Eating the Globe: Syria   

I was in San Francisco for work and celebrated a productive morning with an out-of-the-way lunch. This is Palmyra.

I got the Kibbi platter, which consists of:
Four shells of mashed cracked wheat stuffed with ground beef, sauteed onions, and pine nuts served with a side of hummus, cucumber salad, pita, garlic sauce, and hot sauce.

The kibbi was/were delicious. Not greasy or heavy at all. My only complaint was that it only came with four pieces.

Countries tried so far:
Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa
Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam, Yemen
Europe: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden
North America: Belize, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Trinidad & Tobago, USA
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela
Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
          Assia Djebar’s 81st Birthday   

Assia Djebar’s 81st Birthday

Date: June 30, 2017

Many women achieve greatness, but few become “Immortal.” Assia Djebar was the first woman from the Maghreb to be given the "Immortal" title, as a member of the Académie Française.

Born Fatima-Zohra Imalayene on this date in 1936, the Algerian novelist, translator, and filmmaker used the pen name Assia Djebar. She was the first Algerian woman to be admitted to the country’s top literary university, the Ecole Normale Superieure. Djebar published her first book at 21; by the time she was 30, she had written 4 novels in French. She quickly became one of North Africa's most influential writers.

A feminist, Djebar wrote about women's independence and encouraged Algerian women to forge their own paths and find their unique voices. She believed that education was the key to giving women a voice in society, and in 1962 began teaching history at the University of Algiers. Her work inspired many women to express themselves freely.

Today’s Doodle reflects a scene from the first chapter of Djebar’s novel Fantasia, in which she explores the history of Algeria through her experiences as a young girl.  

Location: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates

Tags: Birthday, writer, novelist, Literature


          Language Instructor - General Consideration (as-needed) - MultiLingual Solutions Inc - Continental, OH   
Arabic (MSA), Arabic (Algerian), Arabic (Saudi Gulf), Arabic (Levantine), Arabic (Libyan), Arabic (Moroccan), Arabic (Syrian), Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Iraqi)...
From MultiLingual Solutions Inc - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 11:01:17 GMT - View all Continental, OH jobs
          World: Challenges and opportunities across NATO's South: Migration, trafficking, extremism, and instability, Volume 1 I Number 3 I Spring 2017   
Source: OPEN Perspectives Exchange Network (OPEN)
Country: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Lebanon, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

Executive Summary

NATO and its partners, as a part of discussions related to the Alliance’s efforts to promote peace and security in its broader neighbourhood, have increasingly focused on NATOs’ “Southern Flank.” In the following report, the authors argue that this primarily military term is likely to be off-putting to many current or would-be NATO partners, such as foreign ministries, international organisations, and civilian stakeholders, hindering the goals of “projecting stability” and risking a near-exclusive focus on threats and risks. Furthermore, this report demonstrates how the term “Southern Flank” does not fully capture NATO’s challenges. For example, issues like trafficking and migration originate in far-flung areas including West Africa, Latin America, and Central Asia, which may not be part of the Southern Flank as current conceived by NATO. In suggesting the use of a less heavily value-laden and military-centric term like the “Greater South”, the authors point out that challenges emanating from the Greater South also present opportunities to Alliance states that may bolster NATO’s strategic objectives.

The following observations and findings are based on a review of the pertinent literature from academics, research institutions, governments, and various international organisations (IOs) and international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs). They also emerge in part from the authors’ combined twenty years of research experience working on and researching issues ranging from civil-military interaction to post-crisis stabilisation and humanitarian action in contexts as diverse as Afghanistan, Bosnia - Herzegovina, Lebanon, Somalia Syria and Yemen for governments, UN agencies, the World Bank, INGOs, NATO’s former Civil-Military Fusion Centre and others.

Challenges and Opportunities in NATO’s Greater South

Some of the most immediately pressing challenges emanating from the Greater South include migration and trafficking in drugs, guns, persons as well as conflict and violent extremism. These inter-related issues thrive amidst corruption and low state capacity, prevent economic growth, and facilitate instability and extremism. This report explores these challenges and demonstrates (i) their intersecting nature; (ii) how typical approaches to addressing these issues, including increased border control and military responses, can displace the challenge and plant the seeds of future instability elsewhere; and (iii) that the various challenges facing NATO may be reconceptualised as opportunities rather than purely as threats.

With regard to migration, in 2015, 1.2 million people applied for asylum in Europe, 66.2% of whom were male according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). This may pose social stability challenges not only in assimilation and cultural differences relating to gender relations but also in the fact that most young, male migrants, many of whom are single, will be jobless for a year or two following arrival. However, with approximately 84% of incoming migrants under 34 years old, the host economy may ultimately benefit economically from migration. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), for instance, estimates annual output to increase by 0.1% in the EU and 0.3% in Germany by the end of 2017.


          Algeria Looks To Build On Spanish Exports For 2017 Gas Expansion   
After reporting increased production for 2016, Algeria is looking to expand its natural gas exports to Europe, building on existing trade to Italy, Portugal and Spain.
          Algeria Aiming for 20% Increase in Oil, Gas Output over Four Years   
Following a series of setbacks in its attempt to revive its ailing oil and gas sectors, Algeria's state-backed energy company Sonatrach has announced its intention to boost output of both by 20% over the next four years with minimal investment.
          Algeria Inks Italian Supply Deal As Coffers Run Dry   
Faced with dwindling state coffers thanks to a sharp decline in oil prices over the last two years, Algeria is seeking out any solution possible to boost its energy revenue, including inking a new supply deal with Italy.
          Algeria Set To Increase Gas Output After A Series Of Setbacks   
Algeria is on track to increase its natural gas output to 9 billion cubic meters a year after the country brings three stalled projects back online, according to the country's state-backed energy firm Sonatrach.
          Algeria Inks Solar Plant Deal With Italy's Eni   
As part of a continuing effort to broaden the country's energy and financial base, Algeria has announced that it has signed an agreement to build a solar power plan in the North African nation.
          Algeria Travel Warning   

The Department of State continues to warn U.S. citizens against travel to remote areas of Algeria due to the threat of terrorist attacks and kidnapping. Washington, DC - infoZine - This replaces the Travel Warning for Algeria dated December 13, 2016.


          Algeria leader drops Panama Papers libel suit vs Le Monde   

Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika today dropped a libel suit against Le Monde after the influential French daily apologised for running a photo linking him to the Panama Papers financial scandal. Basile Ader, a lawyer for the ailing 80-year-old president, told a Paris court Bouteflika's "magnanimous" decision came after a recent apology from the paper.


          UPDATE 1-Algeria's government planning Islamic finance options, welfare reforms   

ALGIERS, June 20 Algeria's new government is preparing the legal framework for Islamic finance and new Islamic bonds and will make changes to its welfare system, largely unchanged for decades, to offset lower oil prices, according to an official document. The document gave the first indications of policy for Prime Minister Abdelmadjid Tebboune along with new ministers in the key portfolios of finance, commerce and energy.


          Watch on BBC World News: eight-part series based on UNESCO’s "General History of Africa" book collection   

in_focus_gha_zeinab_badawi.jpg

© BBC World News

Zeinab Badawi delves into the history of Africa for a brand new, eight-part series on BBC World News. The continent of Africa has a long, complex history, and its people built civilizations which rivalled those that existed anywhere else in the world. However, much of the continent’s history is not widely known, and what we are presented with often projects a distorted and partial picture. Sudan-born Zeinab travels to all four corners of Africa, interviewing African historians, archaeologists, and citizens whose accounts and stories paint a vivid picture of their continent's past and how it informs their present lives. It is a series that will inform, educate and entertain - Africa’s history told by Africans themselves.

 

Episodes

BBC World TV: Transmission dates (GMT)

   

1) Mother Africa

In the first episode Zeinab Badawi travels across the continent, examining the origins of humankind and how and why we evolved in Africa. During her journey Zeinab is granted rare access to the genuine bones of one of the most iconic discoveries in the field of palaeontology: Lucy in Ethiopia, or as she is known in Amharic ‘Dinkenesh' - which means 'you are marvellous’! Zeinab also spends time with a unique tribe in Tanzania, who provide insight into how we have lived, for most of our history, as hunter-gatherers. She also looks at what distinguishes us from the animal world and makes us human.

Sat 1st July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 2nd July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

2) Cattle, crops and Iron

Zeinab Badawi continues her journey through the history of human development, travelling to meet the Masai of East Africa where she explains how humans began to domesticate animals and become pastoralists; in Zimbabwe, Zeinab visits one lively farming family and examines how we became settled and began to live from farming. She also looks at how the Iron Age transformed life in Africa and paved the way for the development of rich urban civilisations.

Sat 8th July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 9th July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

3) Gift of the Nile

Zeinab Badawi’s quest to uncover the history of Africa takes her to Egypt, where she explores the most famous civilisation on the continent – the ancient Egyptians. Zeinab takes you beyond the usual coverage of the pharaohs and asks first who the ancient Egyptians actually were? What was their ethnicity? What made such a great civilisation possible? How did they order their society, and what were their values?

Sat 15th July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 16th July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

4) The Kingdom of Kush

In the fourth episode, Zeinab Badawi travels to the country of her birth and the very region of her forefathers: northern Sudan, where she sheds light on a little know aspect of ancient African history: the Kingdom of Kush. Its kings ruled for many hundreds of years and indeed in the eighth century BC, they conquered and governed Egypt for the best part of 100 years. Furthermore Kush was an African superpower, its influence extended to the modern day Middle East. Zeinab shows you some of the best preserved of Sudan’s s 1,000 pyramids and explains how some of the customs of Kush have endured to this day.

Sat 22nd July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 23rd July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

5) The Rise of Aksum

Zeinab Badawi travels to the little visited country of Eritrea and neighbouring Ethiopia, to chart the rise of the Kingdom of Aksum. Described as one of the four greatest civilisations of the ancient world, Zeinab examines archaeological remains in both countries dating from many hundreds of years before Christ. She explains how the Kings of Aksum grew rich and powerful from their control of the Red Sea trade and how they were one of the first civilisations that officially embraced Christianity in the 4th century. Also find out why the Queen of Sheba and the Sacred Ark of the Covenant are so critical to the story of Aksum.

Sat 29th July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 30th July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

6) Kings and Emirs

In the sixth episode, Zeinab Badawi focuses on the fall of the kingdom of Aksum, and how the Christian kings that followed in Aksum’s wake left powerful legacies, especially that of King Lalibela. He is credited with building a complex of rock-hewn churches, which represent amazing feats of engineering. She also charts the arrival of Islam in this part of Africa and how the Christian kings and Muslim emirs co-existed. In the most Muslim of Ethiopia’s cities Harar: she observes the bizarre, long standing tradition of the Hyena Men of Harar.

Sat 5th Aug: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 6th Aug 09:10, 21:10

 

   

7) North Africa

In the penultimate episode, Zeinab Badawi’s exploration of Africa’s rich history focuses on North Africa. She goes to Morocco to find out about the original inhabitants of the region - in particular the Berbers or Amazigh - the best known of the people of North Africa. Zeinab visits Carthage in Tunisia and explains who the Carthaginians were. She looks at the great Berber kings and how they managed to retain their influence when North Africa came under Roman rule. Zeinab shows you some of the most extensive and least visited Roman sites in Algeria.

Sat 12th Aug: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 13th Aug 09:10, 21:10

 

   

8) Pagans and God

In the final episode, Zeinab Badawi examines the role of religion in Africa. To this day tens of millions of Africans are pagans, who worship a pantheon of Gods and venerate their ancestors. And many more millions of Africans incorporate pagan customs into their monotheistic beliefs. Zeinab takes you through the stages of the arrival of monotheism in Africa: first Judaism , then early Christianity and then finally Islam. She charts the rise of the powerful Islamic dynasties of North Africa, that went on to conquer Spain.

Sat 19th Aug: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 20th Aug 09:10, 21:10

 

 


          RIHANNA, ISIS, ISLAMISTS by (Aangirfan Blog)   
http://aanirfan.blogspot.com


RIHANNA, ISIS, ISLAMISTS


Rihanna and Hassan Jameel.
Rihanna is part of a conspiracy?
Rihanna's new love is Saudi Toyota dealership heir and Naomi Campbell's ex-beau Hassan Jameel.

dailymail.

ISIS has large numbers of brand-new Toyota trucks.


Rihanna is a mind controlled sex slave?

The US State Department arranged for fleets of Toyota trucks to be sent to the 'Free Syrian Army', which works alongside ISIS.

The Mystery of ISIS' Toyota Army


In 1956, there was a big conspiracy involving the UK, France and Israel.
There was a joint plot to attack Egypt.

BRITAIN TRIED TO HELP ISRAEL STEAL TERRITORY

In 1956, Israel wanted an excuse to seize the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula.

Israel held secret talks with Britain and France.

The UK Prime Minister, Sir Anthony Eden, agreed to the illegal joint attack on Egypt.

Documents (Sir Anthony Eden's cabinet discussed concealing Suez 'collusion) released after more than 50 years show: the UK Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden's cabinet discussed how to lie to the public and the world about the secret pact with France and Israel to seize Egypt's Suez canal in 1956.

"At Gamil airport, a young Egyptian ... was seized by the British, who wanted to know the whereabouts of Egyptian arms stores. 

"He later claimed that one of his eyes was cut out by a British interrogation officer ... and the other eye taken out later when he refused to broadcast propaganda for the allies..."


independent.co.uk/world/politics/story

The Mad Muslims in Acheh are reportedly controlled by the CIA and its friends.

In the 1960s, MI6 supported Islamic guerrillas in Indonesia.

According to The Independent (UK): "Cabinet papers show that British spies, including MI6, supported Islamic guerrillas in order to destabilise Sukarno."

The Secret State: The Security Service


Website for this image

For more than fifty years, the CIA and its friends have been employing militant Moslems to do their dirty work.

1. Before World war II, British intelligence used the Moslem Brotherhood against Britain's German rivals in North Africa.


(The British, Muslim Terrorism and September 11)



2. Around 1955, the CIA began to co-operate with the Moslem Brotherhood. 

The CIA and MI6 used the Moslem Brotherhood to weaken both Egypt and Syria.




3. In the 1960s, MI6 supported Islamic guerrillas in Indonesia.

According to The Independent (UK): "Cabinet papers show that British spies, including MI6, supported Islamic guerrillas in order to destabilise Sukarno."

(The Secret State: MI5 (Home Office/MoD), The Security Service and ...)

4. Israel funded the Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas, in order to divide the Palestinians.
John Buchan, who worked for UK military intelligence, wrote Greenmantle, which is about a warlike Islamist, who is secretly working for the security services.

5. In 1979, the CIA and MI6 used the Moslem Brotherhood to topple the Shah of Iran and install the Ayatollahs.

(The British, Muslim Terrorism and September 11)

6. In 1979 the CIA was building up and arming the militant Moslem Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.

The idea was to lure Russia into Afghanistan.



Website for this image

7. In 1991, the CIA and NATO used Al Qaeda to break up Yugoslavia.

(Global Research, 8 September 2010, Andrew Gavin Marshall: "The Anglo-American Terror Network")

Yugoslavia was a friend of Russia and was next door to a lot of oil wealth.

Moslems arrived in Bosnia from Afghanistan and other Moslem countries.

Clinton gave the 'green light' to Iran to arm the Bosnian Muslims.

Israel armed the Bosnian Serbs.

The idea was to foment conflict.

The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which took control of the Balkan heroin trafficking routes, fought the Serbs.

The KLA, which had links to bin Laden, was trained and armed by the USA.




8. The CIA and its friends employed Moslem militants to create trouble for Russia in its province of Chechnya.

("The Anglo-American Terror Network")

US intelligence helped fund and transport al-Qaeda into Chechnya in the early 1990s.

In Chechnya, the two main rebel leaders who came to power had been trained by the CIA in Afghanistan.

A war in Chechnya was planned in a secret meeting in 1996 attended by Osama bin Laden and officials of the Pakistani ISI.

In other words, the CIA was directing the war through the ISI.

US intelligence helped fund and transport al-Qaeda into Chechnya in the early 1990s.



9. In 2002, it was revealed that, “British intelligence paid large sums of money to an al-Qaeda cell in Libya in a doomed attempt to assassinate Colonel Gadaffi in 1996 and thwarted early attempts to bring Osama bin Laden to justice.”

Anas al-Liby, a Libyan al-Qaeda leader, “was given political asylum in Britain and lived in Manchester until May of 2000 when he eluded a police raid on his house and fled abroad.”

("The Anglo-American Terror Network")



TRUMP, ISIS, PORN, SEXUAL ABUSE ...

10. In the 1990s, Osama bin Laden 'built a shadow air force to support his terrorist activities, using Afghanistan's national airline Ariana, a surplus U.S. Air Force jet and clandestine charters.'


(Global Research, on 8 September 2010, Andrew Gavin Marshall: 
"The Anglo-American Terror Network")


Bin Laden's US Air Force jet in 1992 “was used to ferry Al Qaeda commanders to East Africa, where they trained Somali tribesmen..."

And now, Algerians and Moroccans are said to be in Al Qaeda training camps in Israel.


Algerians and Moroccans in El Qaida training camps in Israel 

~



TRUMP, ISIS, PORN, SEXUAL ABUSE ...

CLASSIC AMERICAN JUSTICE.

CHARLESTON CHURCH - FALSE FLAG CONSPIRACY

JO COX FALSE FLAG CONSPIRACY

QUEBEC MOSQUE ATTACK - FALSE FLAG INSIDE JOB ...

TRUMP - GLOBAL CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY .
          The house that Tateh built ... out of sand-filled plastic bottles   

In the Sahrawi refugee camps in the Algerian desert, Tateh Lehbib Braica – aka ‘the crazy bottle guy’ – has built circular houses from waste plastic that protect from wind and sun

A group of women drink tea under the shade of a tent and cast an eye over the construction of an odd, circular house. The half-built dwelling is the brainchild of Tateh Lehbib Braica, 27, an engineer who wanders among the workers.

Continue reading...
          سلطة الجزائر تطارد أتباع الأحمدية.. من هم الأحمديون؟   

أصدرت محكمة جزائرية أمس أحكامًا بالحبس بحق 6 من أفراد الطائفة الأحمدية بتهمة "ممارسة نشاط غير قانوني"، من خلال "الجمع غير القانوني للأموال والنشاط في جمعية غير مرخصة وتوزيع منشورات تمس بالمصلحة الوطنية"، حسب اتهامات المحكمة، وحكم على خمسة منهم بالسجن سنة نافذة وستة أشهر غير نافذة، بينما حكم على السادس بستة أشهر غير نافذة، وسبق أن حكمت محكمة ابتدائية عليهم بالسجن بين سنتين وأربع سنوات لكل منهم، في آذار/مارس الماضي.

تنظر السلطات الجزائرية إلى الطائفة الأحمدية كـ"خطر يهدّد الأمن الديني والسلم الاجتماعي للبلاد"  

وأعادت الواقعة جدل شرعية حضور الطائفة الأحمدية في الجزائر من عدمها، القضية التي باتت تستقطب اهتمامًا إعلاميًا محليًا ودوليًا متزايدًا في الشهور الأخيرة، وتفتح نقاشًا سياسيًا ودينيًا ساخنًا داخل المجتمع الجزائري.

اقرأ/ي أيضًا: عيد الرضوان.. أقدس أعياد البهائية

كيف تتعامل الجزائر مع الأحمدية؟

لم تكن هي المرة الأولى التي تصدر فيها أحكام سجن ضد أحمديين في الجزائر، إذ منذ بداية 2016 بدأت سلطات قصر المرداية في شن عمليات اعتقال ومداهمة متوالية ضد أتباع الطائفة الأحمدية المتواجدين بعدد من المدن الجزائرية، وأسفرت هذه العمليات عن إيقاف العشرات من الأحمديين، بينهم زعيم الطائفة محمد فالي، الذي أعلن عن نفسه في شباط/ فبراير الماضي، عندما وجّه رسالة إلى الرئيس عبد العزيز بوتفليقة، يشكو له فيها "التهجم غير المبرر" على أتباع الطائفة، ويطالب بالسماح لهم بالعمل بشكل قانوني.

وتنظر السلطات الجزائرية إلى الطائفة الأحمدية كـ"خطر  يهدّد الأمن الديني والسلم الاجتماعي للبلاد"، كما يقول وزير الشؤون الدينية والأوقاف الجزائري محمد عيسى، الذي يؤكد على أن ملف الطائفة الأحمدية هو "قضية أمنية بحتة"، في إحالة منه على تخوف السلطات من ارتباط هذه الطائفة بجهات سياسية أجنبية، أو محاولتها اختراق العقيدة السنية المالكية لمعظم الشعب الجزائري.

الاتهامات التي ينفيها الأحمديون بالجزائر، ويطالبون الدولة الجزائرية من جانبهم بالامتثال لحرية العقيدة والتدين كما هي مسطرة دوليًا، ووقف الإساءة التي يتعرضون إليها، كما يصرون على حقهم في العمل بشكل قانوني، حيث سبق للسلطة الجزائرية أن رفضت طلبهم بإنشاء جمعية مدنية تابعة للطائفة الأحمدية وافتتاح مسجد.

وبحسب تقرير منظمة العفو الدولية الصادر حديثًا بخصوص الجزائر، فإن عدد الأحمديين المستقرين بالجزائر يقدر بحوالي 2000 فرد، وتم القبض على أكثر من 280 شخصًا منهم منذ بداية 2016، حكم على ثلثهم بالسجن لمدة تصل إلى أربعة أعوام، وبغرامات تصل مبالغها إلى 300,000 دينار جزائري (أي نحو 2,750 دولارًا). فيما الباقي منهم لا يزال يحاكم في حالة سراح.

وقالت في هذا الصدد، هبة مرايف، مديرة البحوث لشمال أفريقيا في منظمة العفو الدولية: إن "قمع الأحمديين على مدى العام الماضي يبعث على القلق، فهذه الحملة التي شملت توقيف الأحمديين وملاحقتهم قضائيًا هي إشارة واضحة على أن السلطات تعمل على تصعيد القيود المفروضة على الحرية الدينية في البلاد"، مطالبة بالإفراج عن الموقوفين وإتاحة لهم ممارساتهم السلمية لشعائرهم الدينية.

بحسب تقرير منظمة العفو الدولية، فإن عدد الأحمديين المستقرين بالجزائر يقدر بحوالي 2000 فردًا، وتم القبض على أكثر من 280 شخصًا منهم

اقرأ/ي أيضًا: حرب المائة عام بين السنة والشيعة

من هم الأحمديون؟

ظهرت الحركة الأحمدية في أواخر القرن التاسع عشر، في قاديان، إحدى قرى إقليم البنجاب في الهند، على يد مؤسسها ميرزا غلام أحمد (1835-1908)، وعقب انشقاق باكستان عن الهند، انتقل أنصار الحركة سنة 1947 من الأخيرة إلى باكستان ذات الأغلبية المسلمة، اعتقادًا منهم أنها الأقرب دينيًا، إلا أنهم ما لبثوا قليلًا حتى بدؤوا يتعرضون لهجمات وحشية من القتل والتخريب من طرف الإسلاميين الأصوليين، ما اضطرهم في الأخير بنهاية القرن العشرين إلى نقل نشاطهم الدعوي إلى لندن، حيث اتخذتها الحركة مركزًا دينيًا لها إلى اليوم.

خريطة انتشار أتباع الأحمدية حوال العالم

لا ترى الطائفة الأحمدية نفسها خارجة عن الإسلام، بقدر ما تعتبر ذاتها "حركة إسلامية تجديدية متسامحة"

يؤمن الأحمديون بالقرآن والسنة الحديث، مثلما يعتقدون بأركان الإسلام الخمسة كباقي المسلمين، لكنهم يختلفون في كونهم يعتقدون بأن زعيم الطائفة الأحمدية، ميرزا غلام أحمد، هو الإمام المهدي والمسيح الموعود الذي يجمع الناس من كافة الأديان على الخير، كما يحصرون شريعة "الجهاد" في الدفاع عن النفس فقط، ويؤمنون بالحرية الدينية التامة لكل الناس.

وهذه من المسائل التي يرفضها عامة المسلمين وجميع المؤسسات الإسلامية، التي تنظر إلى هذه الطائفة من الإسلام كفئة "مارقة من الدين"، وكانت "رابطة العالم الإسلامي" قد عقدت مؤتمرًا في 1974 بجدة السعودية، خصيصًا لإعلان قرار يعتبر الطائفة الأحمدية "حركة تخريبية ضد الإسلام والعالم الإسلامي"، ولذلك تحظر البلدان الإسلامية أنشطة هذا التيار الديني.

غير أن الطائفة الأحمدية لا ترى نفسها خارجة عن الإسلام، بقدر ما تعتبر ذاتها "حركة إسلامية تجديدية متسامحة"، تسعى إلى "جعل الدين الإسلامي طريقة عالمية للحياة بتسامح ومحبة مع مختلف الناس من أجل خدمة الإنسانية"، كما يقول موقعها الرسمي على شبكة الانترنت، وتؤكد على سلمية أنشطتها وعدم تدخلها في عمل الحكومات.

لا توجد أرقام دقيقة لعدد منتسبي الأحمدية في العالم، إلا أن الطائفة تقول بأن عددهم يصل لـ 200 مليون، فيما تحصرهم تقارير في 10 ملايين أحمدي، ينتشرون بقوة في أمريكا وبريطانيا وباكستان والهند وأندونيسيا، ويهتم الأحمديون كثيرًا بالعمل الدعوي، حيث ينتشر مرشدو الطائفة بإفريقيا وأوروبا وآسيا لنشر الأحمدية، وقاموا بترجمة آيات مختارة من القرآن إلى أكثر من 52 لغة، علاوة على أنهم ينشطون على الانترنت ويملكون قناة تلفزية تُبث من لندن.

تتميز الطائفة الأحمدية أيضًا بنظام الزعامة الشبيه بالطائفة الاثني عشرية من الشيعة، حيث يقود الحركة كبير حكماء، فبعد وفاة مؤسس الحركة ميرزا غلام أحمد سنة 1908، اختير نور الدين خليفة للأحمدية، ثم ميرزا ناصر أحمد، وبعده ميرزا طاهر أحمد، ليتقلد ميرزا مسرور أحمد إلى اليوم منصب الخليفة الخامس للأحمدية.

 

اقرأ/ي أيضًا:

"تحت الأرض".. عودة أسرار عبدة الشيطان في مصر

النقاش عن الطائفية: اتهام الدين لتبرئة السلطة

image: 
سلطة الجزائر تطارد أتباع الأحمدية.. من هم الأحمديون؟
discription: 
تنظر السلطات الجزائرية إلى الطائفة الأحمدية كـ"خطر يهدّد الأمن الديني والسلم الاجتماعي للبلاد"، كما يقول وزير الشؤون الدينية والأوقاف الجزائري محمد عيسى، الذي يؤكد على أن ملف الطائفة الأحمدية هو "قضية أمنية بحتة"، ما خلفيات ذلك؟
author: 
خالد بن الشريف
Category: 
Keywords: 
الجزائر, الطائفة الأحمدية, الأحمديون, محمد فالي, الدين الإسلامي
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مسجد الطائفة الأحمدية في برلين (أ.ف.ب)

              
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          British Museum Acquires New Middle Eastern Photography With Help Of Art Fund   

The British Museum has acquired photographs by nine artists from across the Middle East with support from Art Fund. This new acquisition takes the British Museum's Middle East art collection in new directions capturing moments in time and engaging with recent and current histories.

Syrian artist Jaber Al Azmeh (b. 1973), in his series Resurrection, invited his sitters to
turn the Syrian government newspaper al-Baath upside down and make comments on it. These photographs are part of a free temporary display in Room 34 - Living histories: recent acquisitions of works on paper by contemporary Arab artists, until 22 October 2017. The work is shown together with recent acquisitions of posters, prints, drawings, photographs and artists' books. Many of the artists come from Syria, their work produced following the uprisings that began in 2011 that have since resulted in full scale civil war.

Four of the artists in this newly acquired group are from North Africa. Algerian-born Lydia Ouhrahmane (b. 1992) and French-Moroccan Leila Alaoui (1982-2016), focus on aspects of migration. Through the medium of Polaroids Ouhrahmane captures the caves where young Algerian migrants hide before making the crossing to Europe from Oran, while the brilliant photojournalist Leila Alaoui, killed in Burkina Faso, highlights the hope of young Tunisian migrants as well as the resignation clearly seen in the faces of refugees from Syria on the border with Lebanon. Tunisians Nidhal Chamekh (b. 1985) and Héla Ammar
(b. 1969) turn to events in their country prior to the revolution of 2011. Chamekh focuses on the Bread Riots of 1984, his subject Professor Fadhel Sassi, shot in Tunis, and Ammar on the conditions of prisoners in Tunisian jails.

Iraqi-Kurdish artist Jamal Penjwaney's darkly comic Saddam is Here, is intended to remind the viewer that Saddam's shadow still follows Iraqi society everywhere well after his demise.

There are two Iranian artists from different generations - Hengameh Golestan (b. 1952) captures a demonstration in 1979 by women against the wearing of the chador, while Newsha Tavakolian (b. 1981) in her photobook based on the idea of a childhood family album, reflects on the gritty, ordinary realities of everyday encounters in Tehran. Finally, in a direct connection with the Museum's historic collection is the work of Emy Kat (b. 1959) who depicts the now-derelict Jeddah house of Harry St John 'Abdullah' Philby, a British civil servant and explorer who became adviser to the first ruler of Saudi Arabia. His work is a direct counterpoint to the nearly 700 archaeological items collected by Philby on his travels, now held in the Museum.

This Art Fund support is part of an initiative begun in 2009, in which a capsule collection of photographs by Middle Eastern artists was created at the British Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum. Many of the works acquired then were shown in 2012 at the V&A in an exhibition (13 Nov 2012 - 7 Apr 2013) with accompanying catalogue published by Steidl:
Light from the Middle East. A version of this exhibition, entitled True to Life: New Photography of the Middle East, was later shown at Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery in 2014.

Hartwig Fischer, Director of the British Museum, said: "We are hugely grateful for Art Fund's support of important acquisitions like these photographs. It is through collecting contemporary art like this that the British Museum's collection will continue to reflect the history of the world for future generations."

Stephen Deuchar, Art Fund director, said: "Many artists today are using the medium of photography to engage with unfolding events across the Middle East. Art Fund's establishment in 2009 of a special fund to facilitate collecting in this field by both the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum led to the formation of an important body of work, which this New Group of acquisitions now joins. We congratulate the British Museum curators on this imaginative and successful progression of a pioneering initiative."


          Rare Pieces, Reinvigorated Classics, New Works and More Set for Arcola Theatre's 2017 Grimeborn Opera Festival   

See opera differently at Grimeborn. 'East London's ... irreverent and influential festival of new opera' (Time Out) is back for its 11th year with 14 exciting productions at the Arcola Theatre.

Rarely-performed pieces. Reinvigorated classics. Brand new works from some of the UK's most exciting up-and-coming artists and companies.

Tickets range from £7 to £22. Whether it's your first or your latest opera experience, you'll be right at home at Grimeborn 2017.

Artistic Director Mehmet Ergen said: "I'm thrilled to announce Arcola's new season, which features the eleventh edition of our Grimeborn Opera Festival.

"Later in the year, Olivier Award-winning OperaUpClose comes to Arcola for the first time with a major new English version of Tchaikovsky's EUGENE ONEGIN."

"This is an exciting time at Arcola. Having just retained our place in Arts Council England's National Portfolio, we are able to produce more new works from raw talent, reimagined classics and ambitious plays from thrilling contemporary voices. I look forward to welcoming you to Arcola again soon."


FULL LISTINGS:

Studio 1

25 July - 29 July 2017
Leoe&Hyde present
The Marriage of Kim K

Music: Stephen Hyde
Words: Leo Mercer
Direction: Stephen Hyde

The Kim Kardashian musical
The Mozart opera
At the same time

In 2011, Kim Kardashian televised her fairytale wedding to NBA basketball star Kris Humphries. 72 days later she filed for divorce.

In this brisk, clever and ambitious take on Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro, the iconic Kardashian flop takes centre stage with another marriage on the brink: Mozart's explosive Count and Countess.

Three squabbling couples. Three styles of music. One big problem. Combining pop, electronic and classical music, this bitingly satirical romp is a heartfelt reminder of the power of love in tense times.

Cast: Yasemin Gulumser, James Edge, Nathan Bellis, Emily Burnett, Stephen Hyde, Amelia Gabriel
Lighting Design: Alexander Newton

Tuesday-Saturday at 7.30pm
Tickets £12-£22
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@marriageofkimk

31 July - 4 August 2017
The Opera Company and The Asyla Ensemble present
The Cunning Little Vixen

Music & Words: Leos Janacek
Direction: Guido Martin-Brandis

Once upon a time, deep in the woods, a man caught a vixen...

When a forester brings home a baby fox, he doesn't quite realise what he's let himself in for. Discover The Cunning Little Vixen, the story of a young Vixen growing up in the parallel worlds of the animals and the humans.

One of the twentieth century's most beautiful operas, Janá?ek's masterpiece is a humorous, profound, and life-affirming meditation on the wonder of nature, and a celebration of its eternal renewal.

This innovative production brings the animal world to life with dance, masks and puppetry. Sung in English with a brand new chamber arrangement, the superb cast features some of the UK's most talented young artists.

Cast: Alison Rose, Beth Margaret-Taylor, Camilla Farrant, Tim Langston, Oliver Gibbs, Ashley Mercer
Design: Alexander McPherson

Monday - Friday at 7.30pm
Tickets £12-£22
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com

2 August 2017
Pop Up Opera presents
Une Education Manquée

Music: Emmanuel Chabrier
Words: Eugène Leterrier and Albert Vanloo
Direction: Isabelle Kettle
Musical Direction: William Cole

After a sold-out performance at Wilderness Festival 2016, Pop Up Opera present Emmanuel Chabrier's rarely-performed Une Éducation Manquée for one night only.

Set in the time of Louis XVI, Une Éducation Manquée is a deliciously madcap and witty 45-minute French operetta. It is the tale of two teenaged newly-wed aristocrats, flummoxed by the expectations of their wedding night and by what it means to be husband and wife. Follow the would-be "lovers" through useless adult advice and discover the only combination that can truly bring them together: thunder, hormones, and a loose nightgown.

Cast: Susanna Fairbairn, Christine Buras, Oskar McCarthy

Wednesday 2 August at 7.30pm
Tickets £14-£17
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@PopupOperaUK

5 August - 6 August 2017
Basement Orchestra presents
Porgy & Bess

Music: George Gershwin
Words: DuBose Heyward and Ira Gershwin
Arrangements: Knut Olv Ryngestad, Guy Jones and Tom Mawby
Musical Director: Guy Jones

Singers: Talia Cohen, Masimba Ushe

'Summertime / And the livin' is easy.....'

Porgy and Bess contains some of the most iconic music of the twentieth century, but there is much more to this work than easy livin' and cotton growing high.

The composer George Gershwin sought to do justice to African American music in this maverick creation, but over the years, controversy and accusations of racial stereotyping have dogged his 'folk opera'.

For their latest outing to Grimeborn, Basement Orchestra contront Gershwin's masterpiece, telling the story with key details and extracts, performed with live singers and dazzling musicianship.

Saturday - Sunday at 7.30pm
Tickets £12-£17
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@Basement_London

8 August - 12 August 2017
Ensemble OrQuesta presents
Armide

Music: Jean-Baptiste Lully
Words: Philippe Quinault
Direction: Marcio da Silva

All's unfair in love and war

Armide is the original warrior princess: a powerful sorceress who can have her pick of any man. But when she falls for her nemesis, the throes of battle become the throes of passion. Will she pick love, or vengeance?

Armide is a thrilling tale of desire, betrayal and magic. Ensemble OrQuesta brings this 1686 classic from the crusades into the present, with artistic director Márcio da Silva and an ensemble of talented young soloists.

Tuesday - Saturday 7.30pm
Tickets £12-£22
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com

13 August 2017
Arcola Theatre Creative Engagement presents
V

Music: Jen Waghorn
Words: Bec Martin-Williams and Jen Waghorn
Direction: Bec Martin-Williams

Performed by young people aged 14-25

'I am all the daughters of my father's house, and all the brothers too.'

V wants to escape. Their past, their grief, their life. Everyone else wants to label them. If you don't belong in a box, where do you belong?

Inspired by Shakespeare's Twelfth Night , V is a devised musical by young people aged 14-25 from Arcola's award-winning Creative Engagement department.

Sunday 13 August at 4pm & 8pm
Tickets £9 (£7 concessions)
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com

16 - 26 August 2017
Arcola Theatre presents
Samson and Delilah

Music: Camille Saint-Saëns
Words: Ferdinand Lemaire
Direction: Aylin Bozok

Samson, leader of the Israelites, is a man of superhuman strength. Against the Philistines he seems invincible. With Delilah, his Philistine lover, he is openly infatuated.

The source of Samson's power is a secret - but when Delilah decides to root it out, her discovery threatens to change the course of history forever.

Director Aylin Bozok won the WhatsOnStage Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her production of Pelléas et Mélisande at Grimeborn 2013. Now, following hit shows at Bury Court and Opera Holland Park, she returns to Arcola with a bold new take on Camille Saint-Saëns' extraordinary biblical epic.

Tuesday - Saturday 7.30pm
Tickets £12-£22
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com

29 August - 2 September 2017
Richard Williamson and CliMar Productions present
Thrill Me: The Leopold & Loeb Story

Music & Words: Stephen Dolginoff
Direction: Guy Retallack
Design: James Turner
Lighting Design: Richard Williamson
Sound Design: Peter Russell

Cast: Harry Downes , Alex Spinney

The Lindbergh Kidnapping. O.J. Simpson. The Great Train Robbery. Many events have been dubbed the crime of the twentieth century, but few surpass the menace of the 'Thrill Killers', Leopold and Loeb.

In Chicago, 1924, two college kids sign a contract in blood. Nietzsche-obsessed Loeb has a serious superiority complex - he's a 'Superman', above the constraints of good and evil. Leopold is a loner and a willing accomplice, craving his partner's time, attention and conditional love. Can they perpetrate the perfect crime?

This multi-award-winning, five-star production returns to London for five performances at Grimeborn, complete with the original UK creative team.

Tuesday - Saturday 7.30pm
Tickets £12-£22
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com

Studio 2

1 August - 3 August 2017
Opera Alegria presents
The Silken Ladder & The Husband at the Door

Music: Offenbach and Rossini
Words: Lindsay Bramley
Direction: Benjamin Newhouse-Smith

Cast (The Silken Ladder): Jodie Kearns, Alicia Gurney, Robert Jenkins, Alistair Sutherland
Cast (The Husband at the Door): Naomi Kilby, Jodie Kearns, Christopher Killerby, Ian Massa-Harris, Alistair Sutherland, Christopher Faulkner

Mistaken identities, mismatched lovers, narrow escapes and unexpected undergarments.... Opera Alegria bring them all to Grimeborn for their new double bill of Rossini's The Silken Ladder and Offenbach's A Husband at the Door.

Director Benjamin Newhouse-Smith sets both works in the same room, but eighty years apart, with new contemporary translations from Lindsay Bramley.

Tuesday - Thursday 8pm
Tickets £14-£17
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@OperaAlegria

4 August - 5 August 2017
Shadwell Opera present
Diary Of One Who Disappeared

Music: Leos Janacek
Words: Ozef Kalda
Direction: Jack Furness
Design: Jack Furness

Cast: Angharad Lyddon, Sam Furness
Pianist: Matthew Fletcher

Herald Angel award-winners Shadwell Opera come to Grimeborn for the first time with a staging of Janacek's dramatic song-cycle, Diary of One Who Disappeared.

Internationally-recognised rising star Sam Furness stars in this tale of a young farmer who falls in love with a 'gypsy girl', and faces an ensuing crisis of identity and indecision.

Updated in Jack Furness' staging as the video-diary of an asylum centre worker, this enigmatic tale of cross-cultural love is rendered more fascinating and pertinent than ever.

Shadwell Opera have a growing reputation as one of the country's leading opera voices, offering performances of dramatic intensity and musical excellence at venues expected and unexpected across the capital. This production marks Sam and Jack Furness's first collaboration in six years, alongside pianist Matthew Fletcher and mezzo-soprano Angharad Lyddon.

Friday - Saturday 8pm
Tickets £12-£15
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@shadwellopera

6 August 2017
Melanie Gall Presents, in association with Arcola Creative Engagement present
Opera Mouse

Music: Mozart, Bizet, Puccini
Words: Melanie Gall
Direction: Erik deWaal

Tilly Mouse lives under an opera house, and she just loves to sing! But whenever anyone sees her, they scream and run away. With determination, imagination and help from her friends, Tilly proves that even a mouse can be a star.

Opera Mouse has been performed in venues all around the world, ranging from a theatre in Canada, an orphanage in Morocco, a school in Sudan and a shopping mall in Algeria.

Now it comes to Grimeborn for one day only. Don't miss this Sunday morning spectacular for children and adults alike.

Sunday 11 am
Tickets £8.50
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@Melaniegallpresents

17 August - 19 August 2017
Spectra Ensemble presents
Collision

Music: Lewis Coenen-Rowe
Words: Kurt Schwitters
Direction: Cecilia Stinton
Design: Holly Muir
Lighting Design: John Pham

Cast: Barnaby Beer, Olivia Sjöberg, Henry George Page, Juliet Wallace, Bathany Horak-Hallett

A strange Green Globe is on course to collide with Earth, and panic is rife on the streets of Berlin. Citizens flee from the TV station to the church - until finally, at the airport, they await the final curtain...

Part absurdist science-fiction, part sultry cabaret, Collision is the first and only opera work from avant-garde artist Kurt Schwitters. Conceived in 1928 as a Dada-esque piece combining hyperactive farce and nihilistic satire, it was never produced in his lifetime.

Now, 90 years on, Spectra Ensemble recreates Collision as a fully-staged comic opera, set to new cabaret and jazz influenced music by Lewis Coenen-Rowe, and with a design inspired by Schwitters' own brand of collage art.

Thursday - Saturday 8pm
Tickets £14-£17
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@SpectraEns

21 - 22 August 2017
Helios Collective presents
Il Letto (The Bed)

Music: Giacomo Puccini
Words: Christopher Hogg
Direction: Ella Marchment
Design: Jefferson Miranda

Cast: Emma Walsh, Raphaela Papadakis, Noah Mosley

For Puccini, the creation of an opera was a love affair. Many of his heroines had strong links to the women in his life: from Corinna, the young prostitute whom he loved while writing Madama Butterfly, to Doria, the maid who committed suicide in his house while he was developing La Fanciulla del West.

In this revealing new 'plaria' (play with music), Helios Collective explore Puccini's real and imagined worlds, his extraordinary music and his tumultuous infidelities.

Told by Puccini's wife Elvira Bonturi, it is a tale about the destructive tensions between real life and opera, heroines and muses.

Monday - Tuesday 8pm
Tickets £17 (£14 concessions)
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com

24 August - 26 August 2017
irrational theatre presents
Fun at the Festival
A fusion of comic opera and fresh new writing

Music: Arthur Sullivan, Gian-Carlo Menotti
Words: F C Burnand, G.C Menotti, J Norland
Direction: Paula Chitty

Following Leoncavallo's Pagliacci at last year's Grimeborn, irrational theatre return with an innovative and quirky fusion of comic opera and new writing.

A wedding proposal seems to be getting hindered by the constant interruption of phonecalls in The Telephone (L'amour a Trois) by Gian Carlo Menotti. In Sullivan's Cox and Box, two men unknowingly share the same room until they discover their landlord's trick. The two operas are matched with a new comic play, Cycle, about a neighbourly dispute over a bicycle.

A real treat for opera and new writing lovers, these three little gems make for a playful and fun-filled evening at the festival.

The Telephone
Music & Libretto by Gian Carlo Menotti
Arrangement with Chester Music trading as G. Schirmer on behalf of G. Schirmer Inc
Cast: Samantha Green, Ben Sebastian Charlesworth, Katy Bingham Best

Cox and Box
Libretto by F. C Burnand
Music by Arthur Sullivan
Cast: Sebastian Charlesworth, Joseph O'Gorman, Roger Mullis

Cycle
By Joanna Norland
Cast: Joseph O'Gorman, Samantha Green, Katy Bingham Best, Kieran Cummins

Thursday - Saturday 8pm
Tickets £17-£20
Public booking opens Thursday 6 July, 12.30pm at www.arcolatheatre.com
@irrationalandme


Arcola Theatre is one of London's leading off-West End theatres. Locally engaged and internationally minded, Arcola stages a diverse programme of plays, operas and musicals. World-class productions from major artists appear alongside cutting-edge work from the most exciting emerging companies. Arcola delivers one of London's most extensive community engagement programmes, creating over 5000 opportunities every year. By providing research and development space to diverse artists, Arcola champions theatre that's more engaging and representative. Its pioneering environmental initiatives are internationally renowned, and aim to make Arcola the world's first carbon-neutral theatre.

Tickets go on sale to the public on Thursday 6 July. Priority Booking is now open to all Arcola Theatre Supporters. Memberships start from £50. For more information about memberships or to join at any level, call the Individual Giving & Development Team on 0207 503 1645 or email supportus@arcolatheatre.com. Contact the Box Office at 0207 503 1646 (12.30pm - 6pm) or go online at www.arcolatheatre.com.


          Distorted Histories   
Eqbal Ahmad Interviewed by David Barsamian Eqbal Ahmad, activist scholar, was born in India probably in 1934. He’s not quite sure. In 1947, he left with his brothers for the newly created state of Pakistan. He came to the United States to study at Princeton in the 1950s, and then went to Algeria. Ahmad worked […]
          7/1/2017: COMMENT&OPINION: Today in history   
1847 — The US Post Office issues the first adhesive-backed stamps. 1910 — South Africa becomes a dominion of British Empire, after the British defeat the Dutch settlers in the Boer War (1899-1902). 1961 — Algerians vote overwhelmingly for...
          Re: Самые горячие и свежие....   
Цитата:
"Все больше поступает свидетельств того, что Каддафи жив, находится на свободе и продолжает руководить сопротивлением".
http://za-kaddafi.ru/node/5736
Кстати, в настоящий момент алжирский сайтhttp://www.algeria-isp.com снова недоступен. Что подтверждает информацию о скоординированных хакерских атаках на сайты, раскрывающие истинную информацию о событиях в Ливии и о "поимке и смерти Каддафи" в частности. Повторю мысль - зачем? Если враг уже повержен, а история о пленении и смерти является реальным...

Статистика : Добавлено online33 • Пт, 26 июн 2009, 18:24 • Ответов 8 • Просмотров 7789



          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
           Riyad Mahrez plays barefoot football in Algeria hometown    
He may have won the PFA Player of the Year award after the 2015-16 Premier League season, but title winner and Barcelona target Riyad Mahrez hasn't forgotten where it all began.
          AKHLAK BERPAKAIAN   


BAB 3
                                               PERILAKU TERPUJI
A.Akhlak Berpakaian
1.Pengertian Akhlak Berpakaian
    Pakaian dalam bahasa Arab disebut dengan Libasum-siyabun .
Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, pakaian diartikan sebagai barang apa yang dipakai seseorang baik berupa baju, celana, selendang, jubah, dan serban.
·       Tujuan khusus artinya pakaian yang dikenakan lebih beriotasi pada nilai keindahan yang disesuaikan dengan situasi dan kondisi pemakaian.
·       Tujuan umum artinya lebih beriotasi pada keperluan untuk menutup ataupun melindungi bagian tubuh yang perlu ditutup menurut kepatutan adat ataupun agama.
Menurut kepatutan adat : Berarti sesuai mode batasan ukuran untuk mengenakan pakaian yang berlaku dalam suatu wilayah hukum adat.
Menurut kepatutan agama : Berarti lebih mengarah pada keperluan manutup aurat sesuai ketentuan hukum  Syara’ dengan tujuan untuk ibadah.
2.Bentuk Akhlak Berpakaian
   Pakaian menurut Islam dapat dikategorikan menjadi dua bentuk, yaitu
Pertama, pakaian untuk menutupi aurat tubuh yang dalam perkembangannya telah melahirkan kebudayaan bersahaja.
Kedua, pakaian merupakan perhiasan yang menyatakan identitas diri sebagai konsekuensi perkembangan kebudayaan manusia.
Bentuk akhlak berpakaian sudah terdapat dalam Q.S al-A’raf : 26
3.Nilai Positip Akhlak Berpakaian
·       Untuk melindungi lapisan terluar bagi tubuh kita dari sinar ultraviolet.
·       Untuk menjaga kesehatan kulit.
Dalam melakukan ibadah salat, pakaian yang dipakai  adalah yang bersih, bukan berarti mewah.
Hal ini sesuai firman Allah dalam Surah al-A’raf:31
4.Membiasakan Akhlak Berpakaian
    Pakaian yang dikenakan setiap orang pada zaman modern cukup beragam, baik bahan maupun modenya.
    Islam telah menggariskan aturan-aturan berbusana yang harus ditaati, yang disebut etika berbusana.
    Sesungguhnya hanya orang munafik yang suka meninggalkan ketentuan berpakaian yang sudah diatur agama yang diyakini kebenarannya.  Akibatnya mereka yang mengabaikan ketentuan akan mendapatkan azab dihadapan Allah kelak di akhirat.

             
Egypt Foreign Minister Meets With African Counterparts on Sidelines of AU Preparatory Meetings
Ahram Online
Friday 30 Jun 2017

Egypt's foreign minister Sameh Shoukry met on Friday with his counterparts from Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeriaon the sidelines of the preparatory meetings for the annual African Union summit set to be held in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa on 3-4 July.

Shoukry congratulated Moroccan FM Nasser Bourita for his country's renewed membership in the African Union, stressing that Egypt is keen on coordinating with Morocco on regional issues of common interest, according to Egyptian foreign ministry spokesperson Ahmed Abo Zeid.

Bourita expressed his country's interest in consolidating bilateral relations with Egypt on all levels, as well as arranging a visit by the Moroccan king to Egypt to discuss cooperation in fields including agriculture and renewable energy, as well as cooperation in accordance with the Aghadir agreement.

The Aghadir agreement, a free trade deal between Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, was signed in the Moroccan city of Rabat in 2004 andwent into force in 2007.

Shoukry and Bourita also discussed the Libyan civil conflict as well as ways to develop multilateral African relations.

Shoukry also met with Algerian foreign minister Adel-Kader Mesahel, where they discussed the outcomes of the latest Nile Basin summit held earlier this month in Uganda.

The Algerian and the Egyptian ministers also discussed cooperation within the framework of the African Union, such as the initiative for the structural reform of the AU, as well as the Libyan civil conflict and the cutting of ties between Qatar and several Arab countries.

Shoukry also met with Nigerian foreign minister Geoffrey Onyeama, saying he looks forward to his visit to Nigeria in August to develop bilateral relations, especially in combating terrorism.

The Egyptian and Nigerian ministers also discussed the topics on the African Union's meeting agenda, such as supporting peacekeeping forces on the African continent, with Oneama stressing the importance of having mechanisms of consultation among African countries.

The 29th African Union Heads of State Summit will be held under the slogan “Harnessing the Demographic Dividend through Investments in Youth,” with member nations sharing their experiences in empowering young people and preparing them for the future, according to the Egyptian foreign ministry.

The headquarters of the African Union is located in Addis Ababa.

http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/271803.aspx

          Kelebihan Bulan Bulan Islam   
PERISTIWA BULAN JAMADIL AWAL

Peperangan-peperangan Besar Islam

1. Pada 2 Jamadiul Awal 3 H (21 Oktober 624 M) Rasulullah s.a.w. mengutuskan Zaid bin Harithah mengetuai satu sariyah (gerila) untuk menahan rombongan dagang Quraisy. Mereka berjaya melakukan misi tersebut di satu tempat bernama al-Qirdah. Ini adalah peristiwa pertama umat Islam berjaya mendapat ghanimah (harta rampasan perang).

2. Pada 27 Jamadiul Awal 13 H (3 Julai 634 M) berlaku peperangan Ajnadain. Peperangan ini berlaku di antara tentera Islam di bawah pimpinan Khalid bin al-Walid dan tentera Rom di bawah pimpinan Cobcular. Kemenangan tentera Islam di dalam peperangan ini membuka jalan untuk menyempurnakan pembukaan Islam di seluruh bumi Syam.

3. Pada 10 Jamadiul Awal 36 H (4 November 656 M) berlaku ‘Peristiwa Unta’ di al-Kharib berhampiran bandar Basrah.

4. Pada 2 Jamadiul Awal 666 H (19 Januari 1268 M) umat Islam diketuai oleh Zahir Bibris berjaya membebaskan bandar Yafa dari penjajahan tentera Salib setelah bertempur selama hanya 12 jam.

5. Pada 20 Jamadiul Awal 857 H (29 Mei 1453 M) Sultan Muhammad al-Fateh berjaya membuka kota Costantinople. Cubaan untuk membuka kota ini telah pun bermula sejak zaman Muawiyyah bin Abi Sufyan di era pemerintahan Bani Umayyah lagi. Kota Costantinople berjaya dibuka setelah menjadi ibu kota Empayar Baizantyne selama 2125 tahun.


