on that subject and “release it to the American people.” Comey said, “I can’t talk about it.” Wyden’s questioning had served its purpose.

Later, in an interview, Wyden said, “My increasing concern is that classification now is being used much more for political security than for national security. We wanted to get that out before a new Administration took place. I can’t remember seven senators joining a declassification request.” Asked if he suspects that there has been improper contact between the Trump campaign and Russian interests, Wyden said, “I can’t get into that”—without revealing classified information. “But what I can tell you is, I continue to believe, as I have for many months, that there is more that could be declassified.” He added, “When a foreign power interferes with American institutions, you don’t just say, ‘Oh, that’s business as usual,’ and leave it at that. There’s a historical imperative here, too.” After viewing the classified materials, Mark Warner, of Virginia, the ranking Democrat on the Senate Intelligence Committee, said of the Russia investigation, “This may very well be the most important thing I do in my public life.”

Two weeks before the Inauguration, intelligence officers briefed both Obama and Trump about a dossier of unverified allegations compiled by Christopher Steele, a former British intelligence officer. The thirty-five-page dossier, which included claims about Trump’s behavior during a 2013 trip to Moscow, had been shopped around to various media outlets by researchers opposed to Trump’s candidacy. The dossier concluded that Russia had personal and financial material on Trump that could be used as blackmail. It said that the Russians had been “cultivating, supporting, and assisting” Trump for years. According to current and former government officials, prurient details in the dossier generated skepticism among some members of the intelligence community, who, as one put it, regarded it as a “nutty” product to present to a President. But, in the weeks that followed, they confirmed some of its less explosive claims, relating to conversations with foreign nationals. “They are continuing to chase down stuff from the dossier, and, at its core, a lot of it is bearing out,” an intelligence official said. Some officials believe that one reason the Russians compiled information on Trump during his 2013 trip was that he was meeting with Russian oligarchs who might be stashing money abroad—a sign of disloyalty, in Putin’s eyes.

Trump denounced the dossier as a fake. Putin’s spokesman called it “pulp fiction.” But, before the dossier became public, Senator John McCain passed it along to the F.B.I.; later, some of his colleagues said that it should be part of an investigation of Trump. Richard Burr, a Republican from North Carolina and the chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, vowed to investigate “everywhere the intelligence tells us to go.”

For many national-security officials, the e-mail hacks were part of a larger, and deeply troubling, picture: Putin’s desire to damage American confidence and to undermine the Western alliances—diplomatic, financial, and military—that have shaped the postwar world.

Not long before leaving the White House, Benjamin Rhodes said that the Obama Administration was convinced that Putin had gone into an “offensive mode beyond what he sees as his sphere of influence,” setting out to encourage the “breakup” of the European Union, destabilize nato, and unnerve the object of his keenest resentment—the United States. Rhodes said, “The new phase we’re in is that the Russians have moved into an offensive posture that threatens the very international order.” Samantha Power offered a similar warning, shortly before leaving her post as United Nations Ambassador. Russia, she said, was “taking steps that are weakening the rules-based order that we have benefitted from for seven decades.”

For nearly two decades, U.S.-Russian relations have ranged between strained and miserable. Although the two countries have come to agreements on various issues, including trade and arms control, the general picture is grim. Many Russian and American policy experts no longer hesitate to use phrases like “the second Cold War.”

The level of tension has alarmed experienced hands on both sides. “What we have is a situation in which the strong leader of a relatively weak state is acting in opposition to weak leaders of relatively strong states,” General Sir Richard Shirreff, the former Deputy Supreme Allied Commander of nato, said. “And that strong leader is Putin. He is calling the shots at the moment.” Shirreff observes that nato’s withdrawal of military forces from Europe has been answered with incidents of Russian aggression, and with a sizable buildup of forces in the vicinity of the Baltic states, including an aircraft-carrier group dispatched to the North Sea, an expanded deployment of nuclear-capable Iskander-M ballistic missiles, and anti-ship missiles. The Kremlin, for its part, views the expansion of nato to Russia’s borders as itself a provocation, and points to such U.S. measures as the placement of a new ground-based missile-defense system in Deveselu, Romania.

Robert Gates, who was Secretary of Defense under both George W. Bush and Barack Obama, describes relations between Obama and Putin as having been “poisonous” and casts at least some of the blame on Obama; referring to Russia as a “regional power,” as Obama did, was “the equivalent of referring to isis as a J.V. team,” in his view. “I think the new Administration has a big challenge in front of it in terms of stopping the downward spiral in the U.S.-Russia relationship while pushing back against Putin’s aggression and general thuggery,” Gates said. “Every time nato makes a move or Russia makes a move near its border, there is a response. Where does that all stop? So there is a need to stop that downward spiral. The dilemma is how do you do that without handing Putin a victory of huge proportions?”

Some in Moscow are alarmed, too. Dmitry Trenin, a well-connected political and military analyst for the Carnegie Moscow Center, said that in early fall, before Trump’s victory, “we were on a course for a ‘kinetic’ collision in Syria.” He said that the Kremlin expected that, if Clinton won, she would take military action in Syria, perhaps establishing no-fly zones, provoking the rebels to shoot down Russian aircraft, “and getting the Russians to feel it was Afghanistan revisited.” He added, “Then my imagination just left me.”