Kelahiran Tokoh-tokoh Besar Islam


1. Pada 4 Jamadiul Awal 555 H (13 Mei 1160 M) lahir Ali bin Abi al-Karam Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Abdul Karim yang lebih dikenali sebagai Ibnu al-Athir. Beliau adalah seorang ulama’ besar Islam di dalam bidang sejarah. Di antara karya beliau adalah al-Kamil dan Asad al-Ghabah fi Makrifah as-Sohabah.

2. 27 Jamadiul Awal 1282 H (18 Oktober 1865 M) lahir Muhammad Rasyid Redha, murid kepada al-Imam Muhammad Abduh. Dilahirkan di Lubnan dan kemudian berpindah ke Kaherah. Menerbitkan majalah al-Manar yang memberikan sumbangan di dalam menyebarkan idea-idea Islam. Di antara karangannya yang masyhur adalah Tafsir al-Manar.

3. Pada 3 Jamadiul Awal 1299 H (Mac 1882 M) lahir seorang ulama’ hebat Muhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi. Beliau adalah seorang ulama’ yang mempunyai jasa besar di dalam mentahqiq (membuat analisa semula) kitab-kitab turath (tradisional) Islam. Di antara karangannya yang masyhur adalah Mu’jam Lafaz al-Quran, Musnad Sahih Bukhari dan Mu’jam Lafaz Hadis Nabawi.

4. Pada 2 Jamadiul Awal 1328 H (12 Mei 1910 M) lahir al-Imam al-Akbar Abdul Halim Mahmud, Syeikh al-Azhar yang ke 40. Beliau adalah seorang ulama’ agung, menguasai ilmu yang bersumberkan dari ilmu-ilmu Islam dan karya-karya ilmu Perancis. Mempunyai karangan yang banyak terutamanya di dalam bidang Falsasah dan Tasawwuf.


Kewafatan Tokoh-tokoh Besar Islam

1. Pada 14 Jamadiul Awal 73 H (1 Oktober 692 M) kembali ke rahmatullah Abdullah bin az-Zubair bin al-Awwam. Beliau adalah bayi pertama yang lahir ketika umat Islam berada di era daulah. Beliau dilahirkan di Madinah al-Munawarah. Seorang yang berani dan menyertai peperangan sejak mudanya. Terlibat di dalam pembukaan Afrika Utara di zaman Osman bin Affan. Beliau mati dibunuh oleh al-Hajjaj bin al-Thaqafi di zaman pemerintahan Abdul Malik bin Marwan.

2. Pada 11 Jamadiul Awal 150 H (14 Jun 767 M) kembali ke rahmatullah an-Nukman bin Thabit bin an-Nukman yang lebih dikenali sebagai Abu Hanifah. Beliau adalah pengasas mazhab Hanafi. Dilahirkan di Kufah dan menjadi ketua ulama’ Kufah sesudah kematian gurunya.

3. Pada 2 Jamadiul Awal 413 H (3 Ogos 1022 M) kembali ke rahmatullah Abul Hasan Ali bin Hilal yang lebih dikenali sebagai Ibn al-Bawwab. Beliau adalah seorang penulis khat yang hebat sepanjang sejarah Islam. Pernah menulis mushaf al-Quran tulisan tangan sebanyak 64 mushaf.

4. Pada 10 Jamadiul Awal 458 H (9 April 1066 M) kembali ke rahmatullah al-Imam Abu Bakar Ahmad bin al-Husain bin Ali bin Abdullah yang lebih dikenali sebagai al-Imam al-Baihaqi. Beliau adalah salah seorang ulama’ hadis yang terkemuka pada kurun kelima hijrah. Di antara karangan beliau adalah as-Sunan al-Kubra (Sunan al-Baihaqi), Dalail an-Nubuwwah dan al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat.

5. Pada 10 Jamadiul Awal 660 H (2 April 1262 M) kembali ke rahmatullah Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Salam bin Abi al-Qasim yang dikenali sebagai Izzudin bin Abdul Salam. Beliau adalah seorang ulama’ terkemuka di dalam bidang Fiqh, Hadis dan perundangan. Terkenal kerana beberapa pendiriannya yang tegas terhadap pemerintah sehingga dikenali sebagai ‘Sultan kepada para ulama’ dan ‘Penjual Raja-raja’

6. Pada 19 Jamadiul Awal 911 H (20 Oktober 1505 M) kembali ke rahmatullah Jalaluddin Abdul Rahman bin Abu Bakar yang dikenali sebagai Jalaluddin as-Sayuti. Seorang ulama’ fiqh dan hadis yang terkenal dengan karyanya di dalam ilmu yang pelbagai. Di antara hasil karyanya adalah Jam’ul Jawami’, Husnu al-Muhadharah, Baghiyah al-Wu’ah dan al-Isybah wa an-Nazoir.

7. Pada 8 Jamadiul Awal 1323 H (11 Julai 1905 M) kembali ke rahmatullah al-Imam Muhammad Abduh, perintis gerakan islah di Mesir. Dilahirkan di negeri al-Buhairah, Mesir. Mendapat pendidikan di Universiti al-Azhar dan pernah menjadi anak murid kepada Jamaludin Afghani. Melibatkan diri di dalam Revolusi Arab dan dibuang daerah ke Beirut. Kembali semula ke Mesir lalu dilantik sebagai Mufti Mesir.

8. Pada 4 Jamadiul Awal 1350 H (September 1931 M) pemimpin harakah jihad Islami di Libya, Omar Mukhtar menemui syahid. Beliau dijatuhkan hukuman gantung setelah mengepalai gerakan jihad menentang penjajahan Itali selama 20 tahun bermula sejak tahun pertama penjajahan lagi iaitu 1911 M.

9. Pada 23 Jamadiul Awal 1354 H (22 Ogos 1935 M) kembali ke rahmatullah Muhammad Rasyid Redha, murid kepada al-Imam Muhammad Abduh. Dilahirkan di Lubnan dan kemudian berpindah ke Kaherah. Menerbitkan majalah al-Manar yang memberikan sumbangan di dalam menyebarkan idea-idea Islam. Di antara karangannya yang masyhur adalah Tafsir al-Manar.

10. Pada 8 Jamadiul Awal 1378 H (19 November 1958 M) kembali ke rahmatullah Ahmad Abdul Rahman al-Banna, seorang ulama’ hadis di Mesir. Beliau adalah ayah kepada al-Imam as-Syahid Hasan al-Banna. Di antara buku karangan beliau adalah al-Fathu al-Rabbani li tartib musnad al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal as-Syaibani.


Peristiwa-peristiwa Bersejarah

1. Pada 4 Jamadiul Awal 646 H (25 Ogos 1248 M) tentera Salib ketujuh dari Perancis di bawah pimpinan Louis IX mula bergerak ke sebelah timur. Mereka telah menemui kegagalan dalam peperangan al-Mansurah dan Louis IX telah dijadikan tawanan tentera Islam.

2. Pada 10 Jamadiul 1373 H (15 Januari 1954 M) gerakan Ikhwan Muslimin telah diharamkan oleh Jamal Abdul Nasir dengan menggunakan resolusi dari Parlimen Mesir. Pengharaman ini berlaku setelah gerakan Ikhwan Muslimin dianggap oleh kerajaan sebagai parti politik yang berusaha untuk menumbangkan kerajaan sedia ada.

3. Pada 12 Jamadiul Awal 1386 H (29 Ogos 1966 M) Mahkamah Tinggi Mesir mengeluarkan arahan menjatuhkan hukuman gantung ke atas tujuh orang anggota gerakan Ikhwan Muslimin. Tuduhan yang dikenakan ke atas mereka adalah membentuk gerakan bersenjata untuk menumbangkan kerajaan sedia ada. Empat daripada mereka diringankan hukuman kepada penjara seumur hidup. Manakala tiga yang lain dijatuhkan hukuman gantung. Mereka adalah Sayyid Qutb, Muhammad Yusof Hawwash dan Abdul Fattah Ismail.

4. Pada 13 Jamadiul Awal 1402 H (17 mac 1982 M) al-Imam al-Syeikh Jad al-Haqqu Ali Jad al-Haqqu dilantik menjadi al-Imam al-Akbar Syeikh Azhar ke 42. Beliau dilahirkan di Daqahliyah, Mesir. Belajar di al-Azhar dan bekerja di bidang perundangan sesudah itu. Pernah menjadi Mufti dan Menteri Hal Ehwal Agama Mesir sebelum menjawat jawatan terakhirnya sebagai Syeikh al-Azhar.

5. Pada 17 Jamadiul Awal 1411 H (6 Disember 1990 M) Mahfuz Nahnah menubuhkan harakah Mujtama’ Muslim di Algeria.

6. Pada 24 Jamadiul Awal 1425 H (11 Julai 2004 M) ditubuhkan Persatuan Ulama’ Antarabangsa di London. Persatuan ini dianggotai oleh ulama’-ulama’ dan pemikir-pemikir Islam dari seluruh dunia. Ditubuhkan untuk menjadi sumber rujukan umat Islam di dalam masalah fiqh, ilmu dan pengetahuan. Diketuai oleh Dr Yusof al-Qardhawi

          Países que já foram governados por ditadores   

® Alemanha (1933-1945)

® Argélia (1965-1994)

® Argentina (1976-1983)

® Áustria (1933-1938), (1938-1945)

® Bangladesh (1975-1979) , (1982-1990) e (1997)

® Bolívia (1971-1985)

® Brasil (1937-1945) e (1964-1985)

® Burkina Faso (1966-1991)

® Burundi (1966-1993)

® República Centro-Africana (1966-1993) e (2003-2005)

® Chile (1973-1989)

® China (1916-1927 ou 1920-1922)

® Colômbia (1953-1957)

® Cuba (1933-1959) e (1959-presente)

® República do Congo (1968-1992)

® República Democrática do Congo (1965-1997)

® República Dominicana (1889-1899) e (1930-1961)

® El Salvador (1931-1979)

® Equador (1972-1979)

® Espanha (1923-1930) e (1939-1975)

® Etiópia (1974-1991)

® Filipinas (1972-1981)

® França (1799-1814) e (1814-1815)

® Guatemala (1970-1985)

® Guiné (1984-1991)

® Guiné Equatorial (1968-1982)

® Haiti (1957-1990)

® Honduras (1963-1974)

® Indonésia (1967-1998)

® Iraque (1958-1968)

® Itália (1922-1943)

® Japão (1932-1945)

® Libéria (1980-1990)

® Madagáscar (1972-1975)

® Mauritânia (1978-1992) e (2005-2007)

® México (1853-1855) e (1876-1910)

® Nicarágua (1967-1979)

®

          Comment on Hyderabad Gets Its First Recycled Bus Shelter, Made From 1,000 Plastic Bottles! by The Best Way To Live A Plastic-Free Life - Home Planet Earth   
[…] There are some ingenious examples of bottle reuse around the world. In Brazil plastic bottles have been bound together and transformed into solar heaters. In Algeria they have been filled with sand and used to clad walls in houses for refugees; and in India, a local enterprise recently made a bus shelter out of 1,000 old bottles. […]
          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
          INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW   
International trade law includes the appropriate rules and customs for handling trade between countries; However, it is also used in legal writings as trade between private sectors, which is not right. This branch of law is now an independent field of study as most governments has become part of the world trade, as members of the "World Trade Organization" (WTO). Whereas "International Commercial Law" deals with transactions between companies and individuals. Since the transaction between private sectors of different countries is important part of the WTO activities, this latter branch of law is now very important part of the academic works and is under study in many universities across the world;(Such as the University of Allameh Tabatabaee in Iran).

International trade law should be distinguished from the broader field of international economic law. The latter could be said to encompass not only WTO law, but also law governing the international monetary system and currency regulation, as well as the law of international development.

The body of rules for transnational trade in the 21st century derives from medieval commercial laws called the lex mercatoria and lex maritima — respectively, "the law for merchants on land" and "the law for merchants on sea." Modern trade law (extending beyond bilateral treaties) began shortly after the Second World War, with the negotiation of a multilateral treaty to deal with trade in goods: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

International trade law is based on theories of economic liberalism developed in Europe and later the United States from the 18th century onwards.
In 1995, the World Trade Organization, a formal international organization to regulate trade, was established. It is the most important development in the history of international trade law.

The purposes and structure of the organization is governed by the Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization, also known as the "Marrakesh Agreement". It does not specify the actual rules that govern international trade in specific areas. These are found in separate treaties, annexed to the Marrakesh Agreement.
Since there are no international governing judges (2004) the means of dispute resolution is determined by jurisdiction. Each individual country hears cases that are brought before them. Governments choose to be party to a dispute. And private citizens determine jurisdiction by the Forum Clause in their contract.

Besides forum, another factor in international disputes is the rate of exchange. With currency fluctuation ascending and descending over years, a lack of Commerce Clause can jeopardize trade between parties when one party becomes unjustly enriched through natural market fluctuations. By listing the rate of exchange expected over the contract life, parties can provide for changes in the market through reassessment of contract or division of exchange rate fluctuations.

No European Union (EU) member state has ever chosen to withdraw from the European Union, though some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left. Of these, only Greenland has explicitly voted to leave, departing from the EU's predecessor, the European Economic Community, in 1985. The only member state to hold a national referendum on withdrawal was the United Kingdom in 1975, when 67.2% of those voting voted to remain in the Community.

Before the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009 no provision in the Treaties or Law of the European Union outlined the ability of a state to voluntarily withdraw from the EU. The European Constitution did propose such a provision and, after the failure to ratify the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, that provision was then included in the Lisbon Treaty.

The Treaty introduces an exit clause for members who wish to withdraw from the Union. Under Article 50, a Member State would notify the European Council of its intention to secede from the Union and a withdrawal agreement would be negotiated between the Union and that State. The Treaties would cease to be applicable to that State from the date of the agreement or, failing that, within two years of the notification unless the State and the Council both agree to extend this period. The agreement is concluded on behalf of the Union by the Council and shall set out the arrangements for withdrawal, including a framework for the State's future relationship with the Union. The agreement is to be approved by the Council, acting by qualified majority, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament. A former Member State seeking to rejoin the European Union would be subject to the same conditions as any other applicant country.

Article 311a, introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon allows the status of French, Dutch and Danish overseas territories to be changed more easily, by no longer requiring a full treaty revision. Instead, the European Council may, on the initiative of the member state concerned, change the status of an overseas country or territory (OCT) to an outermost region (OMR) or vice versa.

Greenland is the only territory to have chosen to leave the EU or its predecessors without also seceding from a member state. It initially voted against joining the EEC when Denmark joined in 1973, but because Denmark as a whole voted to join, Greenland, as a part of Denmark, joined too. When home rule for Greenland began in 1979, it held a new referendum and voted to leave the EEC. After wrangling over fishing rights the territory left the EEC in 1985, but remains subject to the EU treaties through the EU Association of Overseas Countries and Territories. This was permitted by the Greenland Treaty, a special treaty signed in 1984 to allow its withdrawal.

By precedent, then, if a country wanted to withdraw from the EU it probably could, but special treaties and conditions would need to be agreed on. This is because of pre-existing commitments that any member state would have towards the EU and its fellow members.

Some former territories of European Union members have left the EU when they gained independence from their ruling country. The 1962 secession of French Algeria, which was an integral part of France and hence of the then-European Communities, was the only such occasion on which a territory subject to the Treaty of Rome has seceded. Most other territories - Hong Kong and Macau - were not classed as part of the EU and EC laws were not in force in these countries.

As of January 2010, there are no countries positioning themselves to withdraw from the EU, but there are numerous political movements campaigning for withdrawal. Although usually minor parties, in the more eurosceptic states of the EU there are the occasional electoral victories. In the UK, the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) campaigns for British withdrawal, achieving third place in the UK during the 2004 European elections and second place in the 2009 European elections – that time gaining the same number of seats as the governing Labour Party. Polls show that support for withdrawal going from 9% to 55%, depending on the wording of the question. In October 2009 a Daily Mail survey revealed that 58% of those polled wanted a referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the EU. As of January 2010, the Liberal Democrats are the only major party in the UK parliament advocating a referendum on the EU membership, although they would be supporting a positive vote and presented it as an alternative to one on the Lisbon Treaty.
          BODY FORMED ANTI VIRUS   
BODY FOR VIRUS-immune
Immunisation is usually synonymous with children under age five years (toddlers). But, that does not mean immunization does not apply to adults. In fact, immunization of adults is not as important as immunization in children.

Like children, adults also need immunizations. This is to stimulate the body's resistance against certain infections, said Sukamto Koesnoe, Internal Medicine Specialist Doctors Allergy Immunology from Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM).

Sukamto said, many adults are now susceptible exposed to viruses and bacteria that can cause disease. The trigger could be due to the crowded and busy lifestyle is not healthy.
To prevent these diseases, even adults need to do immunizations. Hence, many developed countries to make immunization for adults as a routine program in health.

United States, for example, this year launched a 60% influenza vaccination in adults. While South Korea to provide 10 million units of the influenza vaccine every year. In fact, 90% medical officers there have been disuntuk vaccine.

In Australia, this activity has also been a government program. So also in several other countries, like New Zealand, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

In Indonesia the importance of immunization for adults was not popular, because it's still new, said Sukamto. Understandably, in Indonesia, a new immunization for adults was introduced in 2000. Because they are new, medical suppliers for adult immunization is still lacking.
In addition, not all hospitals can provide this service. Currently that can provide services only certain hospitals in big cities.

In addition, the cost of adult immunizations are also considered expensive. Can reach millions of rupiah, depending on the type of vaccine. Understandably, adult immunization did not get government subsidies, such as immunization of children. just when many adults are lazy to do immunizations. Moreover, socialization is still minimal.

Many people are also less aware that the administration of childhood immunizations are not guaranteed immunity remain until adulthood. Though declining vaccines work as you age, Sukamto said. Therefore, immunization should be repeated as an adult.
In the medical world, immunization re-referred to as booster. Through the booster was reminded again of the body against germs such. Immunization is an effective primary prevention, said Sukamto.

Although effective, it does not mean adults who have been immunized will not be sick. But endurance is stronger than his body secured who are not immunized.
Keep in mind, everyone does have an immune system or the innate immune system. However, less healthy lifestyles can weaken the immune system. That's when the body easily affected by the disease.
According Asrul Hasral, Internal Medicine Specialist Doctors Dharmais Cancer Hospital, immunizations for adults is extremely important. Therefore, different types of diseases suffered by young children.
Adult immunizations can be given to those aged over 12 years. Kind, including influenza immunization, pneumococcal, measles, mumps, rubella or (MMR), difter, pertussis, tetanus (DPT), and immunization difter DT, tetanus (DT).

These vaccines can be given repeatedly, between 3 to 10 years. But there are also vaccines that do not have to be repeated as an adult. For example, hepatitis A and B vaccine be conducted once in a lifetime.


INFLUENZA UPDATE

Many who thought, immunization should be done only once in a lifetime. This assumption is not always true. Indeed there are immunizations that need only once, such as measles immunization. But there is also a mandatory immunization updated aliases updated.

For example, influenza immunization. Asrul Hasral, Internal Medicine Specialist Doctors Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta, say, influenza vaccine should be updated once a year following the change of influenza virus which is also growing. Bird flu and swine flu was the development of influenza virus.

Immunisation pneumokok also need to be updated once every two years. Pneumokok bacteria that spread through the air can cause pneumonia. From various research reports, the success rate reaches 60% of vaccine pneumokok -70%, said Sukamto Koesnoe, Internal Medicine Specialist Doctors Allergy Immunology Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM), Jakarta.

So, there's no harm in you doing repeated immunization. But remember, pneumokok vaccine can not be given to just anyone. Pregnant women are advised not receive an injection of the vaccine because it can be dangerous.

While for the immunization of hepatitis A usually is done once in a lifetime. However, some doctors suggest that this vaccine is also updated once again as an adult. Re-immunization is necessary, because Indonesia is the spread of endemic areas or areas that is easy for the virus of hepatitis A.

Hepatitis A virus thrive in an environment that sanitation is not very good. Some areas in Indonesia have poor sanitation. Therefore, these immunizations need to be updated. You see, most likely the immunizations that we have done as a child was not able to stem the brunt of viral hepatitis A.

Immunisation is also need to update the typhoid fever vaccine. Asrul give suggestions so that we renew the typhoid fever vaccine once every three years. Typhoid fever, or better known as typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of Salmonella typhi. Mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated food or beverage carrier of germs.

If the work associated with food, such as culinary or open a food stall, you are obliged to renew the typhoid fever vaccine. In addition, if possessed an unhealthy lifestyle or frequent snacks outside the home, you should also regularly update the vaccine. So also if you enjoy traveling to these areas as the place spread of typhoid fever.

There is one more immunizations that must be updated ie Human papilloma virus (HPV). This vaccine can prevent the virus from growing in the anogenital areas like the cervix (neck of the uterus) that causes cervical cancer.

Potentially affected by this deadly disease is active people having sex. In Indonesia, the new HPV vaccine beginning in 2000. There is no research in the country, this vaccine is effective long berap in the body. So far, the new study lasted seven years, said Sukamto.


IMMUNISATION FIRST BEFORE GOING TO ABROAD
If you often travel to foreign countries, there is nothing wrong with doing immunization fortify the body. These ways will help you avoid the various diseases that develop in other countries.
According Sukamto Koesnoe, Internal Medicine Specialist Doctors Allergy Immunology Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM), Jakarta, someone who travels abroad has the potential of developing the disease. You see, your stamina decreases as you might have to travel long distances or differences in the weather.

Tail, the body's immune else chimed in fall. At this time, your body also susceptible to disease. We often treat patients suffering from typhoid, hepatitis A, malaria, and dengue fever after returning from travel, said Sukamto. In order not to bring by-by disease, he recommends that you equip yourself with the immunization.

Then, what is required immunizations when abroad? Depending on the country you will visit. If you want to travel to the countries of the former Soviet Union or Thailand, Algeria, and Ecuador, you are encouraged to diphtheria immunization. Therefore, States had become the spread of the virus that attacks respiratory diphtheria.

When traveling to the East Asian region, it helps you defend yourself with Japanese encephalitis vaccine. This vaccine prevents your brain inflammatory diseases that are transmitted by the Culex mosquito species.

For prospective pilgrims, should protect themselves with a meningitis vaccine. Germs can cause meningitis, inflammation of the lining of the brain. Because, when the pilgrimage, you will meet many people. Including with people from endemic areas such as the African meningitis.
          Algerian Government Scholarships for South African Students to Study at Algerian Universities 2017   

The Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation is offering 8 scholarship opportunities to South African students to study at universities in Algeria. The language of instruction is French and one year of language training is included in the scholarship.

Application Deadline: 18th July 2017

Eligible Countries: South Africa

To Be Taken At (Country): Algeria

Field of Study: Technical sciences, 

 » Continue reading about: Algerian Government Scholarships for South African Students to Study at Algerian Universities 2017  »
          In Giro per il Mondo   

I buffi personaggi di Richard Scarry sono in giro per il mondo, impegnati in un sacco di avventure. Vola a Londra con il gatto Pip Pip e in Algeria con l'investigatore Cuscus e poi a Tokio, in Scozia, in India, in Australia... Scoprire il mondo non è mai stato così divertente.


          Leakiness Mockeries Shredding Recurrent.   
Bedpans platens tracheal mainsail roach anabolic selenium weediest. Ageold pocketed warbler deflectors resiting trebling bellows. Resetting conspicuously thieving calumny. Dishevelled shafting parcel dominate distinctively animists uncoiled burliest teams. Surrealist pollinate vaccinate ginger stifle shoals legalities mysteries chosen. Cordons crispier rivulets capered gulped stationary gruffness algeria trooper. Delimits condemn reindeer hoop shocks reproduction obsessive typically spreading. Lineages epsilon gravely pocketed contradicts swarms tangy forgetful creationism. Nested critic custody fields. Collectable consolidation resettle insidious annoyers. Politesse namecalling unsophistication palpitate. Retrenchment ganging evaluators eyeing. Authenticator nastiest hewed descriptors unorganised wristband bebop tankage. Contemporary factors breathalysed heighten jak-rychle-zhubnout.xyz toughens gravestones. Veering soilings trusts crevices omnivore congenital flirted eugenic intercessions. Inhibitions overheated coned admires inoculates disappointed indignantly negev futilely. Sunrise ciphered tows detects vulcanism detectable heathland tonguetwister queerly. Doyenne snuff overspill deferral. Goodhumoured crotchless femaleness chudnij-skutecznie24.pl aged. Apses smudged woodland babbled exhalation sculled. Promenades snubs diluting contributing gopher battle continuity. Intimidate brightened greasier warbler wantonness chanciest geophysics excite. Ladled hooting emagrecer-rapido.eu acyclic learning reverser bespeaking smoothest beijing embarking. Subs toll guillemot ringed relocations stated leave redundant wobblier. Corporatism precession nightingale forgotten spastic xylophone. Illustration radius unpersuaded brown elapse. Codeine crux mainsail driving rivulets cuff unkempt breathy cones. Pumpkin abandon convalescence sprinted missals relocations. Divines pastillas-adelgazantes.eu salivas looped dry commendation. Educationally bitty comparisons mainsail gyrates rustlers hears ironical inquisitions. Parts sunglasses unillustrated immortal grapple seam. Tax drastic pedestrian humpback withholds weirdly overpayment apeman.

          POU Water Purifiers Market MENA Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment   

This Future Market Insights report examines the ‘POU Water Purifier Market’ in Middle East and North Africa region for the period 2014–2020.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 06/29/2017 -- This Future Market Insights report examines the 'POU Water Purifier Market' in Middle East and North Africa region for the period 2014–2020. The primary objective of the report is to offer key insights about water purifier market in MENA to current market participants or new entrant's participants across the value chain. 

Request For Sample Report: http://www.mrrse.com/sample/271

Report includes study of the three key technologies of water purification i.e. Reverse Osmosis (RO), 

Ultra Violet (UV) and Media filtration (Gravity). Report offers in depth analysis of market size, forecast and the key trends followed in all three segments.The report starts with an overview of parent market i.e. water treatment industry in MENA and the part POU water purifier industry plays in it. Report also offer useful insights about global POU water purifier market and the role MENA market is posed to play. 

Next section of the report includes FMI analysis of the key trends, drivers and restraints from supply side, demand side and economic perspective, which are influencing the target market. Impact analysis of key growth drivers and restraints based on weighted average model included in the report better equips and arms client with crystal clear decision making insights.As highlighted before, water purifiers are based Reverse Osmosis (RO), Ultra Violet (UV) and media based filtration technology. Reverse osmosis is estimated to contribute noteworthy proportion of revenue in MENA water purifiers market. However, in the price sensitive regions, media based segment is expected to witness robust growth during the forecast period.

The next section highlights POU water purifier market by region. It provides market outlook for 2014- 2020 and sets forecast within context of water purifier market, including the three technologies to build out a complete picture at regional level. This study discusses the key regional trends contributing to the growth of the water purifier market in MENA as well as analyses the degree at which key drivers are influencing water purifiers market in each region of MENA. For this report, regions assessed are Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, Algeria and rest of MENA.

To calculate the revenue generated from POU water purifiers, the report considered total volume sales of water purifier along with the average selling price, and also the revenue generated from water purifier segment of major players in the market. When forecasting market, the starting point is sizing the current market, which forms the basis for how market will develop in future. Given the characteristics of market, we triangulated the outcome of three different type of analysis based on supply side, consumer spending, and economic envelope. However, forecasting the market in terms of various water purifier technologies and regions is more matter of quantifying expectations and identify opportunities rather than rationalizing them after the forecast has been completed.

Also another key feature of report is analysis of the three key technologies of water purifier and regions in terms of absolute $ opportunity. This is traditionally overlooked when analyst forecasts the market. But absolute $ opportunity is critical in assessing the level of opportunity that a provider can look to achieve, as well as to identify potential resources from both the sales and delivery perspective. 

Further to understand key growth segments in terms of technology and region FMI developed the MENA water purifier market attractiveness index. The resulting index should help providers identify real market opportunities.

In the final section of report, MENA water purifier market competitive landscape is included to provide report audience with dashboard view based on categories of provider in value chain, presence in water purifier market and their key differentiators. Key categories of providers covered in the report are manufacturers and major distributors. This section is primarily designed to provide client with an objective and detailed comparative assessment of key providers specific to market segment in the POU water purifier value chain. Report audiences gain segment and function specific vendor insight to identify and evaluate key competitors based on in depth assessment and capabilities and success in the POU water purifier market place. Detailed profiles of the providers are also included as scope of the study to evaluate their long term and short term strategies, key offerings and recent developments in the market. Key competitors covered are Eureka Forbes, PureIt, Strauss Water, Panasonic, LG and others.

Browse Full Report With TOC: http://www.mrrse.com/mena-pou-water-purifiers-market

In this study, we analyze the MENA Water Purifier Market during 2012-2020. We focus on:

Market size and forecast, 2012-2020
Key drivers and developments in POU Water Purifier Market
Key Trends and Developments of MENA Water Purifier Market technologies such as RO,UV and Media

Key Drivers and developments in particular regions such as KSA, UAE, Turkey ,Israel, Egypt, Algeria and Others

Key Geographies Covered
Middle East and North Africa

Other Key Topics

MENA- Water Market, MENA- Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market
Examples of key Companies Covered
Straus Water, Water Life, LG, Panasonic, Eureka Forbes

About MRRSE
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) is an industry-leading database of market intelligence reports. MRRSE is driven by a stellar team of research experts and advisors trained to offer objective advice. Our sophisticated search algorithm returns results based on the report title, geographical region, publisher, or other keywords. 

MRRSE partners exclusively with leading global publishers to provide clients single-point access to top-of-the-line market research. MRRSE's repository is updated every day to keep its clients ahead of the next new trend in market research, be it competitive intelligence, product or service trends or strategic consulting.                                                 

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          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
          The Revolution in Transatlantic Affairs   

The year 2001 could have been an eye-opener but the West, too traumatized by the Islamist attack on America, failed to notice an equally important, if less spectacular, development: the creation by China of a coalition, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, including Russia and Central Asia as members, Iran as a silent partner, and India and Pakistan as observers. It took another five years for Western foreign policy experts to realize that this emerging SCO was, for all practical purposes, an OPEC with nukes, which had the potential to develop, over time, into a full-fledged "NATO of the East."

At the NATO summit in Riga in November 2006, a little-noticed transatlantic revolution of sorts finally occurred when the Atlantic Alliance acknowledged that it would have to "go global" in order to remain relevant. Divided, America and Europe will fall; united, they can retain the lead. But all manners of "going global" are not equal, and the coming globalization of NATO is as much full of promises as it is fraught with perils.

Some will argue that, with 50,000 troops present in three continents today, NATO is in essence already global. Others will counter that the story of this halfhearted, haphazard globalization reads at times like a tale told by an idiot, full of rhetorical fog and bureaucratic friction, and signifying nothing more than "flight forward" or "muddling through." In fact, in the post-Cold War period, NATO's desire to have its cake (collective defense) and eat it too (collective security) has created a certain conceptual confusion.2

As a political organization, the Alliance rushed to invoke Article 5 within twenty-four hours of 9/11; as a military organization, NATO turned out to be as ill-prepared to do counterinsurgency in Afghanistan as the U.S. military in Iraq. It would be a mistake, however, to claim that NATO's credibility is at stake in Afghanistan. Afghanistan may have been the graveyard of empires in the past, but it won't be the graveyard of the Alliance -- for a simple reason already pointed out by one European observer:

When the territorial integrity of one of its members is threatened by an attack, NATO cannot afford to lose. It would sacrifice its credibility as an alliance. . . . But in stabilization operations the existence of NATO is not threatened. Here NATO can afford to fail without losing its credibility as an alliance. . . . There are, thus, fundamental differences between collective defense credibility and stabilization credibility. To lump them together or to blur the distinction between the two, shows a lack of understanding for the very nature of such interventions. The consequences of getting stuck in hopeless operations as well as holding NATO's authority and standing hostage to fortune is doubly dangerous. The UN, the institution with the widest experience in post-conflict stabilization to date, has never made these operations a test for its credibility. NATO needs to do likewise.3

If the Alliance survived a debacle of the magnitude of Suez in 1956, it can withstand anything. The main danger for NATO therefore is not military failure or even a Suez-like temporary political meltdown, but something more insidious. Over time, what an ill-conceived globalization of NATO could lead to is the transformation of the tactical coalition that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization currently is into a strategic "NATO of the East" while at the same time perverting the Atlantic Alliance into, so to speak, a "SEATO of the West" -- namely, a make-believe alliance with no viable strategy (because a conventional military configuration is irrelevant when the threats are of the asymmetric variety) and no coherent policy (because the interests of the global members are simply too heterogeneous to ever converge.)

The Long War promises to be a thinking man's war. As a full-fledged Alliance, NATO possesses the kind of staying power that mere ad hoc coalitions cannot deliver; but NATO still has to come to terms with the fact that thinking power will matter more than fighting power. If NATO is to avoid the twofold danger of the SCO becoming a NATO of the East while NATO becomes a mere SEATO of the West, the Alliance will have first of all to downgrade its "toolbox" dimension and beef up its "think-tank" dimension.

The revolution in strategic affairs

Ever since the 1999 intervention in Kosovo, NATO has been eager to prove that it stands for more than "No Action, Talk Only." But the adoption by the Alliance of the Marge Simpson doctrine ("Are we gonna just stand there like the French, or are we gonna do something?") has proved to be no substitute for a new strategic concept. Kosovo itself, waged in no small part to maintain the credibility of the Alliance, ended up paradoxically weakening NATO's credibility and the mutual bad blood afterwards constituted the single most important underlying reason of the 2003 near-death experience over Iraq.

By the time of the 2006 NATO Riga summit, two eminent Americans argued in no uncertain terms in favor of a re-invention of the Alliance: "It is time to stop pretending that everything is fine in Brussels and Mons. NATO will never generate the political impetus and leadership to reinvent itself unless we face that truth and openly debate what this Alliance can and should become. . . . NATO leaders have thus far demonstrated neither the vision nor the political will to reinvent the Alliance."4

Strong words, to be sure, but perhaps the wrong diagnostic: to the extent that there is indeed a danger of NATO drifting into irrelevance, it is due not so much to an absence of philosophical vision and/or political will as to a deficit of strategic literacy on the part of NATO leaders and cheerleaders.

On the American side, there is certainly no shortage of will and vision. Our two authors themselves were instrumental in forcing Europeans to look beyond Brussels sandbox politics and leading the drive for a successful enlargement of NATO. In the process of preaching a gospel of "broader and farther is always better," though, they elevated enlargement to the rank of a Kantian categorical imperative and by the same token lost sight of the Hobbesian iron law known in the jargon of political science as the security dilemma. Simply put: however defensive in intent, any actor's move to increase its security always runs the risk of being perceived as an offensive move by another actor.5

As Vladimir Putin reminded the West in a very Russian way in his Munich speech earlier this year, one state's idea of "projecting stability" is another's idea of "exporting subversion." Enlargement has been a bold move that played a critical (and often underappreciated) role in the successful transition to democracy of the former captive Europe, but for every action there is a reaction, and the gradual enlargement of NATO to the East has been the main cause of Russia's gradual rapprochement with China. A bold move today would be to acknowledge that, for a host of reasons, this process has reached diminishing returns, and that projecting stability should from now on be achieved at less cost through other means, be it security cooperation or global partnerships.

If Americans these days tend to have forgotten something as basic as the security dilemma, Europeans for their part have serious difficulties remembering something equally basic that they used to perform with undeniable virtuosity: coercive diplomacy. Be it with Iraq yesterday or Iran today, an astounding percentage of the allegedly sophisticated EU elites have the hardest time grasping what any American redneck knows intuitively: namely, that the collective threat to use force is still the best way to avoid having recourse to actual force. Fifty years of increasing focus on intra-EU politics has led EU elites to mistake "multi-level governance" (read: horse-trading by capitals in Brussels) for the whole of statecraft. But genuine diplomacy always rests on the implicit threat to use force, and the EU mantra about force as last resort should logically lead Europeans to view coercive diplomacy as their preferred weapon.6

Iraq, to be sure, was in many ways sui generis. Iran, by contrast, should be a no-brainer, since a nuclear Iran would lead to nuclear proliferation throughout the Middle East all the way to Algeria. Were coercive diplomacy to fail, then, as Senator McCain put it, there would still be one thing worse than military intervention in Iran -- a nuclear Iran.

This question of "strategic literacy" of NATO leaders cannot be overemphasized at a time when NATO allies are elaborating a new (i.e., post 9/11) strategic concept. The task promises to be a daunting one if only because, since the end of the Cold War, the very concept of "strategy" has become increasingly problematic in the West -- in no small part because the concept of the "West" itself is no longer self-evident.7

Forget the "Americans are from Mars, Europeans from Venus" mantra that gave the Brussels Eurocracy the vapors in the summer of 2002.8 Though the slogan captured well a moment of transatlantic relations, over time this mantra has obscured the issue. The truth is, for the past 15 years, and on both sides of the Atlantic, there have been two major attempts underway to get rid of the strategy problematique altogether.

In the civilian world, politicians and bureaucrats have robbed the concept of "strategy" of any meaning by systematically using it interchangeably with "policy." Academics and think-tankers, for their part, have chosen to blow out of proportion a Revolution in Security Affairs in which "the dividing lines between hard and soft, civil and military security are rapidly dissolving, requiring far more flexibility and causing much confusion as allies and partners have disagreed significantly about how to manage such complexity." This supposed Revolution has been used as a pretext to dissolve the concept of "strategy" in the catch-all notion of "security," the concept of "national security" itself in a nebulous "human security," and last but not least, the concept of grand strategy into that of global governance -- whatever that may mean.9

Within the military, the concept of "strategy" has not fared much better. The post-Cold War era has witnessed a surreal debate between the disciples of Clausewitz, who invariably confuse strategy with the operational level of war, and the supporters of the supposed Revolution in Military Affairs reducing war to "targeting and shooting," and whose network-centric paradigm leads to a tacticization of strategy.10

Between the shock-and-awe slogans of the military Mars, and the human security fairy tales of the civilian Venus, Strategy in the West has been MIA for too long. Since the real Revolution in Strategic Affairs happens to be a non-Western affair, NATO leaders will have to start by learning the new grammar and logic of the kind of unrestricted warfare elaborated by the Chinese and the fourth-generation warfare practiced by Islamists.11

As U.S. NATO Ambassador Victoria Nuland argued, "if the divisive debate over Iraq taught us one thing, it is that NATO must be the place where we talk about all the issues affecting our future -- the Middle East, Iraq, North Korea, China, Iran, just to name a few." The North Atlantic Council has recently broadened its range of consultations to include global issues ranging from energy security to transnational terrorism. But increased consultation, in and of itself, will not mechanically lead to better conceptualization. Enhancing the strategic literacy of NATO's stakeholders should be the logical prerequisite to a debate about the future NATO strategic concept.

The SCO as NATO peer competitor?

In the past hundred years, the instrumentalization of Islam has been a recurrent temptation on the part of every rising power, be it Wilhemine Germany or Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany or Soviet Russia, not to mention America itself. As the latest rising power, China itself would not be immune to that temptation even if it were energy self-sufficient. The fact that China's energy needs are huge guarantees that the constitution of a Sino-Islamic axis is for Beijing not just a tactical option, but a strategic necessity.12

While the pivotal states of this strategy appear to be Pakistan, Iran, and (more recently) Saudi Arabia, the geopolitical situation of Iran puts it in a class by itself, as the most precious proxy in China's "indirect approach" against American primacy. It is therefore no surprise to learn that China is using Iran as a conduit for the delivery of arms to both Iraqi and Afghan insurgents, and providing Iran itself the kind of small boats needed to conduct attacks against commercial shipping or the U.S. Navy in the Persian Gulf.13

If the instrumentalization of Islam constitutes the geographical axis of China's grand strategy, the functional axis is -- or ought to be -- of equal interest to NATO, since it consists in the artful combination of space power, sea power, and soft power.

Space power. While lending support to Russia's ludicrous posturing on NATO missile defense, China is experimenting with antisatellite weapons -- a disturbing trend given the reliance of modern military (especially navies) on space power.

Sea power. A hundred years after Theodore Roosevelt sent his Great While Fleet around the world to signal the emergence of a new great power, China is rediscovering the writings of Admiral Mahan on the importance of sea power in history and dreaming of a Great White Fleet of its own. Against the backdrop of an ever-shrinking U.S. Navy (more on that later), China is transforming itself as a maritime superpower at such high speed that Western analysts estimate it could become the world's leading naval power by 2020.

Last but not least, soft power. On the military side, China is focusing on developing security cooperation within the ASEAN Regional Forum framework with the intent of marginalizing America. On the civilian side, China is peddling "Asian values" from Africa to Eurasia and from Latin America to Southeast Asia. For the past six years, China has been promoting autocracy through soft power while America has been promoting democracy through hard power, and the verdict is in: China today has a more positive image worldwide than America.14

Russia's relation to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and its expectations, are of an altogether different nature. On the surface, to be sure, China and Russia appear to be the two main pillars of the SCO. Economically and militarily, the two countries' relation is, for the time being at least, one of genuine complementarity. But while the SCO constitutes the core of China's Islamic strategy, it is for Russia a tactical option to both manage the rise of China in Eurasia and to gain leverage over the West.15

Unlike China, Russia is energy self-sufficient; and unlike China's Confucianism, Russia's Eurasianism actually comes in two opposite versions: one pro-West and anti-Islam; the other pro-Islam and anti-West. American Putin-bashers would do well to realize that the Putin regime clearly favors the former version --- which may not be the case for his successor. Putin's Russia is a mystery wrapped in an enigma only for those caught in a 15-year time warp. In a nutshell: While Yelstin's choice of an alleged Polish model of transition in 1992 resulted, by 1999, in 38 percent of the population living below the poverty line, Putin's reorientation toward a Chinese model has since created an annual growth rate of 6 percent for Russia -- and a 70 percent approval rating for Putin. Having taken considerable domestic risks by siding with America after 9/11, Putin, for the past 5 years, has received nothing in return -- other than a seemingly endless enlargement of NATO in his own backyard.

Now that Russia is rich with oil money and has paid its debts to the West, what Russia wants from the West is respect.16 Russia's nuisance capacity should not be underestimated, even though threats to withdraw from the CFE Treaty, or to turn the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) into a "natural gas OPEC," are intended primarily for domestic consumption and to signal that NATO has enlarged far enough.

Unlike China, Russia is not a rising power. Russian hearts and mind are still up for grabs, though, and there are three reasons why it would be grossly irresponsible to alienate Russia gratuitously. In the short term, Russia's support is critical to solve (militarily or not) the Iranian question; in the middle-term, Russia has considerable leverage over Europe, with much bigger sticks and carrots than America's, and the risk of a creeping Finlandization of Europe is real were America to indulge in brinkmanship; in the long term, the West would have nothing to gain were Russia, against its best interest, to upgrade its relations to the SCO from the tactical to the strategic level.

The current demonization of Russia in some American quarters is thus incomprehensible, unless one keeps in mind the particular conceit of democracies at war that Kennan, following Tocqueville, pointed out long ago: "There is nothing in nature more egocentrical than the embattled democracy. It soon becomes the victim of its own propaganda. It then tends to attach to its own cause an absolute value which distorts its own vision of everything else. . . . People who have got themselves into this frame of mind have little understanding for the issues of any contest other than the one in which they are involved."17

This tunnel vision, and the incapacity to distinguish between the essential and the peripheral, is all the more surprising when it comes from the neoconservative side. Among the new generation of neocons, many seem to have forgotten the lessons of the older generation, as captured in Jeanne Kirkpatrick's celebrated 1979 essay on "Dictatorships and Double Standards." Simply put: when all is said and done, there is a difference in kind between totalitarianism and authoritarianism. If Islamist totalitarianism is the main enemy, as the neocons rightly claim, then it follows logically that Russian authoritarianism, however unpalatable to democratic sensibilities, is something we can live with. In that respect, the arch-realist Kissinger is paradoxically closer to Kirkpatrick than some of today's neocons in arguing:

Russia may be tempted to pursue tactical rapprochement with China. But any meaningful strategic rapprochement with China would move Russia further away from the United States and into a position of dependence on Chinese support. This would run counter to the strategic realities Russia faces on its far-eastern border, given the decline in its population and negative demographic trends. We cannot be fixated by things that are in the power of Russia and China to do. The wise American policy is to establish close relations with both Russia and China. And we should conduct it on the basis that whenever possible there should always be at least equal if not greater incentives or prospect of risks to cooperate with the United States than with each other.18

Similarly, a wise NATO policy should always make sure that NATO-Russia security cooperation is always stronger than Russia-China security cooperation. By the same token, and given the always-possible energy Finlandization of Europe, a wise NATO policy should make sure that the NATO-Russia Council always remains one step ahead of the EU-Russia Permanent Council.19

The Great Game and the Long War

One thing is certain: the Great Game and the Long War will be the two global and generational challenges confronting the West in the next 30 years. While the two challenges at times overlap, they remain analytically distinct. Attempts to conflate the two challenges with a new geopolitical concept like "Greater Middle East" risk confusing the issues. The Great Game? While the West remains fixated on the continental dimension, the East shows more lucidity in giving as much importance to the maritime dimension (more on that later). The Long War? Due to mass migration, the sociopolitical umma no longer coincides with the geopolitical Dar al-Islam.20

So much for the Greater Middle East, then. When all is said and done, globalization has not so much led to the "spiritualization of borders" (as the flute-players would have it) as to the partial "virtualization of geopolitics." The Great Game and the Long War are global and generational, but the geopolitics of oil, of Islamic banking, of Islamic media, etc. only partly overlap, and the geopolitical mapping required is a multi-level mapping including both the real and the virtual worlds.

One of the unfortunate consequences of the globalization theology of the 1990s has been the withering away of geopolitical thinking in the West. This eclipse of geopolitics is not totally negative, to be sure, for as one pundit put it, "few modern ideologies are as whimsically all-encompassing, as romantically obscure, as intellectually sloppy, and as likely to start a third world war as the theory of 'geopolitics.'"21

Yet, globalization theology itself has proven even more intellectual sloppy than the theories of geopolitics. And while the West thought it could do away with geopolitics altogether, the foreign policies of Turkey, Russia, China, and other players were becoming increasingly shaped by distinctive geopolitical visions based less on theories than on memories (with often a tenuous link to historical reality). Thus in Turkey, memories of the Silk Road were the main driving forces in Ankara's turn away from pro-Western Kemalism and toward neo-Ottomanism. In China, a country that had traditionally viewed itself as a quintessential continental power, it is the rediscovery of the short-lived maritime adventures of Admiral Zheng He (the Chinese Columbus) and the awareness of missed opportunities, coupled with the revival of Admiral Mahan's navalist theories, that were being invoked to mobilize public opinion around the idea of turning China into a maritime superpower. Intellectually sloppy or not, these representations have real effects in the foreign policies of non-Western nations. The West can ignore them only at its own peril.

In the West itself, the current fixation of America on Central Asia and of Europe on the Middle East -- the closest thing to a "Western" geopolitical vision -- is based on two flawed premises. To put it crudely: Americans believe that Caspian Sea oil is the key to success in the Great Game; Europeans are convinced that the resolution of the Palestinian question holds the key to victory in the Long War.

Talk about intellectual sloppiness: Warnings about a Caspian mirage were already common among energy experts a decade ago, and time has only made them more relevant: "The current fixation with the Caspian Basin's alleged resource bonanza is exaggerating the region's commercial and strategic significance, distorting US foreign policy calculations and raising the risk of unnecessary contention with other actors, particularly Russia and Iran. . . . Russian analysts could be forgiven for construing US/NATO policies as encirclement from the West through open-ended NATO expansion. . . . The myth [of Central Asia and the Caucasus as a region of independent democracies buoyed by new-found oil wealth and part of an expanding "Euro-Atlantic community"] is diverting policy-makers from a far more profound geopolitical challenge to energy security in the twenty-first century: the rising dependence of Asian nations on Persian Gulf oil. . . . It might be wise to ponder how comfortable China will be in relying on the US Navy to defend the sea-lanes through which its Persian Gulf oil must pass."22

Ten years later, it is clear that just as NATO enlargement to the East has sent Russia into the arms of China, Western energetico-military forays in Central Asia have led China, in turn, to increase its activities in the backyards of Europe (Africa) and America (from Cuba to Panama and Venezuela). America's fixation on Central Asia has been based on probable reserves, which were then contrasted to proven reserves in Persian Gulf, though never with probable reserves offshore worldwide. Since Caspian Sea oil now seems to combine all the problems associated with landlocked transportation and offshore extraction, not to mention geopolitical entanglements, it may be time for a reappraisal.

If American fixation on Central Asia is questionable, European fixation on the Palestinian question as the panacea of the Greater Middle East is downright irrational. As Edward Luttwak pointed out recently: "Yes, it would be nice if Israelis and Palestinians could settle their differences, but it would do little or nothing to calm the other conflicts in the Middle East from Algeria to Iraq, or to stop Muslim-Hindu violence in Kashmir, Muslim-Christian violence in Indonesia and the Philippines, Muslim-Buddhist violence in Thailand, Muslim-animist violence in Sudan, Muslim-Igbo violence in Nigeria, Muslim-Moscovite violence in Chechnya, or the different varieties of inter-Muslim violence."

This European fixation is all the more irrational in that as far as the proverbial Arab Street is concerned, the resolution of the Palestinian question ranks only seventh in importance, way behind the usual bread-and-butter issues (employment, health, corruption, education, and even combating extremism and protecting civil rights). And who can blame Ali Six-Pack for his lack of interest? Unlike the Kurds, who have proven capable of self-government, Palestinian leaders have never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity, as the saying holds. The pathetic clash between Fatahland and Hamastan is today leading many Palestinians themselves to reconsider the long-abandoned possibility of forming a confederation with Jordan. It is time for Europeans to realize that, as Joseph Joffe demonstrated in a seminal article, "far from creating tensions, Israel actually contains more antagonisms than it causes" -- though of course you would never know it, since Israeli public diplomacy is nonexistent.23

Flawed premises aside, there is another, more pedestrian reason why the closing of the transatlantic mind is particularly pronounced within NATO. As the Alliance underwent a gradual transformation from collective defense to collective security, this functional broadening focused on the continental dimension led to a neglect of the maritime dimension and thus to transatlantic tunnel vision.

During the Cold War, the Atlantic Alliance had two geographic pillars: the Brussels-based Allied Command-Europe (ACE) for continental affairs, the Norfolk-based Allied Command-Atlantic (ACLANT) for maritime affairs. From 1991 to 2001, the maritime dimension, once identified with the Atlantic, became confined to the Mediterranean (Operation Sharp Guard). Yet, despite the shrinking of the maritime dimension at the operational level, ACLANT continued, at the intellectual level, to deliver outside-the-box, yet topical thinking on issues like "Multinational Naval Cooperation and Foreign Policy into the 21st Century."24

The real change occurred with the 2002 Prague Summit's decision to transform these two geographical pillars into functional pillars: Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT). The transformation of the geographical ACLANT into a functional ACT did more than marginalize the maritime dimension; it also brought the wrong transformation to the fore. NATO-ACT being twinned with the U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), the Alliance, in the name of interoperability, soon adopted all the shibboleths of the RMA: network-centric warfare, information dominance, the change from threat-based planning to capabilities-based planning which can only aggravate the idea of the Alliance as a "toolbox," and last but not least, the religion of jointness itself, whose unintended effect was to downplay the specificity and autonomy of navies when it comes to constabulary and diplomatic missions.

The whole RMA folklore was introduced to NATO right at the time when, in Iraq and Afghanistan, its limits were becoming too obvious to ignore. The Pentagon is today trying to find a better balance between Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) and Culture-Centric Warfare (CCW), and one would hope that ACT will quickly NATO-ize the lessons learned in theater.

In and of itself, though, this rebalancing will not bring the kind of maritime domain awareness that is so crucial for an understanding of both the Great Game and the Long War. Outside the Anglo-Saxon world, to be sure, Western policymakers and opinion leaders have rarely been literate when it comes to naval strategy. Though this is not the place for a comprehensive tour d'horizon of the military, political, diplomatic, and constabulary uses of seapower25, basic "maritime domain awareness" is necessary when discussing the future globalization of NATO.

On the military side, the importance of the maritime dimension begins with the fact that, for all the talk about airlift capabilities, 90 percent of military lift remains sealift. But what is more noteworthy about the post-Cold War period is the fact that the decline of "maritime domain awareness" within the Atlantic Alliance took place precisely at the time when globalization was significantly increasing the importance of the maritime dimension on the commercial side (85 percent of world trade volume and 60 percent of oil and gas travels by sea) and of maritime security, all too often confused with -- and reduced to -- maritime safety.

It is hard to imagine a "Global NATO" -- in whatever shape or form -- that would continue to ignore the global commons the way today's NATO does. It is time for NATO's maritime commitment to match its continental commitment. To put it only half in jest: Either NATO will go out to sea, or it will go out of business.

The new Rimland

NATO was created as the political-military expression of the containment doctrine. While the father of the doctrine was diplomat George Kennan, the godfather of containment was geopolitician Nicholas Spykman. During World War II Spykman had challenged the centrality of the concept of the "Heartland" developed a generation earlier by Halford Mackinder (against Mahan's sea power thesis), and focused instead on what he called the "Rimland," by which he meant essentially continental countries with a maritime facade.

As Spykman defined it, the Rimland "functions as a vast buffer zone of conflict between sea power and land power. Looking in both directions, it must function amphibiously and defend itself on land and sea." On this geopolitical foundation laid by Spykman, Kennan simply built a chronopolitical strategy of containment, which would pay off 50 years later (much later than initially anticipated by Kennan).

In 1904, Mackinder had made the grandiose pronouncement: "Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; who rules the Heartland commands the World Island; who rules the World Island commands the World." The Cold War was to prove Mackinder wrong and Spykman right: For 50 years, the Soviet Heartland did rule Eastern Europe; if it fails to command the world, it's because it failed to rule what really matters, i.e., the Rimland.

Throughout the Cold War, then, it is the concept of Rimland which provided the geopolitical underpinnings for a grand strategy of containment and its security architecture, of which NATO constituted only one pillar (arguably the most important) along with SEATO and CENTO. Today, the Soviet Union is gone and, against all odds, NATO is still around. True, today's NATO is not your father's NATO, but equally true, today's Rimland is not your father's Rimland -- and it is not clear that today's NATO has fully grasped all the implications of the sea-change.

Today's Rimland is a 400-mile wide amphibious area. In contrast to 1904, the Heartland today is an empty shell, and not just because of Russia's demographic decline. In China, the population is deserting the Heartland and moving to the coast. Worldwide, today's Rimland is both leaner and meaner than a century ago; no longer the "buffer zone of conflict" described by Mackinder or Spykman, this overpopulated Rimland, with 4 billion people living within 200-mile wide coastlands, is the "epicenter of all conflicts."

Should NATO care? As a military alliance, NATO cannot afford to ignore the increasing covergence of littoral warfare, amphibious warfare and urban warfare -- an issue to which the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps are devoting increasing attention. As a security organization, NATO's reasons for caring should be based on a recent report produced by the Center for Naval Analyses entitled "National Security and the Threat of Climate Change," describing a number of not exactly rosy scenarios regarding the political-military consequences of rising sea levels in the next 30 years. The hard security consequences of soft-power issues: This is the kind of outside-the-box thinking that NATO should itself promote.26

Equally interesting is the other phenomenon happening on the new Rimland: the so-called territorialization of the seas. The belated implementation, in the 1990s, of the 1982 Law of the Sea (UNLOS) and in particular of the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), has had over time unintended effects. Due to the existence of more than one hundred EEZs, 32 percent of the ocean is today under some sort of national jurisdiction. We are talking an area of 28 million square miles, i.e. four times the size of Russia (America's EEZ itself is two-thirds the size of the continental United States and accounts for 30 percent of the U.S. oil production).

The process of territorialization of the seas has been twofold: the "enlarging" of territorial waters from 12 miles to 200 miles, but also the "deepening" of territorialization. Twenty years ago, offshore wells were being drilled in just a few hundred feet of water; with ever-improving technology, prospecting then moved to deep water (i.e. beyond 1,300 feet) and more recently still to "ultra-deep" drilling under as much as 10,000 feet, with dramatic consequences for some countries like Brazil, who went from quasi-total dependence on foreign oil to quasi-total independence.

For all the post-Cold War talk about the decline of the state, there is at least one domain where the state is in expansion, and it is the sea. And for all the talk about a Great Game in Central Asia, it is worth keeping in mind that more than 30 percent of the world's oil and 50 percent of the world's natural gas is produced offshore. The percentage is greater still when moving from proven reserves (i.e., 90 percent certainty) to probable reserves (50 percent certainty). Add to that the fact that 60 percent of the world's oil and gas is transported by sea, and in the end, it is hard to deny that command of the high seas will matter just as much as control of the Heartland.

A little-noticed global chasm is occurring today in terms of geopolitics: As the center of gravity of world history is shifting from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the Western mind, traditionally maritime, is rapidly closing itself to anything other than continental matters, while the Asian mind, traditionally continental, is becoming increasingly maritime in outlook.

In the East, a region lacking a security regime analogous to NATO, the lack of clarity of the law of the sea regarding such issues as military and intelligence-gathering activities in the EEZs of other countries, and the competing claims for territorial waters and seabeds, has become a game increasingly fraught with dangers. The best known example is the Spratly Islands, one hundred or so islands scattered over an area the size of France, said to hold more oil than Kuwait, and situated right in the middle of one of the busiest sea lanes, used by 300 ships a day. The Islands are claimed in part or totality by no fewer than 17 countries, and five of them (including China) actually have small military forces on these otherwise uninhabited islands.

Unlike the legendary Great Game between England and Russia throughout the nineteenth century, the current Great Game at sea involved more than two players: America and China, the two greatest oil consumers, but also Japan and India, Malaysia and Indonesia, and other countries. This multiplicity of actors gives the seaborne Great Game a greater unpredictability. And unlike the slow moving Great Game in Central Asia in the nineteenth century, which resembles a leisurely game of chess, today's Great Game in the Asian Sea at times is more like Russian roulette, in that "incidents at sea" -- like the October 2006 close encounter of a Chinese sub with the USS Kitty Hawk -- have the potential to trigger unintended and unpleasant developments quickly.

The Great Game at sea is too complex to be examined in detail here. Suffice it to say that if in terms of transportation, the true identity of the players takes forever to sort out (the nationalities of the owner, the crew, the flag, the cargo), there is a clear trend in the nationalization of oil companies when it comes to production: "The percentage of the world's oil reserves held by publicly traded international oil companies (IOCs) has declined, while the percentage held by state-owned national oil companies (NOCs) has increased. Currently, 72 percent of the world's proven oil reserves are held by NOC's [the majority of which are Russian and Chinese]."27

Should NATO care? When you put together the territorialization of the seas and the nationalization of oil companies, the Great Game at sea becomes worth examining (e.g., the 2006 decision of the Cuban regime to hire Chinese NOCs for offshore drilling -- 45 miles off the coast of Florida). China's interest in Cuba, Panama, and Venezuela shows that the "string of pearls" strategy of China goes beyond the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea and the Gulf of Guinea, extending into the Western Hemisphere all the way to America's Caribbean backyard. Since Chinese NOCs are present in 50 countries and play with different rules than regular international oil companies, one would think that the geopolitics of the NOCs could be a suitable topic of discussion in the NAC.

For now, the Great Game at sea affects the Pacific more than the Atlantic, and as such has not directly affected NATO. But it certainly affects NATO's new global partners (Australia and Japan, Korea and New Zealand), who all happen to be maritime powers in the Pacific, and this is something that NATO will have to factor in when deciding the nature of its relationship with non-Atlantic powers. Global partnerships will have to be a two-way street, or there will be no global partnership.

In that respect, it is worth remembering that, in its day, SEATO included non-Asian countries like the UK and France, whose threat perceptions over time evolved differently from those of Australia and New Zealand (not to mention Thailand or the Philippines), and eventually SEATO went the way of the dodo.28 Therefore, when talking about NATO's global partners, one cannot avoid raising SEATO-related issues: Do allies and would-be partner nations have the same threat perceptions? What kind of "added value" will the concept of global partnership offer not only to the former, but also to the latter? In what ways can global partners become a force multiplier for the Atlantic Alliance, and in what way can it lead instead to an "entangling alliance"?

New perils, then, but also new promises. The maritime dimension is an opportunity for European allies to go beyond the "EU sandbox" and play a global role at relatively little cost, if only because public opinion will always find a maritime commitment more palatable than a continental one. For many allies like Norway and Greece, a greater maritime commitment on the part of NATO would also be a way to display niche capabilities (it's not as if the U.S. Navy had a surplus of mine-sweepers) that they don't necessarily possess in land operations. Last but not least, for a country like France, a middle-sized power as a land power but a maritime superpower of sorts (the third largest EEZ in the world thanks to its South Pacific possessions), a greater maritime commitment would be a way to maintain a leadership position. When it comes to NATO, to be sure, France, since 1958, has never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity. With Chirac and Villepin gone, however, it may well be that France will no longer confuse History with histrionics, and volonte de puissance with capacite de nuisance.

The Great Game at sea is only beginning. However fanciful they may be given the current international legal regime, Putin's claim in June 2007 to a chunk of the North Pole holding twice the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia gives an idea of the challenges ahead as global warming increases the areas available for offshore drilling.

The Long War at sea

The maritime dimension is as important for the Long War as it is for the Great Game. Before the attack on the Twin Towers, the attack on the USS Cole gave the West an idea of what asymmetric warfare can accomplish (17 sailors killed and $250 million worth of repairs for a terrorist operation that cost $40,000 to launch). That asymmetric warfare at sea shows great promise has not been lost on the jihadists who, when all is said and done, are less interested in restoring a caliphate (a goal they know is beyond their reach) than in making the West bleed to death economically.

Nine million containers enter U.S. ports each year, and 80 percent of U.S. port facilities these days are owned by foreign companies. It is estimated that the detonation of a 10-to-20 kiloton nuclear weapon in a container would cause a disruption of trade valued at $100 billion to $300 billion, property damage of $50 billion to $500 billion, and the loss of 50,000 to 1 million lives. A mere dirty bomb smuggled in a container would kill very few people, but the disruption would cost $58 billion and it would take 19 days for ports to resume normal operations and 92 days to stabilize the container backlog -- by which time the disruption could well spawn a recession.

The trauma caused by two planes crashing into the Twin Towers has made us forget that al Qaeda and its associates have a maritime strategy more sophisticated than blowing up the USS Cole. Before his arrest, the man responsible for the Cole attack himself had undertaken preparation to attack shipping in the Mediterranean with a four pronged-strategy: "ramming, blowing up medium-size ships near other vessels or at ports, attacking large vessels such as supertankers from the air by using explosive laden small aircraft, and attacking vessels with underwater demolition teams using limpet mines or with suicide bombers. During his interrogation, Nashiri revealed that if warships became too difficult to approach, tourist ships could be targeted. The cruise ship industry, which in the U.S. alone carries nearly seven million passengers every year, is facing this new threat."29

Eighty percent of world trade travels by sea, and 60 percent of the world's oil is shipped by about 4,000 tankers: "Were terrorist pirates to hijack a large bulk carrier or oil tanker, sail it into one of the chokepoints, and scuttle it to block the sea-lane, the consequences for the world economy would be severe: a spike in oil prices, an increase in the cost of shipping due to the need to use alternate routes, congestion in sea-lanes and ports, more expensive maritime insurance, and probable environmental disaster. Worse yet would be several such attacks happening simultaneously in multiple locations worldwide."30

A rogue nuclear missile on Paris or Berlin is decidedly more unlikely in the next five years than the hijacking and sinking of a couple of supertankers in the Strait of Gibraltar or the Bosphorus. The latter, in particular, is less than a mile wide in some areas, and 10 percent of the 50,000 ships that pass through it each year are tankers carrying Russian and Caspian oil.

In the Turkish strait in 1996, the nine pro-Chechen gunmen who hijacked a Turkish ferry and held 255 passengers hostage for three days had first considered the possibility of sabotaging one of the two suspension bridges with explosives to bring down the bridge and close shipping traffic. The worst case scenario, now that the Russian Duma has passed a bill to transport 20,000 tons of nuclear waste through the straits in the next ten years, is the possibility of one of these tankers being hijacked in the vicinity of Istanbul, a city of 12 million inhabitants. It is expected that traffic on the Bosphorus will be 50 percent higher in 2010 than it was in 2005, and so will the opportunities to create catastrophic mischief.

NATO military planners and civilian policymakers continue to think in terms of nation-states and regional "areas of operation," whereas, as the navy community knows full well, maritime threats are more often than not nonstate and transregional in nature. But terrorist networks are genuinely transnational: the Sri Lankan LTTE not only owned and operated a fleet of ten ocean-going freighters flying Panamian, Honduran, and Liberian flags, it also hijacked commercial vessels carrying weapons to reroute them to the Tamil Tigers. In 1994, the LTTE shipped 50 metric tons of TNT on board one of its own freighters operated by a front company from a Ukrainian Black Sea port via the Turkish Straits to Sri Lanka.

NATO is today paying less attention to potential maritime threats affecting its own civilian populations than to making the non-Western world safe for democracy (or sharia, since the jury is still out). If NATO wants to survive another 30 years, it will have to focus a little more on the concerns of its own population.

Global NATO, thousand ship navy

In the 1990s, some foreign policy analysts called on the United States to adopt a policy known as "offshore balancing." Succinctly put, "offshore balancing is predicated on the assumption that attempting to maintain U.S. hegemony is self-defeating because it will provoke other states to combine in opposition to the United States, and result in a futile depletion of the United States' relative power, thereby leaving it worse off than if it accommodated multipolarity."31 Whether such an offshore balancing is still possible or desirable for the U.S. in a post-9/11 environment is highly debatable. But a maritime globalization of NATO could become, for the Alliance itself, the continuation of "offshore balancing" by other means. Its main merit would be to constitute a hedging strategy of sorts against the SCO.

China is emerging as a maritime superpower as quickly as America itself (not to mention the UK) is declining as a naval power, to the point where China could become the leading naval power by 2020. The Russian Navy, which until now was a pale shadow of Gorshkov's navy (since 1991, the number of submarines has declined from 317 to 61 and of surface ships from 967 to 186) has announced plans to build a class of four new aircraft carriers in 2013-14, with initial service to begin in 201732. One would do well to remember that it took hardly more than a decade during the Cold War for Russia, the quintessential land power, to develop a formidable navy. In 20 years, we could realistically see a China/Russia-led SCO that is hegemonic not only on land but at sea. As counterintuitive as it may be at first, NATO would be wise to consider the possibility of making maritime cooperation the centerpiece of NATO-Russia security cooperation.

Maritime operations are of course not foreign to NATO. In the 1990s, Operation Sharp Guard constituted a dress rehearsal of sorts for Operation Active Endeavor after 9/11. In 2003, OAE was expanded functionally and geographically to cover the whole Mediterranean and ended up including some Mediterranean Dialogue countries as well as Russia and Ukraine. Many NATO allies participate in the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), and it is no coincidence that the former head of Joint Forces-Naples, Admiral Mullen (the current chief of naval operations and JCS chairman-designate), is the one who developed the concept of the "Thousand Ship Navy" (TSN), which is today the talk of the U.S. Navy.

Though globalization has increased the importance of maritime affairs, there has been both a relative and an absolute decline of U.S. seapower, with a U.S. Navy today at its lowest level in the post-World War II era. For the first time in 20 years, the U.S. is in the process of drafting a new maritime strategy, but with a considerably reduced force that went from 600 to fewer than 300 ships, and with new responsibilities in terms of nonmilitary maritime security. Hence the concept of the Thousand Ship Navy, which is meant to create a global maritime partnership with foreign navies.33

TSN is much more than an attempt to make a virtue of necessity. The Thousand Ship Navy -- the "Great White Fleet" of the twenty-first century -- represents a revolution in military affairs in that the concept raises the "network-centric" paradigm established by Admiral Cebrowsky from the domain of strategy (Network-Centric Warfare) to that of security (Global Maritime Partnership). In the process, it brings back a much-needed balance between techno-centric and culture-centric skills as components of success. Just as important, the TSN concept also represents a revolution in diplomatic affairs, in that a global maritime partnership would go beyond the traditional military-to-military contacts and, as Admiral Mullen points out, would unite "maritime forces, port operators, commercial shippers, and international, governmental and nongovernmental agencies to address mutual concerns."

As the Proliferation Security Initiative in Asia shows, though, this twenty-first- century naval diplomacy presents formidable challenges in terms of redefinitions of "sovereignty." Though the TSN concept is still a work in progress, it is worth noting that naval representatives from 72 countries have already taken part in the first symposium on the subject. NATO would do well to examine if the indirect approach of "going global" through a Thousand Ship Navy path is not also the best way to avoid making self-defeating waves in Asia.

Strategic considerations aside, there is an additional reason for Global NATO to get associated with the Thousand Ship Navy. Hard as it is to remember today, there was a time when NATO captured the imagination of Western audiences: Until the mid-sixties, in fact, the prospect of an Atlantic Union was seen in Europe as the wave of the future, while the idea of a European Union was associated mainly with coal, steel, and the standardization of electric plugs.34 Today, hard as they try, the 700 million people of the West can't really bring themselves to get exited when the "deliverables" of NATO Summits amount to -- the purchase of three C-17s? If that is NATO's level of ambition these days, no wonder that even the EU is beginning to look good. NATO will require nothing less than a Thousand Ship Navy if it is to recapture the imagination of public opinion.

NATO and the rise of UN-istan

Two organizations emerged in short succession from the 1941 Atlantic Charter: the United Nations in 1945 and, when the UN proved ineffective in a Cold War context, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. For the next 50 years, NATO's role in waging and winning the Cold War was as central as that of the UN was marginal.

In the early days of the post Cold War, there were, on both sides of the Atlantic, great hopes that the UN could finally play the role it was initially designed for. A former ambassador to the UN, the elder Bush in particular hoped to make the UN the cornerstone of a New World Order. In Europe as well, as the EU was toying with the idea of transforming itself from an Europe-espace to an Europe-puissance, many thought that an EU military force could constitute the military arm of the UN, and that the EU, in turn, could use the UN as a force multiplier to provide a "counterweight" to the US.

The fixation of EU elites on this idea led them to overlook the various scandals that marred the UN throughout the 1990s (from the Rwanda genocide to the Iraq oil-for-food program). More important, there is great reluctance on the part of EU public opinion at large to acknowledge the fact that, in the process of enlarging 54 members in 1945 to 184 in 1993, the UN's initial goals have been perverted.

Once the embodiment of Western ideals, the UN has turned into a lean, mean anti-West machine. Though European publics no longer have any illusion today about a Europe-puissance, they still retain a surprisingly boy-scoutish view of the UN, one that no longer corresponds to reality. European public opinion saw nothing wrong, for instance, in the recent establishment of an International Criminal Court that would give its prosecutor the power of a grand inquisitor, in part because they are not aware of the politicization of the UN (and of the potential use of the ICC as an anti-Western weapon), but also in part because, over the years, they have resigned themselves to the creeping judicial and technocratic imperialism pursued at home by the EU Court of Justice and the EU Commission.

If, against all odds, the European public has a more positive image of the UN than of NATO, it is for a simple reason: When it comes to strategic communication, today's NATO is your grandfather's NATO. Meanwhile, over the years, the UN has turned itself into a slick, global propaganda machine.

In that respect, the UN's main achievement since 1949 has been the transformation of a once-peripheral issue into a global Passion Play. Though the number of refugees throughout the world were millions after 1945 (and 15 million more with the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947), the UN decided to focus quasi-exclusively on the 700,000 refugees of the 1948 Israeli-Arab war. For these Palestinian Arabs, the UN created not only a specific agency (UNRWA) but a unique, and Orwellian, definition of "refugees" carefully designed to maintain the issue forever alive.35

Twenty years later came a new development. The demagogic UNESCO projects about a New World Information and Communication Order did not disappear when the US and the UK left the organization in protest and UNESCO, as a result, lost one fourth of its budget. The NWICO project was simply quietly transferred from Paris to New York, from UNESCO headquarters to UN headquarters. Over the years, the UN-New York developed its radio and TV station and its global network of 60 centers. It has provided "training" to Third World journalists (with a particular predilection for Palestinians) and built both a formal and informal media empire on which the sun never sets. By 1998, the UN spent a greater share of its budget on self-promotion and propaganda through its Department of Public Information (5.37 percent) than on Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs (4.96 percent) or International Justice and Law (2.10 percent).

At the same time that it was becoming a major player in the propaganda game, the UN inside was gradually turning into a "lawfare" machine against the West. As Joshua Muravchik explains: "In the General Assembly, the Arabs have a unique leverage with which they can make the UN say whatever they want (except in the Security Council where the US veto has prevented that). The 22-nation Arab League constitutes a decisive bloc within the 56-nation Organization of the Islamic Conference [OIC], which is decisive in turn in the 115-nation Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which constitute nearly two-thirds of the UN and is the organization's main bloc."

The OIC, it will be remembered, was created by Saudi Arabia in 1969 as a weapon against the Egypt-led Arab League in the ongoing Arab Cold Wars. In recent years, under the leadership of the OIC, the UN has turned into UN-istan:

The OIC is silent on putting the blame for the slaughter of innocent Muslim pilgrims precisely where it belongs -- on other Muslims. Instead, the OIC squanders most of its energy condemning the West for defaming Islam whenever terrorism is in any way linked with adherents of their religion. . . . While as a group they pay less than 3 percent of the regular annual budget of the United Nations, they have managed to exercise an outsized amount of influence in the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies over how the UN deals with such issues as Palestine, terrorism and human rights and terrorism. Next on their agenda is a permanent Islam seat on the Security Council. Iran has already been designated as the OIC's preferred candidate for election to the Security Council in 2008. . . . In short, the Organization of the Islamic Conference bloc has been able to manipulate the UN's machinery to turn the liberal vocabulary of racism, oppression, genocide, tolerance and multiculturalism against the critics of reactionary Islam.

How delusional is the OIC today? So delusional that, at its May 2007 summit, the 56 foreign ministers agreed that the "greatest form of terrorism" in the world today is -- Islamophobia! The same OIC is the main force behind the election of Iran as vice-chairman of the Disarmament Commission, the presence of representatives of the worst dictatorship on the planet in the UN Human Rights Committee, not to mention the attempt, following the Danish cartoon affair, to make the UN recognize "blasphemy" as a crime.

In this ongoing weaponization of the UN against the West, China has not remained passive: beyond the OIC and NAM proper, the largest group in the UN happens to be the "G-77 + China," i.e., 132 countries representing 69 percent of UN members. China's UN dues may be 2 percent of the UN budget, but Chinese activism in the past decade has spectacularly increased in recent years.36 It is reportedly under Chinese pressure that the US was evicted from the Human Rights Commission in 2001 to make room for Arab dictatorships.

While the UN was sinking in global parochialism, NATO has gone global geographically (50,000 troops deployed now on three continents) and functionally (broadening of political consultations in the NAC). It is also beginning to go global in its cooperation with non-Atlantic partners like Japan to Australia.

In some American and European quarters, this globalization of NATO has led some observers to assert rather boldly that "NATO's next move must be to open its membership to any democratic state in the world that is willing and able to contribute to the fulfillment of NATO's new responsibilities."37 But to add four or five global partners is one thing, to add the 88 countries recognized as democracies by Freedom House is quite another. The necessary, if not sufficient, condition for turning NATO into a UN of democracies would be to change the flawed images of the UN and NATO that European publics currently have. That said, this long-term scenario of NATO as a UN of democracies cannot be ruled out given the ongoing deconstruction of the Tower of Babble by China and the OIC.

With the possible emergence of a NATO Security Providers Forum consisting of the leading contributors, three key questions are likely to keep the Allies busy in the coming years. What would happen with the four NATO Partners who are also SCO members in the event the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council was to be disbanded in favor of a Security Providers Forum. What will be the nature of the articulation between the North Atlantic Council, the Security Providers Forum, and the NATO-Russia Council? Has the time come for NATO to adopt an EU-style, "variable geometry" decision-making process? At the same time, the debate on the future Global NATO should not be limited to these organizational matters.

The Western-inspired international legal order is today under assault at the UN; at the same time, an obsolete Law of Armed Conflict is preventing the West from defending itself on the ground. As a military organization, NATO should today articulate a "Counter-Lawfare" doctrine for the sake of intellectual interoperability. As a security organization, NATO should not wait until it has become a full-fledged UN of Democracies to start elaborating a New Law of Armed Conflict adapted to the realities of post-modern warfare.38 Last but not least, the Alliance should take strategic communication more seriously and make better use of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly (information) and the NATO Defense College (education).

If the Atlantic alliance is to genuinely "go global," it will have to achieve a better balance between "toolbox" and "think tank" and to focus more than has been the case so far on increased strategic literacy, broader situational awareness, and state-of-the art strategic communication.

History on the move again

Two hundred years ago, Napoleon Bonaparte, who knew a thing or two about epochal change, remarked: "When China awakens, the world will tremble." China is awakening, all right, and promoting worldwide authoritarianism all the more successfully that the spectacle of Western democracies lately has not been exactly edifying. If the Chinese promotion of "Asian values" has a global, rather than regional, historical significance, it is because Confucius today speaks with a very strong German accent: that of Carl Schmitt. While Western pundits were enrolling Kojève for their musing on the "end of history," the Chinese were translating nine books by Schmitt to philosophically buttress their return in history. The future of liberal authoritarianism has never looked brighter.39

The return of China alone would be enough to make the West "live in interesting times." To make things even more interesting, Islam too is back, this time in the form of a totalitarianism which manages to combine an ideological comprehensiveness (Salafism) unseen since Communism and an existential nihilism (jihadism) worthy of Nazism. A generation ago, the post-Vatican II Catholic world finally espoused the 20th century, and the Church went on to play a critical role in the collapse of communism; meanwhile, under the increasing influence of Wahhabism, the Muslim world was going in the opposite direction, and this great leap backward brought them back to the 14th century.40 If the Saudi caliphate does not soon undertake its own Vatican II, chances are the Muslim world will never make it back to the 21st century.

It is time for the Transatlantic chattering class to realize that there is a time for problematizing, and a time for strategizing -- and that its first order of business should be to stop mistaking a simple transatlantic time lag for a metaphysical problem. In the wake of 9/11, there was an extreme disconnect between an America that had just experienced its first continental aggression since the "second war of independence" (the war of 1812) and a Europe convinced that the then-imminent opening of the Brussels constitutional convention was, if not the beginning of universal peace, at least the world's most important event since the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.

Hence the temptation in certain quarters to reify this temporary disconnect into a Mars/Venus gap. But the most cursory examination of twentieth-century history shows that transatlantic time lags have always been the rule rather than the exception. The First World War began in 1914, the U.S. only joined in 1917. The Second World War began in 1939, the U.S. only joined in 1942. The Cold War began in 1947, and it took Europe a full two years to give up the temptation of neutrality and side with the U.S. Since the Long War is of an asymmetric kind, it is no surprise if it took longer than usual for America and Europe to synchronize their chronopolitica

          Clausewitz in Wonderland   

Last but not least, the third major flaw is "strategism." At its "best," strategism is synonymous with "strategy for strategy's sake," i.e., a self-referential discourse more interested in theory-building (or is it hair-splitting?) than policy-making. Strategism would be innocuous enough were it not for the fact that, in the media and academia, "realism" today is fast becoming synonymous with "absence of memory, will, and imagination": in that context, the self-referentiality of the strategic discourse does not exactly improve the quality of the public debate. At its worst, strategism confuses education with indoctrination, and scholarship with scholasticism; in its most extreme form, it comes close to being an "intellectual terrorism" in the name of Clausewitz.

Clausewitz in Londonistan

That infatuation with Clausewitz can lead to hair-raising absurdities about the GWOT is never better illustrated than by the recent remark of Anglo-American Clausewitzian veteran Colin Gray on the global jihad: "It is but axiomatic to maintain that an irregular belligerent wins by not losing. Somewhat in defiance of that axiom, I will argue that time is not on the side of the catastrophic, post-modern terrorist. The war-hardened multinational cadre of veterans of the Afghan struggle is diminishing rapidly. It has suffered the natural attrition of age and infirmity, as well as the combat attrition inflicted by an aroused bevy of state enemies.... Those warriors for Islam cannot be replaced by new cohorts with comparable training and group bonding.... Al-Qaeda has now aroused a formidable array of enemies, within and beyond the Islamic realm."3

Besides the fallacy of equating jihadists with Al Qaeda alone, this static conception of the global jihad in terms of finite "stock" ignores the dynamic created by media, i.e., the cyber-mobilization as the new Levee en Masse. On what planet does the good professor live? From the Balkans to Londonistan, Europe has been, for at least a decade now, the closest thing to a "frontline" in the global jihad. In Colin Gray's Britain today, 6 percent of the Muslim population (i.e., 100,000 individuals) think that the 7/7 London bombings were "fully justified;" 32 percent of British Muslims (half a million people) believe that "Western society is decadent and immoral and that Muslims should seek to bring it to an end;" and 40 percent want to see sharia law adopted in the UK.4

In Colin Gray's Britain, Muslims are barely 2 million, but politicians are already pandering to the Muslim vote and willing to make all sorts of concessions, including on immigration. Caught in a time warp, Gray looks jihad (al Qaeda) and dawa (Hizb-ut-Tahrir) in the eye, and see nothing more than -- a bearded version of the IRA. Rather than bury their heads in the Clausewitzian sand, strategists would be better inspired to meditate the truly "remarkable trinity" engineered by Arab governments for more than thirty years: natalist policies, anti-Western mass indoctrination, and mass emigration to the West. Isn't time at least to add a chapter to On War on "demographic warfare?"5

If a Colin Gray -- arguably the smartest living Clausewitzian today -- can be so blind as to the nature of the challenges facing the West, one can easily guess the damage done by Clausewitzology on less talented minds.

Clausewitz in America: Prussian fantasies, French realities?

Since the end of the Cold War, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (which can apparently walk and chew gum at the same time) has been rethinking both conventional and irregular warfare. For the former, the pla turned to the American Mahan, not the Prussian Clausewitz; for the latter, the pla went back not only to Sun-Tzu, but also to Lawrence, Beaufre, Arquilla, Lind, etc. -- anything that can be of use in the conceptual toolbox of "unrestricted warfare" (URW). In America, meanwhile, -- and despite a guerilla war engineered by "Netwar" and "Fourth Generation Warfare" insurgents -- the military educational establishment has continued to peddle Clausewitz or, to be more precise, an increasingly Jominized version of Clausewitz.

Like the aging Marxists with a Karl of their own, the Clausewitzians today are more interested in exonerating their idol from the evil perpetrated in his name than in demonstrating what good he could bring to the current challenges facing the military. It may well be that Marx and Clausewitz were indeed mostly "misread" by most people most of the time, but if the risks of "misreading" are statistically greater than the chances of getting it right, what's the point of making it required reading in the first place? With its unresolved tensions between its theologia speculativa and theologia positiva parts, On War, to be sure, is ideally suited for endless, medieval-like scholastic disputatio. But while Clausewitz-Centered Chatter (CCC) can be entertaining (how many ayatollahs can dance on a Schwerpunkt?), there are undeniable opportunity costs for an officer corps already "too busy to learn."6

A decade ago already, U.S. Army War College professor Steven Metz remarked: "Like adoration for some family elder, the veneration heaped on Clausewitz seems to grow even as his power to explain the world declines. He remains an icon at all U.S. war colleges (figuratively and literally) while his writings are bent, twisted, and stretched to explain everything from guerilla insurgency (Summers) through nuclear strategy (Cimbala) to counternarcotrafficking (Sharpe). On War is treated like holy script from which quotations are plucked to legitimize all sorts of policies and programs. But enough! It is time to hold a wake so that strategists can pay their respects to Clausewitz and move on, leaving him to rest among the historians."7

In the past two years, to be sure, the steepest learning curve within the U.S. government has been in DOD, not the State Department or the CIA. But this "transformation" in military education has taken place largely outside formal channels. Today still, such is the institutional weight of the Clausewitzian petits maitres that the former commander of the U.S. Army War College -- one of the smartest proponents of Culture-Centric Warfare -- feels compelled to perform the ritual bow to the master in order to get the institution to accept the principle of a radical revamping of professional military education (PME).8

Does the obsession with Clausewitz really matter that much? You bet it does. As the military-educational complex (150 institutions, of which the Naval War College is the crown jewel) takes in interagency education, the danger is that "strategism" and "Clausewitzology" will spread to other agencies and may aggravate already dysfunctional civil-military relations at the working level. The Iraqi precedent, in that respect, does not bode well.

For those who naively thought that the current Iraqi predicament could safely be blamed on three dozen "neocon chickenhawks," Thomas Ricks's recent book will be a revelation: Failure was not the least preordained, and the military, as much as the civilians, has its share of responsibility. Talking about a military fiasco would be excessive, because it is not the U.S. military that made the two most fateful decisions (disbanding the Iraqi army in 2003; taking four months to form a government in 2006). But the fact remains, "well into 2005, the American military ... didn't imagine or prepare for the possibility that former regime members had their own 'day-after' plans to fight on even if they lost the conventional battle. It didn't imagine that Iraq would become a magnet for international jihadists, so it failed to seal the borders. It didn't imagine the Sunni tribal militias would react with such violence to the American presence, so it failed to take the pre-emptive economic and political steps to address their grievances. And it failed to understand that there were elements within the Shiite community that would use force to try to establish a theocratic system."9

Like McMaster's Dereliction of Duty on Vietnam (a book hugely popular with mid-level officers), Ricks's Fiasco on Iraq is at times too harsh on the military brass, and tends to misdiagnose a problem which, more than ever, is not so much moral as intellectual.10

The generation of Maxwell Taylor graduated from West Point at a time, the early 1920s, when the "lessons learned" could not but focus on a conventional war (World War 1), and their first-hand experience of war was shaped by another conventional war (World War 11). Thus, the Taylor generation never had existential nor intellectual exposure to irregular warfare (there was little theoretical work on the subject), and by the 1960s, neither did they have much incentive to learn from the experience of foreign powers (UK and France) which, unlike America, were after all colonial powers. But the successor generations should have logically benefited from the "lessons learned" in Vietnam as well as the growing literature on counterinsurgency. Yet instead of being exposed to the policy-relevant Clausewitzian realism of Osgood's Limited War Revisited (1979), the new generation of officers was force-fed with the Clausewitzian "surrealism" of Summers's On Strategy (1981) -- the true beginning of strategy for strategy's sake in America.

By 1999, the reasons for not using Clausewitz as a textbook had become apparent even to the Clausewitzian die-hards -- who nevertheless concluded, in surrealistic fashion: "Because much of the existing literature on Clausewitz explains his significance within an obsolete context, few educators are able to forcefully demonstrate his relevance in the post-Cold War world.... It is difficult to pin any blame on educators, however, when the existing version of On War is so difficult to reach and to teach from."11

Difficult to pin any blame? Not so fast. Chronologically and logically, the first blame would appear to fall on the educators' shoulders: isn't it a failure to learn on the part of military educators which later led to a failure to anticipate on the part of military planners and to a failure to adapt (quickly enough) on the part of military commanders on the ground?12 Isn't it the educators who drew the wrong lessons from Vietnam and came up with the surrealistic Weinberger Doctrine; who dubbed "Operations Other than War" (OOTW) anything that did not resemble a Clausewitzian "decisive battle;" who, having reduced "war" to "battle," "battle" to "combat," and "combat" to "targeting and shooting," dismissed post-combat planning as postwar planning best left to civilians.

Since the proverbial military-industrial complex can always be counted on to push for a technocentric approach to war, isn't it the duty of the military-educational complex to make sure soldiers never lose sight of the anthropocentric approach? And once it becomes clear, as in the early 1990s, that U.S. is peerless in conventional warfare, isn't the duty of educators to anticipate that the enemy will have no choice but to choose an asymmetrical approach -- as in "irregular warfare?" Yet, while the Osamas of this world were issuing fatwas against "Jews and Crusaders" and defining their own struggle in terms of "Fourth-Generation Warfare," our Clausewitzian Ayatollahs were too busy turning Vom Kriege in a military Quran and issuing fatwas against the theoreticians of 4GW, Netwar, and other postmodern "heresies." If that attitude does not qualify as "dereliction of duty," what does?

For the neutral observer, then, the problem with the "neocon chickenhawks" is not so much that they lacked an understanding of irregular warfare13 as that they seriously underestimated the sterilizing effect, on the American military mind and over a generation, of three dozen Clausewitzian cicadas for whom counterinsurgency was synonymous with "derisive battle." A contrario, the intellectual agility since the end of the Cold War of a Marine Corps largely exempt from the Clausewitz regimen (from General Krulak to General Mattis) would tend to prove that the problem is not with the officer corps itself, but with the (largely civilian) Clausewitzian educators. If the Clausewitzian text is indeed so filled with fog and friction, if On War is so hard to teach from that even most educators can't teach it properly, then surely thought should be given to retiring Clausewitz, or the educators -- or both.

The "cognitive dissonance" among Clausewitizians consists in maintaining the most dogmatic approach concerning Clausewitz as the True North, while deploring -- like Gray -- that "American military power has been as awesome tactically as it has rarely been impressive operationally or strategically.... the German armed forces in both world wars suffered from the same malady" (as if the two were somehow unrelated). If, as Gray rightly points out, "strategy is -- or should be, the bridge that connects military power with policy," what kind of a bridge is On War, which devotes 600 pages to military power and next to nothing to policy? Between the "strategy for strategy's sake" of the Clausewitzians, and the "tacticisation of strategy" of Network-Centric Warriors, genuine strategic thinking seems to be forever elusive -- missing in action as much as in reflection.

Why such an irrational "resistance" (in the Freudian sense) on the part of military educators? After all, it does not take an Einstein to realize that, from Alexander the Great to Napoleon, the greatest generals for 20 centuries had one thing in common: They have never read Clausewitz. And conversely, in the bloodiest century known to man, the greatest admirers of Clausewitz also have had one thing in common: They may have won a battle here and there, but they have all invariably lost all their wars. One suspects that the Prussian Party is in fact not so much interested in meditating Clausewitz (their endless exegeses of Clausewitz in the past 30 years has yielded no new insight beyond the interpretations of a Raymond Aron and a Carl Schmitt) as such, as in maintaining a "Prussian folklore" in the U.S. military. One can understand their hostilite de principe to the idea of teaching irregular warfare: from Marshall Bugeaud to General Beaufre, from Marshall Gallieni to Marshall Lyautey, from Colonel Trinquier to Lieutenant Galula, the majority of the leading theoreticians on the subject happen to be, not Prussian but -- horresco referens -- French. And as is well-known by anyone who gets his military history from Hollywood rather than Harvard, the French, since 1918 at least, have proven utterly incapable of fighting.14

Ironically, and Prussian fantasies notwithstanding, what the post-Gulf War American Army has come to resemble is the post-World War i French Army: In both cases, victory breeds complacency, and this in turn can lead to a solid but unimaginative army capable of holding its own against an equally solid but unimaginative opponent -- but is not necessarily a match for an innovative military, be it in the form of the German "blitzkrieg" yesterday or Chinese "unrestricted warfare" tomorrow. No wonder that a particularly bold USMC colonel felt compelled recently to argue that the "Shock and Awe" doctrine could prove to be America's twenty-first-century Maginot Line.15

As of this writing (August 2006), it is too early to tell whether Baghdad will be America's Battle of Algiers -- or Battle of Jena. But it is not too early to call for a Renaissance in Strategic Education -- for military and civilians alike. In diplomacy as in academe and in the media, there is unquestionably a need for greater strategic literacy, and the military can play a constructive role; but by the same token, the military will have to free itself from the Clausewitzian straitjacket if it ever wants to make a significant contribution to grand strategy.

The Revolution in Guerrilla Affairs

Unlike his disciples today, Clausewitz was an attentive observer of the revolution in military affairs of his day. It so happens that this RMA was in conventional warfare (the Carnot-Bonaparte revolution), whereas that of today is in irregular warfare (Netwar, 4GW). Clausewitz, to be sure, was no stranger to irregular warfare; in fact, On War was initially meant as the first part of a triptych on conventional warfare, irregular warfare and tactics. But the fact remains that in the 10 volumes of his complete works, the least developed (quantitatively and qualitatively) topic remains irregular warfare. Every thinker, to be sure, is a product of his time and, as Raymond Aron observed long ago, it should not come as a surprise that Clausewitz could only conceive of guerrilla warfare in the form of the traditional (defensive) "guerre populaire" and not the twenty-century (offensive) "guerre revolutionnaire." Be that as it may, it is not until the turn of the twentieth century that the conceptualization of irregular warfare will take a new turn, through the combined effects of the anthropologization of military theory (Calwell, Lawrence) and the militarization of revolutionary ideology (Lenin, Trotsky).16 Meanwhile, in the field of the conventional warfare, the traditional Clausewitzian emphasis on "annihilation" and "decisive battle" will find itself challenged by Delbruck and Corbett, while Liddell Hart will bring the debate on an altogether different plane: that of Grand Strategy.

If Mao Zedong marks a major turning point in the history of irregular warfare, it is because he blends the Western and Eastern traditions and offers the most comprehensive theory and practice of Guerrilla -- leading General Beaufre to refer to Mao's Long March in terms of "Grande Guerrilla." Yet, in one fundamental aspect, Mao continues to view irregular warfare the same way as Clausewitz: Irregular warfare is merely a "support activity" for conventional warfare; there is no substitute for a conventional, "decisive battle" in the third phase of Mao's people's war.

If there is a real "Revolution in Guerrilla Affairs," then, it is not to be found in Mao's Long March, but in the French-Algerian War (1954-1962). By 1962, the Algerian FLN forces are reduced to 10,000 men, while the French regular forces include more than 100,000 Algerian volunteers. But through the clever use of media (in particular Nasser's "Voice of the Arabs," the al-Jazeera of the time) and high-visibility fora provided by nascent international organizations (the UN, the Arab League, etc.), the Algerian FLN, while thoroughly defeated militarily, will be able to level the playing field and -- the asymmetry of political wills being what it is [17] -- to prevail politically, in a way totally unanticipated by Mao.

Fast forward to 1989. The year of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, William Lind and his iconoclastic "band of brothers" come up with a new theory: Fourth-Generation Warfare. Initially eclipsed by other postmodern discourses (Toffler, Keegan, and especially Van Creveld), "Fourth-Generation Warfare" will enter the lexicon of the mainstream media only after the 9/11 events.

And the first criticism that 4GW will have to confront is that it is based on shaky history. While the point is well-taken, it is worth noting that this is not the first time in military circles that good theory rests on lousy history. In his time, 1957, Samuel Huntington's historical account of the relation between the Soldier and the State was at best fuzzy history; yet Huntington admirably succeeded in devising a much-needed normative theory of civil-military relations in democratic countries valid for the whole Cold War (whether the U.S. military should continue today to treat it as gospel is another question). Similarly, the historical foundations of 4GW theory are awkward at best: The "generational" periodization cannot fail to make any serious historian cringe, and a more rigorous genealogy should probably have followed the rough "revolution in guerrilla affairs" model outlined above. At the very least, the proponents of 4GW would have been better inspired to argue that, in the second half of the twentieth century, a new form of warfare became dominant due to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors: the increasing militarization of ideologies (Marxism yesterday and Islamism today), the constraints brought by weapons of mass destruction, the opportunities offered by the new weapons of mass communication, etc.

Be it as it may: As Lawrence Freedman, the dean of British strategic studies, pointed out recently, "the fact that 4GW is based on poor history, and does scant justice to the forms both regular and irregular warfare can take, is not in itself a reason for neglecting its prescriptive aspects."18 4GW theory, which presents itself as a work in progress rather than a closed system, remains one of the most useful approaches to understand the grammar and logic of the current global jihad. And the Clausewitzian drill sergeants are all the less justified in dismissing 4GW in that, unlike other postmodern theoreticians, the 4GW warriors do not exhibit an a priori hostility toward Clausewitz.

"Virtual States" and "Nonlinear Wars"

There is, to be sure, room for improvement. Thus, due to the Clausewitzian, state-on-state, force-on-force, dogmatism prevailing in military circles in the 1980s, the theoreticians of 4GW were initially inclined to put the emphasis on the opposite: the importance of transnational, nonstate actors at the strategic level, of dispersion rather than concentration of forces at the operational level, etc. Today, by contrast, it would be more useful to focus on the concept of "Deep Coalition" between state and nonstate actors put forward by other postmodern defense intellectuals (Alvin Toffler).

One clear shortcoming of 4GW theory is the axiom of a "crisis of legitimacy" of the state. For one thing, the "post-Westphalian" rhetoric so common since the end of the Cold War rests on an idealized vision of the Westphalian order, during which sovereignty was in fact never as total as some would assume; conversely, of the 150 states that have emerged since 1945, the majority have never been real states but "quasi-states." Too much emphasis on "terrorism" as a product of the "crisis of legitimacy" of the state is wrong not just factually but heuristically as well, in that it leads analysts to overlook the importance of terrorism as a "force multiplier" for the (actual or potential rogue) state. Simply put, the axiom of a "legitimacy crisis" is an impediment to an analysis of the various modalities of "war by proxy".19 Similarly, too much emphasis on "dispersion" can lead one to overlook the fact that "swarming" campaigns -- like the recent "cartoon jihad" -- are driven by "deep coalitions" of states, IOs, and NGOs.

Last but not least, one could certainly take the 4GW warriors to task regarding their editorial strategies: Having denounced the Western lumpen-intelligentsia for what it is (a Fifth Column), some 4GW theoreticians, blinded by anti-Bush passions, end up publishing their diatribes in the columns of the same lumpen-intelligentsia. True, William Lind on Antiwar.com is not nearly as bad as Jane Fonda on Hanoi TV, but given the IQ differential, this "objective complicity" (as Marxists used to say) still is "worse than a crime -- a mistake." Just like it is time for Clausewitzians to realize that ours is the age of the "Three-Block War" (Krulak), and that Santa Clausewitz won't be coming to town, it is time for 4GW warriors to grow up and accept the fact that -- to update Donald Rumsfeld -- "you go to war with the SecDef you have."

It is time to "bring the state back in," lest the 4GW and Netwar discourses end up being afflicted with the same disease as Network-Centric Warfare: namely, the "tacticisation of strategy." But the return of the state will not be synonymous with a return to Clausewitz. For one thing, the "state" is not the transparent, self-evident, ahistorical concept that some strategists all too often assume. In the days of Clausewitz, at any rate, the State was close to Fichte's "Geschlossene Handelstaat;" today, it is closer to Rosecrance's "Virtual State." For another, as the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review puts it, the Long War will have to be waged across the proverbial DIME spectrum, now renamed DIMEFIL (diplomacy, information, military, economic, financial, intelligence, law enforcement). Old Carl may have had a few interesting things to say about counterinsurgency (COIN), but he never ventured beyond the military dimension (in short, and to put it in modern parlance: it's COIN and DIME, stupid).

The bottom line: because wars are now waged along the DIMEFIL spectrum, the nonlinearity of war has increased exponentially. In his time, to be sure, Clausewitz had the intuition that -- to put it simplistically - "fog and friction" combined to produce nonlinearity, but this idea was never fully developed (the "chameleon" imagery in On War does not quite make a chaos theory). Today, the main driver of nonlinearity is not military friction, but media contagion. The overarching metaphor is not so much mechanics as epidemiology. The new buzzword is not kinetics, but "memetics." The main problem in the field out there is "mass disruption and mass contagion," while the relevance of the Clausewitzian "fog and friction" is confined primarily to, well -- the Beltway's interagency "turf wars."20

Clausewitz will never deliver the grammar and logic of Global Jihad. Can the Prussian's masterpiece at least increase the "situational awareness" regarding the current challenges? Let's do a quick tour d'horizon to see a contrario why, in and of itself, "Knowing Thy Clausewitz" will never provide the Big Picture necessary to devise a Grand Strategy.

"Deep Coalitions" and "Soft Balancing": The Shiite crescent and the SCO

In 12 month's time since the June 2005 presidential elections, Iran has managed to eclipse Iraq and Afghanistan as problem No. 1, thanks to the combination of nuclear ambition and genocidal proclamations. In what way can Clausewitz bring any light to the question "Iran: to bomb or not to bomb?" The Prussian, to be sure, can help us remember that Iran is not a unitary actor but -- so to speak -- a trinitarian one (government, military, people). Beyond that, nothing; yet, it may well be that, in order to avoid the alternative between appeasement and atomization, the U.S. will have to devise a policy whose success will rest, not just on a good grasp of Iranian civil-military relations, but of the correlation of forces within the Iranian military itself, between the regular army and the Revolutionary Guards, i.e., between those for whom "war is but the continuation of politics by other means" (in the conventional sense) and those for whom "war is the continuation of martyrdom by other means." But what do we know about the "tribal politics" of the Iranian military, and the possible incentives for defection, rebellion, subversion? Over the years, an unbalanced curriculum in terms of education (fixation on "decisive battle" and "swift victory") has had long-term implications in terms of organization (marginalization of the Foreign Area Officer program in terms of funding and promotion).

Because it deals essentially with tactical and operational, not strategic matters, neither does On War have anything to tell us on the increasingly salient subject of interstate rivalries in the Muslim world. To the extent that both Saudi Arabia and Iran can be described as "virtual caliphates" (in the sense of "virtual state" mentioned above), the post-1979 cold war of sorts between these two caliphates (reminiscent of the Soviet-Chinese rivalry) has a logic, and an autonomy, of its own (which, incidentally, would exist in the absence of an Israeli-Palestinian conflict) -- as did, a generation ago, the older cold war between pan-Arabist Egypt and pan-Islamist Saudi Arabia (which would have existed as well in the absence of a Cold War between the U.S. and the USSR).21

Just as On War has little policy relevance for Muslim civil-military relations and interstate competition, so it sheds no light on another increasingly salient question: the "deep coalition" between Muslim state and nonstate actors. Though the Shiites represent only 15 percent of the Muslim world, the emerging Shiite Crescent has a formidable potential for nuisance in the region (due to both the sheer number of countries with Shiite minorities, from Saudi Arabia to Pakistan, and the fact that Shiite territories tend to be where the oilfields are). What is the nature of the relation between the Shiite center (Iran) and the periphery (from Iraq to Pakistan)? What is the relative weight of religious (Shiite) vs. ethnic (Persian) factors in the "deep coalition" between the Iranian State and nonstate actors (Hamas, Hezbollah)? Under what conditions could Shiites and Sunnis overcome their differences and come up with a joint grand strategy against the West? These are difficult questions, but one thing is sure: not only On War won't give you the right answers, it won't even lead you to ask the right questions.

A small consolation: when it comes to identifying the "operational code" of deep coalitions, neither "game theory" nor "structural realism" is likely to shed any light either. Forget about "rational choice" theories: In the non-Western world in general, and in the Middle East in particular, state actors have a long record of self-delusion, miscalculation and defection.22 Rather than "structural realism," it is a "cultural realism" approach which will make intelligible the constantly shifting evolution between cooperation and confrontation, whether among nonstate actors (Hezbollah and al Qaeda, e.g.) or state actors (Saudi Arabia and Iran).

"Soft Balancing" is another missing chapter in Clausewitz's On War. International relations scholars have spent the better part of the 1990s wondering why the lone remaining superpower was not being "balanced" -- as required by realist theory -- by would-be regional hegemons. Look no further now: Since the summer of 2005, "balancing" is happening big time, led by China and Russia. What could still be loosely described in the 1990s as an amorphous "Sino-Islamic Axis" (Huntington) has taken, a decade later, a more institutionalized form to the point where some Western observers describe the China/Russia-led Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) over Central Asia as an emerging "NATO of the East."

From a traditional realist point of view, there was in fact nothing preordained in Russia's "bandwagoning" behavior vis-à-vis the Sino-Islamic Axis (the laws of geopolitical physics being what they are, a seemingly never-ending enlargement of NATO to the East simply led Russia to toy with the idea of turning the SCO into an Eastern NATO). Yet, Russia is not yet "lost": It belongs to the West, and traditional realists can plausibly argue that a little self-restraint on the part of the U.S. should be enough to get Russia back into the Western fold. While Russia's dangerous liaison with the SCO can be interpreted as tactical "soft balancing,"23 the same can no longer be said of China. China's growing global activism, from Latin America to Sub-Saharan Africa, from the Middle East to Central Asia, is bringing anything but stability in its wake, and China's recent development of second-strike capabilities, along with the construction of giant bunkers accommodating 200,000 people, cast doubt on the "softness" of its balancing act.

As a result of the emergence of the SCO, the focus of nato activities is likely to be less on a further enlargement to the East than, on one hand, "engaging" counter-balancing global partners (Australia, Japan, etc.) and on the other, "deepening" the political dialogue within the North Atlantic Council (to include now energy security issues). In the long term, and given the gradual subversion of the UN by the Organization of the Islamic Conference (see below), it is not impossible to imagine NATO transforming itself into a UN of Democracies. NATO, SCO, OIC: This triangle is likely to define the new geopolitical environment at the highest level for the near future. But where is the chapter in Clausewitz on "Alliance Politics?"24

The "Permanent Campaign" and the "Long War"

Since the Algerian War, the role of media in conflicts has increased exponentially. The 1960s was the Age of the Image, of "pseudo-events," of celebrities known for their "well-knownness," and both Castro and Arafat (two media inventions) quickly discovered how to exploit these new opportunities. In the 1970s, Khomeini used small media as force multipliers for a big revolution, while in the 1980s (intifada) and the 1990s (Balkans), the mediasphere became for the first time the main "battlespace." With the advent of 100 Muslim satellite televisions channels since the mid-1990s, some analysts have wondered about the relevance of Clausewitz in the Age of al-Jazeera, while others have discerned the emergence of a new, non-Clausewitzian strategic trinity.25

Within the various USG foreign affairs agencies, though, there is still great reluctance to view strategic communication as something that should be "present at the takeoff, not just the crash-landing," of foreign policy. In the counter-terrorism community, similarly, there is a tendency to treat terrorism as a suspension of communication (when it is in fact the continuation of communication by other means), and thus to fail to realize that counter-communication should be at the core, not the periphery, of counter-terrorism. The 2006 QDR asserts that the Long War will ultimately be won through "strategic communication." The problem? When it comes to strategic communications, amateurs talk about "messages," professionals talk about "narratives" -- and there are way too many amateurs in strategic communication today.