Not in a generation has the enmity run this deep, according to Sergey Rogov, the academic director of the Institute for U.S. and Canadian Studies, in Moscow. “I spent many years in the trenches of the first Cold War, and I don’t want to die in the trenches of the second,” Rogov said. “We are back to 1983, and I don’t enjoy being thirty-four years younger in this way. It’s frightening.”


Putin’s resentment of the West, and his corresponding ambition to establish an anti-Western conservatism, is rooted in his experience of decline and fall—not of Communist ideology, which was never a central concern of his generation, but, rather, of Russian power and pride. Putin, who was born in 1952, grew up in Leningrad, where, during the Second World War, Nazi troops imposed a nine-hundred-day siege that starved the city. His father was badly wounded in the war. Putin joined the K.G.B. in 1975, when he was twenty-three, and was eventually sent to East Germany.

Posted in one of the grayest of the Soviet satellites, Putin entirely missed the sense of awakening and opportunity that accompanied perestroika, and experienced only the state’s growing fecklessness. At the very moment the Berlin Wall was breached, in November, 1989, he was in the basement of a Soviet diplomatic compound in Dresden feeding top-secret documents into a furnace. As crowds of Germans threatened to break into the building, officers called Moscow for assistance, but, in Putin’s words, “Moscow was silent.”

Putin returned to Russia, where the sense of post-imperial decline persisted. The West no longer feared Soviet power; Eastern and Central Europe were beyond Moscow’s control; and the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union were all going their own way. An empire shaped by Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin was dissolving.


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In Moscow, Western reporters could arrange visits to crumbling nuclear-weapons sites, once secret underground bunkers, and half-empty prison camps. The most forbidding commissars of the Soviet Union—leaders of the K.G.B., the Army, and the Communist Party—failed in an attempt to pull off a counter-revolutionary coup d’état, in August, 1991, and were locked away in a notorious prison called the Sailor’s Rest. Other high-ranking loyalists, refusing the judgment of the new order, administered justice for themselves. The head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, knowing that he was about to be arrested, wrote a note (“I lived honestly all my life”), shot his wife, shoved the barrel of a revolver into his mouth, and pulled the trigger.

For Westerners caught up in post-Cold War triumphalism, it was easier to take note of the new liberties than of the new anxieties, which were profound for millions of Russians. The fall of the imperial state meant the loss of two million square miles of territory, a parcel larger than India. Tens of millions of ethnic Russians now found themselves “abroad.” Amid newfound freedoms of expression, travel, religion, and association, there was also a palpable sense of disorientation, humiliation, and drift.

In speeches and interviews, Putin rarely mentions any sense of liberation after the fall of Communism and the Soviet Union; he recalls the nineteen-nineties as a period of unremitting chaos, in which Western partners tried to force their advantages, demanding that Russia swallow everything from the eastward expansion of nato to the invasion of its Slavic allies in the former Yugoslavia. This is a common narrative, but it ignores some stubborn facts. The West welcomed Russia into the G-8 economic alliance. The violence in the Balkans was the worst in Europe since the end of the Second World War and without intervention would likely have dragged on. And Russian security concerns were hardly the only issue at stake with respect to the expansion of nato; Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other countries in the region were now sovereign and wanted protection.

“It just felt to me grotesquely unfair, if that word can be used in geopolitics, that yet again the Central Europeans were going to be screwed,” Strobe Talbott, Bill Clinton’s leading adviser on Russia and the region, said. “To tell them they had to live in a security limbo because the Russians would have hurt feelings and be frightened just didn’t hold water.” Nevertheless, American politicians did worry about how reordering the economic and security arrangements of Europe would affect a fallen power and would-be partner. Clinton and his advisers were aware that reactionary political forces in Russia—the so-called “red-brown coalition” of diehard Communists and resurgent nationalists—viewed the United States as exploitative and triumphalist and hoped to gain control of the state.

In 1996, during a summit meeting in Moscow, Clinton went for an early-morning run with Talbott in the Sparrow Hills, near Moscow State University. Clinton had known Talbott since they were students at Oxford, and confided his anxiety. He did not regret the expansion of nato or the decision, at last, to battle Serbian forces in Bosnia. But he knew that he was making Yeltsin’s political life excruciatingly difficult.

“We keep telling ol’ Boris, ‘O.K., now, here’s what you’ve got to do next—here’s some more shit for your face,’ ” Clinton told Talbott as they ran. “And that makes it real hard for him, given what he’s up against and who he’s dealing with.”

Earlier that year, Yeltsin had summoned Talbott. “I don’t like it when the U.S. flaunts its superiority,” he told him. “Russia’s difficulties are only temporary, and not only because we have nuclear weapons but also because of our economy, our culture, our spiritual strength. All that amounts to a legitimate, undeniable basis for equal treatment. Russia will rise again! I repeat: Russia will rise again.”

When the 1996 election season began, Yeltsin was polling in the single digits. Much of the country held him responsible for economic measures that seemed to help only those close to Kremlin power. For millions, reform—including the “shock therapy” pushed by Western advisers and politicians—meant a collapse in basic services, hyperinflation, corruption, kleptocratic privatization, and an economic downturn as severe as the Great Depression. Most Russians blamed not the corrosion of the old system but, rather, the corruptions of the new. Demokratiya (democracy) was popularly referred to as dermokratiya (shit-ocracy). Yeltsin, benefitting from the support of both the oligarchs and the International Monetary Fund, managed to eke out a victory against his Communist opponent, but he continued to drink heavily, despite a history of heart attacks, and, in his final years in power, was often a sorry, inebriated spectacle.