In domestic politics, since the advent of the so-called "Permanent Campaign" in the late 1970s, political communication has become a job where there is "no place for amateurs." The "ballot-box warriors" are by now fully aware of the importance of narratives. But there is today, in terms of sheer sophistication, a 30-year time lag between political communication at home and strategic communication abroad.

It is time to realize that, while foreign policy is not a popularity contest, "world leadership" is not a divine right either. Since the withering away of the Soviet threat, the U.S. has been de facto engaged on the world stage in a "permanent campaign" of sorts where there is -- or should be -- no place for amateurs either (in the Clinton era, the White House understood the importance of stagecraft, though more often than not as a substitute for, rather than a complement to, statecraft). This "permanent campaign" imperative was true during the peaceful 1990s; it is all the more true now in the context of a Long War in which, over time, memories of 9/11 abroad will inevitably begin to fade and the U.S. will inevitably begin to appear ("politics is perception" abroad too) as the "greatest threat to world peace." It is not too late to develop the same sophisticated understanding of strategic communication as that of General Marshall (as secretary of state) and General Eisenhower (as president) in the early days of the Cold War.26

In the ongoing battle for hearts and minds, public diplomacy and information operations will continue to go nowhere fast so long as they stay on "message" instead of moving on to "narrative." From John Arquilla to Lawrence Freedman, the best strategists have -- unsuccessfully so far -- tried to draw attention to this fundamental rule of strategic communication: "Opinions are shaped not so much by the information received but the constructs through which that information is interpreted and understood" (Freedman). Yet, the State Department and DOD remain stuck in the tactical level of messages ("early alert and rapid response") and have yet to tackle the strategic question of narratives. In the context of the GWOT, it is hard to overstate the importance of narratives, be they personal or collectives, prospective or retrospective, at the micro-, meso-, or macro-levels.

At the micro-level. As two defense intellectuals recently pointed out, "a grand counterterrorism strategy would benefit from a comprehensive consideration of the stories terrorists tell: understanding the narratives which influence the genesis, growth, maturation and transformation of terrorist organizations will enable us to better fashion a strategy for undermining the efficacy of those narratives so as to deter, disrupt and defeat terrorist groups."27

At the meso-level. It is time to bring genuine scholarship back in the meta-narrative of twentieth-century Middle East history. Since the Arab Revolt of 1916, the history of the region has been first and foremost the history of three successive rivalries. A first rivalry between the reactionary Saudis and the progressive Hashemites (1916-1925) for the control of the Holy Sites (and of the Oily Land, as it turned out later). A second rivalry between pan-Arabist Egypt and pan-Islamist Saudi Arabia (1945-1979) for leadership in the Arab world. A third rivalry between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shiite Iran (1979-today) for the leadership of the re-Islamization of the global umma.

In short, from the point of view of Muslim history, the twentieth century has been as much a "Saudi Century" as Western history has been an "American Century." Will the twenty-first century be an "Iranian Century"? If it gave up its nuclear fantasies, it certainly could. At any rate, analysts would do well to focus on the impact of the renewed Saudi-Iranian rivalry on the region, and once and for all see the Israeli-Palestinian conflict for what it once was (a sideshow but a useful alibi to maintain a "state of emergency") and what it is fast becoming today (a probing ground to test the determination of the West).

At the macro level. The most effective retrospective meta-narratives rise to the national (or even global) level and acquire the status of "collective memories" -- which, more often than not, have little to do with scholarly history. If there is one grand narrative that needs to be thoroughly deconstructed, it is that of "Western imperialism vs. Muslim victimization." For nearly a thousand years, 711 until 1683, it was Islam which was on the offensive, and the West on the defensive, with a few sporadic counteroffensives (aka the Crusades). And it is thanks to the continuous pressure of Russia on the Ottoman empire from 1699 on that Western Europe became free to safely turn its back on the Muslim question and develop an Atlantic Civilization (Russia is the unacknowledged enabler in the Plato-to-NATO narrative).28 So much for Western Imperialism, then.

Beside the message vs. narrative issue at the level of information operations, the main challenge of strategic communication in the context of the Long War is to bring a proper balance between short-term information operations and long-term education operations. Despite its pitiful budget, the State Department has traditionally been good at "Edu Ops," and the Pentagon could learn a thing or two from State (just like State could learn from DOD about Info Ops). Every year, 2,000 foreign officers graduate from the various U.S. military institutions. At very little cost, there could be ten times more, while the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program could achieve a better balance between sheer training and genuine education.29 Then again: where is the chapter in Clausewitz on the strategic importance of "Defense Diplomacy?"

"Petrodollar Warfare": EU-SCO-OPEC

Need, Greed, and Creed: this "remarkable trinity" owes nothing to Clausewitz, yet has always governed the political economy of warfare in most of the world most of the time. War seems to have been the continuation of economics (as much as of politics) by other means for the better part of the past 2,000 years. At the other end of the spectrum, a traditional neglect of the economic dimension also leads Clausewitzians to forget that U.S. hegemony today rests as much on its monetary "command of the common currency" as on its military "command of the commons."30

When discussed at all, the economic dimension of the GWOT is usually confined to: a) the role of hawala, the complex informal financial networks, in terrorism financing; b) the costs of the Iraq campaign and/or the rising costs of oil for U.S. taxpayers/consumers.31 In short, the discussion of the economic dimension remains at best at the operational level and rarely reaches the strategic level. Yet, if the GWOT promises to be a Long War, it's not just simply because it will take 30 years to educate (as in: de-Salafization) a new generation of Muslims; it's also because, with a quadrupling of oil prices in four years, oil-producing countries have little incentive to see an end to the GWOT -- provided that they can redirect the jihad from the "near" to the "far" enemy. In the Saudi-Iranian rivalry, theo-political competition is balanced by geo-economic cooperation. Here again, the grammar and logic of the Long War, and the strategies and tactics of the Oily Alliance, won't be found in Clausewitz.

Last but not least, beyond -- and analytically distinct from -- the oil weapon proper, is the euro weapon. America's greatest vulnerability would be exposed were the SCO and/or OPEC countries, gradually and in a coordinated fashion, shift their reserve currencies from dollar to euros. A mere theoretical possibility? Not exactly. At a very slow pace, the train has in fact already left the station. Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, various countries have quietly begun to shift their reserve currencies and, at regular intervals, Russia, China, and various OPEC countries (the latter, for instance, in retaliation for the cancelled Dubai Ports deal) have threatened to continue to do so.

But while this monetary soft balancing does constitute a "threat" for the U.S., it sounds more like a "promise" for the EU. Back in the 1990s, EU elites "sold" to EU public opinion the idea of a European Monetary Union with the argument that the euro would quickly become the rival of the dollar as reserve currency, and that, in turn, would level the transatlantic playing field in such a way as to make unpopular structural reforms in Europe unnecessary. Today, in the wake of the failed EU constitutional deal in 2005, the domestic legitimacy of EU elites is at an all time low, and these same elites are anxious to see foreign countries -- any country -- transfer their reserve currencies in euro. The 64-million dollar question becomes: what political price would EU elites be willing to pay to have, say, Russia -- the world's second largest oil exporter -- shift a significant part of its reserve currency: a greater institutionalization of the EU-Russia security dialogue, as the Russians have hinted in the past; a quiet acquiescence to an energetic Finlandization which, all things considered, would still be a lesser evil compared to the current energetic dhimmitude of Europe vis-à-vis the Middle East? It's too early to tell, but one thing should already be clear: There is no chapter on the grammar and logic of petrodollar warfare in Clausewitz, either.

"Lawfare": Clausewitz or Carl Schmitt?

Is war really the continuation of Politik (policy and/or politics) by other means? Maybe -- maybe not. Whether the statement is meant to be descriptive, prescriptive or predictive, its validity, ultimately, rests on the definition of both War and Politik. After 600 pages of On War, you do get a sense of Clausewitz's definition of War -- but you still know next to nothing about the "concept of the political" from which he operates. The Prussian spends the whole first chapter trying to capture the philosophical "essence" of war, but takes Politik as if it was a self-evident notion. Whose Politik are we taking about? Aristotle? Machiavelli? Hobbes? Montesquieu? Fichte? Hegel? And if the latter, what are the relations between the Hegelian political struggle for recognition and the Clausewitzian military struggle for annihilation? These questions are not as academic as they first seem.

For the past two years, the Pentagon has been grappling with the concept of Lawfare -- the strategic use of law to overcome the enemy -- at the national and international level. Conceptualizing "Lawfare" is possibly the most difficult challenge confronting not just the military today (LOAC), but the whole foreign policy establishment (why, even the very diplomatic Council on Foreign Relations saw fit to brainstorm on this "latest of asymmetries"). Ironically, even though DOD is at the forefront of the conceptual struggle, the 2006 National Military Strategic Plan-War on Terror (NMSP-WOT)'s very definition of Islamist "extremists" and "moderates" (and its call to empower the latter), may in fact aggravate lawfare. The bottom line: If we ever want to develop a workable conception of Lawfare, we will have to trade one Carl (Clausewitz) for another (Schmitt).32

Like Clausewitz, Carl Schmitt is a dangerous mind -- only more so. Paradoxical as it may sound, the one-time jurist of the Third Reich is today an icon among the Western leftover left and its jihadist allies, who know that they will find in Schmitt, rather than Marx, the precision-guided weapons they need against liberalism. At his best, Schmitt remains to this day the most cogent critique of liberalism as a "political theology." And while the leftover left may hold it against him that he provided the best philosophical basis for a distinction between authoritarianism and totalitarianism, they are forever grateful to Schmitt for having put forward a proto-theory of Lawfare.

To put it simply (simplistically even): First, against Kelsen's legalistic fairly tales, Schmitt argues that law is nothing but the continuation of politics by other means. Second, with his "Dictatorship," "Concept of the Political," and "Theory of the Partisan," Schmitt turns Clausewitz on his head to remind us that there are times when politics reaches such a degree of intensity that the only realistic definition is that "politics is the continuation of war by other means."33

At his worst, Schmitt is not just an anti-Semitic Nazi fellow-traveler (obviously a plus from the jihadist standpoint); he is also the founding father of a Geojuriprudens based on race/faith, which served Nazism well yesterday and would need only minor adjustments to serve jihadism equally well tomorrow. Be it as it may, in times of "epochal war" -- and the Long War certainly fits the description - Carl Schmitt may well be what the Greeks called a pharmakon: i.e., both a poison and its remedy. Nothing is more urgent today than a confrontation between Schmitt and Clausewitz, if only because Schmitt's two "remarkable trinities" (Law/Politics/War and State/Movement/People) are more policy relevant than Clausewitz's. It is Schmitt, rather than Clausewitz, who will help you understand the current subversion, through international lawfare, of the un system by the Organization of the Islamic Conference (oic) under the guise of "dialogue of civilization," "tolerance," "global governance," and other niceties. For military lawyers who want to become genuine "warrior-lawyers"34, Schmitt remains the best point of departure for the elaboration of counter-Lawfare.

Last but not least: in an age when there is much psychobabble in the West about "identity politics," Schmitt also offers the most coherent articulation between identity and enmity. In that respect, it is to be hoped that, in the spirit of "jointness," the National War College and the Middle East Studies Association will sponsor a comprehensive, multi-volume study on: "The Social Construction of Enmity/Identity: The Representation of 'Jews and Crusaders' in the State-sponsored Schools, Mosques and Media of the 57 Countries of the Organization of the Islamic Conference." That way, we will know once and for all if the global jihad is primarily the unfortunate symptom of a Sartrian, existential mal de vivre in the face of globalization, or if it is primarily a concerted, state-sponsored first phase for an assault on Western Civilization.

Soldier, Statesman, Scholar: The lost battles of Clausewitz

Clausewitz may not be the "Madhi of the masses" derided by Liddell Hart, but he has certainly become the Madhi of a military lumpen intelligentsia for whom the fine art of asking the right questions has been made irrelevant since the master has already provided all the right answers. Once and for all, then: On War is a mere draft, which Clausewitz never intended to publish, and which he himself characterized as a work "that only deserves to be called a shapeless mass of ideas ... being liable to endless misinterpretations."35 No need to be more Catholic than the pope, then. But as military historians know, counterfactual history can at times shed light on some seemingly intractable problems, so let's walk briefly in Clausewitz's footsteps and review his existential battles.

Clausewitz the philosopher initially wants to be the Montesquieu of war. But Clausewitz the patriot, who like all Prussians of his generation is under the spell of Fichte (Schmitt got that right), would no doubt prefer to write a military treatise that would nicely complement Fichte's work on politics (Machiavelli), economics (The Closed Commercial State), and sociocultural history (Addresses to the German Nation). Hence the tension in Clausewitz's writings between the descriptive and the prescriptive. Did I mention there is also an "epochal war" going on, and that an ambivalent fascination for Napoleon, the "God of War," does not facilitate scholarly serenity?

With the restoration of the peace after 1815, with the withering away of both Fichte and Napoleon from the scene, with also a certain disenchantment with Restoration domestic politics, Clausewitz the patriot gradually gives way to Clausewitz the philosopher. His goal now? To be the Machiavelli of his time, i.e., a thinker as expert on war as on diplomacy, on statecraft as on strategy. He can't go on accumulating notes on war and having next to nothing to say about foreign policy, all the while professing that "war is but the continuation of Politik by other means." Time to walk the walk, not just talk the talk: He will apply for an ambassadorship at the Court of Saint-James.

One can only marvel at the political naiveté of Clausewitz here: The man has no experience in diplomacy whatsoever, has no "decisive battle" attached to his name, is not from high birth, has betrayed his king once by defecting to Russia -- yet asked for the most important, the most coveted, ambassadorship of his time. A real intellectual, then. Needless to say, his candidacy will be torpedoed after a protracted battle. Had he read attentively his beloved Machiavelli (or Gracian, or Saint-Simon, for that matter), Clausewitz would have understood that Politik in general, and "court politics" in particular, is but the continuation of war by other means (of the "indirect approach" variety); and that in order to get to see Politik-as-policy from up close, you need already have a good understanding of Politik-as-politics. This is the dialectical question that Clausewitz -- who has no political savvy -- will never fully grasp, existentially or intellectually.

Yet, one cannot but wonder what a British and a diplomatic experience of this kind would have done for Clausewitz. His stay in England would have been as much an eye-opener for him as the discovery of America was to his contemporary Tocqueville. And instead of retaining his youthful (by then: immature) fascination for Napoleonic battles, he would have been reminded by Nelson's heirs of the strategic importance of "seapower" (yet another missing chapter) and, above all, he would have learned first-hand from Wellington himself -- a soldier-statesman if ever there was one -- the meaning of "war is the continuation of politics by other means." In short, an experience at the Court of Saint James would have made Clausewitz more Tocquevillian and less Fichtean, more Corbettian and less Ludendorfian -- and that in turn could have made a world of difference in the history of Europe in the twentieth century.

Clausewitz is so acutely aware of the need to remedy his deficiencies in the diplomatic department that, for five years, he keeps hoping for an ambassadorship (London first, then any ambassadorship) -- and will suffer a stroke when he finally realizes it ain't gonna happen. He will remain in Berlin, where his stay will not be totally fruitless: Over the years, as his philosophical acumen develops, Clausewitz the philosopher will gradually realize that Hegel (not Fichte) is as much the "god of philosophy" as Napoleon is the "god of war." But here is his second tragedy: Clausewitz has a first-rate intellectual mind -- and a third rate philosophical education. Had he lived 50 years earlier, his meager philosophical baggage would have been enough for him to be celebrated by his contemporaries as a philosophe -- a Prussian Guibert. But by the 1820s, the Kant-Fichte-Hegel Revolution in Philosophical Affairs has turned philosophy into a professional activity in which there is no longer room for talented amateurs a la Montesquieu-Voltaire-Rousseau (if you have any doubt, just read Hegel's Logik). And a "shapeless mass of ideas" is the last thing you want to publish when you aspire to public recognition as a philosopher, especially at a time when one of the central philosophical questions of the day is that of Darstellung (which the words "presentation" or "composition" do not begin to translate).

The melancholy of Clausewitz's last years is that of man who never had the opportunity to fight the military battle he longed for, who has lost his various political battles, and who suspects he is unlikely to win his philosophical battle. By 1827 he has fully realized the need for a major rewrite of On War, but he will only have time to review the first chapter before dying of cholera in 1831 (the same year as Hegel). And so it is that, to this day, Clausewitz's On War looks at times like Machiavelli, at times like Montesquieu, at times like Fichte, at times like Hegel -- "liable to endless misinterpretations" indeed.

End of story. Rather than pontificate about an "unchanging nature" of war, our Clausewitzian drill sergeants would be well-inspired to meditate the rapidly changing philosophical terrain on which Clausewitz was venturing.

Beyond Clausewitz and 4GW

If ours is the age of the "strategic corporal" (Krulak), NCOs and junior officers will need a different kind of "situational awareness" than in the past -- and that, in itself, will call for a radical transformation of professional military education (PME). Of all the social sciences, anthropology is the one that can offer the most useful insights (psychology, by contrast, can only lead to a "babble for hearts and minds.") That said, the "strategic corporal" will have to keep in mind that, just as a military officer can be brilliant at the tactical or operational level and less than stellar at the strategic level (or vice versa), area studies specialists can offer invaluable expertise at the tribal and regional levels, yet display a total lack of judgment at the global level.36 At the interagency working level, and for the foreseeable future, "know thyself, know thy enemy" will continue to be more important than "know thy Clausewitz." So will "know thy Trotsky" (institutional infiltration), "know thy Gramsci" (cultural hegemony), and "know thy Schmitt" (intra and international lawfare) -- for this is the remarkable trinity on which the "operational code" of the Fifth Column is based today.

At the level of the new "viceroys" (combatant commanders), it will take more than Clausewitz to develop "situational awareness" across the DIME-FIL spectrum. If anything, Clausewitz is more a hindrance than help when it comes to realizing the magnitude of the challenge presented by the global jihad as epochal war: demographic warfare, petrodollar warfare, multilevel lawfare.37

Clausewitz will always remain stimulating reading, but less than ever can he deliver actionable insight. Clausewitz should be not so much retired as kicked upstairs, and made the topic of a yearlong seminar at the doctoral level -- once, that is, the future (interagency) National Security University establishes a much-needed doctoral program. At the end of the day, though, military educators will have to remember that the name of the interagency game is not strategy but statecraft.

As for Fourth-Generation Warfare, chances are it will continue to offer precious insights. If it wants to avoid a "tacticisation of strategy," though, it will have to bring the state back in and distinguish between premodern, modern, and postmodern states while looking at sovereignty for what it is: an "organized hypocrisy."38 Rather than retire the concept of 4GW altogether, though, it should be given a fuller meaning, one that goes beyond the operational conduct of war and identify the epochal causes of the conflict in the perspective of the historical longue duree. To put it simply: 4GW theoreticians will have take into account that, if the global jihad can be called Fourth-Generation Warfare, it is first and foremost because it is the fourth wave of an age-old human comedy known as the "Revolution of the Saints": Puritans, Jacobins, Bolsheviks, jihadists.39

A theo-political Revolution of the Saints, against the backdrop of an energetic Great Game, in the context of an informational Global Village. It is going to be a "long, hard slog" indeed ...

Notes

1 On the importance of an anthropological approach to strategy, see Ken Booth, Strategy and Ethnocentrism (Holmes and Meier, 1979); Robert E. Harkavy and Stephanie G. Neuman, Warfare in the Third World (Palgrave, 2001); more recently, Mary Habeck, Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (Yale University Press, 2006); Richard L. Taylor, Tribal Alliances: Ways, Means, and Ends to Successful Strategy (Carlisle Papers, 2005); and Richard H. Schultz and Andrea Dew, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat (Columbia University, 2006). At the regional level, the best introduction to Middle East exceptionalism remains Barry Rubin, The Tragedy of the Middle East (Cambridge University Press, 2002). On the ethnography of U.S. military culture, see Carl Builder, The Masks of War: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis (rand, 1989); Brigadier Nigel N.F. Aylwin-Foster, "Changing the Army for Counterinsurgency Operations," Military Review (November-December 2005); Robert M. Cassidy, Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Cultures and Irregular Warfare (Praeger, 2006); and Colin S. Gray, Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt? (Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2006).

2 Vice Admiral Arthur K. Cebrowski, "Network-Centric Warfare: Its Origin and Future," Proceedings (January 1998); Milan Vego, "Network-Centric is Not Decisive," Proceedings (June 2003); Gen. Robert H. Scales Jr., "Culture-Centric Warfare," Proceedings (October 2004). On technologism, see Williamson Murray, "Clausewitz Out, Computer In: Military Culture and Technological Hubris," National Interest (Summer 1997). On professionalism, see Don Snyder, ed., The Future of the Army Profession (McGraw-Hill, 2005); Suzanne C. Nielsen "Civil-Military Relations and Military Effectiveness," Public Administration and Management 10:2 (2005); and Gray, Irregular Enemies.

3 Colin S. Gray, Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare (Cassell, 2005), 241.

4 Audrey Kurth Cronin, "Cyber-Mobilization: The New Levée en Masse," Parameters (Summer 2006). As Cassidy points out: "The longevity and resilience of Al Qaeda are not predicated on the total quantity of terrorists that it may have trained in the past but more simply on its capacity to continue to recruit, mobilize and inspire both actual and potential fighters, supporters, and sympathizers." Counterinsurgency, 5. The use of the internet goes of course beyond mere mobilization: see Gabriel Weimann, Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges (United States Institute of Peace, 2006). On the European front of the jihad, see Evan F. Kohlman, Al Qaeda's Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network (Berg, 2004); Melanie Philips, Londonistan (Encounter Books, 2006); Anthony King, "One in four Muslims sympathizes with motives of terrorists," Daily Telegraph (July 23, 2005). Patrick Hennessy and Melissa Kite, "Poll Reveals 40 percent Muslims want sharia law in uk," Daily Telegraph (February 19, 2006).

5 On the relations between dawa and jihad, see Zeyno Baran, Hizb ut-Tahrir: Islam's Political Insurgency (Nixon Center, December 2004). On demographic engineering in general, see Onn Winckler, Arab Political Demography: Population Growth and Natalist Policies (Sussex Academic Press, 2005); Milica Bookman, The Demographic Struggle for Power (Frank Cass, 1997); David Kyle and Rey Koslowski, eds., Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001); Mark Krikorian, "Keeping Terror Out: Immigration Policy and Asymmetric Warfare," National Interest (Spring 2004); Myron Weiner and Michael Teitelbaum, Political Demography, Demographic Engineering (Berghahn Books, 2001); Bat Ye'or, Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2005); Lawrence Freedman, Population Change and European Security (Brassey's, 1992); On anti-Western indoctrination in schools, mosques, and media, see the various reports by Freedom House and Memri (www.memri.org.)

6 Gen. Robert H. Scales, "Too Busy to Learn," military.com (January 23, 2006). In what other profession does one find people so obsessed with the "nature" or the "essence" of their craft? Diplomats or dentists never talk about the "nature" of diplomacy, the "essence" of dentistry, etc. Philosophically speaking, the Clausewitzians manage to combine the worst features of neo-Platonism with the worst of Aristotleian Scholasticism.

7 Steven Metz, "A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare," Parameters (Winter 1994-95).

8 Gen. Robert H. Scales, "Clausewitz and World War iv," Armed Forces Journal (July 2006).

9 Richard H. Schultz Jr. and Andrea J. Drew, "Counterinsurgency, By the Book," New York Times (August 7, 2006).

10 H.R. McMaster, Dereliction of Duty: Johnson, McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam (HarperCollins, 1998); Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (Penguin Press, 2006).

11 Christopher Bassford, "On War 2000: A Research Proposal" (August 1999), www.clausewitz.com/cwzhome/Complex/Proposax.htm. While Michael Handel's idea of emphasizing the complementarity between the Prussian Clausewitz and the Chinese Sun-Tzu is an elegant cop-out (Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought, [Frank Cass, 1992, 1996, 2001], Christopher Bassford's project of rewriting On War for the twenty-first century reminds one of Jorge Luis Borges's famous short story about Pierre Menard, this fictitious character who boldly set out to rewrite -- coincidence? -- Don Quixote.

12 To use Eliot Cohen and John Gooch's useful distinction, Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War (Free Press, 1990).

13 Max Boot's The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power (Basic Books) was published in 2002.

14 Raymond Aron, Penser la Guerre -- Clausewitz, two volumes (Gallimard, 1976), part

          France: Judge slaps gag order, fine on intellectual over TV interview about Islam   

Eric Zemmour, the well known French intellectual of Jewish-Algerian origin, was fined and told he may no longer speak in public about matters concerning Islam because of what he said in a September 2016 TV interview:


          CAF CL / CAF Confed Cup: Selected Fixtures Preview   
CAF Champions League and CAF Confederations Cup

Our football writer previews the South African PSL teams' respective CAF Champions League and CAF Confederations Cup clashes taking place this weekend. 

Platinum Stars, SuperSport United and African champions Mamelodi Sundowns will look to make South Africa proud as they battle it out in CAF competitions this weekend.

Friday 30 June

CAF Confederation Cup

MC Alger 7/20 | Draw 31/10 | Platinum Stars 7/1
Platinum Stars will face a stern test when they travel to Algeria to take on Group B leaders MC Alger. The odds are stacked heavily against Stars as they lie bottom of the group on two points, six behind MC Alger. 

This is a must-win game for Dikwena if they want to keep their slim hopes of reaching the quarter-finals alive. A win for MC Alger will be enough to progress. The Group B leaders have won seven of their last eight matches on home soil. I’m backing a comfortable win for the Algerian giants.



Saturday 1 July

CAF Champions League

Kedus Giorgis 34/10 | Draw 49/20 | Mamelodi Sundowns 8/10 
African champions Mamelodi Sundowns will be looking to leapfrog Ethiopia's Kedus Giorgis in the Group table. Both teams are level on five points from their four matches – three behind leaders ES Tunis – with Kedus Giorgis ahead on goal difference. The Brazilians are winless in their last three matches, while the Ethiopian giants have won three of their last four. 

Kedus Giorgis are unbeaten at home in 45 matches – stretching all the way back to December 2014. It’s going to take something special from Pitso Mosimane’s side, but they have enough quality in their team and will fancy their chances. A win for the Brazilians will increase their chances of ending off the group stages in the top two. I’m going for the African champions to come out on top.



CAF Confederation Cup

Horoya 14/10 | Draw 21/10 | SuperSport United 17/10 
Eric Tinkler will begin his reign as SuperSport United boss against Group D leaders Horoya in Guinea. Horoya are unbeaten in eight matches with six wins, including four on the spin. On home soil, the Guinea side have won 30 of their last 32 games – Tinkler faces a tough test in his first match. 

SuperSport come into this clash high on confidence after thrashing Orlando Pirates 4-1 to win the Nedbank Cup for a second successive year. Matsatsantsa are second in the Group D standings, two points behind Horoya. A win for SuperSport will not only give Tinkler a dream start, but also leapfrog Horoya into top spot. As much as I like SuperSport here, I think the teams will cancel each other out. 

TREBLE  TIPPED @ 13/2
MC Alger Win 7/20
Sundowns Win 8/10
Horoya vs SuperSport Draw 21/10

Written by Chadley Nagel for @Hollywoodbets

Bet on these matches now at Hollywoodbets.net! Haven’t got an account? Open one here!

 Bet Now 

          By: Why Chadian Students Braved Arrest and Stormed Their Embassy in Algeria | Newssiren.com   
[…] by Rakotomalala · Translated by Thalia Rahme · View original post [fr] · comments (0) Donate · Share: facebook · twitter · googleplus · reddit · StumbleUpon · […]
          06/30 Links Pt2: Phillips: Denial: the Labour Party's antisemitism; Glick: Who cares about Jewish unity?   
From Ian:

Melanie Phillips: Denial: the Labour Party's antisemitism
David Hirsh’s must-see video, Whitewashed: Antisemitism in the Labour Party (which you can view below) starts with a truly shocking clip of Jeremy Corbyn speaking. Having referred to the profoundly anti-Jewish, murderous terrorist organisations Hezbollah and Hamas as his “friends”, he says (of either or both): “The idea that an organisation that is dedicated towards the good of the Palestinian people and bringing about long term peace and social justice, and political justice, in the whole region should be labelled a terrorist organisation by the British government is a big, big historical mistake”.
Hirsh’s film not only highlights examples of the antisemitism in the Labour party, but observes the appalling way in which Jews who draw attention to this are dismissed as “lying for Israel”. It states what so many on the left deny: that while in theory it is possible to be anti-Zionist but not anti-Jew, in practice the distinction is meaningless.
As one speaker observes, the Labour Party cannot call itself an anti-racist party if it denies the existence of left-wing antisemitism. Through interviews with Jewish people whose evidence to Baroness Chakrabarti’s vacuous “inquiry” into the issue was ignored, it shows how a report that was supposed to point to solutions to anti-Jewish attitudes in the party ended up as just another manifestation of the problem.

Former Senator Joseph Lieberman Speaks To The Daily Wire About The Left’s Anti-Semitism Problem
On Friday, The Daily Wire spoke with former Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman about the rising tide of anti-Semitism on the Left. Acknowledging the political divisions within the Democratic party itself following a contentious primary election battle between the centrist wing of the party, represented by Hillary Clinton, and the left-wing of the party, represented by Bernie Sanders, Lieberman suggested that the anti-Semitism on the Left is inherently intertwined with controversies surrounding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
“There are areas where there is a rising opposition [to Israel] but it’s not based on reality,” said Lieberman following a panel discussion in Paris about Iran’s expansionist policies.
But to Lieberman, this anti-Israel sentiment remains confined to the political fringes.
“I think America remains, by every public opinion poll I’ve seen, very pro-Israel,” he said.
When asked directly about the Bernie Sanders movement, and its disturbingly anti-Israel sentiments, Lieberman said he was hopeful about the future of the Democratic party’s relationship with Israel, however, it was impossible to deny that “an element” within the party had moved away from the American political establishment’s traditional bipartisan support for the Jewish State.
“I’m concerned about that,” said the former vice presidential candidate. “When I became active in politics the Democratic party [during the Kennedy era]” was very supportive of Israel.
But things have changed, noted Lieberman.
Caroline Glick: Who cares about Jewish unity?
But what was Netanyahu’s alternative? If the American Jewish community flies off the handle and declares war against the government, threatening to blackball the elected leaders of the Jewish state when they adopt measures that while impolite have little substantive effect on their positions, then why should Israel take their views into account? If everything that the government does is terrible, then dialogue is reduced to recrimination. Sitting with progressive Jewish leaders from America means being subjected to a lecture about how terrible Israel is by people who do not live here and are not interested in having a serious discussion about what is actually on the table.
The fact that they are not interested in having that sort of discussion, and that they have no interest in making Israel their home, is demonstrated by their indifference to the real implications of the draft conversion law. Leaders truly invested in the future of both their communities and of their communities’ ties with Israel would be appalled by the retention of monopoly control over conversions by rabbinic authorities who refuse to recognize the difference between children of intermarriage and non-Jews with no relation to Judaism and the Jewish people.
They would insist that religious-Zionist rabbis be reinstated in the state rabbinate, and work avidly to ensure that conversions once approved cannot be overturned.
The real problem here is that while everyone involved speaks of the need for Jewish unity, no one involved in the conversation seems to be motivated to work toward that goal.
Jewish unity isn’t achieved by mutual recrimination.
And it isn’t achieved by one-upmanship. It is achieved through compromise based on mutual respect and love for fellow Jews. Absent that, nothing good will come from negotiations or laws or agreements. Absent that, nothing good will come at all.



Russia yet to grapple with past crimes, says Knesset speaker, an ex-refusenik
Russia has not engaged in soul-searching about its dark past, Knesset speaker and former refusenik Yuli Edelstein said Thursday, expressing concern over local admiration for the murderous Soviet-era dictator Josef Stalin.
During Edelstein’s three-day official visit to Moscow this week — marking 30 years since his release from Siberian labor camps for the crime of teaching Hebrew — there was no explicit acknowledgment in his high-level meetings of his past personal suffering, he said.
There were, however, some private conversations, including at a courthouse, where local officials expressed sympathy and admiration for his experiences, and a historic speech he delivered in the Russian parliament that provided powerful closure. Ultimately, he said, he didn’t need an apology, and felt he had “won.”
“I don’t think there is soul-searching here. This is one of the problems, because — and this is something that must be said — the ideology of that period is still considered legitimate in this country.” That, Edelstein continued, is exemplified by the active communist political party, and the fact that “recently, you hear voices talking about the need to recognize Stalin as a great leader.”
Wrapping up his trip, Edelstein spoke three days after the annual Levada independent poll showed that Stalin, who is considered the architect of millions of deaths, remains the most popular figure among Russians, ahead of President Vladimir Putin.
'Churches may not sell land to Jews or Zionists'
Islamic Christian Council member and former Gaza Latin Church head Manuel Musallam blamed churches in Judea and Samaria for helping the "Israeli occupation."
In an interview with Hamas newspaper Palestin, Musallem said that there is a large number of unsupervised churches in the Palestinian Authority, and that there is no information on why they were founded.
Before the establishment of the State of Israel, European countries and the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches, as well as other Christian denominations, purchased land in many parts of the country.
After Arutz Sheva exposed a deal in which the Greek Orthodox Church signed 140 year leases basically selling large portions of its land in the Jerusalem neighborhoods of Talbieh and Rehavia to the "Nayot" company owned by the Ben David family, Musallam said that selling even one grain of the Church's dirt given to the "Israeli occupation" is "a severe betrayal of the Palestinian nation and of all the Christians in Palestine." (h/t Elder of Lobby)
UK pro-Palestinian event to go ahead despite fears of terrorist links
A pro-Palestine event due to be held in London will go ahead, despite government threats to ban it over alleged links to terror group Hamas.
The Palestine Expo is expected to draw around 10,000 people to the Queen Elizabeth II Centre (QEII) in London, on the weekend of 8 and 9 July.
Earlier in the week, Communities Secretary Sajid Javid wrote a letter to organisers, Friends of Al Aqsa, to express concerns over their links to terror groups.
He is quoted in the Guardian as citing “concerns that your organisation and those connected with it have expressed public support for a proscribed organisation, namely Hamas, and that you have supported events at which Hamas and Hizballah – also proscribed – have been praised”.
Speaking to Jewish News on Tuesday, Department for Communities and Local Government spokesman said: “We have worked with the QEII Centre to carry out checks following concerns raised about the Palestine Expo 2017. Following these checks, we have agreed the event can take place as planned.”
The event is billed as “the biggest social, cultural and entertainment event on Palestine to ever take place in Europe”, and will feature speakers including anti-Zionist Israeli-born speakers Ilan Pappe and Miko Peled, journalists Ben White and Peter Oborne, and controversial former National Union of Students president Malia Bouattia.
Jewish Londoners need their mayor to do his job
‘Will you, Mr. Mayor, look after the interests of the Jewish population of London and write to the home secretary to ask for the clarification of the rules on what is a banned organization?” That is the very simple request that I made of London’s mayor, Sadiq Khan, at our meeting last week.
When terrorist flags are being flown openly in your city and antisemitic slogans are being shouted from street corners – as they were during the recent al-Quds Day march in London – any mayor worth his salt should want to do something about it. Whilst freedom of speech is precious, nobody should have to feel intimidated walking around their own city, or put up with racist abuse being hurled at particular groups.
The problem here is that British law is unclear about whether the Hezbollah flag is legal or not – due to a bizarre distinction between the “military” and “political” wings of this terrorist group. Therefore, police were unable to arrest people who openly displayed what is generally agreed to be a terrorist flag.
So I asked our mayor to do something very straightforward, which was to take this up with the government so that this issue can be clarified. This would be helpful to the police – of which the mayor is in charge – in doing their job to protect Londoners and keep public order. And the protection of Londoners is an important part of the mayor’s job description.
Complaint filed against Al-Quds Day speaker
The Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust Studies (FSWC) has filed a hate speech complaint with the Toronto police against a speaker at this year’s Al-Quds Day rally at Queen’s Park.
In his speech at the June 24 event, Maulana Syed Mohammad Zaki Baqri of the Council of Islamic Guidance and the Al Mahdi Centre said, in English and Arabic, that, “Israel, Zionism, should and must know … it is the law that whoever oppresses, he has to be eliminated. One day or the other,” the FSWC alleges in its complaint.
The organization has provided police with a video of the statements.
In a letter to Ontario Attorney General Yasir Naqvi, the FSWC alleges that Baqri’s speech violates Sections 318 and 319 of the Criminal Code, “Advocating Genocide and Public Incitement of Hatred.”
Violations of both sections can lead to imprisonment, the FSWC pointed out in a press release.
“Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center is disheartened by the vilification of Jewish Canadians and Israel on Toronto’s streets,” the group’s statement said.
The annual Al-Quds Day march and rally in Toronto made its way from Queen’s Park to the American consulate. Members of the Jewish Defense League (JDL) organized a counter-protest directly across from the consulate.
Al Quds Day - Toronto - 2017 - Maulana Syed Mohammad Zaki Baqri


Jewish Student Leadership Calls SJP ‘Hate Group’ After It Supports ‘Dyke March’ Expulsion of LGBTQ Zionists
The leadership of pro-Israel student groups in Illinois and Ohio both called Students for Justice in Palestine (SJP) a “hate group” after two chapters of the notorious organization supported the expulsion of LGBTQ Zionists from a Chicago pride march last weekend.
Elan Karoll, president of the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign’s (UIUC) IlliniPAC, and Sophia Witt, who recently stepped down as president of Students Supporting Israel (SSI) at Ohio’s Kent State University, spoke with The Algemeiner on Thursday after the SJP groups at their respective colleges applauded the Dyke March’s ejection of two Jewish women who came to the event holding pride flags with Stars of David on them. March organizers said the symbol made Palestinians feel “threatened.”
A couple of hours after IlliniPAC issued a statement on Facebook condemning the Dyke March organizers’ decision, SJP UIUC wrote on social media, “IlliniPAC cannot claim to respect the rights of all races, religions, nationalities, sexualities, and genders while supporting an occupation that systematically targets people of an entire ethnicity by denying them their lands, safety, and dignity.”
SJP UIUC also insisted that it was “committed to the liberation of all oppressed people.” It later added that “groups with an agenda have falsely accused [march organizers] of being motivated by antisemitism.”
Karoll said that SJP’s endorsement of the Dyke March has erased any doubt of the anti-Israel group’s true motives.
EXCLUSIVE - Gay Porn Kingpin Compares Anti-Israel ‘Dyke March’ Organizers to Nazis
The Chicago Dyke March’s decision to boot three women carrying Jewish pride flags from their event last weekend was “deeply ignorant” and “ridiculous,” Michael Lucas, a gay pornographic film actor and director, told Breitbart Jerusalem in an interview.
Lucas is founder and CEO of Lucas Entertainment, New York’s largest gay adult film company and one of the biggest gay porn production companies in the world.
He compared the Dyke March’s actions to anti-Semitic policies carried out by Nazi Germany.
“One of the first things the Nazis did was claim that Jews were a threat, and exclude them from participating in public events and gatherings,” Lucas stated. “Eventually they required Jews to wear the Star of David on their clothing, the ultimate symbol of the persecution of the Jews.”
“And now these women say the Star of David is a ‘trigger,’ is threatening to them? These are deeply ignorant people who are turning history on its head.”
Lucas criticized the lack of significant response on the matter from major LGBT organizations. “What happened in Chicago was despicable, and it certainly does not represent the thinking of all LGBT people, who should be outraged by this hateful moment. All gay organizations talk about diversity and inclusion, so where are the condemnations now from those groups?”
International artists shun exhibition in northern Israel
The third Mediterranean Biennale in the northern Arab town of Sakhnin opened Thursday evening, but missing were several works whose creators asked to have them removed from the exhibition because it is taking place in Israel.
The exhibition, which is also being shown in the nearby Arab and Jewish towns of Misgav, Arrabeh and Deir Hanna until December 15, features works by 60 artists from 25 countries, including some who hail from Arab nations that have no diplomatic relations with Israel, such as Kuwait, Morocco, Algeria and Lebanon.
The artists who asked to have their works removed are of Algerian, Moroccan and Lebanese descent, though they currently reside in France and England. Some said they hadn’t been informed that their pieces were to be shown in Israel.
According to a spokesperson for the Mediterranean Biennale, the works in question are part of the collection of the FRAC Museum in Marseilles, which has been working with the Biennale for the past year and a half.
In adherence with the standard operating protocol, the museum forwarded the Biennale’s loan request to its art committee, which agreed to lend the works from the collection. The Biennale was required to pay a standard fee for the loan.
But the artists didn’t learn their works would be appearing in Israel until earlier this week, and several said they wouldn’t cooperate with an Israeli institution due to their support of the Palestinian cause.
BBC Blasted for Claiming the Holocaust is “Sensitive” for Muslims Because of Israel
The BBC has come under fire for publishing a news article on Wednesday stating that “The Holocaust is a sensitive topic for many Muslims because Jewish survivors settled in British-mandate Palestine, on land which later became the State of Israel.”
The British Campaign Against Antisemitism (CAA), a volunteer-led charity dedicated to exposing and countering anti-Semitism through education and law-enforcement, demanded on its website that the BBC “immediately and unequivocally apologise” for the line.
“The Holocaust is indeed a sensitive topic for many reasons, not least because six million Jews were systematically massacred. It should not be a sensitive topic to Muslims, or anybody else, because of the foundation of the State of Israel,” CAA stated. “Zionism, the movement to create the modern State of Israel began decades before the Holocaust, and had the country existed at the time of the Holocaust, millions of innocent Jewish civilians may have lived.”
CAA claimed that the line published by the BBC was anti-Semitic in nature: “For the BBC to lend credence to the notion that it is legitimate to be ‘sensitive’ about the Holocaust because of the existence of the State of Israel invokes antisemitic notions that the existence of the State of Israel is in some way racist, and it is offensive to tar ‘many Muslims’ in this way.”
The line appeared in a BBC News article about German Muslim schoolgirls who went to visit concentration camps in Poland and suffered racist abuse from locals. The BBC has since removed the controversial statement.
BBC Continues to Whitewash Hamas, Human Shields and War Crimes in Gaza
The program closes with Bowen opining that Hamas — the terror organization whose activities and abuses he has downplayed throughout the whole report — should be party to negotiations.
Until matters change in Gaza there will be more wars between Hamas and Israel. Change means a new attempt at peace with the participation and consent of all sides. Right now, there is no chance of that happening.
Perhaps one of the more disturbing points emerging from this series of programs by the BBC’s Middle East editor is the fact that the passage of time has done nothing to alter Bowen’s opinions and analysis.
Having publicly claimed that he did not come across human shields in the few days that he was in Gaza in the summer of 2014, three years later Bowen cannot accommodate the ample evidence that shows otherwise. Having promoted his own pseudo-legal interpretations of the Law of Armed Combat in his 2014 reporting from Gaza, he is incapable of subsequently adjusting that view in line with the facts.
That, of course, is what happens when the agenda takes precedence over the actual story.
Expert in Nazi Propaganda Omits James Wall’s Affiliation With Neo-Nazi Publication in Wikipedia Article
It is almost impossible that a historian would miss this controversy (even after a quick Google search), and no responsible historian would omit it from an article, but Bytwerk did. After the controversy broke, National Vanguard, a neo-Nazi publication came to Wall’s defense, as did Veterans Today, another racist publication affiliated with Veterans News Now. (No links.)
What makes Bytwerk’s omission even more astounding is that he is an expert on Nazi propaganda and is the curator of Calvin College’s online archive of German Propaganda. Veterans News Now, where Wall served as associate editor, traffics in many of the antisemitic tropes that the Nazis used and would be familiar to Professor Bytwerk.
Did Randall Bytwerk not know about the controversy surrounding James M. Wall’s affiliation with Veterans News Now and his unwholesome enmity toward Israel and its supporters which manifested itself as his career progressed and came into full bloom in his retirement?
How could he miss it?
In any event, CAMERA supporters can be glad because Wikipedia can be edited by its readers. It may take some effort, but the information about James M. Wall’s transformation from a respected mainline Protestant journalist into a purveyor of hate can be inserted into the Wikipedia article by anyone with a computer and a modem.
It is a sad subject, but the fact is, James M. Wall tarnished his legacy all by himself and no encyclopedia article about his life can legitimately ignore the issue.
Why does the BBC describe the Khan Sheikhoun chemical attack as ‘suspected’?
Similar conclusions were reached by additional parties including the US, Turkey and the UK as well as Human Rights Watch – an NGO usually considered by the BBC to be an impeccable source.
Is it possible that the BBC is not aware of those reports and hence is still describing the attack as “suspected” and amplifying Assad’s propaganda on the topic? That possibility is ruled out by the fact that included in the related reading at the bottom of this article is a link to a BBC report from April 26th titled “Syria chemical ‘attack’: What we know” that informs readers of the results of the investigations carried out by the OPCW, Turkey and France.
And yet despite that, visitors to the BBC News website still find plenty of content relating to that story which is presented using language and punctuation which suggests to audiences that there is reason to doubt whether an attack took place, what type of weapon was used and who carried it out.
This is of course far from the only case of false balance in BBC reporting that obstructs audience understanding of a story. The BBC News website, for example, still carries a report amplifying inaccurate Hamas claims concerning a 2014 incident in the Shati refugee camp in Gaza despite the fact that the circumstances have been repeatedly clarified over the last three years. The practice of promoting false balance clearly hampers the BBC’s purpose of providing the public with accurate and impartial reporting that enables understanding of global issues.
Social media to blame for growing antisemitism, German president says
German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier denounced growing antisemitism in his country on Wednesday, German newspaper Augsburger Allgemeine reported.
Speaking at the 100th anniversary of the Augsburg synagogue, the president noted that while most Germans stand against antisemitism, a growing trend of anti-Jewish hatred is being spread on social media, in part due to some Muslim immigrant groups.
"Social media often propagates the spread of hate messages and antisemitic provocation," he said, noting the trend is growing across Europe.
Despite this, however, Steinmeier noted that, in comparison to France, Germany's Jews are staying put, rather than immigrating to Israel. He affirmed his hope that Germany "can once again be the home of which the Jews were robbed."
Germany gears up to fine social networks for Holocaust denial
German lawmakers are poised to pass a bill designed to enforce the country’s existing limits on free speech — including the long-standing ban on Holocaust denial — in social networks. Critics including tech giants and human rights campaigners say the legislation could have drastic consequences for free speech online.
The proposed measure would fine social networking sites up to 50 million euros ($56 million) if they fail to swiftly remove illegal content, including defamatory “fake news.”
It’s scheduled for a vote in parliament Friday, the last session before summer recess and September’s national election, and is widely expected to pass.
The U.N.’s independent expert on freedom of speech, David Kaye, warned the German government earlier this month that the criteria for removing material were “vague and ambiguous,” adding that the prospect of hefty fines could prompt social media companies such as Facebook and Twitter to delete questionable content without waiting for a court to rule it’s unlawful.
Thieves exhume Holocaust victims from Crimean killing trench
Police in Russia-annexed Crimea are investigating the desecration of a mass grave of Holocaust victims near the city of Simferopol.
The investigation opened Tuesday following the unauthorized exhumations performed last week at the site of a firing trench where Nazis and their collaborators killed hundreds of Jews, the Russian TASS news agency reported. Russia annexed the territory from Ukraine in 2014.
“A local resident saw at night strangers digging and immediately informed us,” Anatoly Gendin, head of the Association of Jewish Organizations and Communities of Crimea, told the news agency. His organization also complained to police about the dig, which he said was likely the work of robbers looking for precious items.
The incident, the second case of its kind in five years in Crimea, came amid preparations for enclosing known burial sites with concrete.
“There is a preliminary decision of the Crimea State Committee and Jewish community organizations on setting up concrete enclosures and establish there a surveillance system,” Grigory Ioffe, a deputy speaker of the parliament of Crimea, one of Russia’s semi-autonomous regions, told TASS.
The Germans captured Simferopol in November 1941 when it had approximately 12,000 Jews, including many Krymchaks — a nearly extinct ethnic group of Jews of Turkmen descent who had lived in Crimea for many centuries before the Holocaust.
Top Catholic cleric in Palermo honored for returning ancient synagogue land to Jews
“This is the first step on a long path,” Archbishop of Palermo Corrado Lorefice said Thursday upon receiving the Raoul Wallenberg Medal for having transferred to the Jewish community a churchowned facility built atop the ruins of the Great Synagogue of Palermo.
Addressing the audience at a celebratory event at his residence, Lorefice was moved to tears as a he delivered a heartfelt speech.
“This is the first step on long path that we are called to together, to reach God on the day when all the people will be together in paradise,” he said.
He described the medal as “a sign of friendship that warms my heart, and warms the heart of all the Christians of Palermo, and particularly this archdiocese.”
Technion, Hong Kong VC Launch $200 Million Fund for Israeli Startups
Students, professors and alumni of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology now have a new way to finance their cutting-edge projects: a $200 million venture capital fund focused on creating companies out of the research conducted at the Haifa-based university.
The new fund is a joint venture between the Technion Research & Development Foundation (TRDF) and UG Capital Management (UGC), a fund management company based in Hong Kong.
The management team for the joint venture will be based in both Israel and Hong Kong. It includes Jonathan Mitchell, CY Lau and Thomas Lau of UGI, and Eddy Shalev, Dr. Eyal Kishon and Gary Gannot, the founders of the Genesis venture capital fund, who are joining the new Technion group.
“The Technion has been increasing its commercialization activities in recent years and we have already noted many successes in this field, including more than doubling the number of startup companies set up at the Technion through the new Technion DRIVE Accelerator,” said Prof. Wayne D. Kaplan, executive vice president for research and director general of TRDF.
UGI’s Jonathan Mitchell praised the new venture and team as a kind of “alchemy.”
A Gas Pipeline Connecting Israel to Italy Could Change the Near East
Since January of last year, Greece, Israel, and Cyprus have been working to create a pipeline that could transport natural gas to Europe from the reserves in Israeli coastal waters; Italy joined the negotiations two months ago. If this initiative, which is technically difficult and expensive to implement, does not pan out, Israel will be forced to choose between the less desirable options of cooperating with either Egypt or Turkey. George Tzogopoulos writes:
Turkey will not be considered a reliable partner by Israel for as long as President Recep Tayyip Erdogan dominates the political sphere, despite the rapprochement achieved last summer. Israel also has reservations vis-à-vis Egypt: the growing Russian role in Egypt’s energy sector cannot be ignored.
If the EastMed project, [as the proposal is being called], develops, it will certainly improve Israel’s relationship with the EU. Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy Miguel Arias Cañete has said construction of this pipeline would contribute to the reduction of Europe’s dependency on Russian energy, a potential result also viewed with favor by the U.S.
The traditional division among EU member states regarding their view of Moscow can work in EastMed’s favor. While Germany is looking favorably toward the Nord Stream 2 [pipeline], which will complement Nord Stream 1 in the transporting of Russian gas to Europe under the Baltic Sea, the EU might well emphasize energy security instead and push (with the support of the U.S.) for the realization of EastMed.
New Israeli Diagnostic System Enables Customized Antibiotic Treatments
A diagnostic system developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology enables rapid and accurate customization of the antibiotic to the patient. The system makes for faster diagnostics, earlier and more effective treatment of infectious bacteria, and improved patient recovery times. The findings were published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
Antibiotics are one of the most effective ways to treat bacterial infections. However, the widespread use of antibiotics accelerates the development of bacterial strains that are resistant to specific antibiotics. In 2014, infections with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) claimed the lives of more than 700,000 people worldwide, in addition to a cumulative expenditure of $35 billion a year in the US alone.
For patients with threatening infections, urgent treatment is required for their health. According to established estimates, for every hour that effective antibiotic treatment is delayed, survival rates drop by ~7.6% for patients with septic shock. Therefore, in order not to leave the patient without adequate protection while awaiting the results, many doctors will prescribe an antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity in large doses. This phenomenon facilitates the emergence of AMR and also affects the microbiota - the population of "good bacteria" found in the human body that protects it.
Tom Jones brings his brand of old school charm to Tel Aviv
Sir Tom Jones, in his performance in Tel Aviv, proved to the audience that despite being 77 and gray-haired for several years now, he is still a successful singer who has the endurance to hold a crowd captive for a 90-minute show. Jones is still able to hit the standard of professionalism he’s set for himself for the past five decades.
The consummate performer showed up on time, without delay. He began with a big bow to the huge crowd that greeted him at Tel Aviv’s Menorah Mivtachim Arena. He earned brownie points with the crowd after mentioning that he visited Jerusalem for the first time and enjoyed his visit to the Holy City very much.
He began to sing his songs when the audience joined him in applause, with the third song earning him a standing ovation.
The legendary singer did not forget to mention Leonard Cohen, who recently passed away, and performed one of his songs.
In the middle of the performance, he sang to the audience “Yiddishe Maman” followed by his big hit “Delilah.” With the audience’s average age leaning towards an older crowd, most in attendance were able to follow along easily with these old classics . With his booming voice, which may not even need a microphone at all, and his hips, which were constantly in motion, he made sure the audience got their money’s worth.
'Ariel University's medical school reflects our universal mission'
The cornerstone laying ceremony for Ariel University's new School of Medicine and Health Sciences, named after Dr. Miriam and Sheldon Adelson, was held on Wednesday.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu praised the Adelsons, who donated $5 million to the project, saying, "You are not only great friends, you are great patriots of the Jewish people and the Jewish state."
Netanyahu said the school reflects Israel's values.
"We will live with our universal mission to provide medical care and relief, but we will simultaneously continue fighting terrorism and lead the global efforts to counter terrorism," he said. "The School of Medicine and Health Sciences will leave a lasting imprint and will serve as a hub for true excellence, and attract great doctors and the sharpest minds. It will train generations of students to come."
Education Minister Naftali Bennett lauded the establishment of a medical school in Ariel. Like Netanyahu, he also thanked the Adelsons.
IsraellyCool: Philip Noel-Baker: I Was Converted to Zionism By Emir Faisal And Lawrence of Arabia
Another absolute pearl from part one of Pillar of Fire (which I posted here): Listen to former British politician and diplomat Philip Noel-Baker explaining how he was converted to Zionism.


Look, but don’t touch: Moscow’s Schneerson Collection goes online
In 1922, a few years before he fled the Soviet Union, the sixth Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe Yosef Yitzchak Schneerson petitioned the Russian government to return 35 crates of books they had seized years earlier.
The books had been passed down to his father, Rabbi Shalom DovBer Schneerson, by his grandfather and had belonged collectively to generations of Lubavitch Hasidim going back to Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liady, who began the collection in the 18th century.
There was an illustrated haggadah, published in 1712 in Amsterdam, its pages stained by wine that was spilled at Passover seders hundreds of years ago. There was a book printed in 1552 in Venice, not long after the printing press was invented, with a handwritten inscription in cursive Hebrew reminiscent of Arabic. There was a Torah from 1631, with comments in Latin, written in pencil by Christian scholars who had studied the Jewish holy book.
The Soviet government did not return the books, and for almost a century they remained on the shelves of the Lenin public library in Moscow. But this month the Russian State Library will finish scanning and putting online the more than 4,500 books in the Schneerson Collection, making them accessible to everyone in the world at the click of a mouse.
“We have about 10 to 20 books left to scan. They’ll be on the site in a month,” said Svetlana Khvostova, the Russian State Library employee in charge of the Schneerson Collection at the Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center in Moscow.



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          06/29 Links Pt2: Anti-Semitism without anti-Semites; The Palestinian mufti’s intersectionality with the Nazis   
From Ian:

Anti-Semitism without anti-Semites
This kind of logic results in a German court ruling that throwing Molotov cocktails at a German synagogue is an acceptable expression of protest. It is not anti-Semitism, but rather a legitimate criticism of Israel's policies! In German, this is simply called Israelkritik -- not a critique of any specific policy by whatever government is in power at the time, but rather of Israel in general. In practice, it would be very easy to go from this to completely rejecting the existence of Israel, or, in other words, to anti-Zionism, or to rejecting the Jews' right to self-determination and a state, or to anti-Semitism.
Germany, with the help of authorities in the Israeli and Jewish Left, goes out of its way to assert that Israelkritik should be seen not as a variant of anti-Semitism but merely as another legitimate form of criticism. Does the same kind of legitimate criticism, of similar dimensions, exist toward any another Middle Eastern country, not to mention the Palestinian Authority? No. Israel is getting special treatment in this regard.
If Germany ever stops denying its anti-Semitism and finally acknowledges that anti-Semitism is still alive and well, under the guise of strong anti-Israel sentiments, the problem may begin to be resolved. But Germany prefers to ignore the problem. The German obsession with projecting their anti-Semitism onto the State of Israel has turned Germany's relationship with Israel into a neurotic one, preventing positive development.
Furthermore, this obsession poses a threat to Germany, itself. The reason Muslims today feel free to display unbridled anti-Semitic violence is not just their upbringing but the fact that they are acting out what many Germans privately believe. This violence is bound to ultimately target Germans, too, because the radical Islamists don't distinguish between Jews and Christians. (h/t Elder of Lobby)
Fathom: Aaron Aaronsohn, the NILI intelligence network and the Balfour Declaration
Intelligence in World War One
Jewish patriots joined the armed forces of Britain, France and Germany and saw combat on both sides of the divide. There was no Jewish international unity in World War One – contrary to what emerged in World War Two. The Jewish ‘issue’ and its resolution seemed almost absent from the international agenda.
From the outset of World War One intelligence-gathering became critically important to all sides. The Ottoman Empire naturally had in place a vast system of control over potentially disloyal elements within the territories under its rule. London and Paris were jockeying to succeed Istanbul and its ally Berlin, whose basic goal was to ensure its interests the strategic south-eastern flank under Ottoman rule. On the other side of the divide Britain and France, and later the US, sought to cultivate support within areas under Ottoman control in anticipation of the ultimate fall of the Empire at the end of the war.
What was required was reliable military information concerning the Ottomans and their allies, detailed local knowledge of the areas under Ottoman rule, a list of high-level contacts with local players (such as Princes, Sheiks, Tribes etc.), and an intimate understanding of the conflicting interests between them. It also required identifying local players with combat capabilities and the provision of on-the-spot strategic and military guidance for them. All of this could only be handled by intelligence services and seasoned intelligence officers with experience in the field.
The most prominent was T.E. Lawrence from Great Britain – ‘Lawrence of Arabia’. But he was not alone; there was Curt Prufer from Berlin, who rose to prominence in World War One and spent part of his time in Jerusalem and who was active on many fronts; and there was William Yale from the Standard Oil Company of New York, who doubled up as an intelligence officer. There was also Edouard Bremond of France, who primarily operated in the Arabian Peninsula. (h/t Elder of Lobby)
Seth Frantzman: The Palestinian mufti’s intersectionality with the Nazis
When these left-wing groups talk about “intersectionality” the reality of the “intersection” is that it always intersects at Israel and “Zionism.” Always “anti-Zionism.”
Anti-Islamism? No. They never oppose Islamist extremism. Not even ISIS.
They talk about racism, but groups that commit genocide against Kurds, like Saddam Hussein did, are not rejected. Iraqi flags are welcome. Bashar Assad and his murderous regime are fine, along with Syria’s allies in Iran and Hezbollah. And the mufti is also acceptable.
There is an intersection between the mufti and his Nazi camp visits and today’s hatred of Israel and Jewish symbols. The intersection is that we turn a blind eye to the mufti’s disgusting racist politics, excusing it and even hiding his collaboration, while refusing to demand Palestinian nationalism reject him. At the same time, for too long the cause of “anti-Zionism” has been allowed to infiltrate every organization involved in liberal and progressive activism, such that Jewish symbols are not even allowed, as activists claim they cannot tell the difference between those symbols and Israel.
Every other religion and state in the world is accepted, no other symbol is thus conflated. They can tell the difference between 1,000 other symbols and flags, except for one. This is today’s tragic intersection.
Just as in 1942 the mufti found willing collaborators throughout Europe, hatred of Jews and Israel finds willing collaborators today.



Jewish activist couple marries surreptitiously on Temple Mount
An Israeli Jewish couple surreptitiously held their marriage ceremony Thursday at the Temple Mount, in an act of protest against Israeli-imposed rules forbidding Jewish religious rituals at the flash point site.
The couple, who are both activists in the Students for the Temple Mount group which seeks to increase Jewish access to the site, videotaped the hurried ceremony and distributed the clip to the press.
The couple had to carry out the nuptials without being seen by the Israeli police escort who would have stopped them, fearing such incidents could provoke unrest among the Palestinians.
Footage from the event showed Students for the Temple Mount chair Tom Nisani walking alongside his fiancé and fellow Temple Mount activist Sarah Lurcat, accompanied by friends as well as the customary police escort for Israeli-Jewish visitors to the site.
Speaking to the camera, Nisani explained the importance of the site before footage skipped to him hastily placing a ring on the index finger of Lurcat in the presence of two witnesses and reciting a blessing officially marking the consecration of the marriage.
The Flip Side of the Western Wall Crisis
Despite all this, liberal American Jews are convinced that they know better. They know that the continued “occupation” is mostly Israel’s fault, and that Israel must end it immediately regardless of the price in Israeli blood and their job as American Jews isn’t to support Israelis’ painfully reached conclusions, but to pressure Israelis to disregard the lessons of their lived experience. If there’s a better way of telling Israelis “You don’t actually matter to us,” I don’t know what it might be.
Moreover, pursuant to that attitude, many American Jews–and again, not just fringe groups like JVP–are actively undermining Israel in various ways. Mainstream American Jewish groups like campus Hillels repeatedly host speakers from organizations that spew outright lies about Israel, such as Breaking the Silence, which even recycles the medieval blood libel about Jews poisoning wells.
American Jews also provide substantial financial support to such organizations, mainly through the New Israel Fund. Rabbis and Jewish organizations provide cover for anti-Israel activists. Leading liberal rabbi Sharon Brous, for instance, praised Linda Sarsour for “building a movement that can hold all of us in our diversity with love” even as Sarsour explicitly banned all Israel supporters from her movement. The Anti-Defamation League defended Keith Ellison, one of the few congressmen who consistently backs anti-Israel resolutions while shunning pro-Israel ones, as “an important ally in the fight against anti-Semitism” right up until he was caught out in overt anti-Semitism. American rabbinical students term Israel’s very existence a cause for mourning and engage in anti-Israel commercial boycotts. The Union for Reform Judaism urges members to step up their criticism of Israel. And on, and on.
American Jews no longer the bastion of support for Israel that they once were. If they still believe they have a familial relationship with Israelis, it increasingly feels like an abusive one in which the abuser shows his “love” by causing pain. Thus, it’s no surprise that support for Israel has plummeted among young American Jews; how many of them ever hear anything positive about Israel from their “pro-Israel” elders?
The result is that some Israelis are starting to feel, as Hillel Halkin wrote in Mosaic last month, “The distance between Israeli and American Jews is growing? Let it grow … so what?” Until recently, few Israelis would have said such a thing, and I still consider it a tragedy. But if American Jews keep telling Israelis that everything they think, feel and experience “doesn’t actually matter to us,” the number of Israelis who agree with Halkin will only grow.
Melanie Phillips: Hypocrisy and worse over the Western Wall
Progressive Jews claim that Israel’s behaviour over equal access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem’s Old City is driving a wedge between it and the diaspora. Yet they are often the very same people who attack Israel for being in the Old City at all. Join me as I discuss with Avi Abelow of Israel Video Network the manifest hypocrisy and worse of this row.


Melanie Phillips: Astroturfing a lynch-mob
It is crystal clear from this full account of Sisi’s remarks that his words had infinitely greater significance than a rhetorical flourish. It is also clear that, contrary to my accusers’ claim about what he said, he was condemning a currently dominant interpretation of Islam, as I myself did in my own remarks.
Sisi used the word “impossible” interchangeably with “inconceivable” to express his horror that the Muslim world should support the aim of killing the rest of the world’s population. He was not saying that Muslims didn’t have this ambition. On the contrary, he was saying that they did have it (he didn’t even qualify that by saying that many do not) and that they drew for this ambition upon an interpretation of religious texts which could not be allowed to stand. That’s why he called for an Islamic religious reformation.
It is my accusers, therefore, who have cherry-picked Sisi’s words and wrenched them out of context to claim they mean the opposite of what he actually meant – all in order to defame and silence me.
This is not the first attempt to inflame a mob against those who sound the alarm about both Islamism and those who sanitise it, and nor will it be the last. After the Finsbury Park attack two courageous anti-extremist campaigners, Douglas Murray and Maajid Nawaz, were viciously defamed as Islamophobes who must be silenced.
Now Nawaz has been similarly attacked once again, this time alongside the atheist philosopher Sam Harris. As this account reports, the two of them recorded a two-hour podcast in which they discussed Islamic extremism and Muslim integration in the west. Someone else broadcast one minute of the show on social media. Taken grotesquely out of context, this twisted their views to represent them falsely as profoundly anti-Muslim which is the opposite of what they said or believe.
These feverish, ever-more elaborate and shameless attempts to silence what so urgently needs to be said demonstrate just how crucial it is that we keep on saying it.
Author of New Book Calls for Fresh Approach to Pro-Israel Advocacy Based on Highlighting Jewish State’s Morality
David Brog — the founding director of Christians United for Israel (CUFI) and executive director of the Maccabee Task Force — was recently interviewed by The Algemeiner about his latest book, Reclaiming Israel’s History: Roots, Rights, and the Struggle for Peace.
A transcript of the conversation — in which Brog discusses the current state of pro-Israel advocacy and calls for a fresh approach based on highlighting the Jewish state’s morality — follows.
What prompted you to write this book?
“I wanted to counter a trend. The rising generation of Americans — including so many who consider themselves pro-Israel — are increasingly buying into the fantasy that Israel is the main obstacle to peace in the Middle East. I say ‘fantasy’ because this view is contrary to the facts. And I say ‘fantasy’ because it’s an alluring belief. After all, if Israel is the obstacle to peace, then pressure on Israel can actually bring peace. There can be peace in our time!”
“When our young people buy into this myth, they grow embarrassed and equivocal in their pro-Israel activism. They try to change the topic. They’ll talk about Tel Aviv’s gay pride parades, Israel’s food scene and, of course, high tech. But they’ll never address the underlying moral claims that are doing so much damage to Israel’s reputation because they believe (or fear) that Israel is guilty as charged.”
“Here’s the good news. Most students who accept the prevailing myths about Israel do so simply because they don’t know better — no one’s ever told them otherwise. My experience over years of working with students is that when they learn the facts about Israel they’re both relieved and energized to go out and share these truths. My book is an effort to compile in one accessible, chronological narrative all of the facts and history that my students have found most important over the years.”
French leaders: Gov't covering up antisemitism in slaying of Jewish woman
The umbrella group of French Jewish communities escalated its criticism of authorities’ handling of the slaying of a Jewish woman by her Muslim neighbor, calling it a cover-up.
CRIF made the accusation in a short and poignant statement Wednesday containing four loaded questions concerning the April 4 killing of Sarah Halimi in Paris.
“The murder of Sarah Halimi was 85 days ago already and the investigation is not advancing. Why this silence? Why this omerta?” read the statement, which contained the Italian-language mafia term for a cover-up among accomplices. “What is being hidden? Why this denial of anti-Semitism?”
Prior to this week, CRIF had refrained from openly faulting the handling of the Halimi investigation, saying it was awaiting the conclusion of the police probe. In the past, it has criticized the proliferation of conspiracy theories by some Jewish groups and activists.
Relatives of Sarah Halimi, French Jewish Pensioner Murdered by Islamist, Lodge Negligence Complaint With Paris Prosecutor
Relatives of the brutally murdered Parisian Jewish pensioner Sarah Halimi have lodged a formal complaint with the Paris Public Prosecutor’s office over the manner in which local authorities in the French capital have treated her case.
Dr. Halimi was tortured and murdered in her Paris apartment in April by an Islamist intruder with a prior record of harassment toward her. The complaint filed by her relatives asserted that police reacted with “inertia” after being alerted to the attack by Halimi’s neighbors.
The complaint also slammed the “lack of coordination” in the provision of care and welfare services to Halimi, who lived in public housing in the depressed Belleville neighborhood. Because she knew and feared the intruder, who lived in her building, Halimi had formally requested that the public housing department move her to a new apartment, but without explaining why.
“My sister was terribly afraid of this man, he had called her a ‘dirty Jew,’ but she was afraid that filing a complaint would be dangerous for her,” her brother William Attal explained in an interview with French news agency AFP following the family’s decision last week to take the case to the public prosecutor.
The Grenfell Tower fire: how a tragic accident became a blood libel
On June 14, fire engulfed the Grenfell Tower in London after a refrigerator short circuited and burst into flames in an apartment on the fourth floor. Seventy-nine people died in that fire, shaking the UK to the core, particularly the city of London.
Five days later, on June 19, Al-Quds day marchers blamed the Grenfell Tower fire on the Jews.
The next day, and for at least two days in a row, Muslim rioters stormed the London Jewish neighborhood Stamford Hill with bats, machetes, and swords, effectively instigating a pogrom in 2017 London. This time around, the Jews were lucky and only minor injuries were reported. According to the report, the police dispersed the rioters after some time, but despite the flagrant aggression, there have been no reports of arrests.
Forever Guilty
The history of persecution of the Jews is as long as the history of the Jewish people itself. All of our patriarchs were persecuted by their next of kin, as well as by the rulers of their dwelling places.
When the Jews were exiled from the land of Israel and dispersed throughout the globe, they suffered persecution wherever they went. Whenever and wherever there was a crisis, people blamed it on the Jews. A look at the history of persecution of the Jews and the history of antisemitism reveals a ceaseless march of torments of the Jewish people.
Even today, in the “enlightened” 21st century, antisemitism not only thrives the world over, but is escalating to perilous levels once again. At times, it masquerades itself as hatred of the Jewish state, at times it manifests as hatred of both Jews and the Jewish state, and at times it exposes itself as hatred of Jews. But in all cases, it is antisemitism. And in all cases, it blames the Jews for the misfortunes of the world.
South African unionist ordered to apologize for antisemitic hate speech
A senior South African trade unionist has been ordered to apologize to the South African Jewish community after being found guilty of hate speech by a Johannesburg court on Thursday.
The Equality Court in Johannesburg held that Bongani Masuku, International Relations Spokesperson for the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), made statements that were "hurtful, harmful, incite harm, and propagate hatred, and amount to hate speech," during a 2009 public address at Wits University and in various written communications.
Judge Seun Moshidi ordered Masuku to make an "unconditional apology" to the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD), the umbrella representative organization of the South African Jewish community. Masuku must apologize in the next 30 days or within a time period mutually agreed upon by the parties.
The case was brought by the South Africa Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) following Masuku's failure to comply with its 2009 ruling that also demanded the trade unionist apologize to the SAJBD.
Kent State SJP applauds eviction of Jews from Pride Parade
Despite acknowledging that the incident would have been an example of anti-Semitism under ordinary circumstances, the Kent State SJP ruffled feathers in the school’s Jewish community with its contention that such behavior is excusable when directed at “racist” or “far right” groups.
“I don’t feel that SJP of Kent State in Ohio have any right to say what the views were of the Jews at the parade,” one Jewish student told Campus Reform. “I personally feel that they are saying that this wasn’t anti-Semitic because they want to seem like the good guy, when in fact they are being anti-Semitic.”
Paul Weinper, who claims to have personally attended the Chicago Pride Parade on three previous occasions, likewise disputed the SJP description of the evicted marchers.
“The flags...were carried on behalf of several congregations in the Chicago area,” he said. “These groups are not far right groups, but they are pro-Israel and Zionist.”
Another student explained that equating Zionism to racism “is outwardly anti-Semitic because it denies the Jewish people our right to self-determination,” adding that it is particularly remarkable that the incident took place at a gay pride parade, because “Israel is the only country in the Middle East where you are allowed to be openly gay without facing persecution.”
Many other Jewish students echoed those sentiments, variously referring to the SJP tweets as “passive-aggressive,” “pitiful,” and “disgusting,” but none registered surprise at the provocative nature of the group’s tweets.
“Time and time again, this oppressive and hateful group of people has made me feel sick and unwelcome on my own campus,” one student told Campus Reform. “This is another clear example of passive aggressive behavior that does not promote mature conversation.”
“I think it’s pitiful that SJP is the ONLY group on Kent State’s campus that belittles another group’s narrative to elevate their own,” a classmate concurred, saying that applying the term “racist” to Zionism “not only is racist in itself, but discriminates against people from every ethnicity, religion, and background,” because “support for the self-determination of the Jewish people...is not exclusive to right wing or left wing groups.”
LGBT Jews say it’s increasingly difficult to be pro-Israel and queer
For years, Laurie Grauer had waved a rainbow flag emblazoned with a Jewish star at the Chicago Dyke March, sometimes marching near activists waving Palestinian flags. It had never been a problem.
But this year, Grauer was confronted by the LGBT parade’s organizers, questioned about her support for Israel and asked to leave because she was carrying the flag. She was one of three women with Jewish flags kicked out of Sunday’s parade.
Grauer says she was used to Israel being a sensitive issue in queer spaces. But she did not expect to be condemned for displaying her Jewish identity.
“To say that you can only identify one way is very dangerous,” said Grauer, the Midwest manager for A Wider Bridge, a pro-Israel LGBT group. “Here you have this march that is supposed to be something for people that feel oppressed, invisible, marginalized, [where] they can be who they are. I wasn’t pushing my views on people and was told the way you’re expressing yourself is unacceptable.”
The incident at the Dyke March was just the latest in a series of clashes over Israel at activist events for the Lesbian, Gay Bisexual and Transgender, or LGBT, community. Being pro-Israel at LGBT events has become difficult, LGBT Jewish leaders say, and at times the opposition to Israel has spilled over into making Jews feel uncomfortable about displaying their identity.
Rockefeller Brothers Fund President Explains BDS to His Trustees: It’s About “Justice, Dignity, and Security”
On May 24, Tablet published an in-depth story examining the Rockefeller Brothers Fund’s (RBF) Middle East programs. The article explored how and why RBF became one of the most prominent U.S.-based institutional funders of the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions movement targeting Israel, and also recounted the fund’s efforts at promoting diplomacy between the U.S. and Iran. Shortly after the article was published, Stephen Heintz, the fund’s president since 2001, sent an email to the organization’s trustees and staff criticizing the story. I have now obtained that email.
The message, sent about 14 hours after the story was published, is a glimpse into the assumptions undergirding RBF’s Israel-related programming. Pro-BDS funding is aimed at “ending the 50-year long occupation in order to bring justice, dignity, and security to all Israelis and Palestinians”—in Heintz’s view, pro-boycott efforts are a valid instrument for ending Israel’s presence in the West Bank, and are therefore in Israel’s long-term good. Even so, Heintz isn’t eager to take credit for everything that RBF’s money helps fund: “The article includes indirect attacks on us and our grantees through guilt by association with several degrees of separation,” he writes, in reference to pro-BDS organizations that have received a total of $880,000 from the Fund, much of it awarded for “general support.”
Heintz makes little attempt to convince the recipients of his letter of the virtue of the Fund’s position. Instead of explaining how funding boycott groups that oppose the two-state solution will, in fact, help to make a fair and just two-state solution possible, he argues that it’s unfair to draw links between RBF and the activities and organizations that RBF actively and publicly funds. In contrast, and as my article demonstrated, RBF’s pro-boycott grantees are not shy about what they stand for.
North Carolina lawmakers approve anti-BDS bill
Legislators from North Carolina's General Assembly passed a bill on Wednesday that would punish companies engaged with state business who participate in the BDS (Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions) campaign targeting Israel.
The bill will now be sent to Governor Roy Cooper for signing. If Cooper endorses the anti-BDS bill, North Carolina would become the 22nd US state with a law imposing punitive measures on companies and entities involved in BDS.
The North Carolina House Bill 261 based its prohibition against BDS activities on "entities that do business with or in such countries, make discriminatory decisions on the basis of national origin that impair those companies' commercial soundness."
The enforcement of France's anti-BDS Larouche Law relies on a similar definition of anti-discrimination based on the national origin of Israelis.
Ohio condemns BDS
Ohio on Wednesday became the 12th U.S. state to publicly condemn the anti-Israel Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement.
State Representative Andy Thompson introduced a resolution before the General Assembly which expands Ohio's condemnation of BDS to include denouncement of the increasing incidents of anti-Semitism being witnessed.
Citing a long history of friendship between the State of Ohio and the State of Israel, the legislation calls for increased ties and interactions in business, government, the arts and culture as well as educational initiatives.
Proclaiming Justice to The Nations (PJTN) Founder and President Laurie Cardoza-Moore applauded the measure as well as Thompson for introducing it.
“Due to the effective launch of PJTN’s anti-BDS media campaign, we have been tremendously encouraged by the response from state legislators and citizens who want to become engaged in efforts like Ohio’s initiative,” she said.
New Georgetown dean is an avowed supporter of Hezbollah
Georgetown University has promoted an avowed supporter of the U.S.-designated terrorist group Hezbollah as its newest academic chair.
On September 1, Ahmad S. Dallal will become the dean of Georgetown University in Qatar, a school that is funded with support from its host country. Dallal previously served as the chair of Georgetown’s Islamic Studies department at its Washington, D.C. campus, which is a known cesspool of jihadi sympathizers. Georgetown Qatar is directly affiliated with the main campus, and considered an "additional location for the University in Washington, D.C."
Dallal, like too many of his colleagues in academia, holds some truly fringe beliefs.
First and foremost, he is an open supporter of the Hezbollah terrorist group. He signed a 2006 petition declaring his “conscious support for the Lebanese national resistance [Hezbollah] as it wages a war” against Israel, adding that it is “a war to safeguard the dignity of the Lebanese and Arab people.” The statement declared Hezbollah’s murderous campaign a “heroic operation.”
In his previous position as provost of American University of Beirut, Dallal slammed one of his colleagues for collaborating with Israeli scholars, declaring that the school would boycott the Jewish state.
Richard Millett: Avi Shlaim goes to St James’s Church to slam Israel’s creation and anti-Semitism “allegations”.
Historian Avi Shlaim was invited to speak on Balfour and Palestine: From Balfour to May on Tuesday night at St James’s Church in central London.
St James’s is a church hostile to Israel and no expense is spared. In 2013 St James’s dedicated its entire Christmas to demonising Israel’s security wall at a cost of £30,000.
St James’s knows how to harness extremists’ hatred for Israel and on the way out on Tuesday The Rev Lucy Winkett was beaming with pride at seeing 300 people in her church. One can only imagine the usual turnout on Sunday mornings.
Su McClellan, of Embrace the Middle East (see below), set the dire tone for the evening when she described Shlaim’s family as simply having “left Iraq for Israel for various reasons”.
Those “various reasons” might have included the Farhud massacre visited on Baghdad’s Jewish community in 1941 which was followed up with continued oppression and confiscation of property by the Iraqi government. Shlaim’s father lost everything it seems. None of this was mentioned.
Farhud and Hamas were the main words totally absent from Shlaim’s talk. He blamed the lack of peace between Israel and the Palestinians solely on Israel. He claimed “settlements only are continuing the conflict.”
PreOccupiedTerritory: Ecological Progressives Conflicted: Crude Oil Ban Would Disproportionately Affect Muslim-Majority Countries (satire)
Proponents of a progressive environmental agenda face internal contradictions within the movement over the prospect of banning crude oil imports and other fossil fuels in favor of promoting renewable energy sources, activists reported today, because such a policy would commit the cardinal progressive sin of affecting Muslim-majority states.
Academics, ideologues, demonstrators, and rank-and-file operatives throughout the progressivism-driven segment of the US population reacted with dismay this week at discovering that the worst flaw in President Trump’s travel restrictions against which they have raised bitter protest applies in greater measure to many of their movement’s demands, and they are still struggling to assimilate that revelation into their world view.
“It turns out that if we abandon fossil fuels, which are an ongoing environmental Holocaust, we end up hurting the economies of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, and a whole bunch of other places that are basically Muslim,” explained environmentalist Vic Timhood. “As everyone knows, in the hierarchy of progressive values, not offending or adversely affecting Muslims reigns supreme, and we are now struggling with how to promote a cleaner world in a way that does not commit this grave offense against our values. I mean, what have we been fighting the Muslim Ban for? The way forward is not yet clear.”
“If the Dyke March in Chicago demonstrates anything, it’s that Muslims’ sensibilities trump all others,” observed activist Linda Sarsour. “That’s what I’ve been getting at for years, always couching it in terms of tolerance and openness. But it boils down to Muslims as victims being the ultimate axiom, and therefore Muslims retaining ultimate veto over everything lest it offend or oppress them further. Unfortunately for other elements within the progressive movement, that sets up conflicts. But it’s hardly the first time, and the lesser causes within the movement have to just suck it up.”
Israeli journalist refuses to grant prize to Facebook
Israeli journalist Lital Shemesh refused to grant a prize to a senior official in Facebook due to the Facebook management’s condoning of the barrage of incitement against Jews on the social network.
Shemesh is in London with a delegation of the the “Gesher” organization and the Diaspora Affairs Ministry, and met with Simon Milner, Facebook’s Policy Director in Britain, the Middle East, Africa, and Turkey.
Shemesh, who serves among other things as a journalist for Channel 20 and a presenter for Israel Hayom, asked Milner why Facebook condones incitement against Jews, which can lead to the perpetration of terror attacks and the murder of innocent people.
Milner avoided giving a straight answer, and those present were requested not to quote the words that were said in the room by Facebook representatives.
As was stated, Shemesh refused to grant a prize to Milner from the members of the delegation. She told Arutz Sheva that Milner “has no small part in the incitement to murder of Jews. I just couldn’t.”
Guardian columnist suggests that Israel’s defenders are akin to climate change deniers.
First, contrary to Williams’ claim, Snow made no allegations of “scatter bombing” (cluster bombing) in Gaza, and in fact we could find no such allegations during the war, even by “human rights” groups.
Far more troublesome, however, is Williams’ analogy between Israel’s defenders – whom she characterises as defenders of “killing children” – and climate change deniers is indicative of a view of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, held by many in the media, which sees it as a binary tale of ignorance vs truth, good vs evil.
Herein lies the vicious cycle of media coverage of Israel:
  1. The intrinsic anti-Israel bias of reporters informs their reporting from the region.
  2. This results in coverage portraying the nation’s conflicts through a highly distorted lens, which – as with Williams’ astonishing credulity in reaction to Snow’s Gaza report – is rarely critically examined.
  3. This skewed coverage – which imputes maximum malevolence to Israel and denies Palestinians any semblance of moral agency – informs and reinforces the bias of journalists and editors when covering future stories.
Williams’ capacity to maintain belief in her own commitment to empirically driven conclusions whilst simultaneously disseminating complete fabrications about Israel would only come as a surprise to those unfamiliar with the pro-Palestinian media echo-chamber in which she operates.
Vandal faces charges in 'senseless' assault on Boston's Holocaust memorial
A 21-year-old Roxbury man accused of shattering one of the glass panels at Boston’s downtown Holocaust museum was ordered held today by a judge.
James E. Isaac, 21, was arrested and charged with willful and malicious destruction of property and destruction of a place of memorial in connection with the incident shortly before 2 a.m., according to Boston police spokesman Officer Stephen McNulty.
Isaac had his bail revoked on two open cases, one in Chelsea and the other in Roxbury. The decision by Boston Municipal Court Judge Sally Kelly, who held him on $750 on the latest charges of vandalizing the memorial, will keep Isaac behind bars for at least 60 days.
During the arraignment today, Isaac's attorney, Rebecca Kozak, said her client suffers from a "host" of mental health issues. She also said his father, who helped raise him, was murdered, which contributed to his struggles.
Upstate NY mikvah construction site vandalized with swastikas
A Jewish religious immersion pool under construction in a new ultra-Orthodox neighborhood of an upstate New York village was vandalized with graffiti and swastikas.
The vandalism in at a mikvah in Bloomingburg, in the Catskills area, was discovered Sunday night. The new Satmar neighborhood was built to solve a housing shortage in the ultra-Orthodox community.
The local sheriff’s office has opened an investigation into the incident.
The incident comes after swastikas were discovered spray-painted on a realtor’s sign and street sign in suburban Rockland County, New York, on June 17. In the weeks prior to the recent incidents, swastikas were discovered in a state park and on a neighborhood fence, and the words “No Jews” were spray-painted in a house up for sale.
Anti-Semitic, white supremacist fliers target DC neighborhood
Anti-Semitic and white supremacist fliers were dropped at houses in a Washington DC neighborhood.
Jewish and non-Jewish residents of Glover Park found the two-sided fliers on their front doorsteps Wednesday morning, Fox5 reported. The fliers offer several conspiracy theories against Jews and call for a war on Jews.
The notice is largely incoherent, but seems to suggest that Jews know about impending natural disasters and do nothing to prevent the loss of human life.
The back features a caricature of a white woman and child with the phrase, “defending your people is a social duty not an anti-social crime.”
The same flier has appeared in DC neighborhoods before.
Jewish cemetery vandalism spurs stiffer penalties in Philadelphia
Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney signed into law an ethnic intimidation bill introduced after the vandalism of some 175 headstones at a local Jewish cemetery.
The Ethnic Intimidation and Institutional Vandalism bill signed last week says that fines for desecrating objects will be applied to each individual act of vandalizing a headstone, grave marker or gravesite, according to the Philadelphia Jewish Exponent.
The fine for damaging just one headstone is $2,000. For a third violation, vandals can be imprisoned for 30 days.
The bill was introduced by Councilman Kenyatta Johnson, in an effort to amend the city ordinance dealing with hate crimes. It applies to all cemeteries in Philadelphia.
He told the Exponent that he introduced the bill “to send a clear message that these hate crimes will not be tolerated.”
“We should not be dealing with any forms of hate and discrimination. Those who engage in these types of acts are cowards,” he also said.
Belgian Regional Parliament Passes Law Banning Kosher Slaughter
The vote comes one month after the same measure was passed by the parliament in Wallonia, the country’s French-speaking region. Reacting to that vote, Philippe Markiewicz, president of the Consistoire organization of Belgian Jewry, reminded legislators that the “last assault on ritual slaughter was in October 1940 under the Nazi occupation, because they knew how important it was for Jews.”
Following the vote in Flanders, Chief Rabbi of Moscow Pinchas Goldschmidt — the president of the Conference of European Rabbis — declared: “The news that the Flanders region of Belgium has joined Wallonia in passing a legislation banning religious slaughter is a clear attack on religious practices and a worrying omen for the future of religious rites across Europe. We cannot tolerate bans on religious practices. Leaders across Europe must protest against the ban and work to protect our religious freedoms.”
Belgium is one of several countries where Jewish and Muslim ritual slaughter is currently prohibited. Others include Switzerland, Norway and New Zealand.
UK lawmaker recalls antisemitic abuse during general election campaign
A British lawmaker claimed that she was the target of antisemitic abuse during the UK general election after discovering several of her campaign posters were vandalized with swastikas, The Jewish Chronicle reported Wednesday.
Conservative MP Sheryll Murray recalled the experience during a session of Prime Minister's Questions in parliament, saying that her campaign offices were also urinated on in the midst of the campaign season.
"Over the past months, I've had swastikas carved into posters," Murray, a Conservative Friends of Israel supporter, announced during the first PMQ held since May won a narrow victory against Labour party leader Jeremy Corbyn earlier this month.
Murray said she was "sickened" by the experience, and noted that the "symbol is incredibly offensive to both Jews who lost so many and the British who stood firm against its tyranny."
The Conservative MP entreated the prime minister on "what can be done to stop this intimidation," which she quipped was "hardly kinder, gentler politics."
How Margaret Thatcher’s family sheltered an Austrian Jew during the Holocaust
On January 21, 1939, Edith Mühlbauer received a letter from a small town in England which would save her life.
The 17-year-old’s life had been a comfortable one. The Mühlbauer family lived on Schubertsgasse in Vienna’s Alsergrund district, an area where many Jewish professionals — doctors, lawyers, businessmen and bankers liked Mühlbauer’s father — had made a home away from the unassimilated Hasidic Jews of the old walled Leopoldstadt ghetto across the Danube.
But all that had changed nearly a year before on March 12, 1938, when the Wehrmacht had crossed the border and, without a shot being fired, occupied Austria. Within days, some 70,000 people — many of them Jews — had been rounded up. Less than a month later, the first convoy departed for Dachau, just across the former German border near Munich. Jewish-owned businesses were subject to a boycott. Jews were made to scrub the streets. Shortly afterwards, the Nuremberg Laws were applied to Austria, Jews were stripped of their citizenship and the doors to many professions barred to them.
Worse was to come on November 9, 1938 — Kristallnacht — as all but one of Vienna’s 42 synagogues were burned to the ground. Mobs attacked and looted shops owned by Jews. The police responded by arresting 8,000 Jews, sending 5,000 of them to Dachau.
For the Mühlbauers and their fellow Jews, the situation was now desperate. At some point during the unfolding tragedy, Mühlbauer wrote to her English penpal, Muriel Roberts, asking if she could come and stay. Muriel passed the letter to her father, Alfred, a grocer who owned two shops. Mühlbauer’s father then wrote directly to Alfred.
Microsoft signs deal to buy US-Israeli startup Cloudyn
Microsoft on Thursday confirmed it acquired based Cloudyn, a startup headquartered in Boston with offices in the Israeli town of Rosh Ha’ayin that has developed technology to monitor and optimize cloud storage. No financial details were disclosed, but earlier this year press reports said the company was being bought by Microsoft for some $50-$70 million.
“I am pleased to announce that Microsoft has signed a definitive agreement to acquire Cloudyn, an innovative company that helps enterprises and managed service providers optimize their investments in cloud services,” Jeremy Winter, director of program management at Microsoft’s Azure Security unit, said in a blog post on Thursday. “This acquisition fits squarely into our commitment to empower customers with the tools they need to govern their cloud adoption and realize the strategic benefits of a global, trusted, intelligent cloud.”
This is Microsoft’s second announced deal this month. On June 8 the US giant said it signed a deal to buy Israel’s Hexadite, a cybersecurity firm.
Six-year-old Cloudyn provides businesses with software that enables them to measure the consumption, cost and performance of their cloud spending. Sharon Wagner, Vittaly Tavor and Boris Goldberg are the three co-founders of the startup, according to their website. Investors include Carmel Ventures and Infosys.
IsraellyCool: Pillar Of Fire – The Jew Returns, The Arab Awakens (1896-1920)
Back in 1976, the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA) started production on a documentary series on Zionism, motivated by the Yom Kippur War and the notorious 1975 UN General Assembly Resolution that compared Zionism to Racism. It took five years to make, with the supervision of five historians. The result? Pillars of Fire, one of the biggest productions ever undertaken on Israeli Television.
Pillars of Fire first aired in 1981 and ran for five months. The English version (which first aired in 1988) is narrated by famed actor Ian McKellen.
Here is part one of the English version of the series: The Jew Returns – The Arab Awakens (1896-1920).
Pillar Of Fire - The Jew Returns, The Arab Awakens




We have lots of ideas, but we need more resources to be even more effective. Please donate today to help get the message out and to help defend Israel.
          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
          * ICT Assistant   
UNDP: * ICT Assistant in Tindouf, Algeria. Closing date: 2017-06-30
          Daftar Mata Uang Negara-negara Di Seluruh Dunia (A-Z)   

Daftar Mata Uang Negara-negara Di Seluruh Dunia (A-Z)

Country / Negara
Currency / Mata Uang
ISO-4217
Symbol
A
Afghanistan
AFN
Albania
ALL
Algeria
DZD
American Samoa
see United States
Andorra
see Spain and France
Angola
AOA
Anguilla
XCD
EC$
Antigua and Barbuda
XCD
EC$
Argentina
ARS
Armenia
AMD
Aruba
AWG
ƒ
Australia
AUD
$
Austria
EUR
Azerbaijan
AZN
B
Bahamas
BSD
B$
Bahrain
BHD
Bangladesh
BDT
Barbados
BBD
Bds$
Belarus
BYR
Br
Belgium
EUR
Belize
BZD
BZ$
Benin
XOF
CFA
Bermuda
BMD
BD$
Bhutan
BTN
Nu.
Bolivia
BOB
Bs.
Bosnia-Herzegovina
BAM
KM
Botswana
BWP
P
Brazil
BRL
R$
British Indian Ocean Territory
see United Kingdom
Brunei
BND
B$
Bulgaria
BGN
Burkina Faso
XOF
CFA
Burma
see Myanmar
Burundi
BIF
FBu



Mata Uang Dunia

KLIPING
KERJASAMA EKONOMI SOSIAL DAN BUDAYA
DI ASIA TENGGARA












     

 











Di Susun Oleh :
                   1. HANDAYANI                                
                   2. MERDIANA NUR AUNI                          
                   3. NURUL FITRIYANTI                      
                   4. ROISATUL ILMA                                           

SMP NEGERI 1 PATEBON
2011

---------------------------------------------------------------
KATA PENGANTAR

Assalamualikum Wr. Wb.

Salam Sejahtera,

            Sepatutnyalah kita bersyukur kehadirat Allah SWT. Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, atas nikmat dan karunianya kepada bangsa Indonesia yang senantiasa menjunjung tinggi nilai-nilai moral dengan pendekatan agama dan budaya.
            Kami menyambut baik penerbitan buku yang khusus menyangkut dan menghindari penyalahgunaan Narkoba dikalangan masyarakat umunya dan khususnya generasi muda.
Akhirnya kami harap buku ini dapat dijadikan pedoman dalam usaha pencegahan dan penanggulangan penyalahgunaan narkoba ditanah air.
            Tujuan penulisan tentang penyalahgunaan narkoba agar kita sebagai generasi muda tidak terjerumus dalam dunia narkoba. Agar kita menjadi penerus generasi muda  dan memiliki rasa nasionalisme untuk  membangun bangsa yang lebih sejahtera.
            Kami berterima kasih kepada penulis yaitu :
1.      Kepala Sekolah Bpk. Waluyo, S.Pd
2.      Guru Pembimbing Supriyatini S.Pd yang telah membimbing dalam pembuatan karya ilmiah.
3.      Teman-teman yang membantu dalam pembuatan karya ilmiah.
4.      Dan pihak-pihak yang tidak bisa kami sebutkan namanya satu persatu.


Yang telah member pengetahuan tentang bahaya narkoba kepada kita sebagai generasi muda.
Semoga buku ini bermanfaat bagi generasi bangsa yang lebih sehat dan berprestasi.
Kami mohon maaf apabila ada kesalahan penulisan dalam karya ilmiah ini.

                                                                                    Kendal, 16 Februari 2011
                                                                                                           
penulis



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------

DAFTAR ISI

Halaman Judul .............................................................................................. i
Kata Pengantar .............................................................................................  ii
Daftar Isi .......................................................................................................  iii

Bab 1   Pendahuluan ……………………………………………………….. 1
A.    Latar Belakang ………………………………………………………1
B.     Tujuan ………………………………………………………………..2
C.     Jenis Tulisan ………………………………………………………….2
D.    Pembatasan Masalah …………………………………………………2
E.     Rumusan Masalah ……………………………………………………3
Bab 2   Pembahasan Masalah …………………………………………………4
A.    Narkoba ………………………………………………………………4
B.     Penggolongan Narkoba……………………………………………….4
C.     Perkembangan Upaya Pencegahan……………………………………6
D.    Akibat Penyalahgunaan Narkoba……………………………………..9
E.     Peran Guru dan Orang Tua ………………………………………….11
Bab 3   Kesimpulan dan Saran……………………………………………….12
Daftar Pustaka……………………………………………………………….13



 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


BAB I
 PENDAHULUAN

A.    Latar Belakang
            Pengunaan narkoba pada umumnya berusia 15 – 24 tahun. Karena tawaran, bujukan dan tekanan seseorang atau kawan sebaya didorong untuk ingin men78coba narkoba yang sering disalah gunakan dan menyebabkan ketergantungan antara lain, heroin, sabu, ekstasi, obat penenang, dan obat tidur, ganja dan kokain, tembakau dan alcohol yang sering disalah gunakan juga menimbulkan ketergantungan.
            Bergantung pada jenis narkoba yang digunakan akan menimbulkan dampak yaitu terjadi berbagai penyakit seperti infeksi HIV / AIDS, Hepatitis C atau B, pengerasan hati, radang jantung, sakit ulu hati, pikun depresi dan spikasis.
Disamping itu, dapat pula berakibat tidak harmonisnya hubungan dengan keluarga, diberhentikan dari tempat kerja, dikeluarkan dari sekolah, masalah keuangan, terlibat perbuatan illegal, kecelakaan, bahkan kematian.
            Penyalahgunaan narkoba pada siswa berdampak buruk bagi kehidupan sekolah. Narkoba merusak disiplin dan motivasi yang sangat penting bagi proses belajar mengajar disekolah siswa penyalahguna dapat menggangu suasana tertib dan nyaman disekolah, meningkatkan kenakalan, membolos dan putus sekolah.
penyalahgunaan narkoba adalah masalah perilaku sosial ditujukan kepada individu atau sekelompok masyarakat, terutama anak dan remaja. Untuk mencegah dan mengurangi atau menghentikan pemakaian narkoba dengan mengubah perilaku dan pola pikirnya serta memberi ketrampilan spikososal yang bertujuan membimbing anak menjadi dewasa.
B.     Tujuan
1.      Penyalahgunaan narkoba memiliki dimensi individu dan sosial. Sehingga kita perlu memahami aspek perilaku dan budaya masyarakat.
2.      Pencegahan dengan paradigm baru yaitu model perilaku dan sosial budaya sebagai alternative terhadap model klasik – tradisional.
3.      Memahami kebijakan program Sekolah Bebas Narkoba guna meningkatkan komitmen dan kesungguhan pemerintah tenaga profesi dan masyarakat.
4.      Memahami pendidikan pencegahan bagi remaja dengan materi dan metode yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan sehingga dapat mencegah dan mengurangi kesalahan yang merugikan kita semua.
5.      Meningkatkan peran guru, siswa, orang tua serta ketrampilan dasar yang di perlukan untuk pencegahan dilingkungan sekolah dan keluarga.
6.      Memahami cara menanggulangi kasus secara dini dengan cara pendekatan, wawancara, konseling dan merujuk.
C.     Jenis Tulisan (Literatur)
            Diambil dari buku yang berjudul pencegahan dan penanggulangan penyalahgunaan narkoba karya Dr Lydia Harlina Martono S.Km dan Satya Joewana, SPK.J.
D.    Pembatasan Masalah.


            Buku ini berisi tentang bahaya penyalahgunaan narkoba bagi kalangan remaja dan cara penanggulangannya.
E.     Rumusan Masalah
            Bagaimana cara mengatasi dampak pemakaian narkoba.

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 BAB II
PEMBAHASAN MASALAH

A.    Narkoba
Columbella rustica var. lutea Pallary, 1900 has been added by Philippe Bouchet via the webinterface on 2017-06-30T19:12:13+00:00
          Algeria for taxon Columbella rustica var. cuneatiformis Pallary, 1900   
Distribution "Algeria" for taxon Columbella rustica var. cuneatiformis Pallary, 1900 has been added by Philippe Bouchet via the webinterface on 2017-06-30T19:12:13+00:00
          Algeria for taxon Uncuniscus singularis Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017   
Distribution "Algeria" for taxon Uncuniscus singularis Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017 has been added by Stefano Taiti via the webinterface on 2017-06-30T09:15:39+00:00
          Frackers Don't Give a Frack About Our Natural Rights as Humans   
Fracking benefits only a minority to the detriment of the majority of people on this planet.

This article was originally published by the Center for Humans and Nature as part of their Questions for a Resilient Future series: Does fracking violate human rights? To read more responses to this question and to share your thoughts, click here.

First of all, before I start to share my thoughts on the primary question of whether or not fracking violates human rights, we must bear in mind that the discussion about fracking and human rights is not merely about the fracking procedure itself, but the whole industrial and commercial process which is inherently linked to this extraction technique. Therefore, I think it is important to acknowledge that “fracking” cannot violate human rights, only other humans, in form of corporations and state authorities (i.e., the frackers and their accomplices) can violate human rights.

Fracking: What exactly is this?

Fracking or hydraulic fracturing is a technique employed by the oil and gas industry to extract fossil fuels. Thousands of gallons of water (from drinking water reservoirs, rivers or lakes), mixed with tons of toxic chemicals and silica sand, are pumped deep underground under extreme pressure to crack oil or gas bearing rocks in order to set freeso-called “unconventional” fossil fuel resources.

However, gas and oil are neither “conventional” nor “unconventional.” All fossil fuel resources can be classified as hydrocarbons. “Unconventional” does not refer to the characteristics or composition of the oil or gas. Instead it refers to the porosity, permeability, fluid-trapping mechanism or other characteristics of the geological reservoir or bearing rock formation from which hydrocarbons could be extracted. These characteristics result in the need to artificially alter the geological features of the reservoir or bearing rock formation using stimulation techniques such as fracking to extract hydrocarbons.

The fracking industry itself consumes space and water on a large scale. It has—through the construction of a network of thousands of wells—a significant impact on the regional development of the targeted regions and it inevitably affects areas where either settlements or environmentally and culturally sensitive zones can be found.

Human (or Natural) Rights: What are they?

Human rights belong to all human beings and cannot be taken away by any law. Governments are explicitly obliged to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts in order to promote and protect the human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups. Once, they were called natural rights, meaning that humans possess them as a gift from nature (or a higher being) prior to the existence of states or governments.

Some of them are directly linked to our fracking case, for example:

  • right to life, liberty and security of person,
  • right to physical and mental health and well-being,
  • right to prevention of diseases,
  • right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitations,
  • right to freely pursue self-determined economical, social and cultural development,
  • right to territory,
  • right of free disposal of natural wealth and resources,
  • right to property—whether alone or in association with others,
  • right to public consultation,
  • right to protection of motherhood and childhood,
  • right to actions preventing the risks and impacts of climate change,
  • right to sustainable development.

These rights are non-negotiable and no human being needs an administrative order to legally demand protection of these rights. Infringing upon them means infringing upon written and non-written universal/international law.

The Risks and Impacts of Fracking

More than a decade of large-scale use of the fracking technique (mainly in the U.S. and Canada) has shown how harmful and destructive this extraction process can be, as confirmed and acknowledged by countless peer-reviewed scientific studies.

There are numerous proven risks and impacts related to the development of fracking projects, such as heavy freshwater consumption, water and soil contamination, and public health impacts. Of the 685 peer-reviewed studies, commentaries, and reviews published on fracking:

  • 84 percent of the studies on health impacts identified potential public health risks or actual observed poor public health outcomes;
  • 69 percent of the studies on water quality showed potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination associated with shale gas development;
  • 87 percent of the studies on air quality indicated elevated levels of air pollutant emissions and/or increased atmospheric concentration.

On a global scale, we have a very significant but mainly ignored problem with fugitive methane emissions from gas extraction in general and from shale and tight gas in particular. There is a leakage rate of roughly 4 to 12 percent of the lifetime production of gas wells, being emitted to the atmosphere. Since methane is at least eighty-six times more powerful as a greenhouse gas than CO2 over a twenty-year period, opting for business as usual or even more fracking simply means that we will certainly bring the world very soon to a boiling point, which could burn the very base of our civilization.

Another very existential threat of fracking development is the threat of water contamination and the necessary heavy freshwater consumption. The industry doesn’t even shy away from developments in water scarce or arid regions. This means that freshwater for fracking stands there in direct competition to drinking water supply or irrigation (including water rights access for the projected lifetime of a project). 

Apart from the fact that over 50 percent of the US fracking wells are located in regions with high or extremely high water stress (including basins in Texas, Colorado, Oklahoma and Colorado), we should also be concerned with large and deep transboundary aquifers (like the Continental Intercalaire Aquifer in North Africa, the Karoo Aquifer in Southern Africa, or the Guarani Aquifer in South America).

They represent the only drinking water source for entire regions. Their potential contamination could have dramatic effects on health and could result in serious social and economic consequences on top of this turmoil that we’re just moving through on a global scale. Almost 40 percent of global shale basins are in regions that are either arid or under high to extremely high levels of water stress. On top of that, almost 390 million people live above these shale layers. Therefore, competition for freshwater access and incited social conflicts are just a matter of time, not of “if.”

Implications on Human Rights

No matter which perspective of the fracking universe I look at, the summary remains the same: The development of fracking projects violates human rights in multiple, ongoing ways. All risks and impacts, such as those described above, that are linked to fracking represent the inevitable outcomes of this technique to extract fossil fuels. And each impact violates human rights in some way or another. Fracking benefits only a minority to the detriment of the majority of people on this planet.

In 2012, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) issued a “Global Alert” on fracking. In 2014, the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal began seeking testimony for a session on the Human Rights Impacts of Fracking.

It is not surprising that the notion of producing even more climate-toxic fossil fuels, especially with such a high-risk method like fracking, is rejected by many people worldwide. Whether in Pungesti (Romania), Balcome (UK), New Brunswick (Canada), Ain Salah (Algeria), Standing Rock (USA) and many other places worldwide, people are fighting for our basic rights as human beings.

Unfortunately, the frackers and their accomplices simply don’t “give a frack” about human rights. Instead they remain fixed on the fossil fuel-based economic model, despite this system’s ongoing contributions to the imminent harms of climate change; the proven risks and hazards of fracking for water resources and health; the unresolved problems of getting rid of the industrial waste in an environmentally suitable fashion; and the social and ecologic conflicts involved in fracking.

Our human and natural rights are therefore not only at risk but they are being, rather deliberately, torpedoed at an international level by the frackers themselves and their accomplices (which unfortunately happen to be the ones which should represent us, i.e., our governments).

The “democratic deficits” that go along with the usage of the technique are obvious and make resistance inevitable. The anti-fracking struggle is not only about the protection of environmental standards. It is basically a political pro-democracy fight, defending our basic natural rights as beings.