On New Year’s Eve, 1999, Yeltsin appeared on national television sitting in front of a Christmas tree. Looking blocky and moribund, he said that he was resigning. “I am sorry that many of our dreams failed to come true,” he said. “I am sorry that I did not live up to the hopes of people who believed that we could, with a single effort, a single strong push, jump out of the gray, stagnant, totalitarian past and into a bright, wealthy, civilized future. I used to believe that myself.”

A man who had resisted a coup eight years earlier no longer had the endurance for office or the political imagination to advance the cause. “I have done all I could,” he said. “A new generation is coming.” With that, he appointed as his successor Vladimir Putin, a relatively obscure intelligence agent who had been accelerated through the ranks because he had proved himself disciplined, shrewd, and, above all, loyal to his bosses.

One of Putin’s first decrees was to protect Yeltsin from future prosecution. Then he set out to stabilize the country and put it on a course of traditional Russian autocracy. “As Yeltsin started to withdraw, the old system reconsolidated, and Putin finalized this regression,” Andrei Kozyrev, the foreign minister between 1990 and 1996, said. “The fundamental problem was an inability to complete the economic and political reforms, and so we slipped back into confrontation with the West and nato.”

Putin revealed his distrust for an open system almost immediately. He saw a state that had become barely functional, and he set about restoring its authority the only way he knew how: manually, and from the top. He replaced the freewheeling anarchy of Yeltsin’s rule with something more systematized, casting aside or coöpting the oligarchs of the nineteen-nineties and elevating a cast of corrupt satraps loyal to him—an arrangement that became known as Kremlin, Inc. Every aspect of the country’s political life, including the media, was brought under the “vertical of power” that he constructed. When Yeltsin held office, privately owned television stations, such as NTV, reported on the horrific war in Chechnya and even satirized Yeltsin and other Kremlin leaders on a puppet show called “Kukly.” NTV, which was owned by an oligarch named Vladimir Gusinsky, seemed to test Putin in the beginning, airing discussions about corruption and human-rights abuses; “Kukly” added a puppet depicting the new President. Putin was not amused. Within five months of taking power, he dispatched armed Interior Ministry troops to raid Gusinsky’s headquarters; by 2001, Gusinsky had been forced to give up NTV to more obedient owners and had fled the country. Ever since, television has been under strict federal control.

Putin, in his first few years in office, was relatively solicitous of the West. He was the first foreign leader to call George W. Bush after the destruction of the World Trade Center towers. When he spoke at the Bundestag, later that month, he addressed its members in German, the language that he had spoken as a K.G.B. agent in Dresden. He even entertained the notion of Russian membership in nato.

America’s invasion of Iraq, which Putin opposed, marked a change in his thinking. Bush had made some progress with him on bilateral issues such as nuclear-arms proliferation, but by 2007 Putin had grown deeply disenchanted and came to feel that the West was treating Russia as a “vassal.” Robert Gates recalls a security conference, in Munich, in 2007, at which Putin angrily charged that the United States had “overstepped its national borders in every area” and that the expansion of nato was directed against Russian interests. “People were inclined to pass it off as a one-off,” Gates said. “But it was a harbinger.”

For Putin, it was a story of misplaced hopes and rejection: he became convinced that, no matter how accommodating he might try to be, Western powers—the United States, above all—had an innate disinclination to treat Russia as a full partner and a respected member of the international order. At home, Putin was increasingly drawn to an authoritarian, nationalist conception of the Russian state. He knew that the fall of Communism and Soviet power had left a vacuum—the lack of a “national idea” to replace Marxism-Leninism. When Putin returned to the Presidency for a third term, in 2012, he felt the need to develop a Russian ideology of his own, and called on currents that run deep in Russian political culture: nationalism, xenophobia, and social conservatism. When, four years ago, Putin endorsed anti-gay legislation, for instance, he was playing to entrenched conservative prejudices that predate Soviet Communism—perhaps not for Western-oriented intellectuals and the urban middle class but for many millions of others.

Putin was hardly surprised by the liberal umbrage voiced by the Obama Administration and other Western governments. That confrontation was the point, a means of cementing his authority at home by playing up the notion of an encircled, perpetually menaced Russian state. Although Putin grew up under Soviet atheism, he nonetheless decried secular Americans and Europeans for “rejecting their roots, including the Christian values that constitute the basis of Western civilization.” His conservatism, he insisted, “prevents movement backward and downward, into chaotic darkness and a return to a primitive state.”

He was alarmed by the Obama Administration’s embrace of the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. And he was infuriated by the U.S.-led assault on Muammar Qaddafi’s regime. In early 2011, as Libyans challenged Qaddafi, Putin was ostensibly offstage, serving as Prime Minister; his protégé Dmitry Medvedev was President, and made a crucial decision not to veto an American-backed U.N. Security Council resolution in favor of military action in Libya. In a rare public split, Putin condemned the decision, comparing the resolution to a “medieval call to the crusades.” In October, 2011, a crowd of Libyans found Qaddafi hiding in a culvert with a gold-plated 9-mm. pistol, dragged him out, and killed him—a gruesome event that was broadcast worldwide. From Putin’s perspective, this was a case study in Western intervention: stir up protests, give them rhetorical support and diplomatic cover, and, if that doesn’t work, send in the fighter jets. The epilogue comes in the form of uncontrollable violence and an inglorious end for the country’s leader. According to Mikhail Zygar, the former editor-in-chief of the independent Internet station TV Rain and the author of “All the Kremlin’s Men,” Putin absorbed the death of Qaddafi as an object lesson: weakness and compromise were impermissible. “When he was a pariah, no one touched him,” Zygar wrote. “But as soon as he opened up he was not only overthrown but killed in the street like a mangy old cur.”