          Películas mitad veinte diecisiete   


Toneladas de películas (la utilización de una medida de peso y no de cantidad es para dar efecto (?)) desde la última vez, pero creo que sólo porque pasó mucho tiempo, ya que también hay quintillones de anotadas nuevas (la utilización ahora sí de un número para la cantidad es sólo para ser internamente inconsistente).

  • A Perfect Day: +1. Gran historia (grandes actores), y me gustó como muestra un universo que no conozco y que no me toca.
  • Air: -0. Con algunos detalles interesantes, pero nada nuevo.
  • Amy: -1. No me gustó para nada la forma en que estaba "armado" el documental, era como la versión video de un diario amarillista. No la pude terminar de ver, y eso que algunas partes eran interesantes.
  • Anesthesia: -0. Tiene algunas partes MUY interesantes, pero es en general aburrida hasta más de la primera mitad, sin terminar de enganchar con las situaciones, y luego termina... abruptamente, sin resolver la mayoría de las cosas.
  • Black Mass: -0. La historia tiene sus detalles interesantes, pero me pasó lo mismo que con otras pelis basadas en una historia real, no tiene "sustento", le falta dinámica de película, no sé... como que no empieza ni termina, es floja en ese sentido.
  • Chloe & Theo: +1. Hermosa peli, pura enseñanza.
  • Crimson Peak: +0. Una de fantasmas, pero bien hecha... por eso creo que mejor diría "una CON fantasmas", no "DE".
  • Deadpool: +0. Sátira de superheroe, me divertí mucho.
  • Doctor Strange: +1. Divertida, interesante, buenas actuaciones y efectos. Me gustó el personaje en sí, también (yo no lo conocía).
  • Experimenter: -0. La info de fondo está buena, pero la película en sí no me gustó nada; creo que prefiero un documental sobre esa persona y su trabajo, antes que algo así aburrido
  • Ghost in the Shell: -0. No vale la pena. Si querés ver la historia bien armada, mirá Kôkaku Kidôtai (el manga original) , y si la querés ver a Scarlett Johansson actuando mirá Lost in Translation (y si la querés ver en pelotas mirá Under the Skin).
  • Hotel Transylvania 2: +0. Todo lo que podés esperar de una peli para chicos.
  • Jane Got a Gun: -0. La película no está mal, pero al final como que no te deja nada.
  • Jason Bourne: -0. Es movida y atrapante, pero no hay nada nuevo en la historia. Un "más de lo mismo" en su máxima expresión. Nunca más.
  • Momentum: -1. Aburrida en un montón de partes (lo cual para una peli de acción es mucho), pero lo que me colmó el vaso es esa forma burda de dejar la historia "pendiente" hasta una próxima película.
  • Now You See Me 2: +1. Muy divertida, aunque le falta un poco de sustancia como a la original.
  • Point Break: -0. Tiene algunas enseñanzas piolas, montañas, y pasiajes hermosos... pero el resto es más escenas de motocross que guión :/
  • Regression: +0. Interesante por la temática y cómo te iba llevando sin entender del todo qué pasaba; cierra un poco floja, pero zafa.
  • Rogue One: A Star Wars Story: +0. Está buena, pero más que nada por lo que cuenta y el universo en el que está embebido, después la peli tiene muchas fallas. Sospecho (temo?) que empezarán a salir mil películas satélites a la historia principal con calidades cada vez más bajas (como están haciendo con las de superheroes)...
  • Space Station 76: -0. Una película mediocre ambientada en una (muy interesante y divertida, sí) estética "sci fi de los '70)
  • Spectre: +0. Movida, sin dar respiro, y con buena fotografía, pero no se escapa de ser "solamente una más de James Bond"
  • Star Trek Beyond: +1. Sigue funcionando, continua con ese ese espíritu de las series originales que, a mi entender y gusto, hace que valgan la pena.
  • The Gunman: +0. La típica del muchacho que era malo, luego bueno, luego mata todos los malos. Pero está bien llevada, muestra una cara de las multinacionales en paises del tercer mundo, es llevadera.
  • The Man from U.N.C.L.E.: +0. Peli de espías de los 60/70. Los agentes de CIPOL, bah. Pasatista, disfrutable, con escenas memorables. Si veías la serie vieja supongo que te va a gustar mucho más.
  • The Zero Theorem: -0. Sorprendentemente aburrida para ser tan bizarra.
  • X-Men: Apocalypse: +0. Es más de lo mismo, pero me gustó la forma en que entrelazan todas las historias en la "cronología X-Men" y van explicando como se formó todo; estaría bueno que en algún momento hagan algo así con el universo Tolkien.


Como decía, un montón de anotadas nuevas...

  • Blind (2017; Drama, Romance) Bestselling novelist, Bill Oakland loses his wife and his sight in a vicious car crash. Five years later Socialite Suzanne Dutchman is forced to read to Bill in an intimate room three times a week as a plea bargain for being associated with her husband's insider trading. A passionate affair ensues, forcing them both to question whether or not it's ever too late to find true love. But when Suzanne's husband is let out on a technicality, she is forced to choose between the man she loves and the man she built a life with. [D: Michael Mailer; A: Demi Moore, Alec Baldwin, Dylan McDermott]
  • Casi leyendas (2017; Comedy, Drama, Music) Three estranged friends reunite and reluctantly reform a rock band that in their youth was about to be famous, but for mysterious reasons, they never succeeded. [D: Gabriel Nesci; A: Florencia Bertotti, Claudia Fontán, Leandro Juarez]
  • Deep Burial (2017; Sci-Fi, Thriller) In the near future, when communications go offline at a remote nuclear power plant isolated in the desert, a young safety inspector, Abby Dixon, is forced to fly out to bring them back online. Once inside the facility, mysterious clues and strange behaviors cause Abby to have doubts about the sanity, and perhaps identities, of the two employees onsite. [D: Dagen Merrill; A: Tom Sizemore, Sarah Habel, Dominic Monaghan]
  • Julie & Julia (2009; Biography, Drama, Romance) Julia Child and Julie Powell - both of whom wrote memoirs - find their lives intertwined. Though separated by time and space, both women are at loose ends... until they discover that with the right combination of passion, fearlessness and butter, anything is possible. [D: Nora Ephron; A: Meryl Streep, Amy Adams, Stanley Tucci]
  • La Sangre del Gallo (2015; Thriller) Damian is a 26 year old that wakes up one morning all beaten up, bound, hooded and alone in an unfamiliar place. He doesn't know how he got there, or why. He doesn't even remember his name. A man arrives; He is clearly not the one who captured him, however he attends him. Damian now remembers an accident where his mother and brother died, he was driving. He remembers a discussion that reveals secrets from his past. The path that led him to hit rock bottom keeps going through his head. He starts a special relationship with his captor, who will form part of the puzzle that Damian must complete. [D: Mariano Dawidson; A: Santiago Pedrero, Eduardo Sapac, Emiliano Carrazzone]
  • La vache (2016; Adventure, Comedy, Drama) An Algerian man's life-long dream finally comes true when he receives an invitation to take his cow Jacqueline to the Paris International Agriculture Fair. [D: Mohamed Hamidi; A: Fatsah Bouyahmed, Lambert Wilson, Jamel Debbouze]
  • Mecánica Popular (2015; Comedy, Drama) After devoting his life to publish philosophy, history and psychoanalysis, the editor Mario Zavadikner, discontented with the social and intellectual reality, decides to shoot himself at the office of his publishing house. An unexpected presence stops his attempt: Silvia Beltran, aspiring writer who threatens to commit suicide if Zavadikner refuses to publish her novel. [D: Alejandro Agresti; A: Alejandro Awada, Patricio Contreras, Marina Glezer]
  • Murder on the Orient Express (2017; Crime, Drama, Mystery) A lavish train ride unfolds into a stylish & suspenseful mystery. From the novel by Agatha Christie, Murder on the Orient Express tells of thirteen stranded strangers & one man's race to solve the puzzle before the murderer strikes again. [D: Kenneth Branagh; A: Johnny Depp, Michelle Pfeiffer, Daisy Ridley]
  • Nieve negra (2017; Crime, Drama, Mystery, Thriller) Accused of killing his brother during adolescence, Salvador lives isolated in the middle of Patagonia. After several decades without seeing, his brother Marcos and his sister-in-law Laura, come to convince him to sell the lands that they share by inheritance. The crossing, in the middle of a lonely and inaccessible place, revives the duel where the roles of victim and murderer are transformed over and over again. [D: Martin Hodara; A: Laia Costa, Ricardo Darín, Dolores Fonzi]
  • Seven Sisters (2017; Sci-Fi, Thriller) In a not so distant future, where overpopulation and famine have forced governments to undertake a drastic One-Child Policy, seven identical sisters (all of them portrayed by Noomi Rapace) live a hide-and-seek existence pursued by the Child Allocation Bureau. The Bureau, directed by the fierce Nicolette Cayman (Glenn Close), enforces a strict family-planning agenda that the sisters outwit by taking turns assuming the identity of one person: Karen Settman. Taught by their grandfather (Willem Dafoe) who raised and named them - Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday - each can go outside once a week as their common identity, but are only free to be themselves in the prison of their own apartment. That is until, one day, Monday does not come home. [D: Tommy Wirkola; A: Noomi Rapace, Willem Dafoe, Glenn Close]
  • The Assignment (2016; Action, Crime, Thriller) Following an ace assassin who is double crossed by gangsters and falls into the hands of rogue surgeon known as The Doctor who turns him into a woman. The hitman now a hitwoman sets out for revenge, aided by a nurse named Johnnie who also has secrets. [D: Walter Hill; A: Michelle Rodriguez, Sigourney Weaver, Anthony LaPaglia]
  • Unlocked (2017; Action, Thriller) A CIA interrogator is lured into a ruse that puts London at risk of a biological attack. [D: Michael Apted; A: Orlando Bloom, Noomi Rapace, Toni Collette]
  • Absolutely Anything (2015; Comedy, Sci-Fi) When some aliens, who travel from planet to planet to see what kind of species inhabit them, come to Earth. And if they are, according to their standards, decent, they are welcomed to be their friend. And if not the planet is destroyed. To find out they choose one inhabitant and give that person the power to do whatever he/she wants. And they choose Neil Clarke, a teacher who teaches the special kids. He is constantly being berated by the headmaster and is attracted to his neighbor, Catherine but doesn't have the guts to approach her. But now he can do anything he wants but has to be careful. [D: Terry Jones; A: Simon Pegg, Kate Beckinsale, Sanjeev Bhaskar]
  • Atomic Blonde (2017; Action, Mystery, Thriller) The crown jewel of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Agent Lorraine Broughton (Theron) is equal parts spycraft, sensuality and savagery, willing to deploy any of her skills to stay alive on her impossible mission. Sent alone into Berlin to deliver a priceless dossier out of the destabilized city, she partners with embedded station chief David Percival (James McAvoy) to navigate her way through the deadliest game of spies. [D: David Leitch; A: Sofia Boutella, Charlize Theron, James McAvoy]
  • El faro de las orcas (2016; Drama, Romance) Beto is a lonely man who works as Ranger of the isolated Peninsula Valdes' National Park (Chubut, Argentina). Lover of the nature and animals, the peace of his days watching orcas, seals and sea lions in the sea ends after the arrival of Lola, a Spanish mother who travels there from Madrid with his autistic 11 years old son Tristán looking for Beto after both watch him in a documentary about whales. Desperate, Lola asks help Beto in order to make a therapy for Tristán, hoping that his isolation caused by the autism can be overcome. Reluctant at the beginning, Beto agrees to help Tristán, sailing by the cost in a boat to meet orcas (defying the rules that prevent touching them and swimming them), the only one that causes emotional responses in Tristán. As days go by, Tristán starts slowly to express emotions, in the same way that Beto's boss tries to fire him in the belief that orcas are a dangerous killers whales, Lola realizes about a familiar trouble in Spain and that they Lola and Beto learns about the feelings between them... [D: Gerardo Olivares; A: Maribel Verdú, Joaquín Furriel, Joaquín Rapalini]
  • La tortue rouge (2016; Animation, Fantasy) Surrounded by the immense and furious ocean, a shipwrecked mariner battles all alone for his life with the relentless towering waves. Right on the brink of his demise, the man set adrift by the raging tempest washes ashore on a small and deserted tropical island of sandy beaches, timid animal inhabitants and a slender but graceful swaying bamboo forest. Alone, famished, yet, determined to break free from his Eden-like prison, after foraging for food and fresh water and encouraged by the dense forest, the stranded sailor builds a raft and sets off to the wide sea, however, an indistinguishable adversary prevents him from escaping. Each day, the exhausted man never giving up hope will attempt to make a new, more improved raft, but the sea is vast with wonderful and mysterious creatures and the island's only red turtle won't let the weary survivor escape that easily. Is this the heartless enemy? [D: Michael Dudok de Wit; A: Emmanuel Garijo, Tom Hudson, Baptiste Goy]
  • Star Wars: The Last Jedi (2017; Action, Adventure, Fantasy, Sci-Fi) Having taken her first steps into a larger world in [D: Rian Johnson; A: Tom Hardy, Daisy Ridley, Billie Lourd]
  • The Autopsy of Jane Doe (2016; Horror, Mystery, Thriller) Cox and Hirsch play father and son coroners who receive a mysterious homicide victim with no apparent cause of death. As they attempt to identify the beautiful young "Jane Doe," they discover increasingly bizarre clues that hold the key to her terrifying secrets. [D: André Øvredal; A: Brian Cox, Emile Hirsch, Ophelia Lovibond]
  • The Circle (2017; Drama, Sci-Fi, Thriller) When Mae is hired to work for the world's largest and most powerful tech and social media company, she sees it as an opportunity of a lifetime. As she rises through the ranks, she is encouraged by the company's founder, Eamon Bailey, to engage in a groundbreaking experiment that pushes the boundaries of privacy, ethics and ultimately her personal freedom. Her participation in the experiment, and every decision she makes, begin to affect the lives and future of her friends, family and that of humanity. [D: James Ponsoldt; A: Emma Watson, Ellar Coltrane, Glenne Headly]
  • The Dark Tower (2017; Action, Adventure, Fantasy, Horror, Sci-Fi, Western) The Gunslinger, Roland Deschain, roams an Old West-like landscape where "the world has moved on" in pursuit of the man in black. Also searching for the fabled Dark Tower, in the hopes that reaching it will preserve his dying world. [D: Nikolaj Arcel; A: Katheryn Winnick, Matthew McConaughey, Idris Elba]
  • The Little Hours (2017; Comedy, Romance) A young servant fleeing from his master takes refuge at a convent full of emotionally unstable nuns in the Middle Ages. Introduced as a deaf blind man, he must fight to hold his cover as the nuns try to resist temptation. [D: Jeff Baena; A: Alison Brie, Dave Franco, Kate Micucci]
  • The Recall (2017; Horror, Sci-Fi, Thriller) When five friends vacation at a remote lake house they expect nothing less than a good time, unaware that planet Earth is under an alien invasion and mass-abduction. [D: Mauro Borrelli; A: Wesley Snipes, RJ Mitte, Jedidiah Goodacre]
  • Thor: Ragnarök (2017; Action, Adventure, Fantasy, Sci-Fi) Thor is imprisoned on the other side of the universe and finds himself in a race against time to get back to Asgard to stop Ragnarok, the destruction of his homeworld and the end of Asgardian civilization, at the hands of an all-powerful new threat, the ruthless Hela. [D: Taika Waititi; A: Benedict Cumberbatch, Idris Elba, Tom Hiddleston]


Finalmente, el conteo de pendientes por fecha:

(Ago-2011)    4
(Ene-2012)   11   3
(Jul-2012)   14  11
(Nov-2012)   11  11   6
(Feb-2013)   14  14   8   2
(Jun-2013)   15  15  15  11   2
(Sep-2013)   18  18  17  16   8
(Dic-2013)   14  12  12  12  12   4
(Abr-2014)    9   9   8   8   8   3
(Jul-2014)       10  10  10  10  10   5   1
(Nov-2014)           24  22  22  22  22   7
(Feb-2015)               13  13  13  13  10
(Jun-2015)                   16  16  15  13  11   1
(Dic-2015)                       21  19  19  18   6
(May-2016)                           26  25  23  21
(Sep-2016)                               19  19  18
(Feb-2017)                                   26  25
(Jun-2017)                                       23
Total:      110 103 100  94  91  89 100  94  97  94


          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
          A PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH JESUS CHRIST   

A PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
 
WITH JESUS CHRIST
Kathy Bernard - Publisher



"I no longer call you slaves, because a master doesn’t confide in his slaves.
Now you are my friends, since I have told you everything the Father told me."
John 15:15:

     
One of the most exasperating questions Catholics encounter in talking with people of other Christian faiths is, "Do you have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ?" 
This appears to be one of those "gotcha" questions because many of us are totally unprepared to answer this query coming at us.   Well meaning, they stand smiling, waiting for a response.  Sadly, some Catholics find this uncomfortable because they are unsure of the words "personal relationship" truly means."
One could simply say,  "When I gave my life to the Lord in faith, He reached out and touched me in the depths of my soul.  It is a living  gift, a personal relationship like none I will ever experience, for it is constant, priceless, and everlasting.  It is an in-dwelling that comes when I accepted Him as Savior.  I believe in Him, recognize and know He is there within me, helping me to stay on His path to eternal life.  He is my everything."  
Father James Farfaglia explains a personal relationship with Christ this way:  "Christianity is not about a what, but about a Whom.  Ultimately, Christianity is about relationship and of course, the greatest relationship of all.  It is about a relationship with the best friend anyone could ever have; Jesus Christ.  He does not tell us about the way, He is the way"  Father James Farfaglia is the founding pastor of Saint Helena of the True Cross of Jesus Catholic Church. He is presently the new pastor of Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church.  Both parishes are located in Corpus Christi, Texas.  Originally from Ridgefield, CT, he has founded and developed apostolates for the Catholic Church in Spain, Italy, Mexico, Canada and throughout the United States.  See a wonderful video with Father Edward L. Beck C.P. speaking on our relationship with Jesus Christ which appears on Father Farfaglia's site.  Please visit:  Called to Relationship: The Happy Priest on Jesus the Good Shepherd - Living F
Pope John Paul II, (Commissioning Families, Neo-Catechumenal Way. 1991), in talking about a relationship with Christ tells us, "The task which awaits you—the new evangelization—demands that you present, with fresh enthusiasm and new methods, the eternal and unchanging content of the heritage of the Christian faith.  As you well know it is not a matter of merely passing on a doctrine, but rather of a personal and profound meeting with the Savior."  He also relates:  "Sometimes (even) Catholics have lost or never had the chance to experience Christ personally: not Christ as a mere ‘paradigm’ or ‘value’, but as the living Lord, ‘the way, and the truth, and the life". —L’Osservatore Romano (English Edition of the Vatican Newspaper), March 24, 1993, p.3.
Some skeptics, however, might ask how is it possible to have a relationship with Jesus Christ if they cannot see Him, or ever met Him?  Others may ask, "Have you ever heard Him speak to you?  They cannot know that He abides in all who believe in Him and He will remain forever with each of us if we remain in absolute faith. 
How is this done?  The special relationship comes with our acceptance of Jesus in our lives as Savior.  He tells us In John 15:15 - 17:  "I no longer call you slaves, because a master doesn’t confide in his slaves. Now you are My friends, since I have told you everything the Father told Me.  You didn’t choose Me. I chose you. I appointed you to go and produce lasting fruit, so that the Father will give you whatever you ask for, using My name. This is my command: Love each other. "   Ephesians 2:19-20 reads:  "Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God; And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone."  It is the Holy Spirit abiding in us and our acceptance that brings us into a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.    
On Sep 3, 2008  (Zenit.org)  Pope Benedict XVI,  reflecting on the 12th century St. Bernard of Clairvaux during a speech to a general audience, he highlighted his own personal relationship with Christ.  Then he related that "the Abbot of Clairvaux  did not tire of repeating that only one name counts, that of Jesus the Nazarene.  The Abbot tells,  "All food of the soul is dry", he professed, "unless it is moistened with this oil; insipid, unless it is seasoned with this salt. What you write has no savour for me unless I have read Jesus in it . And he concludes: 'When you discuss or speak, nothing has flavor for me, if I have not heard resound the name of Jesus.'  The Pope said Bernard's concept of true knowledge of God consists in a 'personal, profound experience of Jesus Christ and of His love.'  (In Canticum Sermones XV, 6: PL 183, 847)
Continuing, Pope Benedict states, "in a more than decisive way, the abbot of Clairvaux configures the theologian to the contemplative and the mystic.  'Only Jesus' --insists Bernard in face of the complex dialectical reasoning of his time -- 'only Jesus is 'honey to the mouth, song to the ear, joy to the heart.'  "Ideas like this one, noted the Pontiff, won the saint his traditional title: "Doctor Mellifluus"; his praise of Jesus Christ, in fact, 'runs like honey'."  
"And this, dear brothers and sisters," the Pope declares, "is true for every Christian: Faith is above all a personal, intimate encounter with Jesus, and to experience his closeness, his friendship, his love; only in this way does one learn to know him ever more, and to love and follow him ever more. May this happen to each one of us."  - Pope Encourages Relationship With Christ
Yet again, speaking to the pilgrims gathered at the Paul VI Hall at Vatican City, Sep 3, 2008 , Pope Benedict turned his attention to the conversion of St. Paul, which he said shows us that Christianity is not “a new philosophy or a new form of morality,” but an encounter with the person of Christ, an event that ignites a personal relationship with Him. For us," the Pope tells, "....Christianity is not a new philosophy or a new form of morality.  We are only Christians if we encounter Christ, even if He does not reveal Himself to us as clearly and irresistibly as He did to Paul in making him the Apostle of the Gentiles.  We can also encounter Christ in reading Holy Scripture, in prayer, and in the liturgical life of the Church - touch Christ's heart and feel that Christ touches ours.  And it is only in this personal relationship with Christ, in this meeting with the Risen One, that we are truly Christian. Christianity is a Personal Encounter  

St. Bernard of Clairvaux was born in 1090 in Fontaines, France and died in 1153.   Conversion, for St. Bernard of Clairvaux meant not simply renouncing the world—it ushered believers into a deeply personal friendship with Jesus.   Bernard allowed no lukewarm or halfhearted faith in the Cistercian movement, which he helped to spearhead during his lifetime. He wanted to ensure that anyone joining a Cistercian community was soundly converted and passionately pursuing Jesus. Similar to missionary movements and campus ministries of our time, the Cistercians constituted a cadre of radical servants of Christ in the twelfth century.
Our relationship with Jesus is very personal.  Let no one tell you otherwise. Yet it holds no jealousy nor possessiveness.  A true believer wants all to have this relationship; they crave for all to have it because Jesus commanded us to spread His Precious Word.... to bring His word to all who will listen and know that He is real and alive, and one day He will return to take all who believe and follow His teachings to meet God, our Heavenly Father.  

Jesus Christ sees you, hears you, speaks with you, and walks with you.  The true Christian experiences this.  He is there to bless those who want to share in His love.  And so, with our faith, we share this very personal relationship with the only One Who can opens the gates of heaven for us, and Who will welcome us into His Father's kingdom.  No human person nor entity can do that.  Only He is the One Who paid for our human sin with His blood that entitles us to eternal life.  Many precious followers may die for His Truth but none other than Christ Jesus, the Son of the Living God, can give us salvation and entry into heaven.

This relationship with Jesus is real.  Before His death on the cross, in the intimacy of the Upper Room where He imparted to His dear friends His last words before His Passion and Resurrection, He said: "If you love Me, keep my commandments"(John 14: 15).  And as affirmation, He tells us in Matthew 26:26-28,  "As they were eating, Jesus took some bread and blessed it.  Then He broke it in pieces and gave it to the disciples, saying, “Take this and eat it, for this is My Body.  And He took a cup of wine and gave thanks to God for it.  He gave it to them and said, “Each of you drink from it,  for this is My Blood, which confirms the covenant  between God and His people.  It is poured out as a sacrifice to forgive the sins of many."   He tells us, "I am the vine; you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit, for apart from Me you can do nothing." - John 15:5 
And so, as our faith strengthens, so does our relationship with Jesus Christ, and we must strive to let that relationship be a circle encompassing Jesus Christ and His Church not only through obedience to Him but accepting worthily the body and the blood of Jesus Christ.

 
"My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they
follow me."  - John 10:27

          2014 FIFA World Cup Logo [PDF – FIFA Brasil 2014]   
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          How Football Can Explain a Divided Europe   

Here are a few of the things that have happened in the past week in Europe:

Two parts of the United Kingdom, Wales and Northern Ireland, played a football game against one another in the 2016 European Championship, as if they were their own separate nations.

An island European nation of approximately 330,000—Iceland—sent about one-tenth of its population on a journey to the banks of the Mediterranean, where their football team, led by a part-time dentist, defeated another region of the United Kingdom—England—that was playing as if it was also its own nation.

A French Republic deeply divided over the question of how—and whether—immigrants from its former colonies and their descendants can be integrated into the Republic cheered on its soccer team, made up largely of the children of African immigrants. That team defeated another European island nation, Ireland.

The game contradicted any notion that there is cosmic justice in the world. In 2009 France had kept Ireland out of the World Cup through one of the most notorious acts of cheating in the modern game, when Thierry Henry scooped the ball with his hand and in so doing set up the winning goal.* An Ireland victory on French soil feels like it would have made things right somehow. But of course that’s rarely how football—or life—actually works.

Belgium, meanwhile scored four goals against Hungary: one by a Flemish player, another by Walloon, a third by the child of Spanish immigrants, and a fourth by the child of immigrants from the Congo. Among the other players on the pitch that day were another child of Congolese immigrants, another whose father is from the French Caribbean island of Martinique, and a Mohawk-sporting child of Indonesian immigrants.

In a week during which the idea of Europe itself has been put to the test, is there a parable in all of this? Can we look to the football pitch to understand what this place—a continent, yes, but also an idea—actually is, and might turn out to be?

There was, first of all, this: an archaeology that helps explain the Brexit vote in the very presence of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in the knockout round of the tournament.

The fact that three of the regions of the United Kingdom—known, it is true, as “home nations” and tied together by a political compact far older than the European Union—get to play in the tournament is itself an artifact of the vexed relationship Britain has long had with European institutions.

When football’s governing body, FIFA, was formed in 1904 Britain was conspicuously absent, with the English Football Association—along with those of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—refusing to join. The founding nations of the organization were France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, and its lingua franca was French, the acronym from the organization the result of a Franco-English linguistic mash-up: Fédération Internationale de Football Association.

It was only in 1946 that the four British football federations agreed to join what by then had clearly established itself as the leading global institution in football. But they negotiated a return not as one nation but as four. So it is that England, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland are among the non-nations that exist in FIFA as nations—alongside places like Palestine and New Caledonia—and allow the organization to brag that it has more members than the United Nations. The four also are members of the UEFA, the Union of European Football Associations founded in 1954, which organizes the European Championship.

The United Kingdom, furthermore, holds four seats out of eight on the powerful IFAB, the International Football Association Board, which governs the rules of the game and is the body that determines if any changes will be made to these rules. The other four seats are filled on a rotating basis by FIFA. The United Kingdom, then, are essentially the Permanent Members of this board, whose power is considerable.

At least one of these nations has performed some lovely football here. Fans have been treated to the spectacle of a Welsh team whose play has been one of the highlights of the tournament. Gareth Bale’s stunning goals (and his excellent hair) have been a pleasure to watch. The Welsh fans (along with those from Iceland) seem to best embody what it means to be part of a nation, belting out their nineteenth-century anthem in Welsh, celebrating a “land of poets and singers, and people of stature,” whose “brave warriors” and “fine patriots” are all willing to “shed their blood for freedom,” or at least for football.

 When Wales faces Belgium this Friday in the quarterfinals, it will be an encounter between two entities representing the ironies of contemporary Europe. While Wales feels like a nation, even though it isn’t one, Belgium is a nation that doesn’t really feel like one.

Several decades of profound internal conflict between Flemish and Walloon groups over language, culture and politics have created a curious and in many ways dysfunctional patchwork of bureaucracy in the country.

Immigration has transformed Belgium, with 70 percent of the capital of Brussels born abroad. And that city has been transformed by the project of Europe itself, its central city home to the massive buildings that govern the European Union. The recent terrorist attacks in Brussels have only increased the tensions and uncertainties around the nation’s future.

Belgium’s football success in recent years, however, has been striking: from being one of the lowest-ranked teams on the continent, absent from international competitions, they have now risen to near the top of the FIFA rankings, spending much of this past year as number one. This is the result of a concerted project by the Belgian Football Federation to improve its recruitment and training of young players. They have worked hard to incorporate all of the countries communities, notably immigrants and their children, into the process.

The results are on display each week in the English Premier League, where a series of talented Belgian players play on top teams. Of course having talented players on a team is never enough—as England has shown spectacularly this tournament—if there isn’t a strategy and a sense of cohesion and coherence on the pitch.

The Belgian team is one of a series in Europe today in which players of immigrant background play a prominent role.

This has long been the case of the French team, which has had players of African and North African background on the national team since the 1920s. When they won World Cup at home in 1998—the last time the country hosted a major tournament—they did so with a team famously composed of delightfully multi-ethnic cast of characters, most famously Zinedine Zidane, the child of Algerian immigrants.

More recently the German team has also featured prominent players who are the children of immigrants. Sweden’s Zlatan Ibrahimovic, who played his last games for his nation during this tournament, is the child of a Bosnian father and Croatian mother. Though it was only in 1979 that the English team first included a black player, today they are central, and offered up some of the few bright spots in the lineup during a generally lackluster team performance. The Welsh player Hal Robson-Kanu, meanwhile, is of Nigerian background. Certain teams, however – particularly Italy and Spain—have many fewer children of immigrants on their roster.

I’ll be rooting for Belgium on Friday, and not just because that’s where I was born.

When you cheer on the Red Devils, you can’t forget that you are cheering for an idea rather than a reality, and that in a way that idea only exists on the football pitch.

The Belgium that takes shape on the pitch is actually so far from the nation it purports to represent. The team, at its best, is coherent, bringing together disparate languages and histories, a place where immigrant communities are not just welcome but understood as fundamental to the future of the nation.

With Radja Nainggolan’s Mohawk, striking tattoos, and powerful strikes on goal, Kevin De Bruyne constantly moving about the midfield and sending in his beautiful arcing passes, Axel Witsel lurking dangerous around the box, Romelu Lukaku eternally in front of goal but only rarely actually scoring, Marouane Fellaini permanently on the sidelines but looking strangely happy about it, the team is funny, and fun to watch, taking themselves just seriously enough but not too seriously.

Once upon a time the French team—particularly during its 1998 World Cup run—represented something like this too, and it still does in a sense. But the rounds of hope and disappointment around the team, both about what they could do on the pitch and the extent to which they could change society itself, have now become a bit exhausting in their way.

Each new controversy around race, immigration, and the make-up of the French team just seems like a new act in an interminable and unresolvable drama. But at their best, as in their game against Ireland, they still can deliver a burst of joy through their fluid, attacking play, and the idea of a France vs. Belgium final is certainly an attractive one.

If it comes to that I’ll feel pretty divided, though I’ll probably root for Belgium. It’s not that I harbor a hope that the Belgian team can really change the country. I’m just glad that, for a few hours, we can imagine something different, finding a bit of energy through which to confront the fact that that today’s Europe seems less and less what it could be.

*Correction, June 30, 2016: This post originally misstated that Thierry Henry's infamous handball took place in 2005.


          How the England National Team Reflects the Spirit and Hypocrisy of Brexit   

Football is political, but even in an international tournament—when national communities are represented and set against one another in just about the simplest way imaginable—the politics of football are far from straightforward. So too with Brexit and Euro 2016.

The question on the ballot in Thursday’s vote, which takes place a day after the Euro group stages end, will be "Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union?" But the nature of the choice has been heavily freighted with all kinds of political and cultural baggage in the course of a lengthy and toxic debate. Irish writer Fintan O'Toole argues that Brexit is above all about a particular version of English nationalism which has taken hold at a popular level.  There are likely to be majorities for "Remain" in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales, while England may vote "Leave." Brexit's most prominent advocates are virtually all white Englishmen. And if Brexit wins, it's difficult to envision the UK holding together.

The rowdiest supporters of the English team have celebrated this, singing "Fuck off Europe! We're all voting out!" while scrapping with French police in town centers.

But whether fans like it or not, the current England team doesn't simply map with pro-Brexit English nationalism; it also stands for a more fluid, confidently multicultural version of Englishness.

On the one hand, you have the striker Jamie Vardy, embraced across England like few players have been since Paul "Gazza" Gascoigne. Vardy is loved primarily for the simplicity of his play, in particular the sheer relish with which he thrashes the ball repeatedly into the net. But there's a lot more going on than that.

Vardy seems in some ways to represent the spirit of Brexit, as a working class hero.  He has just completed an astounding season at club level, scoring the goals which fired 5000-1 shots Leicester City to the Premier League title.

One of Vardy's personal catchphrases is "Jamie Vardy's having a party," and you now hear this everywhere. Vardy is a late-blooming talent who climbed his way up through tough English lower league clubs (Stocksbridge Park Steels, Halifax Town, and Fleetwood Town). Brexit is nothing if not carnivalesque, and in Vardy's rise and his massive popularity it's possible to detect something of the same spirit—subverting the game's hierarchies and certainties while eschewing its stuffy new professional practices and sports science. He is revered as a classic English star as opposed to many of his teammates who have come through elite clubs and European-style academy systems.

There’s more to this working class image. The far right Daily Mail newspaper this week trumpeted a report that Vardy "downs cans of Red Bull, chews tobacco gum, and never goes to the gym."

The strength of the popular desire to canonize Vardy as an English folk hero for the 21st century means plenty about the real-life Vardy gets glossed over, which coincides with some of the hypocrisies apparent in the Brexit vote. For example, Vardy is wonderfully adept at winning penalty kicks by tricking opponents and referees. A superb diver (flopping in U.S. parlance), Vardy has mastered the very thing which the English love to imagine as quintessentially "foreign" in football. When English players dive, the pundits lament that they must have learned it from the influx of "foreign" players. But how could Vardy have learned to dive playing for Stocksbridge Park Steels? Better just ignore that one.

The official #VoteLeave slogan is "Take back control," an extraordinarily effective and simple message.

As an auxiliary slogan, they might as well have gone with Jamie Vardy's signature boast: "Chat shit, get banged."

For its part, the “Leave” campaign also likes to compare its supposed plain speech to the complex facts of naysaying experts.

Even very simple economic arguments against Brexit are derided as hopelessly complicated.

The Leavers, in fact, see the prospect of ridiculing all this terribly serious and important advice as an opportunity not to be missed.

So what if the Institute for Fiscal Studies warns that a vote for Brexit would likely lead to two additional years of punishing austerity measures which have already hit the poorest hardest? "Chat shit," comes the reply, "get banged."

Vardy was also filmed racially abusing an Asian man in a casino last year (no "political correctness," hurray!). He later made a full apology, though, which is a decidedly un-Brexity thing to do. UK Independence Party leader Nigel Farage has been instrumental in creating a political culture where it's increasingly unnecessary for politicians to apologize for racism or xenophobia, except in cases of explicit racial slurs.

To cap it all, Vardy has apparently rejected a transfer to Arsenal, who want to buy him for £20 million ($29 million). What could possibly be more Brexity than a hardworking, straight-talking lad from Sheffield turning down Arsene Wenger, the definitive "foreign" coach, renowned for his fancy continental methods? As it is, Vardy looks like staying at good old English Leicester City, where he'll be managed by an Italian, play up front with a Japanese international, and where the two other big stars in the team are an Algerian winger and a French midfielder of Malian origin.

But Jamie Vardy is just one player on the England team at Euro 2016.

In fact, the England team's cultural diversity stands as a retort to a key popular dictum underpinning the discourse of Brexit, that "multiculturalism has failed.”

It's especially significant that having black and brown players on the team from immigrant families isn't really an issue any more. Players like midfielder Bamidele Alli (whose father is Nigerian), Daniel Sturridge, Danny Rose, and Raheem Sterling (who might all have represented Jamaica but chose England), the injured Danny Welbeck (Ghana) are fixtures in the side whose relative "Englishness" is very rarely questioned in the way that equivalent players for, say, Italy or France, are commonly held as somewhat suspect national representatives. This was by no means always the case—the racist cliché of the 1970s and 80s was that black players lacked "bottle"—and it shows that despite the surge of xenophobia in public life, England in 2016 is a multicultural society and is used to being that way on some level.

On top of all this, David Cameron is the kind of politician who everyone knows pretends to like football in order to look like a normal person (he famously confused the team he says he supports, Aston Villa, and West Ham, who play in the same color shirt). Cameron was accused of being an appeaser of EU tyranny ("a Neville Chamberlain for the 21st Century") during a big BBC appearance over the weekend. This is about the meanest thing you can say to a politician in England, where consciousness of modern history is heavily conditioned by what Christian Lorentzen once described as "a nationwide death cult" around the two World Wars. Cameron responded by shouting something about Winston Churchill (he likes to do this) and then delivering what he must have regarded as a populist masterstroke: "You can't win a football match if you're not on the pitch."

It sounded lame as a way of arguing that Britain is better off negotiating its relationship with Europe within the EU and its institutions than outside it. This was clearly pandering, and clearly a stretch. Then again, it was exactly the kind of truism about football that we cherish in the UK. It's the kind of thing Jamie Vardy might say.

Correction, June 21, 2016: Due to a production error, this post was originally misattributed to Raoul Meyer.


          This Lovely Animation Will Make You Wish the World Cup Were Still Happening   

Richard Swarbrick makes amazingly gorgeous animated films based on real sports moments. Seriously, they’re like Shepard Fairey portraits come to life, but better. He did one for the just finished World Cup, and watching a few seconds of it will make you wish it was 2018 right now. Some of the shots are actually kind of hard to decipher (try for yourself), but Swarbrick sent us his approximate shot list, which is reprinted below with some minor modifications for accuracy purposes.

1. Neymar’s first goal for Brazil against Croatia.
2. Oscar’s goal for Brazil against Croatia.
3. Robin Van Persie’s flying header for the Netherlands against Spain.
4. Arjen Robben’s second goal for the Netherlands against Spain.
5. Clint Dempsey’s goal for the U.S. against Ghana.
6. Lionel Messi’s goal for Argentina against Bosnia and Herzegovina.
7. James Rodríguez’s goal for Colombia against Japan.
8. Tim Cahill’s goal for Australia against the Netherlands.
9. Arjen Robben’s first goal for the Netherlands against Spain.
10. Lionel Messi’s goal for Argentina against Iran.
11. James Rodríguez’s goal for Colombia against Uruguay.
12. John Brooks’ and Jürgen Klinsmann's celebration for the U.S. against Ghana.
13. Tim Howard’s great save for the U.S. against Portugal.
14. Jermaine Jones’ goal for the U.S. against Portugal.
15. Wesley Sneijder for the Netherlands against Mexico.
16. Luis Suarez’s bite for Uruguay against Italy.
17. André Schürrle’s goal for Germany against Algeria.
18. Tim Krul’s first save of the Netherlands-Costa Rica penalty shootout.
19. Gonzalo Higuaín’s goal for Argentina against Belgium.
20. Klaas-Jan Huntelaar’s celebration for the Netherlands against Mexico
21. Thomas Müller’s goal for Germany against Brazil.
22. Toni Kroos for Germany against Brazil.
23. Sami Khedira’s goal for Germany against Brazil.
24. André Schürrle’s first goal for Germany against Brazil.
25. André Schürrle’s second goal for Germany against Brazil.
26. Mario Götze’s goal for Germany against Argentina.
27. Germany's Philipp Lahm celebrating with World Cup trophy.

If you didn’t care about the World Cup to begin with, this lovely animation will make you wish that the NBA season was still going, and this lovely animation will make you wish that the Doctor Who season had started already.


          Messi Is Great. Germany Is Great. They’ll Still Be Great No Matter What Happens Sunday.   

Lionel Messi is great. Germany is great. There should be no debate about either of these things. And yet, in the minds of many, Sunday’s World Cup final will answer a pair of questions that nobody should bother to ask: Can Messi truly be a legend if he’s missing a “signature World Cup moment”? And is this German national team, the one that crushed a reeling Brazil, really all that great?

Let’s begin with Messi.

“It would be beautiful to be five seconds him.”

It’s not notable that someone would say such a thing about the greatest player in soccer. It is notable that the words came from Messi’s Argentina teammate Javier Mascherano.

Mascherano has been the defensive anchor of an Argentine team that conceded just three goals on its way to the World Cup final. Much more so than Messi, the holding midfielder was the hero of Argentina’s semifinal victory over the Netherlands—he made the brilliant tournament-saving, anus-tearing tackle that prevented Arjen Robben from scoring the game-winner in the dying minutes.

It wasn’t just that amazing, beautiful, perfect tackle. Mascherano is one of the finalists for the “Golden Ball” award, the tournament’s MVP trophy. He has more recovered balls than any of the other finalists, including vaunted German defenders Philipp Lahm and Mats Hummels. He’s fifth in the tournament in blocked shots, fifth in interceptions, and No. 1 in total passes.

And this is not Mascherano’s first rodeo. He has been a regular starter as Messi’s teammate at Barcelona, including on the 2010-2011 team that was one of the greatest club sides in history. He has also won two Olympic gold medals with Argentina.

Keep all of that in mind when you hear that Mascherano, in a new docudrama about Messi’s life, says that it would be a beautiful thing to experience the game through Messi’s eyes for a few moments. It’s as if Scottie Pippen sang “Be Like Mike” in a Gatorade commercial.

None of this is to say that Mascherano is some kind of lackey for Messi. He’s not. It’s just to emphasize the esteem that Messi’s otherworldly talents inspire, especially among his teammates.

Messi’s achievements have proven worthy of such admiration. His genius and vision on the pitch are undeniable. At the World Cup he has been the focal point of every game he’s played. He’s scored, assisted, or otherwise set up seven out of Argentina’s eight goals. He’s also forced teams to alter their game plans to neutralize him. In Argentina’s group stage opener at the Maracanã, the site of Sunday’s final, Messi caused the opening own-goal by Bosnia-Herzegovina with a dangerous free kick into the box. He then scored the game-winner with a stunning run through the Bosnian defense.

In the next match, he saved Argentina from an embarrassing 0-0 draw with Iran by scoring in injury time with one of the best goals of this World Cup.

In the next match against Nigeria, he scored a brace that ensured that Argentina would finish top of the group and avoid facing France and Germany in the first two knockout rounds and instead play the much tamer Switzerland and Belgium. Against the Swiss, he made another game-changing run in the 118th minute before laying it off to Ángel di María for the match-winning score. In Argentina’s 1-0 victory over Belgium in the quarterfinals, it was again Messi who created the space for the team’s only goal by dancing around two defenders before finding Ángel di María, who ultimately set up the Gonzalo Higuaín score.

Belgium, who as a reminder had taken 38 shots and 27 on target in the previous game, was held scoreless on 10 attempts against Argentina. A lot of this was due to Mascherano’s leadership and the cohesiveness of the team defensively, but Belgium was also forced to alter its tactics to try to cope with Messi. I’ve heard one commentator describe Messi’s role in these latter rounds as that of a sort of nuclear deterrent, offsetting an opponent’s ability to focus resources on attack because of fear that he’ll go off.

No single player has had a bigger impact on his team at this World Cup. And that’s just this tournament. Messi’s prior C.V. includes six Spanish league titles, three Champions League trophies, an Olympic gold medal, and a record four Ballon d'Or trophies. He also has the records for most goals scored in a single year with 91 and most consecutive games with a goal (21 matches and 33 goals for Barca in the 2012-2013 season), and he has the second-most goals in the history of Argentina’s national team (a record he’s on pace to break).

Yet, there still seems to be a question in the sports press of whether Messi deserves to be placed alongside Brazil’s Pele and Argentine countryman Diego Maradona as one of the greatest players of all time. Whatever happens in Sunday’s final is supposed to determine the legacy of a player who has already achieved more on a soccer field than perhaps anyone else ever. He’s supposed to lead his team to victory over a German side that is clearly the best in the world. He’s supposed to do it having played 30 more minutes than the Germans, feeling “like his legs weighed 100 kilos” each, and on one day fewer rest. And he’s supposed to do it against a team that already has a “secret plan” to modify its tactics, as the Belgians and the Dutch have done, to hold him in check.

Germany is facing an identical dilemma as Messi. The Germans are the best team in the world right now. They confirmed that with a victory over Brazil that will be remembered by soccer fans and history books as long as the sport exists. But if they lose against Messi, then they’ll go down as losers.

In reality, this German national team has already earned its place as one of the best in history. ESPN’s Soccer Power Index has them listed at No. 1 in the world, which isn’t that surprising. More impressive is that the World Football Elo Ratings—touted by Neil Paine and Nate Silver of 538.com, who declare themselves “big fans” of that rating system—rank this German team as the best in history.

If you look at the list, it’s astonishing to see them ahead of Ferenc Puskás’ 1954 Hungary team, Pele’s 1962 Brazil team, and Spain’s 2013 team that was coming off of its third consecutive major title at Euro 2012. You could look at Germany’s placement ahead of those teams and think, “that’s kind of stupid,” or at least “that’s kind of premature.” You might be right. But it should give you an appreciation for what Germany has accomplished in recent years.

This German team has been the second-most-consistent team to Spain since 2006. They finished third at the 2006 World Cup, runners-up to Spain at Euro 2008, third again at the 2010 World Cup, and as semifinalists at Euro 2012. They will finish either first or second at this World Cup, and their rating has already gotten a major bump from beating Brazil 7-1 in Brazil. That’s probably the most impressive result in the history of the sport when you consider that the Brazilians hadn’t lost a competitive home match since 1975.

And this golden generation of Germans has already achieved great things aside from rankings. The team is built from the side that won the 2009 European Under-21 Championship. Twenty-eight-year-old Manuel Neuer has been the goalkeeper of the tournament (sorry Tim Howard), while the team’s young, ultra-talented midfield has been the principal reason for its success.* Twenty-four-year-old Thomas Müller has five goals for the second consecutive World Cup. Twenty-five-year-old Mats Hummels scored the game-winner in the quarterfinals against France for his second goal of the tournament. Sami Khedira, the captain of that 2009 team, has been the guiding force of that midfield along with 24-year-old Toni Kroos (not a member of the 2009 German U21 team).

All of these young stars are bolstered by three all-time greats from the 2006 World Cup team that finished third at home. Philipp Lahm has been the team’s defensive guide since returning to his natural position at right back after the team struggled to get past Algeria 2-1 in a last 16 match that required extra time. Bastian Schweinsteiger has been a stalwart in midfield, while Miroslav Klose has merely gone and broken the all-time World Cup goal scoring record. When people describe this as the most-talented team in German history, that’s a reasonable claim. As a reminder, this is a nation that has won three World Cups and is entering its eighth final.

This German team also has one of the great national club sides of the era at its core. Like Spain’s 2010 starting 11, which featured a majority of Barcelona players, more than half of Germany’s starters come from another Pep Guardiola-coached side in Bayern Munich. Those players won this year’s Bundesliga crown in record speed.  The 2012-13 Bayern team, coached by Jupp Heynckes, also tied the record for most wins in a Bundesliga season and won a treble with the Champions League title and the DFB-Pokal crown.

Finally, at this tournament the team has six players in the top 10 of total passes, four of the 10 finalists for FIFA’s Golden Ball award, and one of the three finalists for the Golden Glove goalkeeping award. Oh, and 7-1.

But none of this will be enough to ensure Germany’s reputation as one of the great teams of all-time. To do that, they have to beat the sport’s Michael Jordan. If they don’t, then they’ll be considered a pretty good team that just didn’t have enough, like the Utah Jazz.

It’s just one game, and hopefully it will be a great one, full of Messi moments and German brilliance. But only one side can win. And the victor is supposed to decide the “greatness” of Germany and of Messi forever and ever?

This German team is at worst the second-best team of the past decade and one of the top international teams in recent history. Messi is the greatest player of his generation and one of the best of all-time. The result of Sunday’s World Cup final won’t change those two facts. Unless somebody wins 7-1.

*Correction, July 14, 2014: This post originally misstated Manuel Neuer’s age. He is 28 years old, not 23.


          National Poetry Month Poetry Reading   

Free Refreshments

National Poetry Month
Poetry Reading
April 17th
6:00 pm – 8:00 pm
Little Theatre


You can read your own poetry or the poetry of other writers you enjoy

Please email Jeff at jeff@cwc.edu in April if you have any questions or to sign up to read


All are Welcome!






          Family of Jailed Christian Man: He's 'Psychologically Deteriorated'   
An Algerian Christian man who was jailed for insulting Islam could face more violence soon. 
           Riyad Mahrez plays football barefoot in Beni-Snous, Algeria    
Leicester City player Riyad Mahrez partakes in a game of football in Beni-Snous, Algeria and can be seen kicking a football with his bare feet.
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          Henry Raines Show 03/21/10 Hour 2   
Story links: The Petraeus briefing: Biden's embarrassment is not the whole ... Mar 14, 2010 www.mideast.foreignpolicy.com/.../the_petraeus_briefing_biden_s_embarrassment _is_not_the_whole_story - , Final destination Iran?, http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/world-news/final-destination-iran-1.1013151 Guest: Ambassador Edward Peck served as the U.S. Chief of Mission to Iraq in the 1980s and has also served diplomatic functions in Morocco , Algeria , Tunisia , Egypt and Mauritania . In Washington , DC he was the Deputy Director of the Cabinet Task Force on Terrorism at the White House under President Reagan. Since retiring, Ambassador Peck has served as Executive Secretary of the American Academy of Diplomacy, Chairman of Political Tradecraft Programs at the National Foreign Affairs Training Center , and as a lecturer and consultant to businesses, governments and the media in the U.S. and overseas. He is a Woodrow Wilson Visiting Fellow and a Distinguished Visitor at the National War College . Known for his clear delivery and touch of humor, Ambassador Peck brings an insiders view and a critical eye to tensions in the Middle East , steeped in decades of governmental experience. A former paratrooper, he holds a B.S. from UCLA and an MBA from George Washington University . In November 2008, with Eugene Bird, he led a delegation of former US diplomats and American citizens on a 16-day tour of the Middle East to meet with Arab political and religious leaders to discuss the future of American-Arab relations in light of Obama’s upcoming presidency. They traveled to Lebanon , Syria , Jordan , Israel , The West Bank, and Egypt , but were denied entrance to Gaza . This tour was part of an ongoing Council for the National Interest Foundation program to increase Public Diplomacy to the region Http://www.cnifoundation.org/. He discusses U.S. policy and Arab politics in the Middle East; covert intelligence; understanding terrorism; how to use diplomacy even in the conflict between Palestine and Israel; significance of Iraq election and whether or not Democracy can thrive in the region, how and when we can bring our troops home; consequences for Israel's announcement to build new settlements in East Jerusalem.
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          New Sufis for New Labour   
http://www.muslimnews.co.uk/paper/index.php?article=2563

From another shore - New Sufis for New Labour

By Shehla Khan

The House of Commons seems increasingly ready to serve as the launch pad for new Muslim organisations. Not long ago, it staged the debut of an organisation calling itself Progressive Muslims. After a barely decent interval, on July 19, it opened its portals once again to the latest organisational aspirant, namely the Sufi Muslim Council (SMC). The SMC’s launch was celebrated with due fanfare, in the form of nods, smiles, handshakes, and laudatory speeches from the assembled guests who included representatives of the leading political parties, the media, the Church and even the Board of Jewish Deputies. Meanwhile, greetings also poured in from absentee well wishers, including Nato and George Bush. Some Muslims might feel intrigued at the choice of cheerleaders that the SMC has attracted; others, at the very usage of the generic term ‘sufi’ as designating a branded identity. Certainly, the sufi tradition in Islam is no stranger to organisation in the forms of guilds or tariqahs, many of which have a venerable history dating several centuries. In general, however, these orders professed a distinct identity acquired from their founder/shaykh or their place of origin. In contrast, there is anonymity about the SMC, which could be countered by the organisation’s renaming itself as House of Commons Sufis, Establishment Sufis or even Blairite Sufis. In the absence of clear identification, we are left with the impression that the ‘sufi’ logo functions here as at best as a garbled, and at worst as a disingenuous statement of political detachment. However, the confusion about the SMC’s credentials need not be long enduring. While the relationship between Sufism and political power remains a complex subject, we could highlight three dominant tendencies. There is, firstly, a rejectionist stance in which politics is seen as corrupt and degrading, an obstacle to a life of piety, contemplation and prayer. Secondly, there is an activist stance, in which the social and pedagogic role of the tariqah does not exclude participating in resistance struggles against foreign invaders. Imam Shamil’s battles against the Russian Romanovs, Imam Abdul Qadir’s against the French in Algeria, the Sanussi orders against European colonialism in Africa all belong to this genre. Thirdly, there is a collaborationist stance in which Sufism becomes an elite phenomenon that finds expression primarily in cultural production, but is strongly supportive of militantly secular or Islamophobic states and regimes. Examples of this tendency are found in present day Turkey among the Mevlevi and Cerrahi sufi orders. It is difficult to locate the SMC in the first two categories, far less so in the third. This becomes plausible if we turn briefly to the Council’s public statements. By its own admission, the SMC is the charmed organisation that we, the ‘silent majority’ have all been waiting for; here at last is a group protesting its apolitical stance, its promise to combat ‘extremism’, its disdain for the liberation struggles waged by Muslims around the world, its suspicion of Muslim charities reaching out to the most dispossessed amongst the ummah, its silent acquiescence in the wars of terror waged by the Bush-Blair clique. Here at last is an outfit which understands that the only language we, the majority of the silent, want to speak is Blair-speak with an Islamicate twist, Blair-speak being the local, Downing Street dialect of Bush-speak, the neo-conservative imperial language which seeks to become the lingua franca of the planet. This dialect, which answers to our deepest spiritual needs and aspirations, is the one that we are yearning to master as Afghanistan mourns, Lebanon wails, Baghdad screams, and Palestine howls. All we need to do to equip ourselves with the new lingo is to engage in a simple re-translation exercise: so the slaughter of innocents means collateral damage, collective punishment means security, occupation means liberation, wire cages mean justice, depleted uranium means democracy, ceasefire means Eretz Israel, and Geneva Convention means dead letter. Having grasped these elementary linguistic rules, we are ready to abandon our silence and speak in our new found voices as Blairite Sufis or perhaps as Sufi Blairites. So why do we hesitate? Could it be because we are troubled by a sense of irony, that we cannot reconcile the fact that an organisation purporting to be apolitical seeks to ingratiate itself with the country’s political elite, selecting a parliamentary chamber for its kick-off? Could it be because we see an unhealthily close fit between the latest twist in the Islamophobic discourse circulating around media, government, and academic circles and the rise to fame of our Sufi brethren? In this twist, any political consciousness amongst Muslims becomes suspect so that the term ‘Islamist’ comes to acquire the opprobrium formerly associated with ‘fundamentalist’ or ‘terrorist’ and yesterday’s ‘moderates’ become today’s ‘extremists’. This is eminently demonstrated in Martin Bright’s recent contention that the Government, in engaging with associations such as the Muslim Council of Britain, which has yet to applaud its foreign policy, has capitulated to ‘fundamentalists’. Simply put, to be moderate, you need to stop being Muslim except as a leisure pursuit. Could it be because we find precedents for the SMC in American sufi organisations that have been warmly endorsed by Bush, and by the likes of the Rand Corporation as active partners in the so-called ‘reformation of Islam’, a reformation in which Islam is stripped of its capacity to speak truth to power? Could it be because, the pressure that has been levied upon Muslims following 7/7 notwithstanding, we are still not ready to capitulate to the absurd Blairite claim that those tragic events had no link with British foreign policy? Above all, could it be that we are, after all, less than enthusiastic pupils for Blair-speke, that we are on the way to finding a different language to express our hopes and aspirations, our understanding of our history and our future, and this is the language of Islam as it speaks of Justice, of the duty to resist oppression, of the promise to live as Muslims in the fuller sense of the term? But then, this is not a language that is spoken in a House of Commons in thrall to Blair’s imperial delusions.