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Putin also regarded the anti-Kremlin, pro-democracy demonstrations in Moscow, which started in 2011, as a rehearsal for an uprising that had to be thwarted. Together with the upheavals abroad, they compounded his grievances against the West. Obama’s national-security adviser at the time, Tom Donilon, observed that Putin’s concerns were then focussed on domestic political stability and perceived foreign threats to it. He was convinced that “there were efforts under way to undermine his regime,” Donilon said. “From the outset of his second run as President, in my judgment, he was bringing Russia to a posture of pretty active hostility toward the United States and the West.” In September, 2013, after Putin declined requests to turn over Edward Snowden, Obama cancelled a planned summit in Moscow. “The communication really broke after that,” Donilon said. He saw Putin steadily remove non-intelligence personnel from his orbit. “In sharp contrast to the Chinese situation, there’s not a Russian national-security ‘system,’ ” he said. “He works with a very small group of individuals, namely, former K.G.B. and F.S.B. people.”

Dissent has now been effectively marginalized. Opposition candidates are frequently kept off the ballot on legal technicalities, and, when they do make it on, they are denied media coverage, let alone the “administrative resources” enjoyed by pro-Kremlin politicians. Some thirty journalists have been murdered in Russia in the past decade and a half; human-rights groups that receive funding from abroad are registered in Moscow as “foreign agents.” And contemporary Russian television is not only compliant but celebratory. “Imagine you have two dozen TV channels and it is all Fox News,” Vladimir Milov, a former deputy energy minister under Putin and now a critic, said.

Yet those channels bear little resemblance to the dreary Soviet broadcasts with their stilted language and shabby production values. Just as Putin no longer fills prison camps with countless “enemies of the people,” as Stalin did, but, rather, makes a chilling example of a famous few, like the businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky or the group Pussy Riot, his propagandists have taken their cue from foreign forms: magazine shows, shout-fests, game shows, and reality shows. There are many figures in public life who are not permitted to appear on any talk show or news program. Russians can still find independent information on Facebook and various Web sites; critical books and magazines are available in stores and online; Echo of Moscow, a liberal radio station, hangs on. But, even in the Internet era, more than eighty per cent of Russians get their news from television. Manipulation of TV coverage is a crucial factor in Putin’s extraordinarily high popularity ratings, typically in excess of eighty per cent—ratings that Donald Trump both admires and envies.

In October, 2012, on the occasion of Putin’s sixtieth birthday, Dmitry Kiselyov, the host of “News of the Week,” a favorite TV show of Putin’s, delivered a long encomium to the President: “In terms of the scope of his activities, Putin can be compared to only one of his predecessors in the twentieth century—Stalin.” NTV aired a documentary, “Visiting Putin,” that sent a broadcaster to his office and his house on the outskirts of Moscow. Although well-informed critics have said that Putin is worth tens of billions of dollars and has twenty residences at his disposal, the program portrayed him as a near-ascetic, who wakes at eight-thirty, lifts weights, swims long distances, eats a modest breakfast (beet juice, porridge, raw quail eggs), and works deep into the night.

“All these TV genres emphasize the stature of Putin, as being above everybody and everything—not just the ultimate boss but the embodiment of Russian statehood,” Masha Lipman, the editor of the journal Counterpoint, said. The most important political space is not the grounds of the Kremlin. It is the space within the President’s skull.

“A well-known person once said, ‘You can get much farther with a kind word and a Smith & Wesson than you can with just a kind word,’ ” Putin says in “President,” a long documentary that aired on state television in 2015. “Unfortunately, he was right.” Later in the documentary, the host asks Putin if he thinks that the West fears Russia, because a “once failing state” is now “suddenly a powerful political player.” He calls Putin “the leader, if I may say, of the conservative part of both European and American society.”

Putin accepts both premises. “The so-called establishment, the political and economic élites of these countries, they like us only when we are poor and standing there with a beggar’s bowl,” he says. “As soon as we start talking about our interests and they start feeling some element of geopolitical competition, well, they don’t like that.”

In February, 2014, hours after President Victor Yanukovych of Ukraine, weakened by months of protests, fled Kiev, Putin made the decision to invade Crimea. He feared that Ukraine would turn its back on Russia and gravitate toward Europe. It was a way for Putin to signal, loudly and rudely, that he was finished going along with the Western-led order. It was personal as well. Michael Morell, a former deputy director of the C.I.A., said that the fall of Yanukovych led Putin to worry about his own power and well-being. “It happened in the heart of the Slavic world, and he could not allow it to become a precedent for a similar movement in Russia against him,” Morell said. “He had to crush it.”

Putin and members of his circle also saw the Syrian civil war as an opportunity to halt a trend that had started with the invasion of Iraq and continued through the downfall of dictators in Egypt and Libya. A former senior U.S. official who has interacted with Russians said, “There was this period of time when the United States, in Putin’s view, was able to use international institutions to take on regimes that we found offensive, right through Libya, and Putin was determined to put a stake in the ground in Syria, to have Russia be at the table, and be able to resist the international community’s efforts to continue this pattern of conduct.” As Russia’s Defense Minister, Sergey Shoigu, remarked last month, Russia’s intervention in Syria “helped solve the geopolitical task of breaking the chain of ‘color revolutions.’ ” Russian television, of course, covered the siege of Aleppo as an enlightened act of liberation, free of any brutality or abuses.