Shehla Khan, Researcher, University of Manchester
          A Riqueza e o Poder Politico   

Carlos Kandanda
 
A riqueza e o poder político são dois factores inseparáveis, que conjugam-se, complementam-se e sustentam-se reciprocamente. Na manutenção do Estado, os dois factores constituem em peças fundamentais e distintas, que funcionam numa engrenagem, em espaços diferenciados, visando os objectos comuns e as metas convergentes. Pois que, o poder politico visa essencialmente alcançar o bem-estar do povo, e o bem-estar do povo é realizável com a riqueza – equitativamente distribuída.

Nesta equação, o poder financeiro (riqueza) tem como meta final a realização de lucros, como rendimentos, que geram receitas, impulsionam investimentos, que viabilizam o crescimento económico. Nos tempos modernos, das sociedades avançadas e globalizadas, a riqueza (o poder financeiro) suplanta o poder politico, e sujeita este aos seus interesses, por via das Instituições Financeiras, que dominam o mercado e a economia mundial. A supremacia do poder financeiro tornou-se hoje o foco de colisão ideológica entre diversas correntes políticas do mundo capitalista.

Note-se que, o modo da acumulação da riqueza (capitais) e a forma da conquista do poder político são diversos, caracterizados por processos quer lícitos quer ilícitos. Nesta lógica, o estado de licitude ou de ilicitude tem o carácter provisório, que passa por diversas fases complexas, condicionadas por um conjunto de factores, que criam um novo ente jurídico, dando-lhe um estatuto legal ou ilegal. Noutras palavras, alcançado o poder financeiro (riqueza) e o poder político torna-se viável a criação de condições necessárias para que a riqueza acumulada de forma ilícita seja dado um cunho jurídico-legal e legítimo. No caso da adversidade, verifica-se geralmente uma inversão dos termos, em que, diante o desmoronamento do poder politico, surja uma alteração substancial no que diz respeito o estado da legalidade e da legitimidade adquirido por artifício. 

Este fenómeno, da adversidade do poder politico, na fase de desmoronamento, tem sido mais frequente nos países em desenvolvimento, com destaque em África, na Asia e na América Latina, nos quais a transição do poder político não tem sido pacífica, ordeira, transparente, justa, legítima e legal. A título de exemplo, em que a riqueza e o poder politico se conjugavam-se, complementavam-se e sustentavam-se reciprocamente, foi no Zaire. O Presidente Mobutu Sesse Seko era um grande ricaço – todo-poderoso. Que tinha acumulado ilicitamente uma fortuna fabulosa, que sustentava o poder totalitário e ditatorial. Porém, a queda do regime do Marechal Mobutu não só foi sucedida por desmoronamento total das instituições políticas erguidas, mas igualmente, por desaparecimento brusca da riqueza e dos imoveis luxuosos adquiridos no estrangeiro. Como consequência, deixara a família real cair em desgraça, vivendo no exílio, à custa de subsídios sociais do Governo de Marrocos.

Em termos de analogia, a situação actual de Angola é impar de tal ordem que ela atingiu os níveis mais avançados dos Estados totalitários, autocráticos, repressivos, corruptos e segregacionistas. Pois, Os seus instrumentos governativos estão bem enraizados numa Doutrina bem concebida e bem definida, assente na cultura de violência, de repressão, de segregação, de egocentrismo, de corrupção, de exclusivismo, de centralização absoluta, de monopólio (controlo exclusivo do capital e do mercado), de hegemonia (supremacia politica, étnica e cultural), de xenofilia e de prepotência. 

O regime absolutista em geral funciona nos moldes de um Gângster, de um bando de mafiosos, que obedece as regras e normas restritas, bem definidas, que conduzem e regulam a conduta e o comportamento dos seus membros. Quem fizer o contrário é afastado do círculo interno do poder politico, ou é eliminado fisicamente. O poder politico gira em torno das mesmas pessoas, do mesmo clique, que trocam-se as cadeiras, numa rodagem constante. Não deixam outros sujeitos, que não pertencerem ao círculo interno (outsiders) desta casta, entrar no sistema fechado da distribuição ilícita da riqueza do País. Criando assim uma espécie de monopólio económico-financeiro, que sustenta a hegemonia político-partidária, em todas esferas do Estado. 

O Conceito dominante deste sistema político reside no «egocentrismo», enraizado no «centralismo político-partidário», e estimulado por «corrupção». Estes três princípios, acima referidos, não conjugam-se com os valores de «solidariedade e de boa governação» que, de grosso modo, constituem uns dos pilares principais da democracia liberal, das sociedades abertas e modernas, que respeitam as liberdades e os direitos individuais dos cidadãos livres. Pois, o liberalismo democrático liberta as mulheres e os homens das algemas do absolutismo e do centralismo político-partidário. 

Ou seja, a democracia liberal concede a liberdade politica, económica, financeira, cultural e religiosa, em que os cidadãos livres têm melhores garantias contra o arbítrio do governo, separando deste o poder legislativo e judicial, a fim de estabelecer a justiça, a igualdade, a transparência e o equilíbrio. Para este efeito, a doutrina da democracia liberal fixa limites bem definidos à acção reguladora do Governo, não lhe permitido o direito de transformar-se no Dono da riqueza do País. Na condição de Dono do País, instala-se a Ditadura, fazendo o que entender, em plena impunidade, distribuindo a riqueza de forma arbitrária, na base da militância partidária, do favoritismo, do nepotismo ou do tráfico de influência – excluindo a maioria esmagadora da população.

O saque espectacular do Banco Espirito Santo Angola (BESA) pela nomenclatura do MPLA, numa acção planificada minuciosamente, revela nitidamente a natureza do capitalismo selvagem. Neste sistema, a acumulação da riqueza, de forma ilícita, visa essencialmente a criação de condições necessárias para a manutenção do poder politico. A lista dos beneficiários desta pilhagem, doBESA, sem precedente, no total de mais de 70 pessoas, entre governantes, dirigentes políticos, profissionais, quadros destacados e familiares do Presidente do MPLA, espelha claramente a Doutrina do Regime. Veja só que, o dinheirão dos Dirigentes do MPLA nas suas Contas Bancárias no Estrangeiro é duas vezes mais do que existe neste momento no Tesouro Público do Estado Angolano. Mergulhando o País na falência. 

No fundo, a acção do saque e de branqueamento de capitais, que actua a todos os níveis dos órgãos do Estado e das instituições públicas, visa essencialmente criar um regime do monopólio económico-financeiro, dominado por uma casta, capaz de condicionar a sociedade angolana – depauperá-la, domesticá-la e reprimi-la absolutamente. Na base deste princípio, o poder politico passa a depender exclusivamente do poder financeiro, que estabelece as normas e regulamentos de clientelismo, de dependência e de obediência absoluta. Este sistema político é idêntico ao feudalismo medieval, que vigorou na Europa e na Asia. 

Neste sistema supra referenciado, a democracia, como sistema político, serve apenas de ornato, para ocultar o sistema, em referência. Ressaltando, neste respeito, o facto de que, a ausência absoluta da separação dos poderes executivos, legislativo e judicial, garante a «impunidade»; inibe os tribunais; e doméstica o parlamento. Realçando, deste modo, o Poder Unipessoal. Nesta óptica, baseando-se na teoriada Monarquia Absoluta, há uma Máxima do Rei Luís XIV, da França, que diz: «O Estado sou Eu». Em Francês: “L´État c´est moi.”
 
Em analogia, o Regime actual de Angola, do MPLA, atingiu o nível mais elevado do Absolutismo, como sucedeu na França. Tendo provocado e radicalizado a Revolução Francesa, que teve lugar entre 1789 e 1799. A Revolução Francesa foi dramática, passando por várias fases criticas, que não convinham detalhar neste texto. Realçando apenas a queda de Bastilha (14.07.1789); proclamação da Primeira Republica Francesa (21.09.1792); morte do Rei Luís XVI (21.01.1793); Golpe de Estado (09.11.1799) de 18 de Brumário; ascensão do Maximilien Robespierre; proclamação do Imperio Francês; Napoleão Bonaparte toma conta do poder no dia 18 de Maio de 1804. 

Dai para diante, iniciara uma nova Era de agitação, de Guerras, e de transformações profundas na Europa e na América. Surgindo assim os valores democráticos, enraizados na liberdade, na igualdade, na fraternidade, na justiça social, e no sufrágio universal. Ficam banidos os privilégios monárquicos, feudais, aristocráticos e religiosos, da Igreja Católica, que era parte integrante e mais poderosa do poder imperial e monárquico da Europa. A propriedade da Nobreza e do Clero, acumulado ilicitamente, foi transformada num «bem-comum», ao serviço do público, para a edificação gradual do «Estado-Providência»,que vigora hoje na França e na maior parte dos Países Ocidentais. 

Repare que, o “Estado-Providência,” na França e noutros Países Ocidentais, atingiu agora os níveis muito elevados, absorvendo cerca de dois terços do Orçamento Geral do Estado. O que exige, neste momento, reformas profundas para ajustá-la à realidade contemporânea, diante os seguintes desafios: a supremacia das multinacionais e da bancocracia; o outsourcing de capitais; os desempregos crescentes; a globalização; o declínio das instituições multilaterais; o êxodo migratório; o terrorismo internacional; os conflitos internos; a tripolarização do mundo; a incerteza do futuro da União Europeia; e a renascença do nacionalismo europeu – da Extrema Directa. 

Tudo isso indica que, o Velho Continente está numa Revolução constante contra a «acumulação primitiva de capitais», que põe em causa os valores da liberdade, da igualdade, da fraternidade e da justiça social. Em termos da riqueza do País, na França, por exemplo, 73% é composta por propriedades herdadas das famílias antigas. Noutros Países da Europa Ocidental a quota herdada, do património público, é de 50% das famílias antigas, de origens aristocráticas, das monarquias absolutas, da Idade Média. Esta classe de bilionários, cujo capital é herdado, exerce uma influência enorme sobre o mercado. Nalguns casos, como na França, esta classe bilionária, tem estado a dificultar o acesso dos novos empresários aos mercados de investimentos.

Na verdade, se a Europa Ocidental não tivesse feito um combate efectivo contra a aristocracia, das monarquias absolutas, que tinham acumulada ilicitamente enormes fortunas de bens, dos quais ainda representam uma fonte importante de receitas do Estado, não teria sido possível edificar um «Estado-providência»,que floresce hoje em todas Democracias Ocidentais. Com efeito, foi o Estado-providência que serviu de instrumento principal de desenvolvimento e do crescimento económico, através do qual foi possível erradicar a pobreza na Europa, e construir gradualmente uma «classe média» bem avançada, vasta, estável, próspera e crescente.  

Interessa notar que, neste esforço da construção do Estado-providência, os impostos sobre o rendimento e sobre as heranças das famílias ricas têm sido bastante elevados, ao ponto de causar o êxodo significativo dos Bilionários Europeus aos Países em via de desenvolvimento, onde tiram proveito da mão-de-obra barata, dos baixos impostos e da isenção fiscal. Causando, em consequência disso, o aumento crescente de desemprego nos países de origem. Nesta conformidade, urge neste momento, empreender «reformas apropriadas» no sentido de valorizar o trabalho e o capital; bem como, equilibrar a distribuição da riqueza entre os ricos, a classe média e as camadas vulneráveis. No fundo, o cerne do problema consiste em como libertar-se da supremacia dos detentores de grandes capitais financeiros, que controlam as multinacionais e as instituições financeiras?  

No caso especifico de Angola, a tendência não aponta em direcção do Estado-providência, sobretudo nesta fase crucial em que a classe pobre representa cerca de 93% da população do País. O que se nota, pelo contrário, é a fortificação de uma pequena classe de capitalistas selvagens. Que se encontra inclinada em acumular cada vez mais riquezas, com poderes absolutos. Explorando, empobrecendo e subjugando os membros da sociedade. Tornando-os cada vez mais pobres, dependentes e obedientes – idêntica ao estado de vassalagem feudal, que prevaleceu na Europa, na Idade Média. Portanto, a política da partidarização do Estado e da domesticação partidária visam o monopólio financeiro e a hegemonia política, com os quais se torna viável estabelecer o totalitarismo, de facto, com capacidade de eternizar o poder político, sem alternância democrática, feita de uma forma transparente, justa e credível.

Esta visão política, acima referenciada, enquadra-se no sistema do «Partido Único», com poderes centralizados, utilizando a democracia como um mero instrumento da consolidação do sistema totalitário e monopolista. Alias, a Constituição actual de Angola é deste calibre, que consagra o «poder unipessoal», que domina os poderes executivos, legislativo e judicial – sem qualquer forma de fiscalização e de prestação de Contas reais. Por isso, o problema de Angola não resume-se no Eng.º José Eduardo dos Santos e sua família, mas sim, na superestrutura do MPLA, como Instituição Politica, que adoptou o capitalismo selvagem, como política do Estado, na manutenção do poder público. 

Na verdade, o MPLA transitou-se invariavelmente da «Esquerda Socialista» para a «Aristocracia Burguesa». Alias, Dr. Jonas Malheiro Savimbi, na luta Anticolonial, na Frente Leste de Angola, defendia insistentemente a tese segundo qual: “A Liderança do MPLA é composta por uma cambada de burgueses corruptos, filhos de colonos, que fingem-se de ser Socialistas.” Fim de citação. Nesta referência, acredito que, esta característica, «de burguesia e corrupção»,foi um dos motivos principais que estiveram na origem da «discórdia» entre ele e a Direcção do MPLA, que se encontrava na Algeria. 
  
Em suma, feita esta abordagem profunda e extensiva, coloca-se o País diante um grande desafio, dentre a Revolução Democrática e a Ditadura Burguesa. Pois as transformações políticas, económicas, sociais e culturais não resumem-se numa revolução. Pelo contrário, é uma dinâmica constante, que adapta-se à conjuntura nacional e internacional – de cada época e de cada situação concreta. Por isso, cada geração de um povo tem uma missão espinhosa a cumprir, em nome da Pátria. O desafio actual do país cabe à Juventude Angolana erguer as cabeças e defender o Estado Social, Democrático e de Direito. A nossa responsabilidade patriótica, como nacionalistas, que combateram o colonialismo português, é de despertar e consciencializar as mentes do povo angolano. Quo vadis Angola! 

Luanda, 08 de Maio de 2017

          Tunisians urge boycott of 'Zionist' Boujenah   
Tunisians are calling to boycott the celebrated comic Michel Boujenah, who is due to appear on 19 July at the Carthage Festival.

Michel Boujenah: born in Tunis

In an open letter addressed to the minister of culture and festival director, the boycotters, from the Tunisian branch of the BDS movement,  claim that Boujenah, who was born in Tunisia but lives in France, is not only a proud Zionist but also considers himself part of the 'Israeli people'.

The signatories call on the Tunisian government to assume its responsibilities vis-a-vis 'normalisation' and reaffirm the country's historical, unconditional support for the Palestinian people.

Tunisian social media surfers are evenly divided on the issue. Hundreds think that his apearance on the stage at Carthage should be cancelled. Others are surprised at the fierce reaction against Michel Boujenah. Yamina Thabet of the Tunisian Association for the Support of Minorities (ATSM) denounced the campaign against the comic as 'bullying behaviour' and 'antisemitic'.

Boujenah is scheduled to perform in Israel on 25 July.

Enrico Macias, the pro-Israel Algerian born singer, cancelled several planned visits to his country of birth after fierce popular protests.  


Read article in full (French)

          African Roots 07-16-2016    
Playlist:

Toumani Diabat- Djelika - Djelika
Afel Bocoum- Alasidi - Alkibar
Tinashe Chidanyika- Mugara Ndenga Urombo - Sounds Of The African Mbira
Bau- Luanda - Inspiracao
Martin CradickNii TagoeSeckou Keita- Jali - Ete
- voicebreak -
Maria De Barros- Riberonzinha - Nha Mundo
Various Artists- Manecas Costa Paraiso Di Gumbe - Africa Remix Ah Freak Iya
Various Artists- Pas Mal Bwana - Couleurs DAfrique
Various Artists- Miary Lepiera HiavamBahiny - Couleurs DAfrique
Africando All Stars Lokua Kanza- Miye Na We - Mandali
Lekan Babalola- Oya - Songs Of Icon
Tony Allen- Ire Omo feat Adunni Nefretiti - Film Of Life Deluxe Edition
King Sunny Ade- Ogidan O Ni Se Barber - Seven Degrees North
Antibalas- Sanctuary - Security
Various Artists- Cheb Hasni Darti Fiya Rayek - Algerian Rai
Playing For Change Feat Tinariwen- Groove In G - Putumayo Presents African Blues
Various Artists- SE Rogie Nor Weigh Me Like That - AFRICAN TROUBADOURS
Waldemar Bastos- Georgina - Renascence
Abyssinia Infinite- Gela - A Fabulous Dream Journey Through The Deep Emotions Of Our World
Various Artists- Diogal Sore senegal - Acoustic Africa


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/83/playlistDate/2016-07-16
          Algeria: reviving the land of the living dead   

Bouteflika, ready for a fifth term

EVERY 15 seconds out pops a washing machine, a television and an air-conditioner from the modern production lines in Setif, 270km (170 miles) east of Algiers. Some 90% of them are destined for export. Algeria offers cheap labour, proximity to Europe and has been calm for a decade. Production costs are a seventh as high as in France, says a manager at the Algerian company, Cevital, which recently acquired Bradt, a French manufacturer of domestic appliances. A new 100-hectare site is set to open across town early next year.

Historically Setif has been a turbulent city. A massacre of demonstrators there triggered the guerrilla war that forced out the French colonists in 1962. In the 1990s jihadists waged a decade-long revolt, taking refuge in the mountains near the town. Only last month the security forces fired rubber bullets at retired army officers demanding higher pensions.

So the government should...


          Latest deals and offers   
I have been searching out for this similar kind of post for past a week and hardly came across this.I want to tell you that I found a site PromoOcodes.com [...]

Lieu Algeria (Africa, Algeria)
              
#asil #sicily #abdo #kids #trees #green #algerie #Bella #photography #photographer #my #mypic #hair #عيد #italy #concert #palermo#selfie #own #mynephew#insta#algeriangirl #vs#italia#eyes #eyebrows
          H.E.L.L   
Date: June 1, 2016 at 06:47 am EDT
Game: Battlefield 2
Alias: H.E.L.L
User IP Location:Algeria
Violation: VIOLATION (MD5TOOL) 9002
Violation Info: MD5Tool Mismatch: Project 1.0.dll (len=2048)
Please remember to verify this ban and to see additional information at www.pbbans.com

This player was caught on a server that streams to PBBans.com. Visit us today and ask how you can help keep your Battlefield 2 server cheat free.

          EUROPA/ITALIA - Suore Bianche in capitolo: portatrici di speranza, ascoltando lo Spirito, verso le periferie   
Roma - Le Suore Missionarie di Nostra Signora d'Africa conosciute come “Suore Bianche” aprono il loro 25° Capitolo generale a Roma, sabato 1 luglio.
Per tre settimane le capitolari rifletteranno sulle sfide poste oggi dalla missione alla Congregazione sotto il tema "Portatrici di speranza, ascoltando la voce dello Spirito, avanzando insieme verso le periferie". Nel corso del Capitolo verrà eletto il nuovo Consiglio generale.
Secondo la nota inviata all’Agenzia Fides, la Congregazione è stata fondata nel 1869 dal Card. Charles Lavigerie, un anno dopo la Società Missionaria dei Missionari d'Africa . Le religiose sono attualmente 633, originarie di 32 nazioni, impegnate in 26 paesi, di cui 14 in Africa: Mauritania, Tunisia, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Ciad, Congo, Ruanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda e Malawi.
Il carisma della Congregazione è l'evangelizzazione dei popoli dell'Africa, espressa in vari settori: educazione, pastorale, salute, giustizia e pace, integrità del creato, dialogo interreligioso, specialmente con i credenti dell'Islam.

          Riyad Mahrez plays barefoot football in Algeria hometown.   
Posted on Sat, 01 Jul 2017 02:36:30 +0000.
Click here to see the post.

          Comment on Please Read My New Article for Al-Jazeera About the Five Men Still Held at Guantánamo Who Were Approved for Release Under Obama by Andy Worthington   
When I posted this on Facebook, I wrote: Here's my latest, a shout out for my new Al-Jazeera article, about the five men still held at Guantanamo who were approved for release under President Obama, but have been left to languish at the prison by Donald Trump. I focus in particular on Abdul Latif Nasser, a Moroccan represented by Reprieve, who missed being released by just eight days. I also look at the cases of Sufyian Barhoumi, an Algerian, and Tawfiq al-Bihani, a Yemeni. Sadly, the other two men, approved for release since 2010, don't want any media attention.
           The Battle for Algeria: Sovereignty, Health Care, and Humanitarianism . By J ennifer  J ohnson    
<span class="paragraphSection"><span style="font-style:italic;">The Battle for Algeria: Sovereignty, Health Care, and Humanitarianism</span>. By JohnsonJennifer. (Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016. xiii + 270 pp., ill.</span>
          Algerian Author Dihia Louiz Dies at 32   
The Algerian novelist and poet Dihia Louiz (also Dihya Lwiz, whose given name was Louiza Aouzelleg) died on Friday, following an illness. The 32-year-old author was in her hometown of Bejaia.
          Re: Самые горячие и свежие....   
Цитата:
"Все больше поступает свидетельств того, что Каддафи жив, находится на свободе и продолжает руководить сопротивлением".
http://za-kaddafi.ru/node/5736
Кстати, в настоящий момент алжирский сайтhttp://www.algeria-isp.com снова недоступен. Что подтверждает информацию о скоординированных хакерских атаках на сайты, раскрывающие истинную информацию о событиях в Ливии и о "поимке и смерти Каддафи" в частности. Повторю мысль - зачем? Если враг уже повержен, а история о пленении и смерти является реальным...

Статистика : Добавлено online33 • Пт, 26 июн 2009, 18:24 • Ответов 8 • Просмотров 7790



          Watch on BBC World News: eight-part series based on UNESCO’s "General History of Africa" book collection   

in_focus_gha_zeinab_badawi.jpg

© BBC World News

Zeinab Badawi delves into the history of Africa for a brand new, eight-part series on BBC World News. The continent of Africa has a long, complex history, and its people built civilizations which rivalled those that existed anywhere else in the world. However, much of the continent’s history is not widely known, and what we are presented with often projects a distorted and partial picture. Sudan-born Zeinab travels to all four corners of Africa, interviewing African historians, archaeologists, and citizens whose accounts and stories paint a vivid picture of their continent's past and how it informs their present lives. It is a series that will inform, educate and entertain - Africa’s history told by Africans themselves.

 

Episodes

BBC World TV: Transmission dates (GMT)

   

1) Mother Africa

In the first episode Zeinab Badawi travels across the continent, examining the origins of humankind and how and why we evolved in Africa. During her journey Zeinab is granted rare access to the genuine bones of one of the most iconic discoveries in the field of palaeontology: Lucy in Ethiopia, or as she is known in Amharic ‘Dinkenesh' - which means 'you are marvellous’! Zeinab also spends time with a unique tribe in Tanzania, who provide insight into how we have lived, for most of our history, as hunter-gatherers. She also looks at what distinguishes us from the animal world and makes us human.

Sat 1st July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 2nd July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

2) Cattle, crops and Iron

Zeinab Badawi continues her journey through the history of human development, travelling to meet the Masai of East Africa where she explains how humans began to domesticate animals and become pastoralists; in Zimbabwe, Zeinab visits one lively farming family and examines how we became settled and began to live from farming. She also looks at how the Iron Age transformed life in Africa and paved the way for the development of rich urban civilisations.

Sat 8th July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 9th July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

3) Gift of the Nile

Zeinab Badawi’s quest to uncover the history of Africa takes her to Egypt, where she explores the most famous civilisation on the continent – the ancient Egyptians. Zeinab takes you beyond the usual coverage of the pharaohs and asks first who the ancient Egyptians actually were? What was their ethnicity? What made such a great civilisation possible? How did they order their society, and what were their values?

Sat 15th July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 16th July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

4) The Kingdom of Kush

In the fourth episode, Zeinab Badawi travels to the country of her birth and the very region of her forefathers: northern Sudan, where she sheds light on a little know aspect of ancient African history: the Kingdom of Kush. Its kings ruled for many hundreds of years and indeed in the eighth century BC, they conquered and governed Egypt for the best part of 100 years. Furthermore Kush was an African superpower, its influence extended to the modern day Middle East. Zeinab shows you some of the best preserved of Sudan’s s 1,000 pyramids and explains how some of the customs of Kush have endured to this day.

Sat 22nd July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 23rd July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

5) The Rise of Aksum

Zeinab Badawi travels to the little visited country of Eritrea and neighbouring Ethiopia, to chart the rise of the Kingdom of Aksum. Described as one of the four greatest civilisations of the ancient world, Zeinab examines archaeological remains in both countries dating from many hundreds of years before Christ. She explains how the Kings of Aksum grew rich and powerful from their control of the Red Sea trade and how they were one of the first civilisations that officially embraced Christianity in the 4th century. Also find out why the Queen of Sheba and the Sacred Ark of the Covenant are so critical to the story of Aksum.

Sat 29th July: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 30th July 09:10, 21:10

 

   

6) Kings and Emirs

In the sixth episode, Zeinab Badawi focuses on the fall of the kingdom of Aksum, and how the Christian kings that followed in Aksum’s wake left powerful legacies, especially that of King Lalibela. He is credited with building a complex of rock-hewn churches, which represent amazing feats of engineering. She also charts the arrival of Islam in this part of Africa and how the Christian kings and Muslim emirs co-existed. In the most Muslim of Ethiopia’s cities Harar: she observes the bizarre, long standing tradition of the Hyena Men of Harar.

Sat 5th Aug: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 6th Aug 09:10, 21:10

 

   

7) North Africa

In the penultimate episode, Zeinab Badawi’s exploration of Africa’s rich history focuses on North Africa. She goes to Morocco to find out about the original inhabitants of the region - in particular the Berbers or Amazigh - the best known of the people of North Africa. Zeinab visits Carthage in Tunisia and explains who the Carthaginians were. She looks at the great Berber kings and how they managed to retain their influence when North Africa came under Roman rule. Zeinab shows you some of the most extensive and least visited Roman sites in Algeria.

Sat 12th Aug: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 13th Aug 09:10, 21:10

 

   

8) Pagans and God

In the final episode, Zeinab Badawi examines the role of religion in Africa. To this day tens of millions of Africans are pagans, who worship a pantheon of Gods and venerate their ancestors. And many more millions of Africans incorporate pagan customs into their monotheistic beliefs. Zeinab takes you through the stages of the arrival of monotheism in Africa: first Judaism , then early Christianity and then finally Islam. She charts the rise of the powerful Islamic dynasties of North Africa, that went on to conquer Spain.

Sat 19th Aug: 02:10 (Except North and Latin America, 15:10)

Sun 20th Aug 09:10, 21:10

 

 


          BERIKUT INI 10 KELOMPOK TERORIS YANG DITAKUTI DUNIA   
10. Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA)
Kelompok teroris ini berdiri pada bulan Juli 1992. Kelompok ini adalah kelompok oposan pemerintah Aljazair yang selalu melakukan aksi-aksi per-oposisi-anya dengan teror. Kelompok ini mulai terkenal di dunia setelah ikut serta dalam aksi pembajakan pesawat Air France 8969 pada tahun 1994.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-LuRWIWeJrsc/ThZggPi1kcI/AAAAAAAAEd0/c1oUKC6BqCY/s1600/10.jpg


9. Aden-Abyan Islamic Army
Kelompok ini adalah kelompok Jihad Islam terkemuka di Timur tengah, Namun begitu basisi kelompok teroris ini berada di Yaman. Belum jelas kapan kelompok ini didirikan, namun mulai terkenal di dunia setelah peristiwa penculikan 16 turis pada tahun 1998 di kota Abyan.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-NhwJx6n1f-Y/ThZggOT-mmI/AAAAAAAAEd8/uCeJ1DosT8M/s1600/9.jpg

8. Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna
Kelompok Teroris ini berdiri tahun 2003, kelompok ini adalah kelompok yang menentang pemerintahan Irak di masa Nouri al maliki serta penentang keras pendudukan Amerika serikat di negeri 1001 malam itu.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-r8y7zE7Lq1U/ThZggZFluAI/AAAAAAAAEeE/FvCGxki54fI/s1600/8.jpg

7. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
Kelompok teroris Kolombia yang dianggap masih setia dengan paham Marxis-Leninis serta dianggap sebagai salah satu gembong perdagangan narkoba dunia. Didirikan tahun 1964 dan hingga kini tercacat ada 12 ribu pejuang dari kelompok ini yang setia menjarah uang orang-orang kaya untuk diberikan kepada masyarakat miskin.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-OhhHmwUD-lo/ThZggvJQXHI/AAAAAAAAEeM/5mT8dF0GX8c/s1600/7.jpg

6. Kurdistan Worker’s Party
Dikenal sebagai PKK, kelompok ini didirikan pada 27 November 1978 di Turki dan berorientasi untuk memerdekakan negara kurdi. Wilayah operasinya berada di Turki, Iran, Suriah dan Irak.
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-2I94-EFVFEo/ThZghE1sS4I/AAAAAAAAEeU/IJocHrQQrqQ/s1600/6.jpg

5. Liberation Tiger of Tamil Eelam
Kelompok teroris paling berpengaruh di Sri Lanka, didirikan oleh Velupillai Prabhakaran pada bulan Mei 1976. Dan hingga kini dilarang di 32 negara di dunia karena aksinya yang telah banyak membunuh petinggi Sri lanka dan India
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-gCb3lydHdCk/ThZiPf4KA9I/AAAAAAAAEec/_GdCNkhcYRk/s1600/5.jpg

4. Hezbollah
Salah satu kelompok teroris paling berbahaya di dunia. Kelompok teroris ini berpusat di Lebanon, namun juga eksis di Iran dan Suriah. Orientasi utamanya adalah memerdekakan negara-negara Syiah dari penjajahan Amerika serikat dan antek-anteknya.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WaqcGvdtB3g/ThZiP4HbhKI/AAAAAAAAEek/iP0eLpuTsAQ/s1600/4.jpg

3. Taliban
Taliban adalah organisasi teroris yang didirikan oleh suku Pashtun dengan dukungan beberapa negara Islam seperti Arab, Chechen, Uzbek, Tajik Punjabi. Sebagian besar anggotanya adalah mahasiswa. tujuan utamanya adalah mengusir pendudukan NATO di Afganistan dan sekitarnya.
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Pi1pltTIMbE/ThZiQBGv74I/AAAAAAAAEes/_MbVcV1GwxE/s1600/3.jpg

2. Hamas
Singkatan untuk "Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia", Hamas adalah kelompok sosio-politik teroris Palestina yang didirikan pada tahun 1987. Organisasi ini didirikan dengan tujuan Jihad dan untuk melepaskan Palestina dari penjajahan Israel. Dikenal karena pelaku bom bunuh diri yang pemberani, kelompok teroris ini secara signifikan didukung oleh Hizbullah untuk membunuh warga sipil Israel dan petugas pertahanan.
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-8ZfgjWbjHQg/ThZiQmASahI/AAAAAAAAEe0/q6sHVEvnP4Y/s1600/2.jpg

1. Al-Qaeda
Siapa yang tak kenal dengan Al-Qaeda. Kelompok teror terbesar di antara semua kelompok teroris di seluruh dunia. Kelompok ekstrimis Islam ini didirikan pada tahun 1989 oleh Osama bin Laden, Kelompok ini terkenal di seluruh dunia setelah serangan 11 September. Walaupun pemimpin utamanya yakni Osama dikabarkan sudah tewas, namun organisasi ini tetap hidup.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-jwj3jx_xLL4/ThZiRASOTbI/AAAAAAAAEe8/JMhXfTfh2h8/s1600/1.jpg

          EGMR: Forthcoming judgment on Thursday 6 July 2017 – Boudelal v. France (no. 14894/14)   
Religion – Weltanschauung – Recht [ RWR ] - The applicant, Chérif Boudelal, is an Algerian national who was born in 1945 and lives in Avignon. The case concerns the French authorities’ refusal to reinsta ... mehr
          Language Instructor - General Consideration (as-needed) - MultiLingual Solutions Inc - Continental, OH   
Arabic (MSA), Arabic (Algerian), Arabic (Saudi Gulf), Arabic (Levantine), Arabic (Libyan), Arabic (Moroccan), Arabic (Syrian), Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Iraqi)...
From MultiLingual Solutions Inc - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 11:01:17 GMT - View all Continental, OH jobs
          Algerian Patience   
Sortiere alle Karten von den äußeren Stapeln auf die 8 Hauptstapel. Benutze die Maus zum Spielen.
          Language Instructor - General Consideration (as-needed) - MultiLingual Solutions Inc - Continental, OH   
Arabic (MSA), Arabic (Algerian), Arabic (Saudi Gulf), Arabic (Levantine), Arabic (Libyan), Arabic (Moroccan), Arabic (Syrian), Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Iraqi)...
From MultiLingual Solutions Inc - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 11:01:17 GMT - View all Continental, OH jobs
          Type locality: Algeria for taxon Uncuniscus singularis Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017   
Note "Type locality: Algeria" for taxon Uncuniscus singularis Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017 has been added by Stefano Taiti via the webinterface on 2017-06-30T09:15:39+00:00
          Type locality: Algeria for taxon Uncuniscus elegans Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017   
Note "Type locality: Algeria" for taxon Uncuniscus elegans Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017 has been added by Stefano Taiti via the webinterface on 2017-06-30T09:15:39+00:00
          Type locality: Algeria for taxon Spelaeoniscus akfadouensis Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017   
Note "Type locality: Algeria" for taxon Spelaeoniscus akfadouensis Caruso, Pezzino, Messina & Lombardo, 2017 has been added by Stefano Taiti via the webinterface on 2017-06-30T09:15:39+00:00
          Backpacking today is BS   
Ten days on Isla Mujeres so far — tangled up on the beach, the sun seeps in my bones as I read books about Victorian women adventurers — Isabelle Eberhardt, who left life in Geneva in 1897 to roam Algeria penniless, have sex and smoke kief, become Muslim and dress as the male Arab she […]
          Assia Djebar: Algeria's 'immortal' literary hero   

Google celebrates one of North Africa’s most influential writers on what would be her 81st birthday.

Assia Djebar


          Bersedekah......   

 

Keutamaan Sedekah

            Diceritakan, ketika Nabi Ayub AS sedang mandi tiba-tiba Allah SWT mendatangkan seekor belalang emas dan hinggap di lengannya. Baginda menepis-nepis lengan bajunya agar belalang jatuh. Lantas Allah SWT berfirman, ''Bukankah Aku lakukan begitu supaya kamu menjadi lebih kaya?'' Nabi Ayub AS menjawab, ''Ya benar, wahai Sang Pencipta! Demi keagungan-Mu apalah makna kekayaan tanpa keberkahan-Mu.'' 

Kisah di atas menegaskan betapa pentingnya keberkahan dalam rezeki yang dikurniakan oleh Allah SWT. Kekayaan tidak akan membawa arti tanpa ada keberkahan. Dengan adanya keberkahan, harta dan rezeki yang sedikit akan bisa terasakan mencukupi. Sebaliknya, tanpa keberkahan rezeki yang meskipun banyak akan terasakan sempit dan menyusahkan.

Agar rezeki yang Allah SWT berikan kepada kita menjadi berkah, Rasulullah SAW menganjurkan kepada umatnya untuk memperbanyak sedekah. Kata Rasulullah SAW, ''Belilah semua kesulitanmu dengan sedekah.'' Dalam hadis lain, Rasulullah SAW menjelaskan, ''Setiap awal pagi, semasa terbit matahari, ada dua malaikat menyeru kepada manusia di bumi. Yang satu menyeru, 'Ya Tuhanku, karuniakanlah?ganti kepada orang yang membelanjakan hartanya kerena Allah'. Yang satu lagi menyeru, 'Musnahkanlah orang yang menahan hartanya'.''

Sedekah walaupun kecil tetapi amat berharga di sisi Allah SWT. Orang yang bakhil dan kikir dengan tidak menyedekahkan sebagian hartanya akan merugi di dunia dan akhirat karena tidak ada keberkahan. Jadi, sejatinya orang yang bersedekah adalah untuk kepentingan dirinya. Sebab, menginfakkan (belanjakan) harta akan memperoleh berkah, dan sebaliknya menahannya adalah celaka. 

Sedekah memiliki beberapa keutamaan bagi orang yang mengamalkannya. Pertama, mengundang datangnya rezeki. Allah SWT berfirman dalam salah satu ayat Alquran bahwa Dia akan membalas setiap kebaikan hamba-hamba-Nya dengan 10 kebaikan. Bahkan, di ayat yang lain dinyatakan 700 kebaikan. Khalifah Ali bin Abi Thalib menyatakan, ''Pancinglah rezeki dengan sedekah.'' Kedua, sedekah dapat menolak bala. Rasulullah SAW bersabda, ''Bersegeralah bersedekah, sebab yang namanya bala tidak pernah bisa mendahului sedekah.'' 

Ketiga, sedekah dapat menyembuhkan penyakit. Rasulullah SAW menganjurkan, ''Obatilah penyakitmu dengan sedekah.'' Keempat, sedekah dapat menunda kematian dan memperpanjang umur. Kata Rasulullah SAW, ''Perbanyaklah sedekah. Sebab, sedekah bisa memanjangkan umur.'' 

Mengapa semua itu bisa terjadi? Sebab, Allah SWT mencintai orang-orang yang bersedekah. Kalau Allah SWT sudah mencintai seorang hambanya, maka tidak ada persoalan yang tidak bisa diselesaikan, tidak ada permintaan dan doa yang Allah tidak kabulkan, serta tidak ada dosa yang Allah tidak ampuni, dan hamba tersebut akan meninggal dunia dalam keadaan husnul khatimah (baik).

Kekuatan dan kekuasaan Allah jauh lebih besar dari persoalan yang dihadapi manusia. Lalu, kalau manfaat sedekah begitu dahsyatnya, masihkah kita belum juga tergerak untuk mencintai sedekah? Wallahu a'lam bis-shawab

 


          How are individuals with multi-cultural backgrounds applying their experience and skills to innovate in science, technology, and pedagogy at MIT?   

Zach Merchant, television host of Unscripted on Arlington Public News, recently sat down with DUSP’s faculty member, Bruno Verdini, to discuss the approach to his popular undergraduate course, 11.011 The Art and Science of Negotiation and his forthcoming book by MIT Press, Winning Together: The Natural Resource Negotiation Playbook

The Art and Science of Negotiation, a course taught for decades at MIT by tenured faculty from MIT, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard Business School, and Harvard Law School, was entirely re-built from scratch by Bruno when he was entrusted with the course for the first time in the spring of 2016. The first course he would ever teach, Bruno created the new syllabus with a large emphasis on building character, exploring ethical concerns, and embracing emotions, to be combined with sound analytics. The results have been incredible, with the course becoming one of the highest rated electives on the entire MIT campus. In turn, more than 400 MIT STEM undergraduate students have been pre-registering for the course. These enrollment numbers far exceed any expectations for an MIT course, let alone an elective that is not part of any popular major, minor, or concentration. This represents an 800% increase in pre-registration numbers in direct response to the implementation of Bruno’s teaching.

So, what happened? In Bruno’s own words, “credit goes to the MIT undergraduate students. They are undeterred by the long odds to make the course and get one of 42 course spots available per term. As a result, we get a tremendously diverse pool of talent in the classroom. Our students come from all four years and from more than 18 different MIT departments, and are frequently featured in MIT News due to their outstanding career paths. It’s a privilege and an honor to be able to spend a semester with them, exploring the ways in which their brilliant minds and HEARTS can embrace the potential of negotiation to help us live better personal and professional lives. In addition, I get to work hand-in-hand with a fabulously insightful teaching team of undergraduate and graduate colleagues who are passionate about negotiation coaching. I feel like I’m in a movie. Or perhaps it’s a dream. In which case, don’t’ wake me up!” 

In the television interview, Zach and Bruno talk as well about Winning Together, a book to be published by MIT Press this upcoming fall, which builds upon Bruno’s latest research at MIT’s Science Impact Collaborative and Environmental Policy and Planning Group. The work underpinning the book won Harvard Law School’s award for the best research of the year in negotiation, decision-making, mediation, and dispute resolution. This is the first time that the award, named after the late Professor Howard Raiffa (aptly described by the New York Times as a pioneer and towering figure in the decision science field), is given to someone from MIT as well as to someone born, raised, and educated in Latin America. 

So, what’s the secret? Bruno laughs, “I have been very fortunate to be surrounded by incredibly generous mentors in the U.S. and in Mexico. That’s the key; just look at the acknowledgements in my book and you’ll see what I mean! Just to name a few, here in the U.S., Professor Lawrence Susskind, Dean Melissa Nobles, and Professor Steven Jarding fostered a space where I could learn something new every single day and they did so with tremendously caring and inspiring hearts. In Mexico, I was fortunate to count on the mentorship from many outstanding public servants, in particular Leonardo Beltrán, Leydi Barceló, and Carlos Ortiz. Wherever I have been, I always gravitate towards professionals with the ceaseless and undying conviction to go against the presumption that there are not enough resources to go around, and that one side must win and the other must inevitably lose. When you have a can-do, problem-solving attitude, good things tend to happen. That’s what DUSP really stands for.”

Winning Together: The Natural Resource Negotiation Playbook explores how, in spite of the current global diplomatic climate, under conditions of severe drought, increased climate risks, and infrastructure failures, professionals on the ground are defying the odds and effectively increasing river-basin supply; enhancing irrigation and storage infrastructure; restoring ecosystems and habitats; strengthening coordination between publicly traded and state owned energy companies; and re-defining the scope and impact of diplomatic partnerships between developed and developing countries.

And how does the multi-cultural background come into play? In Bruno’s words, “Yes, Zach, who along with the entire Arlington Public News team was wonderfully insightful throughout the interview process, asks me about that at the end of our unscripted conversation. I share with him that being French, Italian, and Mexican has always encouraged me to discover the blind spots in each culture and be proactive about learning from one another. Naturally, each culture has myriad expressions and interpretations. It’s never a monolith, it’s always in motion, and so to admire and be curious about what different life paths can teach us is absolutely crucial. France, for example, might mean Victor Hugo and Voltaire. France, to me, might also mean Notre Dame and Saint Thérèse de Lisieux. Naturally, the same applies to Mexico, and so on. The whole point is, can we openly seek for the kernels of truth and wisdom there for the taking, and can we keep improving how we live by learning from one another? I did not share this in the interview, but my grandfather, who recently passed away, and has always been such a strong inspiration for me, fought 4 years of World War II, from 1941 to 1945, so his stories about his time in the war, in terms of his views on light and darkness, human nature, and the partnership of the French army with the Allies, left an indelible mark with me. He was Italian but born in Algeria, and thus fighting for the French North African army. He was right in the middle of the brutal Battle of Monte Cassino and part of the very first battalion liberating Rome, and so on. He married my grandmother, a Lutheran Alsatian whom he met one night, as the Nazis were bombarding one neighborhood near the Rhine River and the Allied soldiers were liberating and being given respite in the next. She forgot to pour a cup of coffee for him, and that was the start of a romance that led to a 70-year marriage. Then my Lutheran dad, born in Strasbourg, fell in love with my Catholic Mexican mother, in a bookstore, while he was on a brief vacation in Mexico City that only got started in the first place because his flight to the Caribbean got canceled. They’ve been married now for over 35 years. Sure enough, since I was little, I thought that perhaps, I would meet my wife somewhere outside of Mexico. And indeed, I met my fiancé, a Jewish New Yorker, when we were both graduate students at MIT’s DUSP. We met in the very classroom that then became the classroom where I wrote my research and then went on to teach. You can’t plan this stuff up! So yes, I get to see every day the impact of being critical, open, and inspired about what different perspectives and traditions can teach you, in negotiation and in life!”

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MENÚ BUSINESS CLASS DE AIR FRANCE: FRANÇOIS ADAMSKI FIRMA SEIS NUEVOS PLATOS

A partir del 1° de julio de 2017 y durante los próximos tres meses, Air France confiará a François Adamski su menú Business. El Chef, distinguido con estrellas Michelin, creará seis nuevos platos para realzar el placer de los clientes Business de Air France a bordo de los vuelos de largo y de medio recorrido (1) que salen de París.



SEIS NUEVOS PLATOS A LA SALIDA DE PARÍS 
En julio:
- Contra muslo de pollo asado, risotto de curry y chorizo.
- Camarones ligeramente ahumados, bolitas de vegetales de colores y salsa cremosa de limón.

En agosto:
- Paletilla de res cocida lentamente con su salsa de tomate cremosa, puré de patatas con aceitunas verdes.
- Filete de pollo asado con salsa suprema de trufa, zanahorias, apio y champiñones.

En septiembre:
- Cordero confitado, sémola con vegetales bebé, limón confitado.
- Bacalao cocido en salsa de carne, con avellanas desmoronadas, apio y castañas.


François Adamski, la nueva estrella en ascenso de la cocina francesaFrançois Adamski se ha convertido en uno de los discípulos más brillantes de la escuela francesa clásica: una cocina minuciosa, de apariencia sencilla, donde cada detalle cuenta. El chef comparte con los clientes de Air France su gusto por las cosas bellas, así como los olores y sabores de su infancia, un arte que le fue transmitido desde muy temprana edad por su madre. Aprendió un dominio perfecto de la técnica al lado de grandes chefs como Michel Roth y Eric Briffard, sus primeros mentores. Luego trabajó con éxito en los cuatro rincones de Francia.

Galardonado con dos estrellas Michelin, en Bourges y Bordaux, ahora crea menús para los principales restaurantes del sureste francés. Sus platos invitan a los clientes Business de la Compañía a disfrutar de su arte: una cocina sin grandilocuencia, que sabe perfecto y siempre sorprende.

Desde octubre de 2015, François Adamski, Meilleur Ouvrier de France (2007) y Bocuse d'Or (2001), viene trabajando con Servair y Air France en los menús Business de los vuelos de largo y medio recorrido. Fiel a sus compromisos, el chef Michelin es también presidente del Equipo Bocuse d'Or Francia, una asociación que apoya al candidato francés, de la que Air France y Servair son socios Premium.


PLATOS “A la carta” para celebrar la gastronomía DEL MUNDO Con los platos “A la carta” disponibles en todos los vuelos de larga distancia (2) de la compañía, los clientes de Business y La Première disfrutan de mayor libertad y placer durante su vuelo, en torno a sabores asiáticos o del mar. Seis platos se ofrecen a los clientes Business y La Première, sin cargo adicional, previa solicitud antes de su viaje:

- Cocina tailandesa;
- Cocina china tradicional;
- Sabores de la India;
- Sabores de Japón;
- Sabores de Corea;
- Cesta de mariscos.

Los clientes pueden reservar su plato entre 90 días y 24 horas antes de su salida de vuelo, al momento de comprar un boleto, o en la sección "Gestionar sus reservas" en www.airfrance.com; en los Call Centers de Air France y cuando se registran en línea o en su móvil.

(1) Destinos Medio Oriente desde París: Algeria, Amman, Atenas, Bucarest, Casablanca, Ereván, Estambul, Kiev, Lisboa, Marrakech, Moscú, Estocolmo, Orán, Oporto, Rabat, San Petersburgo, Sofía, Tel Aviv, Túnez y Varsovia.


(2) Excepto el vuelo AF022 París-Charles de Gaulle - Nueva York-JKF.

          SA athletes increase medal tally to 10 in Algeria   

By Mark Etheridge South Africa’s next generation of track and field stars had another impressive day at the CAA African Junior Championships in Tiemcen, Algeria on Friday.. They repeated their five-medal haul from Thursday’s opening day and now boast 10 in total after two days of competition. Sprinter Thembo Monareng led the way with gold […]

The post SA athletes increase medal tally to 10 in Algeria appeared first on SASCOC.


          Brave Man Sues Wife Over Cruel, Deceptive Makeup   
In what is an indisputable act of bravery, a man in Algeria is suing his bride for fraud after being brutally deceived by her makeup throughout the course of their engagement. His conniving fiancée reportedly used heavy makeup to make herself appear beautiful as a strategy to trick him into marriage with her real fleshface,…
          Dangerous Game (2017)   

Watch Dangerous Game 2017 Full Movie Free Online. Dangerous Game is a supposed action packed British heist movie. When Chris (Calum Best) gets mixed up with the Russian Mafia and Algerian Gangsters while trying to help his best friend pay off a large debt, he has to decide if he puts his career on the […]

The post Dangerous Game (2017) appeared first on Iwannawatch.is.


          Obituary: Simone Veil, widely respected figure across the French political divide.   
Simone Veil revisits that dreadful place

Simone Veil was the first female leader of the European Parliament and the recipient of France’s highest distinctions, including a seat among the “Immortals” of the Académie française, the prestigious state-sponsored body overseeing the French language and usage. She was renowned for her endeavours to advance women’s rights and the gracious but steely resolve with which she overcame male resistance throughout a remarkable life scarred by personal tragedy.

As one of the more than 76,000 Jews deported from France during World War II, Veil appears on the Wall of Names at the Shoah Memorial in Paris, under her maiden name Simone Jacob. So do her father André, her mother Yvonne, her sister Madeleine and her brother Jean. Of the five, only Madeleine and Simone survived the ordeal, though Madeleine would die in a car crash just seven years after the war.

Simone was the youngest of four siblings, born in the French Riviera resort of Nice on July 13, 1927, in a family of non-practising Jews. Her father, an award-winning architect, had insisted her mother abandon her studies in chemistry after they married. Like most other Jews in France, he reluctantly obeyed orders once the Nazi-allied Vichy regime came to power in June 1940, registering his family on the infamous “Jewish file” – which would later help French police and the German Gestapo round up France’s Jews and deport them.

As French nationals living in the Italian occupation zone, the Jacob family avoided the first round-ups, which targeted foreign Jews, mainly in the northern half of France that was occupied by German troops. But they suffered the sting of anti-Semitic laws, which forced André Jacob out of work and led to Simone adopting the name Jacquier to conceal her origins.