In the United States, the issue of what to do about Russia was a growing point of contention between the Pentagon and the White House. Ukraine’s government wanted advanced weaponry to help battle Russian-backed rebels. Evelyn Farkas, the Pentagon’s most senior policy officer for Russia, strongly supported the request; Obama and others on his national-security team turned it down. Instead, the U.S. provided “nonlethal” aid, including vehicles, radar, and body armor. In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, in 2014, Farkas argued for greater American force, calling Russia’s actions “an affront to the international order that we and our allies have worked to build since the end of the Cold War.”

The Administration believed, with considerable justification, that escalating the conflict would provoke retaliation from Russia, push Putin into a corner, and—since Putin would never let the rebels suffer a battlefield defeat—prove costly for Ukraine. But Farkas disagreed: “We just ignore everything the Russians do in Ukraine because, well, that’s Ukraine and the stakes are so high for Russia there. They wouldn’t risk it in the U.S.” Finally, she gave up trying to convince Obama. “I was so done,” she said. “I was so tired of fighting.” She resigned in October, 2015, and eventually became a foreign-policy adviser to Hillary Clinton, who had sometimes favored the use of military force when Obama did not. “The crazy thing was, when I joined the Clinton campaign, I was, like, Great, I’m not going to have to fight anymore, because she got it on Russia,” Farkas said. “Then it just got worse.”

General Valery Gerasimov was an exponent of Moscow’s “hybrid war” strategy.


Putin rarely uses a computer, but he has moved his country into the digital age. Russia was once a technological laggard: the Soviets did not connect to the global Internet until 1990, and the state security services were so befuddled by the technology that, according to “The Red Web,” by Andrei Soldatov and Irina Borogan, agents demanded that Relcom, Russia’s first commercial Internet Service Provider, print out every communication that crossed its network. (Engineers rebelled, and the order was abandoned.) By 1996, however, a new generation of hackers in Russia had achieved the first state-directed penetration of America’s military network, pilfering tens of thousands of files, including military-hardware designs, maps of military installations, and troop configurations. In 2008, according to “Dark Territory,” a history of cyberwar by Fred Kaplan, Russian hackers accomplished a feat that Pentagon officials considered almost impossible: breaching a classified network that wasn’t even connected to the public Internet. Apparently, Russian spies had supplied cheap thumb drives, stocked with viruses, to retail kiosks near natoheadquarters in Kabul, betting, correctly, that a U.S. serviceman or woman would buy one and insert it into a secure computer. In the past decade, cyber tactics have become an essential component of Russia’s efforts to exert influence over its neighbors.

Late one evening in the spring of 2007, President Toomas Hendrik Ilves of Estonia was at home using his laptop computer. He had trouble getting online. The news sites were down. The banks were down. Government sites were down. The President figured that it must be some kind of technical glitch. “The first reaction is not ‘We’re under attack,’ ” he said recently. But, after a few calls, he realized that someone was attacking one of Estonia’s core assets.

The birthplace of Skype and the home of other tech firms, Estonia is known in technology circles as “eStonia”; it is one of the most wired countries in the world. But Estonia was involved in a conflict with Russia over plans to move a Second World War-era statue of a Soviet soldier out of the center of Tallinn, the capital. Estonians regarded it as a symbol of occupation. The Russian government had warned publicly that moving it would be a grave offense to history and “disastrous for Estonians.”

On April 27th, the statue was moved. Almost immediately, commentators in Russian-language chat rooms posted instructions on how to become a “script kiddie,” an amateur hacker. The attackers did not need to “hack” Estonia’s sites, exactly; they simply swamped them with a “distributed denial of service”—DDoS—assault, which continued for two weeks. Investigators never pinpointed the source of the attack, but Ilves, who left the Presidency in October, 2016, believes that it was an alliance between members of the Russian government and organized crime. “I call it a public-private partnership,” he said wryly. “It was a state actor that paid mafiosos.”

Although the incident barely registered in international headlines, it was a landmark event: a state-backed cyberattack for political purposes. “What Estonia showed was that Russia was going to react in a new but aggressive way to perceived political slights,” Michael Sulmeyer, a senior Pentagon official in charge of cyber policy under Obama, said. “What was the offending act? The Estonians moved a statue.”

Russia was acquiring a reputation, in defense circles, for ambition, technical acumen, and speed. Barely a year after the Estonia attack, during a conflict with Georgia over the territory of South Ossetia, Russian tanks and planes crossed into the disputed territory at the same moment that hackers broke into fifty-four Web sites serving the government, media, and banks. They stole military information and immobilized the nation’s Internet. Georgian officers struggled to send orders to troops, and bewildered citizens had no way to find out what was happening.

The Georgia campaign was “one of the first times you’ve seen conventional ground operations married with cyber activity,” Sulmeyer said. “It showed not just an understanding that these techniques could be useful in combined ops but that the Russians were willing to do them. These guys implemented.”

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And yet Russian military planners and officials in the Kremlin regarded Georgia as a failure in the realm of international propaganda. Although Russia prevailed militarily, its narrative was overshadowed by the Georgian one from the first minutes of the campaign. For Russia, the five-day conflict represented a “total defeat in the information space,” said Pavel Zolotarev, a retired major general in the Russian Army, who is now a professor at the Academy of Military Sciences. “Our television showed how the shelling started, the incursion of Georgian forces, and so on,” Zolotarev, who helped draft Russia’s national-security doctrine in the nineteen-nineties, said. “These pictures were shown in the West two days later—but as if Russia were doing the shelling, attacking Georgia.” Russian generals took this lesson to heart, and began to study how to use the media and other instruments to wage “information war,” later putting what they learned into practice in Ukraine and then Syria.

The United States, meanwhile, had its own notable cyberwar success. In 2008, in tandem with Israeli intelligence, the U.S. launched the first digital attack on another country’s critical infrastructure, deploying a “worm,” known as Stuxnet, that was designed to cause centrifuges in Iran to spin out of control and thereby delay its nuclear development.

Yet diplomatic concerns inhibited some of the United States’ active measures. The Obama Administration had a “reset” policy with Russia, forging agreements and coöperating on select issues, despite an over-all increase in tension. “Cyber was an area where we were trying to work with Russia,” Evelyn Farkas, the Pentagon official, said. “That’s the irony. We were meeting with their big spies, trying to develop some kind of arms control for cyber.”

When Robert Knake arrived as the director of cybersecurity policy at the National Security Council, in 2011, the White House had a formal initiative to combat Chinese hacking, known as the Counter-China strategy. Knake recalled, “The question was: ‘O.K., now, what’s the counter-Russia plan? And the counter-Iran plan?’ ” The difficulty was that, in the aftermath of Stuxnet, the U.S. needed Iran’s coöperation on diplomatic priorities. From 2011 to 2013, Iranian-backed hackers waged a sustained DDoS attack on dozens of American banks and financial-services companies, but the U.S. didn’t respond in kind, partly because the Administration was negotiating with Iran to curb its nuclear program. “If we had unleashed the fury in response to that DDoS attack, I don’t know if we would have gotten an Iran deal,” Knake said. In other cases, the Administration declined to respond forcefully so that it could retain the option of deploying similar means on other countries. “As long as we think we’re getting more value from this set of rules than we’re losing, then this is the set of rules we want to promote,” Knake said.

A new doctrine was taking shape, under which Russia sought to study the nefarious tools of the West, as it understood them, so as to counteract them at home and put them into practice abroad. One indication of what that might look like came in February, 2013, when, in the pages of the Military-Industrial Courier—a journal with a tiny yet influential readership of Russian military strategists—Valery Gerasimov, the Russian chief of general staff, published an article with the anodyne title “The Value of Science in Prediction.” The article identified and urged the adoption of a Western strategy that involved military, technological, media, political, and intelligence tactics that would destabilize an enemy at minimal cost. The strategy, which came to be known as “hybrid war,” was an amalgam that states have used for generations, but the text took on the status of a legend, and is now known in international military circles as the Gerasimov doctrine.

Gerasimov is sixty-one years old, and is always photographed in a stiff, forest-green military uniform and with a perpetually sagging frown. He trained as a tank commander, and then climbed the military hierarchy; he led the Fifty-eighth Army during the Second Chechen War. In the article for Military-Industrial Courier, Gerasimov suggested that, in the future, wars will be fought with a four-to-one ratio of nonmilitary to military measures. The former, he wrote, should include efforts to shape the political and social landscape of the adversary through subversion, espionage, propaganda, and cyberattacks. His essay, written in the shadow of the Arab Spring, cited the anarchy and violence that erupted in Libya and Syria as proof that, when faced with the combination of pressure and interference, a “perfectly thriving state can, in a matter of months, and even days, be transformed into an arena of fierce armed conflict, become a victim of foreign intervention, and sink into a web of chaos, humanitarian catastrophe, and civil war.”

Such events were “typical of warfare in the twenty-first century,” he wrote. “The role of nonmilitary means of achieving political and strategic goals has grown, and, in many cases, they have exceeded the power of force of weapons in their effectiveness.”

Pavel Zolotarev, the retired Russian general, explained that, when Gerasimov’s essay was published, “we had come to the conclusion, having analyzed the actions of Western countries in the post-Soviet space—first of all the United States—that manipulation in the information sphere is a very effective tool.” Previously, one had to use “grandfather-style methods: scatter leaflets, throw around some printed materials, manipulate the radio or television,” Zolotarev said. “But, all of a sudden, new means have appeared.”

Gerasimov’s prescriptions began to look prophetic a year later, when Russia annexed Crimea in a quick operation that caught U.S. officials by surprise and contravened international law. Russian-made propaganda whipped up pro-Moscow sentiment in a population that was already wary of Ukrainian political leaders in Kiev and had deep, historical ties with Russia. Unidentified soldiers (the so-called “little green men”) surrounded Ukrainian bases in Crimea, and within days Russia had pulled off a hastily organized, stage-managed referendum.

Even with the rise of new technologies, the underlying truth about such operations hasn’t changed. They are less a way to conjure up something out of nothing than to stir a pot that is already bubbling. In the U.S., a strategy like the alleged hacking of the Democrats was merely an effort to deepen an existing state of disarray and distrust. “For something to happen, many factors have to come together at once,” said Alexander Sharavin, the head of a military research institute and a member of the Academy of Military Sciences, in Moscow, where Gerasimov often speaks. “If you go to Great Britain, for example, and tell them the Queen is bad, nothing will happen, there will be no revolution, because the necessary conditions are absent—there is no existing background for this operation.” But, Sharavin said, “in America those preconditions existed.”

As tensions with Russia rose over the conflicts in Ukraine and Syria, in early 2014, the U.S. was stung by a tactic common in Moscow politics: the weaponized leak. While the U.S. and the European Union discussed the details of a potential transitional government in Ukraine, an aide to the Russian deputy prime minister tweeted a reference to part of a wiretapped conversation, posted soon afterward to YouTube, between Victoria Nuland, a U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, and her colleague Geoffrey Pyatt, the U.S. Ambassador in Ukraine. Nuland is heard saying “Fuck the E.U.”—a line that the Russians knew would cause difficulties between the Americans and their E.U. counterparts. The State Department called the leak “a new low in Russian tradecraft.” Asked what form of penalty was extracted from Russia, Michael McFaul, the Ambassador to Moscow during the Obama Administration, said, “To the best of my knowledge, there was none. I think that was a mistake.”

Obama’s adviser Benjamin Rhodes said that Russia’s aggressiveness had accelerated since the first demonstrations on Maidan Square, in Kiev. “When the history books are written, it will be said that a couple of weeks on the Maidan is where this went from being a Cold War-style competition to a much bigger deal,” he said. “Putin’s unwillingness to abide by any norms began at that point. It went from provocative to disrespectful of any international boundary.”

In the fall of 2014, a hacking group known as the Dukes entered an unclassified computer system at the U.S. State Department and gained enough control so that, as one official put it, they “owned” the system. In security circles, the Dukes—also referred to as Cozy Bear—were believed to be directed by the Russian government. Very little is known about the size and composition of Russia’s team of state cyberwarriors. In 2013, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that it was forming “scientific” and “information operations” battalions. A defense official later explained their purpose as “disrupting the information networks of the probable enemy.” Oleg Demidov, an expert on information security and cybercrime, and a consultant at the PIR-Center, a research institute in Moscow, said, “At the time, this idea was met with laughter. But this was something real, these units were indeed formed, and staffed by graduates of the country’s leading technical universities.” The next year, the Russian military expanded its public recruitment of young programmers; social-media ads for the “Research Squadron of the Russian Federation” depicted a soldier putting down a rifle and turning to a keyboard, accompanied by a heavy-metal soundtrack.

A retired K.G.B. colonel recently told the magazine Ogonyok that Russia had about a thousand people working in military and security operations online. According to a detailed report that appeared last November in the well-regarded online publication Meduza, several hundred technical specialists have left commercial firms to work for state-run cyber teams. A Defense Ministry spokesperson refused to confirm any details, telling a Meduza correspondent that the topic is secret, “so no one can see how we might apply these methods,” and warning against publication: “Don’t risk doing anything further—don’t put yourself in the crosshairs.”

After penetrating the State Department, the Dukes moved on to the unclassified computer network that serves the executive office of the President. (The network manages, for instance, details of his movements.) By February, 2015, the increasing intensity of Russian intrusions into sensitive political targets had raised alarms in Washington, and Clapper, the director of national intelligence, told a Senate hearing that the “Russian cyberthreat is more severe than we have previously assessed.”

European officials voice similar concerns. The Directorate-General for External Security, the French spy agency, is reportedly worried that Russian spies, hackers, and others are working to help Marine Le Pen, the Presidential candidate of the far-right National Front Party. Russian state media have suggested that one of her opponents, Emmanuel Macron, is a tool of American banks and has a secret gay

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          International Conference: “Diasporic and migrants identities: social, cultural, political, religious and spiritual aspects”   

On 23rd and 24th April, Institute for Islamic tradition of Bosniak organized a two – day international scientific conference titled Diasporic and migrants identities: social, cultural, political, religious and spiritual aspects in the Great Hall of the Gazi Husrev – bey’s...

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          Radio podcast “Džemre”   

The Institute for Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks in 2015 organized a radio podcast with Radio BIR named “Džemre” which emitted a total of 12 episodes covering different topics about Islam and Bosniaks. The podcast in Bosnian language can be found...

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          Institute took part in Goethe University Summer School   

6.9. – 11.9.2016. A group of students and professors from the Goethe University in Frankfurt were in Sarajevo where they took part in a Summer School titled “Religion and Society”. Dr. Dževada Šuško gave a lecture titled “Religion Policies in Austro-Hungary”...

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          Director dr. Šuško at “Women in Contemporary Times – Challanges and Perspectives”   

6.5.2017 – The Islamic Community of Bosniaks in Austria (IZBA) organized a symposium titled “Women in Contemporary Times – Challanges and Perspectives”. Director dr.Šuško gave a lecture titled “Bosniaks between Faith,Tradition and Life in Europe”.  Other participants at the symposium...

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          Round-table “Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks” in Zagreb   

In the Islamic Cultural Center in Zagreb a round-table titled “Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks” was organized by the Center for Cultural Dialogue – CKD. The guest speakers at the round-table were dr. Dževada Šuško, dr.Elvir Duranović and mr.Hikmet Karčić, who presented...

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          Round-table “Religion in SFRY and DDR”   

28.04.2017. – At the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Sarajevo a round-table titled “Religion in SFRY and DDR” was organized by the Institute for Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks.Institute Director Dr.Dževada Šuško opened the round-table and gave a welcome note. The moderator...

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          Research Project: “Analysis of Islamic Calligraphic Panels (levha) by Bosniak Calligraphers from 18th to mid-20 century”   

The Institute for Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks supported a research project by Meliha Teparić from the International University of Sarajevo. The title of her research project was Analiza islamskih kaligrafskih panela (levhi) bošnjačkih kaligrafa (hattata) od 18. do sredine 20....

The post Research Project: “Analysis of Islamic Calligraphic Panels (levha) by Bosniak Calligraphers from 18th to mid-20 century” appeared first on Institute for the Bosniak Islamic tradition |

          A Student Group from Germany visits the Institute   

20.5.2017. – A group of 50 German Muslim students, academics, social workers, professors headed by Sejfuddin Dizdarević visited the Institute for Islamic Tradition of Bosniaks where the director dr.Dževada Šuško held a lecture in german language about Islam in Bosnia...

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          Conference held in Kiseljak “Multireligious Bosnia, Message of Ahdnama and Contemporary Context”   

25. May 2017 – In Kiseljak, a local conference was held titled “Multireligious Bosnia, message of Ahdnama and contemporary context” which is a central event of this years manifestation “Message of Ahdnama”. The organizers of this event was Sarajevo Mufti, Majlis...

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          Director Šuško met with a Ministry of Internal Affairs delegation   

16.05.2017. Director of the Institute dr. Dževada Šuško today met with Mr. Reinhard Busch and his assistent Maja Jurčić. Mr. Busch is the director of  “Deutsche Islam Konferenz” which is part of the Ministry for Internal Affairs of the Federal...

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          Elma Frasto uploaded a new picture: IMG_20170627_220510…   

Elma Frasto uploaded a new picture: IMG_20170627_220510… Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, this photo was captured on Alifakovac.

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          Croatian-Bosnian state-of-the-art border crossing inaugurated   

A state-of-the-art Bosnian-Croatian border crossing was opened at Bijaca near Ljubuski on Friday, an investment of EUR 9.6 million, the majority of which came from the European Union.

          Leon Goretzka: Arsenal £21m target shining for Germany in Confederations Cup and likely to leave Schalke   
ARSENAL continue to be linked with Schalke and Germany midfielder Leon Goretzka. Arsene Wenger has already raided the Bundesliga club for Bosnian full-back Sead Kolasinac and could return to Gelsenkirchen for another signing. 22-year-old Goretzka has impressed with Schalke this season and is expected to move to one of Europe’s big clubs this summer. Here’s […]
          Who is Leon Goretzka? Arsenal target starring for Germany in Confederations Cup   
ARSENAL continue to be linked with Schalke and Germany midfielder Leon Goretzka. Arsene Wenger has already raided the Bundesliga club for Bosnian full-back Sead Kolasinac and could return to Gelsen…
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Excludes: Africa, Central America and Caribbean, American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Western Samoa, Albania, Andorra, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Iceland, Jersey, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, San Marino, Serbia, Svalbard ...

          For sale - 1:22 champion racing motor bikes moto gp honda nsr... - $30   
Moto 2426, Australia
Excludes: Africa, Central America and Caribbean, Albania, Andorra, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Iceland, Jersey, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, San Marino, Serbia, Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Vatican City State, Cambodia, Laos, Macau, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Bermuda, Greenland, Mexico, Saint ...

          For sale - minichamps 1.43 F1 panasonic toyota racing tf102... - $30   

Wynnum 4178, Australia
Excludes: Africa, Central America and Caribbean, Albania, Andorra, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Iceland, Jersey, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, San Marino, Serbia, Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Vatican City State, Cambodia, Laos, Macau, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Bermuda, Greenland, Mexico, Saint ...

          Looking for Old Photographs of Immigrants to Michigan   
I’m a student at Northern Michigan University and I’m helping with a project on immigrants who moved from the Austro-Hungarian Empire to Michigan.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire included parts of what is now Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Poland, Romania, Italy, Ukraine, Moldova, Serbia, and Montenegro.

I’m trying to track down images, preferably taken before 1918, of immigrants and their churches/homes/businesses/etc. If you have any old photographs that you would be willing to share (or contacts with historical societies that might have photographs), please contact me here or at

          Karadzic appeals 40-year prison sentence   

Wartime Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic on Friday filed an appeal against the guilty verdict by which a UN tribunal sentenced him to 40 years in prison, insisting that his trial was not fair.

          Moscow says Karadzic war crimes sentence politicised   

The ICTY war crimes conviction of former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic is politicised, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Gennady Gatilov said on Friday.

          Bosnia divided ahead of Karadzic war crimes verdict   

Representatives of associations of war victims and of the families of the killed and the missing will attend the hearing in The Hague on March 24, including Munira Subasic, president of the Mothers of the Srebrenica and Zepa Enclaves association.

          Brammertz: Karadzic judgement proof that justice is possible   

Whatever the outcome of the trial, that is, whatever the judgement be, Brammertz believes that it will be an important step in determining responsibility for the events during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

          ICTY to deliver Karadzic verdict on March 24   

An International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) trial chamber said on Thursday that it would deliver a verdict for former Bosnian Serb political leader Radovan Karadzic on March 24.

          Bosnian army chief of staff says no fear of armament of neighbouring countries   

"Given the agreement on the subregional supervision of armament which clearly defines how much arms Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro can have, there is no reason for fear and panic," Jelec said in an interview