The situation worsened after September 1943, when the Nazi occupiers swept all the way down to the Riviera. Simone, then aged 16, had only just passed her baccalaureate when she was arrested by two members of the SS on March 30, 1944. The Gestapo soon rounded up the rest of the family with the exception of Simone’s sister Denise, who had joined the Resistance in Lyon. Denise would later be detained and deported to the Ravensbruck concentration camp, from where she returned after the war.

Still only 17, Simone returned to France devastated by the loss of her parents and sister, but determined to pursue the career her mother had been denied. She studied law at the University of Paris and the Institut d’études politiques, where she met Antoine Veil (1926-2013), a future company manager and auditor. The couple married in October 1946, and would go on to have three sons, Jean, Nicolas, and Pierre-François.

Simone Veil began work as a lawyer before successfully passing the national examination to become a magistrate in 1956. She then took on a senior position at the National Penitentiary Administration, part of the Ministry of Justice, thereby securing a first platform to pursue a lifelong endeavour of advancing women’s rights. She notably strove to improve women's conditions in French jails and, during the Algerian War of Independence, obtained the transfer to France of Algerian female prisoners amid reports of widespread abuse and rape.

Switching to the ministry’s department of civil affairs in 1964, Veil continued to push for gender parity in matters of parental control and adoption rights. A decade later, her appointment as health minister in the centre-right administration of President Valéry Giscard D’Estaing paved the way for her biggest political test. She first battled to ease access to contraception, then took on a hostile parliament to argue in favour of a woman’s right to have a legal abortion.

“No woman resorts to an abortion with a light heart. One only has to listen to them: it is always a tragedy,” Veil said in a now-famous opening address on November 26, 1974, before a National Assembly almost entirely composed of men. She added: “We can no longer shut our eyes to the 300,000 abortions that each year mutilate the women of this country, trample on its laws and humiliate or traumatise those who undergo them.”

After her hour-long address, the minister endured a torrent of abuse from members of her own centre-right coalition. One lawmaker claimed her law would "each year kill twice as many people as the Hiroshima bomb”. A second berated the Holocaust survivor for "choosing genocide". Another still spoke of embryos "thrown into crematorium ovens".

“I had no idea how much hatred I would stir,” Veil told French journalist Annick Cojean in 2004, reflecting on the vitriolic debate decades earlier. “There was so much hypocrisy in that chamber full of men, some of whom would secretly look for places where their mistresses could have an abortion.”

The bill was eventually passed, thanks to support from the left-wing opposition, though Veil had to withstand the affront of swastikas painted on her car and home. Today, the “loi Veil” enjoys overwhelming support in France, where few mainstream politicians dare to challenge it.

At the end of this fine tribute is written:
...she was elected to the Académie française, becoming only the sixth woman to join the prestigious “Immortals”, who preside over the French language. Her ceremonial sword was engraved with the motto of the French Republic (“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”), that of the European Union (“United in diversity”), and the five digits tattooed on her forearm in the inferno of Auschwitz, which she never removed.
This was first published on France 24

Thanks to Coatesy for heads-up.
          BOSTON MARATHON BOMBING:QUESTIONS SANS ANSWERS   

 

B.RAMAN

 

Two Chechen brothers living in the US since 2002—Dzhokhar ( 19) and Tamerlan Tsarnaev ( 26),  are suspected of bombing the Boston Marathon on April 15,2013, in which three persons were killed and over 150 injured.

2.The team led by the FBI, which has been investigating the blast, has been able to identify them reportedly through CCTV images of their placing bags, which probably contained the improvised explosive devices (IED), fabricated with a pressure cooker and a metal container, at two places near the finishing line where the explosions occurred.

3. Even though the FBI-led team haS not said so, tip-off from persons knowing the brothers also possibly contributed to the needle of suspicion pointing at the two brothers.

4.Tamerlan died following a shootout with the  police on Thursday ( April 18) night. His  younger brother, Dzhokhar, is still on the run in Boston. However, latest reports indicate that the police are “in engagement” with a person suspected to be Dzhokhar in the Watertown area.

5. From the accounts of the police search for him received so far, Dzhokhar has been making  frantic efforts to evade capture by the police, who must be anxious to catch him alive to question him on what and who motivated him and Tamerlan to commit the bombing, if it is proved that they did it.

5.According to the profile of the Tsarnaev family carried by the BBC and the CNN, they were Chechens who had migrated to Kyrgyzstan and from there to Dagestan. They migrated to the US from Dagestan with Kyrgyz passports in 2002. The father, Anzor Tsarnaev, is since reported to have gone back to Dagestan.

6. According to the BBC, the brothers lived in the Massachusetts town of Cambridge, home of the prestigious Harvard University.  Tamerlan  studied engineering at Bunker Hill Community College just outside Boston but had taken the year off to train as a boxer. Dzhokhar  is enrolled at the University of Massachusetts – Dartmouth to study medicine.

7. Russian news agency RIA Novosti has reported that "extremist material" was on the YouTube account belonging to Tamerlan. "Several albums were posted, one of them titled 'terrorist'," the agency said. However, the BBC says it has been  unable to confirm the presence of extremist material on Tamerlan's YouTube page.

8. Their mother, Zubeidat Tsarnaeva, told Russia's RT television network on April 19: "My youngest was raised from 8 years in America, my oldest he was really properly raised in our house," she said. "Nobody talked about terrorism. Tamerlan got involved in religion five years ago. (He) started following his own religion, never told me he could be on side of jihad."

9. According to some reports, the FBI had interviewed the father sometime ago to enquire why the two sons had started attending a local mosque for prayers. This would show that the two brothers were under watch by the FBI for some time before they carried out the bombing.

10.Details of their life in Boston available so far do not indicate any travels by them either within the US or outside. If they had developed any radical influences, it must have been through the Internet or during their visits to the local mosque for namaz. Particulars of the mosque to which they started going for namaz are not available. Who was the cleric in charge of it? Did he have any radical background? Why was the FBI worried about their going for namaz?

11. Dzhokhar was very proud of his Chechen ethnicity. It has been reported that whenever his friends referred to him as a Russian, he would correct them and say he is a Chechen.

12.If it is established that the two brothers carried out the Marathon bombing, what could have been their motive? They had no reasons to be angry against the US and its civil society. Their anger should have been against Russia.

13.Were they self-motivated to carry out the bombing or was their an external motivation due to US policies towards the Islamic world? It is not anger over the state of affairs in Chechnya and Dagestan, but anger over matters relating to Islam that seem to have motivated them.

14. Was there an Al Qaeda inspiration behind their action? Chechens had always formed an important component of Al Qaeda. Chechen instructors were employed in Al Qaeda’s training camps in the Waziristan area of Pakistan.

15. Under Ayman al-Zawahiri, the present chief of Al Qaeda, Al Qaeda has turned the focus of its operations from the Af-Pak region to Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Mali, Somalia, Libya and Algeria. Did Al Qaeda propaganda against the US policies in Libya and Syria influence the brothers in their actions?

16. There are many questions without answers. To find the answers, it is important for the US authorities to catch Dzhokhar alive. (20-4-13)

( The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai, and Associate of the Chennai Centre For China Studies. Twitter: @SORBONNE75)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Aviagen executive team visits Arbor Acres Algeria   
A delegation of Aviagen® executive team members recently visited Arbor Acres® Algeria (AAA), Aviagen’s exclusive distributor in the country, to see the company’s expanded grandparent and hatchery investments first-hand and discuss its ongoing strategy for the growth of Arbor Acres in the Algerian market.
          CAF Champions League Matchday 5 Fixtures and Results   

Friday 30 June Group C Smouha (Egypt) 1-1 Zesco United FC (Zambia) Scorers: Banou Diawara 90+1 / Yasser Ibrahim 84og Group B 23:00 Mouloudia Club D’Alger (Algeria) vs. Platinium Stars (South Africa) Saturday 1 July Group D 15:00 Horoya A.C (Guinea) vs. Supersport United FC (South Africa) Group C 21:00 Al Hilal Elobied (Sudan) vs. […]

The post CAF Champions League Matchday 5 Fixtures and Results appeared first on Soccer24.


          Flitcroft makes sixth signing of the summer   
SWINDON Town have made their sixth signing of the summer with Algerian-born Congo international Amine Linganzi joining the club on a free transfer from Portsmouth.
          Donovan, Beasley speak about Ghana rivalry [Video]   
Clint Dempsey scored against Ghana at the World Cup
Just as James Bond always seems to run into his nemesis at a casino, the U.S. men's national team always seems to encounter Ghana at the World Cup.

The Americans and the Black Stars have squared off in each of the past three editions of the tournament and the 2-1 score line in every match has shown that not much has separated the two sides. Ghana prevailed on the last day of the group stage in 2006, with Stephen Appiah's penalty knocking the U.S. out of the tournament. The Black Stars duplicated the feat in South Africa four years later, prevailing in the round of 16 thanks to Asamoah Gyan's extra-time goal. The U.S. finally got a measure of revenge in Brazil in 2014, with John Brooks' 86th minute goal proving to be the difference.







The two sides will meet amid more relaxed surroundings this Saturday, playing in a friendly at Hartford's Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field. But given the big games involving the two teams, is the matchup turning into an underrated rivalry? That sentiment has seeped a bit into the media and respective fan bases given that the time horizon of their memories runs longer than that of most players. It's certainly not thought of that way on the U.S. side.

"It just seemed more coincidental I guess," said former U.S. international Landon Donovan in an exclusive interview. "It just seemed like in the draws or the way the tournaments worked out, you always ended up playing them. 'How did we get Ghana again?'"

U.S. veteran defender DaMarcus Beasley added, "In 2014, it was honestly never talked about that 'Oh, Ghana beat us in '06 and 2010 and now we have to come out and beat them.' There was a little extra motivation, but a lot of guys weren't even in those World Cups, so it was tough to have it feel like a rivalry with Ghana."

That said, the two sides have delivered plenty of drama when they've met. And the Black Stars have proved to be a difficult opponent for the U.S. simply because its strengths have tended to mirror those of the Americans, while also having edges in other critical areas.

"One of the things we would have over tactically better teams or technically better teams was our athleticism," said Donovan. "That would get thrown out when you would played Ghana because they were either as athletic or more athletic than we were, so we couldn't use that as a strength in the way we could against other teams.



"Then, a lot of times with African countries or sometimes Caribbean or Central American countries, they're a little disorganized and so you could take advantage in that way. But Ghana is at the higher end of that spectrum where they were just organized enough to cause us problems. Coupled with their athleticism, they could make enough plays where they would keep us from scoring, and it just ended up being a bad matchup in that way for us."

For Donovan, the two losses to Ghana were painful in different ways. By the time the 2006 match rolled around, his confidence was at a low ebb, and that didn't change that day in Nuremberg. By Donovan's own admission he played "poorly and timidly." The U.S. was also on the business end of a hugely controversial decision: Appiah's penalty came courtesy of a phantom foul by Oguchi Onyewu.

"It's a game that always sticks out in my mind as everything I didn't want to be as a soccer player," said Donovan. "That was a game we all thought we should have won."

But it was the 2010 defeat that cut deepest. After the U.S. won its group, its side of the bracket looked wide open as the winner of its game against Ghana would face off against the winner of Uruguay and South Korea. A trip to the semifinals was a distinct possibility.

"At this point in our history, we're not a team that can look way down the bracket regardless of who we come up against and say, 'We should be in the quarters or the semis,' like a team like Germany or Brazil or Spain. If the bracket lined up like it was Brazil in the round of 16, Germany in the quarterfinal, then you would look at it through a different lens. When it's Ghana and then it would have been Uruguay, you look at it realistically and say, 'these are teams that we can beat.'"

It didn't happen. Instead, a giveaway from Ricardo Clark that turned into an early goal for Kevin-Prince Boateng and a sub-par day from goalkeeper Tim Howard saw the U.S. fall; a golden opportunity was missed. Donovan is of the opinion that the U.S. was emotionally spent from the emotional roller coaster that was its last-gasp win over Algeria in the group stage. One minute the U.S. was looking like it would exit the tournament, the next it was a group winner.



"I think if we had a few more days to prepare, we could have put a better performance together," he said of the Ghana match. "They were [coming off short rest] too, don't get me wrong, but it was a survival of the fittest game and we just didn't have enough."

So what changed in 2014? The U.S. was certainly more clinical in front of goal. In addition to Brooks' goal, Clint Dempsey's slalom through the Ghanaian defense gave the Americans an early lead. But this was a day when the U.S. defended a little bit better than its counterparts despite conceding Andre Ayew's late equalizer. And on this day, the U.S. had to be better on defense, given that it had just 38.9 percent of possession.

"You definitely have to be defensively sound because if you get stretched against a team like Ghana, they're going to kill you," said Beasley, who started at left-back that day. "They're so fast and so quick on the counter that if you have too many guys forward, they're very skillful and quick enough to make two or three passes and then have a one-on-one with the keeper. Making sure that you're defensively smart, and that all your lines are working as a unit, you can be OK. I think we made it hard for them."

Ghana remain near the top of Africa's elite. They fell on penalty kicks to Ivory Coast at the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations and fell in the semis of the 2017 edition. However, their World Cup qualifying campaign is in peril thanks to a 0-0 home draw against Uganda that has left them in third place of its four-team group through two matches.

As for the U.S., there is a perception in Africa that the U.S. isn't as invested in soccer as one might expect. Without question, investment has increased, although the competition within the U.S. sporting landscape remains intense.

"I think the issue is that people see the investment that goes into the other sports in America, and they assume American soccer doesn't have real investment," Donovan said. "The reality of America is that you can have four or five or six top-notch sports that all have significant investment. So while it probably doesn't look like it from an outsider perspective, there are still significant resources going into the growth and development of soccer here. This has only been really a 30-year project since Paul Caligiuri's goal [that sent the U.S. to Italia 1990.] We're still pretty far ahead of the curve, and it's only going to get better."

The U.S. will be hoping that will continue on Saturday, although it's likely that Ghana, just like in the World Cup, will be mighty difficult to overcome.

Watch Ghana vs USA Video Below:







Source: espn.com
          Re: Самые горячие и свежие....   
Цитата:
"Все больше поступает свидетельств того, что Каддафи жив, находится на свободе и продолжает руководить сопротивлением".
http://za-kaddafi.ru/node/5736
Кстати, в настоящий момент алжирский сайтhttp://www.algeria-isp.com снова недоступен. Что подтверждает информацию о скоординированных хакерских атаках на сайты, раскрывающие истинную информацию о событиях в Ливии и о "поимке и смерти Каддафи" в частности. Повторю мысль - зачем? Если враг уже повержен, а история о пленении и смерти является реальным...

Статистика : Добавлено online33 • Пт, 26 июн 2009, 18:24 • Ответов 8 • Просмотров 7797



          Sogni di Sabbia   

Nessuno considera clandestino lo straniero irregolare che bada a sua madre, gli pota la vigna o fa le pulizie nel condominio. Clandestini sono sempre gli altri: buttateli fuori!” (Gad Lerner).

Non tutti i viaggi terminano con la destinazione sognata, e non tutti quelli che partono riescono a realizzare il loro progetto. Per tanti migranti il miraggio diventa un incubo, una trappola da cui non riescono più a uscire.

Lo raccontano i protagonisti di questo libro corredato da splendide foto, che con i loro volti ci raccontano che cosa c’è – in questo caso in Algeria – prima di Lampedusa.

Partiti dal Congo, dal Niger, dal Mali, dal deserto del Sahara, sono tanti, sempre di più, quelli che non vedranno mai l’Europa. Perché rimangono bloccati nei Paesi del Maghreb, in un limbo da cui non riescono più a uscire.

Scoprire il viaggio prima del viaggio, la loro vita prima della partenza, può aiutarci a comprendere, a smontare pregiudizi e stereotipi. Prima di diventare migranti, irregolari o clandestini, sono persone. Come noi.

Non è vero che questi giovani migranti non hanno nulla da perdere. Hanno solo il coraggio di rischiare. Buttarsi a capofitto con quel briciolo di incoscienza necessario per affrontare l’impossibilità” (dalla prefazione di Ubah Cristina Ali Farah).


          Polyphenols, a Family of Extractives   

Polyphenols, a family of extractives with various biological properties

Polyphenols are compounds unique to the plant kingdom.  We find them in tea, vegetables, fruit, and also in trees!

A-    Their Nature is Defined by Their Molecular Structure...

All these molecules show commonality: the presence of at least one aromatic cycle of 6 carbons (phenol), itself bearer of one or more hydroxyl functions (OH). More than 8 000 natural compounds fitting those structural criteria have been isolated and identified [1]. They are members of various classes: coumarins, lignans, stilbenes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, xanthones, quinones, etc. These molecules go from monomer to polymer and include different complexes. This great structural diversity explains their rich range of physiochemical and biological properties, mainly due to high chemical reactivity (an ease in the creation links with other molecules and the possibility to complex with metals like iron and copper). Their ability to react with cell proteins is an important aspect of their biological potential. They can thus act as inhibitors or activators for numerous cellular enzymes.

The picture shoes Catechin type of phenolic compounds

B-    Polyphenols, Issued From the Secondary Metabolism of the Plant. 

Coming from the secondary metabolism, polyphenols are therefore not synthesized priorly and their effects on the plant environment are very complex. Indeed, these compounds are a mechanism to combat potential predators or competitors; they are produced by the plant in strong concentration as a response to pathogenic attacks[2],[3]. Thus, they play an important role in the natural resistance of certain species, thanks to their various proprieties,[4],[5] such as their capacity to scavenge free radicals (powerful antioxidants), their ability to block enzymatic processes as well as their fungicidal activity[6],[7]. Research has also shown that polyphenols (phenolic acid, condensed tannins, quinones and flavonoids) are responsible for color formation in wood, since they present chromophoric groups able to absorb visible light[8][9].

C-    Polyphenols and Their Beneficial Effects on Health 

Polyphenolic compounds are generating increasing interest from nutritionists, the food industry and consumers [10]. They are responsible for browning and are responsible for astringent and bitter sensations. Furthermore, as aromatic and colored molecules, polyphenols play a major role on the organoleptic characteristics of many of products through their antiseptic, antibacterial and anti-fungicidal properties. [11], [12], [13], [14].

They are the most abundant antioxidants found in food as we consume about 1g per day, almost ten times more than vitamin C and 100 times more than vitamin E or carotenoids. They can have an effect on the conservation of products, specifically in cosmetics[15], food and pharmaceuticals; in all these cases, conservation of the product must be optimal throughout its life cycle. Polyphenols neutralize free radicals and their antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties play a role in the prevention of many pathologies including oxidative stress and the aging of cells, cardiovascular or degenerative disease, osteoporosis, cancer, arthritis, type II diabetes, etc. [16], [17],[18][19][20].  In the food industry, the addition of natural antioxidants is relatively new. Since 1980, natural antioxidants became an alternative to synthetic antioxidants whose harmlessness has been put into question in both human and animal nutrition [21]. The trend is irreversible:  antioxidants derived from natural origins are much preferred by consumers.

D-    Polyphenols in Your Everyday Life, Common Applications...

Polyphenols are the active ingredients in many medicines. For example, Asprin base salicylic acid, rutosides (rutin),  quercetin flavonoid glycoside (quercetin -3-rutinoside) isolated from many plants (eucalyptus, buckwheat, sophora) used in vein and capillary problems and ginkgo extract (Ginkgo biloba) whose active substance EGb 761 is rich in polyphenolic compounds, mostly in flavonol glycosides (24 % of the extract).


[1] Triaud, J. (1998) Polyphenols 96: 18th International Conference on Polyphenols, Bordeaux.

[2] Hart J.H. (1981) Role of Phytostilbenes in Decay and Disease Resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 19: 437-458.

[3] Woodward S. and Pearce R.B. (1988) The role of stilbenes in resistance of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) to entry of fungal pathogens. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 33(1): 127-149.

[4] Royer M. (2008) Les molécules responsables de la stabilité des bois: cas des bois tropicaux de Guyane Française.Unité Mixte de Recherche Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (UMR ECOFOG), Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Cayenne, pp. 242.

[5] Aloui F., Ayadi N., Charrier F. and Charrier B., 2004. Durability of European oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): relations with phenol extractives. Holz Roh Werkst 62(4): 286-290.

[6] Schultz P. and Darrel D.N. (2000) Naturally durable heartwood: evidence for a proposed dual defensive function of the extractives. Phytochemistry 54: 47-52.

[7] Schultz T.P. and Nicholas D.D. (2002) Development of environmentally-benign wood preservatives based on the combination of organic biocides with antioxidants and metal chelators. Phytochemistry 61(5): 555-560.

[8] Dellus V., Mila I., Scalbert A., Menard C., Michon V. and Herve du Penhoat C.L.M. (1997) Douglas-fir polyphenols and heartwood formation. Phytochemistry 45(8): 1573-1578.

[9] Johansson C.I., Saddler J.N. and Beatson R.P. (2000) Characterization of the Polyphenolics related to the colour of Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) heartwood. Holzforschung 54(3): 246-254.

[10] Stevanovic T., Diouf P.N. and Garcia-Perez M.E., (2009). Bioactive polyphenols from healthy diets and forest biomass. Current Nutrition and Food Science 5(4): 264-295.

[11] Amarowicz R., Dykes G.A. and Pegg R.B. (2008). Antibacterial activity of tannin constituents from Phaseolus vulgaris, Fagoypyrum esculentum, Corylus avellana and Juglans nigra. Fitoterapia 79(3): 217-219.

[12] Aslam S.N., Stevenson P.C., Kokubun T. and Hall D.R., (2006). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of cicerfuran and related 2-arylbenzofurans and stilbenes Microbiology research 164(2): 191-195.

[13] Bafi-Yebo N.F.A., Arnason J.T., Baker J. and Smith M.L. (2005) Antifungal constituents of Northern prickly ash, Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. Phytomedicine 12 370–377.

[14] Fukai T., Kaitou K. and Terada S. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of 2-arylbenzofurans fromMorus species against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fitoterapia 76: 708-711.

[15] Arct J. and Pytkowska K. (2008) Flavonoids as components of biologically active cosmeceuticals. Clinics in Dermatology 26(4): 347-357.

[16] Federico A, Morgillo F, Tuccillo C, Ciardiello F and Loguercio C. (2007) Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in human carcinogenesis. International Journal of Cancer 121(11): 2381-2386.

[17] Ammar R.B., Bhouri W., Sghaier M.B., Boubaker J., Skandrani I., Neffati A., Bouhlel I., Kilani S., Mariotte A.-M., Chekir-Ghedira L., Dijoux-Franca M.-G. and Ghedira K. (2009) Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties of three flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Rhamnus alaternus L. (Rhamnaceae) : A structure-activity relationship study. Food Chemistry 116(1): 258-264.

[18] Atmani D., Chaher N., Berboucha M., Ayouni K., Lounis H., Boudaoud H., Debbache N. and Atmani D., (2009) Antioxidant capacity and phenol content of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Food Chemistry 112(2): 303-309.

[19] Goetz P. (2007) Phytothérapie du diabète. Phytothérapie 5: 212-217.

[20] Halliwell B. (1996) Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annual Review of Nutrition, pp. 33-50.

[21] Moure A., Cruz J.M., Franco D., Manuel Domínguez J., Sineiro J., Domínguez H., Núñez M.J. and Carlos Parajó J. (2001). Natural antioxidants from residual sources. Food Chemistry 72(2): 145-171.

 


          Prostitute, clienti, volontari: una sera al Bois de Boulogne   


 
Si chiamano Kimberley, Nathalia o Kenza. Vengono dall'Ecuador, dalla Romania o dall'Algeria. Figure fragili o dalle spalle muscolose, di notte misurano a grandi passi i viali del Bois de Boulogne, spesso nell'insicurezza, aspettando i clienti
 
I clienti che si fermano sono pochi questo giovedì sera. Sotto gli alberi, un gruppo di Ecuadoregne transgender  sta discutendo. Una di loro è stata aggredita qualche tempo fa da ragazzi che le hanno squarciato l'arcata sopraccigliare con una bottiglia. "Ora sto meglio - dice - Il medico mi ha dato una pomata". Ma non ha sporto querela. Non è affatto facile, quando si è transgender, essere prese in considerazione dalla polizia.
Più in là, Carla e Kimberley, ecuadoregne dai lunghi capelli biondi, si riscaldano sul camioncino sul quale hanno installato un sistema di riscaldamento. Kimberley, dai collant rossi e dai lunghi stivali bianchi di vernice, è preoccupata. Fermata dalla polizia "con poca cocaina" si è beccata una multa, ma non sa come pagarla e teme che questa vicenda possa nuocerle quando a giugno si recherà in Prefettura per rinnovare il permesso di soggiorno.
Molte [prostitute] sono straniere. Ogni nazionalità ha il proprio settore di attività. Spesso senza permesso di soggiorno, isolate, la maggior parte di loro è vittima dei magnaccia.
 
Aggredita a colpi di pietra
Vicino alla fermata del bus, Nathalia, piccola bionda dai capelli tinti e dalle sopracciglia nere, controlla febbrilmente i dintorni. Polacca, si trova in Francia da cinque mesi, ma parla quattro lingue - dice - perché ha "viaggiato molto". Nathalia preferisce lavorare al Bois "anche se è pericoloso", piuttosto che a Bruxelles. "Là ci sono troppe ragazze" , dice. Le ragazze dell'Est sono regolarmente spostate dai loro prosseneti da un luogo all'altro dell'Europa per sfuggire ai controlli, spiegano le associazioni [di aiuto alle prostitute].
Più esuberanti, Kenza e Dalila canticchiano. Queste transgender algerine dalle lunghe gambe che poggiano su tacchi vertiginosi ostentano una disinvoltura che funge da corazza. Una di loro è stata aggredita a colpi di pietra qualche settimana prima da giovani in auto. "Capita. Ci si fa l'abitudine", dice Kenza, mentre si rifà il trucco.
Quasi nascosta dalla bordura degli alberi, Manuela è più riservata. Questa Domenicana con il viso dai fini lineamenti, in jeans e parka nero, racconta in buon francese di essere stata stuprata cinque anni (?) fa. L'aggressore è stato arrestato, il caso è ora in discussione presso la Corte d'assise, osserva rallegrandosi Manuela, pur preoccupata per la scarsa conoscenza delle modalità di funzionamento del processo.
 
Una corazza
Per chiedere informazioni, forse, si recherà presso una delle associazioni che stazionano regolarmente al Bois e in tutti i luoghi di prostituzione della capitale. Che siano sostenitrici dell'abolizione della prostituzione (Mouvement du Nid ecc.) o no (Bus des femmes, Médecins du Monde ecc.), tutte cercano di creare un legame con queste donne precarie e sfruttate.
"Questo legame si crea in primo luogo offrendo aiuto materiale", spiega Eve, volontaria in servizio civile presso il Mouvement du Nid. Nel locale parigino dell'associazione, che propone corsi di francese, supporto psicologico, sostegno giuridico, vengono donne nigeriane, bulgare, romene, albanesi.
"Mentre stazioniamo al Bois, distribuiamo biglietti da visita con il nostro indirizzo. I magnaccia ci controllano, ma possiamo avvicinarci e parlare con le prostitute", spiega Guillaume, volontario di 31 anni.
Le donne si recano presso le associazioni in primo luogo per sbrigare pratiche amministrative (permesso di soggiorno, assicurazione contro le malattie), poi, a poco a poco, "si crea un rapporto di fiducia", aggiunge Dounia, un'altra volontaria di 19 anni.
Becky, 29 anni, con in braccio un neonato, è venuta a cercare un po' d'aiuto e a bere un caffé. "Quando sono arrivata qui, non avevo soldi. Mi hanno dato dei vestiti, mi hanno parlato, mi hanno dato fiducia", spiega questa Nigeriana, che ha lasciato la  madame che la sfruttava.
"Avevo un debito di 55.000 euro. Ne ho pagati 35.000, ma non potevo più continuare a pagare", spiega questa ex prostituta. "Dovevo versare ogni settimana 1000 euro. La madama mi ha minacciato con un rito vudù, ma io  ho minacciato di riferire tutto alla polizia".
"Ci vuole del tempo, perché queste donne si costruiscono una corazza e dicono che tutto va bene. Poi, a poco a poco, si lasciano andare", spiega Dounia, turbata "dalla violenza che possono subire. Qui, si sentono cose veramente scioccanti".
 
La prostituzione in Francia
- Il numero delle prostitute in Francia è di circa 30.000, secondo le cifre fornite dall'Ufficio centrale per la repressione della tratta degli esseri umani (OCRTEH), dedotte dal numero delle persone accusate del reato di adescamento e da quello delle vittime della tratta o dello sfruttamento della prostituzione identificate nel corso dei processi. La delegazione ai Diritti delle donne dell'Assemblea nazionale parla di un numero variabile da 20.000 a 40.000 persone. Il numero delle prostitute di strada è stimato pari a circa 20.000, ma una parte della prostituzione resta "invisibile": quella su Internet, nei bar e nelle sale massaggi, quella studentesca e quella occasionale. Il Sindacato del lavoro sessuale (Strass) parla di 400.000 prostitute in Francia.
- Secondo un rapporto della polizia giudiziaria del 2014, sono stati identificati nel 2013 658 "luoghi a rischio di prostituzione" (bar, sale massaggi  ecc.)
- Grande maggioranza di donne. Gli uomini rappresentano solo dal 10 al 20% della prostituzione di strada.
- L'80% delle prostitute è di origine straniera, secondo l'OCRTEH. Provengono soprattutto dall'Europa dell'est (Bulgaria, Romania), dall'Africa (Nigeria, Camerun), dalla Cina e dall'America del Sud (Brasile, Perù e Argentina). La maggioranza di loro è vittima della rete di prosseneti e della tratta. Le altre (circa il 20%) sono prostitute "tradizionali". Generalmente francesi, si proclamano indipendenti.
- Dal 2003, il numero di condanne per sfruttamento aggravato della prostituzione resta stabile fra i 600 e gli 800 all'anno secondo i dati del casellario giudiziario nazionale.
- Nel 2013 sono state smantellate 45 reti internazionali di sfruttamento della prostituzione: 26 dell'Europa dell'Est, 7 dell'Africa, 6 dell'America Latina, 4 dell'Europa dell'Ovest (fra cui una spagnola) e 2 della Cina.
- Nel 2013 662 persone sono state accusate di sfruttamento della prostituzione. Vi è stato quindi un aumento del 157% rispetto al 2012. Sono state identificate 912 vittime e 1146 persone sono state accusate di adescamento.
- Secondo il Ministero dell'Interno, la prostituzione rende alle mafie da 1 a 2 miliardi di euro all'anno.
- Secondo un rapporto della polizia giudiziaria, una prostituta di strada farebbe guadagnare in media ai prosseneti 78.000 euro all'anno.
-Le vittime della tratta, "comprate, talvolta, per pochi euro", rendono ai trafficanti " in media 150.000 euro all'anno nei Paesi occidentali", secondo la fondazione Scelles, che lotta contra la prostituzione.

          Obama and the "Yes-You-Can" terrorists   
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President Obama’s speech, announcing his intent to reign in America’s global war on terror is playing out with a certain grisly irony here in England, a country reeling from the latest terrorist act.
The media here is filled with ghastly images of a man, clad in a jacket and woolen cap, glaring at the camera, a knife and meat cleaver in his bloody hand—just after he and his partner hacked to death and tried to behead a young British soldier in Woolwich in southeast London two days ago.
 What is particularly alarming is the similarity of these two newest terrorist murderers in the name of Islam to the two brothers who bombed the Boston Marathon last month, to the 23 year-old son of Algerian immigrants, who shot down seven people in France a little more than a year ago. 
In England, as in the earlier attacks in the U.S. and France, the terrorist killings provoked a wave of horror and outrage across the country. Islamic leaders denied such dastardly deeds had anything to do with the true faith. The murders were condemned as the totally senseless, cowardly act of unhinged killers, their minds deranged by radical Islamist claptrap.
“Britain will never buckle,” said Prime Minister David Cameron. “The terrorists will never win because they can never beat the values we hold dear.”
In fact, however, as one of the two killers in Woolwich talked to a horrified onlooker before the police arrived, in his own mind, at least, their actions were quite rational. They were in retaliation for Britain’s participation in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
“We swear by almighty Allah we will never stop fighting you until you leave us alone.” the man with the meat cleaver said. “Your people will never be safe. The only reason we have done this is because Muslims are dying by British soldiers everyday. We must fight them as they fight us. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. I apologize that women had to witness this today but in our lands our women have to see the same.”
He went on, “So what if we want to live by the Sharia in Muslim lands? Why does that mean you must follow us and chase us and call us extremists, kill us?”
“Rather, your lot are extreme. You are the ones. When you drop a bomb, do you think it picks on a person? Or rather your bomb wipes out a whole family?’
The investigation in London is just getting underway, but there is no evidence that the two men of Nigerian parents were part of al-Qaeda or any sophisticated terrorist network. One of them had converted from Christianity to Islam, but they were what the British authorities call “self-starters,”a potentially far more dangerous threat to Britain and the West than al-Qaeda itself.
They were almost certainly swayed by radical Islamic clerics in England or via the Internet, such as the fiery English-language sermons delivered by Anwar al-Alwaki, an Al Qaeda preacher based in Yemen. An American citizen, he was killed in a drone strike in 2011. But the West’s dilemma is that his call for wannabe jihadis to launch whatever bloody attacks they can conjure, echoes on—as does the motto “Just Do It.”   
That’s also the story behind the bombings at the Boston Marathon, perpetrated by the two young Tsarnaev brothers, immigrants from the restless Muslim nation of  Chechnya. Here again, there is yet no evidence that they received any serious terrorist training or were acting as agents of any sophisticated network. Like the two men in Woolwich, they were freelancers--carrying out their own murderous schemes, inspired by nationalist cum religious sentiments, abetted by on-line instructions about bomb-making.
Their motives?  The surviving brother, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was determined to make them clear. As he lay bleeding from his wounds, hidden from the police inside a boat in the back yard of a Watertown, Ma., he wrote a message on the interior wall of the cabin.
The note said the bombings were in retaliation for U.S. military action in Afghanistan and Iraq, and called the Boston victims "collateral damage" in the same way innocent victims have been in the American-led wars. "When you attack one Muslim, you attack all Muslims," Tsarnaev wrote.

Again, in March 2012, France was traumatized by the murderous outburst of another young Muslim in Toulouse.  Mohammed Merah, 23, first gunned down three French soldiers—one of them Muslim—then three days later he methodically shot four more people—a rabbi and three students at a nearby Jewish School.  
He attacked the military base, Merah later told police, because of France’s involvement in Afghanistan; and the Jewish school because “The Jews kill our brothers and sisters in Palestine.” He was also outraged, he said, by France’s ban of the full veil.
As in Woolwich and Boston, the immediate suspicion that Merah was somehow linked to al-Qaeda; but it turned out that it wasn’t. As I blogged at the time, Merah had been to Pakistan and Afghanistan, but there was no evidence that this former petty criminal was part of any serious terrorist network.
That being the case, how on earth can the authorities in the U.S. and Europe deal with the threat of such “Just-Do-It” jihadis?  
Since 2005, for instance, British security services have prevented more than a dozen terrorist plots on British soil, including a scheme to blow up airliners with liquid-based bombs, to targeting shopping centers and nightclubs with fertilizer-based explosives, to taking out the London stock exchange. But the two Woolwich killers slipped through.
This, despite the fact that, according to reports here, both of them had been on an MI-5 watch list. One had apparently been arrested while attempting to travel to Somalia to join a radical Islamic group.
But after that, what should the authorities have done? Hold him for life? Let him go but keep him under constant surveillance? With some 2.5 million people of Muslim descent in England? Many of them unemployed, alienated from their government and its tendency to follow the lead of the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan and the Middle East. How do you keep a handle on them all?
French authorities also singled out Mohammed Merah for special attention after his trips to Pakistan and Afghanistan. But Merah shared space on that watch-list with some 600 other radicals from right to left just in the Toulouse area alone. Don’t forget, there are more than five million people of Muslim descent in France, many of them also bitter, unemployed, poorly housed.
French authorities have also foiled terrorist plots over the past few years, but there is no way they could have predicted that a young man like Mohammed Merah, who first turned to Salafism in a French prison, would migrate from radical “attitude” into full-blown terrorism. Indeed, apparently before he set out to avenge his Moslem brothers for France’s military role in Afghanistan, Merah had earlier tried to enlist in the French army, presumably to go to Afghanistan to fight against Islamic radicals.
Thus, there are certainly other precipitating factors—apart from ideology alone--that transform young men and women into terrorists. The elder Tsarnaev brother in Boston, for instance, had been a promising amateur boxer. He was apparently radicalized when the people running the Golden Gloves championships restricted  admission to American citizens only. That decision meant the end to Tsarnaev’s boxing career and turned him towards religious extremism.
But, the only real common ground among the terrorist killers have been the statements they’ve issued themselves: Their bloody actions, they’ve all claimed, are retribution for the policies of the U.S. and its allies in the Middle East and Central Asia, the lurid pictures of collateral damage from Drone strikes, and the continued shame of Guantanamo. 
Ironically, all those actions were supposedly undertaken to make the U.S. and its allies safe from terrorism.
Will the apparent shift in America’s policy announced by President Obama change that fatal dynamic? It depends on whether or not he now backs up his high-flying rhetoric with concrete action.

          Mali-Niger-Uranium: A Chinese Puzzle   

Mali-Niger-Uranium: A Chinese puzzle
As French fighter-jets pound rebel targets in the northern reaches of Mali, a detachment of French special forces have been quietly dispatched to neighboring Niger.
Now, Niger is supposedly one of the ten poorest countries on the planet, with most people living on less than $1.00 per day. On the other hand, it also has huge deposits of uranium, and the largest uranium miner is Areva, a sprawling French energy conglomerate, in which the French government has a major interest. Areva’s Arlit mine is in a desolate northern region of Niger and the mission of the Special Forces is to protect it.
After all, France depends on nuclear reactors to provide 80% of the country’s electrical power.
Thus, deployment of the special forces is not at all surprising, particularly in light of the spectacular attack by jihadists on the huge Amenas plant in eastern Algeria. Indeed, a group linked to Al Qaeda kidnapped seven Areva employees in 2010, and still holds four of them hostage.  
Which raises the cynical question: to what degree was France’s dramatic intervention in Mali driven by France’s own economic interests?
Which also brings us to the Chinese, and the quandary they face.
As I’ve previously blogged, the Chinese have huge interests of their own in the region--including their $300 million SOMINA uranium mine at the desert outpost of Azalik in northern Niger.

Generally, wherever they are, the Chinese attempt to work with whatever government is in power. They don’t attempt to push any particular political line, or raise questions about potentially embarrassing issues like human rights.
But the Chinese might have as good a reason as the French to be nervous about their operations in Niger. In recentyears, the Chinese operators of the SOMINA mine have been the target of protests from Tuareg tribesmen in the region, who were hired to work there. The Tuaregs claimed to have been exploited by their Chinese bosses, poorly paid, poorly housed, particularly when compared to Chinese workers there.  

Perhaps they’ve cleaned up their act, but one would think that, in light of current events, the Chinese would be taking precautions of their own in Niger.
But who are they going to get to protect them? Certainly not their own special forces.  One can just imagine the U.S. or French reaction. Do they train and arm their own Nigerien security guards?
What about the project currently in the works of several African countries contributing to a joint military force, perhaps under UN auspices, to take over from France in Mali?
You’d think the Chinese would be cheering the idea.
But, they don’t seem to be--at least not yet. When the African governments askedfor close to a billion dollars to fund that joint African deployment, the major donor countries, including the U.S. and Japan, pledged less than half that amount. 
And China?  A grand total of $1 million!
You figure it out.
Ironically, the Nigerien government, which has been claimingthat their country has not profited from its huge mineral wealth, has been pushing France to renegotiate its uranium deal with Niger.
Otherwise, their president, Mohamadou Issoufou, recently threatened, they might seek other partners to exploit that uranium.
Like China?, he was asked. “There is no reason to exclude other countries that wish to cooperate with us.” He replied.


          Mali: No Crazy Glue in Sight   
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There is a massive, historic upheaval gong on—one chaotic Islamic country after another--spanning more than 7000 miles of the globe—a huge tectonic shift—from Western Africa to the Western frontiers of China.

And, despite a military budget larger than most of the rest of the world combined, the Pentagon and Barack Obama, are basically consigned the roll of on-lookers, cautiously kibitzing from the side, occasionally trying to influence things. Often, not even leading from behind.

Mali, at the Western end of that volatile crescent, is a case in point.
As Colin Powell famously warnedGeorge H.W. Bush on the eve of the invasion of Iraq, “if you break it, you own it.” 

France is not responsible for “breaking” Mali. The country was already a West African basket case long before the French intervention.

But, as things now stand, France “owns” the shattered country. And there’s no crazy glue in sight.

In other words, France, which enraged many Americans by refusing to participate in the invasion of Iraq, now finds itself stuck with the results of their own intervention.
French President Francois Hollande’s dilemma is how to finesse that predicament—without making it look like France has cut and run, leaving an unseemly chaos in his wake.

Hollande made his conundrum clearduring his visit this past Saturday to Mali when he announced that France “will stay as long as necessary, but its purpose is not to stay.”  

Not that different a straddle from the problem the U.S. faced in Iraq and Afghanistan.
In fact, France’s sputtering economy can ill-afford this military adventure. More than 10% of the population is unemployed, factories continue to shut down, automobile sales slumped 15% in January, public employees are out on strike, etc. etc.

But to whom does France hand-off the ominous situation it confronts in Mali?
What passes for leadership in that country is a “transitional regime” the product of a military coup against the previous regime, which was corrupt, ineffectual, totally unable to deal with the growing crisis.

Which was why it was overthrown. Somehow, elections are going to have to be organized, which also means negotiating some kind of settlement with the Tuaregs of Northern Mali, who have been demanding attention from the central government for decades. It was their rebellion that was hijacked by the jihadis-some of whom were linked with Al Qaeda. 

But what to do about those jihadis? In fact, the big question now, is where they hell are they? As far as is known, they took very few casualties. In most cases, without a shot being fired from the ground, they evaporated back into the desert or from wherever they came--often long before the French troops arrived.

But they’ve still got their arms, their jihadist ideals, and their income flowing in from traditional smuggling activities.

So, do they just disappear or launch hit-and-run attacks against troops sent to hunt them down? Or wait until most of the French pull out?

Up till now, the majority of French still back Hollande’s Mali expedition. But what happens if the French army—which lost just one soldier in the entire three week campaign--what happens if they start taking casualties, or more French civilians get taken hostage by jihadi groups?  Or French targets elsewhere are attacked?

What happens if the French-backed Malien army commits more outrages on the civilian population? What happens if the French feel obliged to overstay their visit, and—like the U.S. in Iraq or Afghanistan--become viewed as occupiers rather than liberators.

The French have been talkingabout turning over frontline duties to African troops. But the Malien army is woefully trained, and equipped, its officers are said to be up to their helmets in cigarette and drug smuggling, often in cahoots with the radical Islamic groups they were supposed to be keeping at bay.  

There are also thousands of other African troops from West Africa, who have been arriving in dribs and drabs in various states of readiness and training. They also lack weapons, logistics support, skill in desert fighting, and, above all, money to pay for their operations.

[Indeed some countries volunteer for such operations because it’s a great way to have someone else pick up the tab for their own over bloated armies.]

So, apart from training those troops, who’s going to pick up the tab? Again, France finds itself scanning the horizon for help.

Earlier this week, the President of the Ivory Coast announced at a donors’ conference in Ethiopia that the price tag for the “African-led International Support Mission to Mali” would be $950 million. That’s to cover not just military deployment and logistics, but humanitarian assistance, and at least the down payment on future development.

But despite the supposed crisis that threatens not just Africa, but Europe as well, the assembled delegates came up with only $450 million, less than half the amount requested.

Among the donors, Japan, which pledged $120 million, the United States, $96 million, Germany, 20 million.

But the most outrageous pledges came from the governments of India and China --$1 million dollars—each!

This is China, mind you, that, with hugeinvestments throughout West Africa, has an enormous amount at risk if political instability spreads.

The last thing the Chinese want, however, is for their projects--and thousands of their citizens--throughout the region to also become targets of Islamic radicals.

Let the French handle this one.

That same caution, fueled by the bitter lessons of Afghanistan and Iraq, has kept France’s allies on the sidelines, supplying aircraft to transport French troops and refuel French fighter jets, as is the U.S., but staying clear of any front-line roles themselves.   

Washington has wanted to keep an arms length from the conflict in order not to offer the jihadis a rallying point to inflame recruits.

But the U.S. is providing pilotless drones to track the rebels. And the problem is that to be effective, those drones will also have to be armed with missiles to take out the rebels they track down.

What happens as the inevitable cases of collateral damage start rolling in?  
As a nod to the French, the British finally decided to send 350 soldiers, but only to serve as instructors for the African troops. There is no way they’re going to be involved in ground combat.

Indeed Prime Minister David Cameron, deliveredone of the most pessimistic verdicts on the situation, when, during a recent visit to Algeria, he declared Britain’s determination to deal with “the terrorism threat” in Mali. “It will require a response that is about years, even decades, rather than months, and it requires a response that…has an absolutely iron resolve…” 

Or, as one retired French colonel blogged, “war against non-state organizations is a war of Sisyphus. We’re in the Sahel for a long time.”


          Drone Wars: the end of History?    


Drone Wars: the end of History?
NYT Jan 25, 2013LONDON — A prominent British human rights lawyer [Ben Emmerson] said on Thursday that a United Nations panel he leads would investigate what he called the “exponential rise” in drone strikes used in counterterrorist operations, “with a view to determining whether there is a plausible allegation of unlawful killing….”

“This form of warfare is here to stay, and it is completely unacceptable to allow the world to drift blindly toward the precipice without any agreement between states as to the circumstances in which drone strike targeted killings are lawful, and on the safeguards necessary to protect civilians.”

Awesome Engineering Co.

Memo To all Sales Staff:
|
Big News!
The Liquidator, our new unmanned aerial vehicle, is now in full production. But were after far more than the U.S. market. More than seventy countries already have dronesarmed and unarmed. Thats just for starters. Every self-respecting head of state is going to want his own fleet.  

And the Liquidator will be the flavor of the decade.

It can takeoff, land and hover for a week without need of a human operator.

And it can't be fooled.  From six miles up, thanks to our new Awesome Laser Optical Scanner (ALOS), it can zoom in to photograph the face of anyone below, as well as capture the underlying bone structure, with amazing resolution.

This means there is no way the bad guys (or gals) can conceal their identity by growing beards, dyeing their hair, losing weight, or undergoing radical plastic surgery.

The next sales point is also sensational: The Liquidatorcan work totally on its own. Its scanner can instantly interface with a database of all known or suspected bad guys in any intelligence agencys files, or from the new global terrorist data base that we offer as an additional service. At the same time, the ALOS can also assess the area around the target for risk of collateral damage. [cd]  

Note: for an extra 1$million per unit, we will equip the Liquidator with a CDR (collateral damage regulator) that permits the operator to dial in the degree of cd judged acceptable for any given assignment.

The operator then has an option. A.  Let the Liquidator run on auto-kill . That means that once is positive confirmation of the bad guy target, and the cd is acceptable, the on-board missile is automatically fired. Absolutely no time-wasting intervention required from the operator.

Option B. Of course, the operator can also make the kill decision himself, if there is, for instance, the need clearance from higher up the command chain.

Most of our clients follow the precedent established by President Barrack Obama, who established his own terrorist kill list. This enables him to wipe out the bad guys without encumbering legal procedures, yapping congressmen, or public trials that provide a soapbox and cheap publicity for the terrorists or whatever and their hysterical rants.

We expect this system to continue spreading worldwide. [In fact, we know of one European country where the wife of the President gets to have her own kill list; and another state where the Prime Minister gave kill privileges to his 16 year old mistressthough she only gets to have five people on the list at a time.]

As part of this presentation, we include a new interactive: How the history of the world would have been totally changedmaybe even ground to a halt--if kings, czars, sheikhs, imams, tribal chiefs, presidents, and dictators-for-life, had had something like The Liquidator at their disposal in years gone by.  

The Brits, for example, could have blown to smithereens early on Jomo Kenyatta, No way he would have survived to become glorified as the founding father of Kenya. Ditto Robert Mugabe branded as a terrorist in what used to be known as Rhodesia. Ditto Michael Collins of the IRA.

In the 1940s, London also could have knocked off a couple of future Israeli Prime Ministers, Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir , who organized the bloody-minded Irgun revolt against England, bombing a hotel and murdering British police.

Going back even earlier, George III could have nipped the Boston Tea Party in the bud; taken out Paul Revere before hed even saddled up. Hell, America might still be British.

In the same way, the French would have dispatched Ben Bella, wiped out the FLN before most people even knew what FLN stood for, and Algeria would still be French. So, perhaps, would Vietnam, if theyd targeted Ho Chi Minh when they should have.

And the Germans, if theyd had the Liquidator the Warsaw Ghetto uprising would have been still born, Jean Moulin and the French Resistance would have been turned into road kill. Same thing for the Soviets:  No Hungarian revolution. No Prague Spring. 

Best of all, theyd have shredded Osama Bin Laden, long before hed even thought about turning his bearded crazies against America.

Batista would have splattered Fidel and Che all over the Sierra Maestra in Cuba.
Same story for jokers like Geronimo, Zapata, and Pancho Villa.

And Nat Turners slave rebellion in 1861 in Virginia would also have been instantly squelched: No need to put him into the history books by publicly hanging the guy, then flaying and beheading the corpse. The Liquidator would have accomplished all that, and more--but discretely.

 I mean, guys, when you think about it, what were really offering our clients is a real shot at The End of History.


          France in Mali:Chasing Roadrunner over a cliff?   
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Within the next few days, France will have deployed some 2,500 troops to Mali. That’s as large a commitment as France made to what became a profoundly unpopular war in Afghanistan. No one knows how long the troops will be there, but the price tag will surely be tens if not hundreds of millions of Euros, this to born by a French economy already in woeful shape. 
The danger is that President Francois Hollande and the French state, may shortly find themselves in the disastrous situation of the hapless coyote in the cartoon, Roadrunner, so intent on chasing his prey that he scurries right over a cliff and suddenly finds himself flailing in mid air, about to plunge to the desert below.  
President Hollande said the menace of a radical Islamic takeover was so imminent that he had no choice but to intervene—to save not just Mali, but all of Western Africa, and, the French now imply, Europe as well.  
Strange thing though, despite the supposed urgency of the situation, France has had precious little luck so far in convincing its European partners to contribute their own troops to the intervention. Indeed, the last thing those countries want, after the traumatic experience of Iraq, Libya and the Afghan crusade, is to become enmeshed in what risks to be an open-ended conflict, on behalf of an unelected Malian government, against a vague assortment of ethnic rebels and jihadis in the desert wilds of North Africa. Thus, so far there have been a lot of pats on the back from France’s allies, offers of logistic support, intelligence, a few troop transports, drones, but that’s it.  
 "You say, 'We'll give you nurses and you go get yourselves killed,'" said French deputy Daniel Cohn-Bendit, railed at his fellow deputies in the European Parliament. "We [Europe] will only be credible if French soldiers are not the only ones getting killed."
Actually, it was surprising to learn that France, still considered a major military power, doesn’t have the capability to transport a couple of thousand troops and their equipment to North Africa. France even had to rely on an offer from the Italians (!) for tankers to handle in-flight refueling of French fighter jets.
Despite the tepid response from France’s allies, French government spokesman are still reassuring the public that French troops are not going to play the major combat role in the coming ground battles.
The fact is, that even if they wanted to play a major role, there are nowhere near enough French boots on the ground. It’s instructive to speculate on France’s combat strength, using what is known as the “tooth to tail”ratio, that is, the number of support troops in the rear needed to support each combat soldier at the front. For the U.S. military that ratio is about three to one. If we use the same figure for France, that means that out of 2500 French troops deployed to Mali, probably about 600-700—a thousand at best--would actually see front-line combat.
And Mali, don’t forget, is twice the size of France, or Afghanistan or Texas.
The actual down-and-dirty fighting, we are told, is to be done by troops from West Africa, some of whom have finally begun arriving in Mali. But all the reports about those contingents indicate a woeful lack of equipment, morale, and training, particularly in being able to fight a guerrilla war in the desert reaches of the Sahel. 
After months of discussion, this week—in the wake of the hostage crisis in Algeria-- France’s European allies finally agreed to dispatch 250 troops to help train the Malian army and perhaps other African units. But—unless the fallout from the Algerian disaster changes things--it’s already determined that those European trainers are to be non- combatants. They will not even be advising the Malian soldiers in battle. As one senior EU official made very clear. “We will not go north. We will stay in the training areas,”
By the way, one thing I can never figure out—whether it be Mali or Afghanistan--we‘re always hearing about how the forces being backed by the U.S. and its allies, like France in this case, invariably seem to be poorly trained and equipped and demoralized, despite hundreds of millions of dollars and years of training. [Think Afghanistan where only one out of 23 battalions is able to function independently of U.S. support.]
Meanwhile, the ragtag rebels they’re combating, usually from those same third world countries, like the Taliban in Afghanistan or the Touaregs in Mali are portrayed as dedicated, fierce, battle-hardened warriors, who wreak havoc on their opponents with often the most primitive improvised weapons or suicide bombs. Reports are that it will take many weeks, probably months, before the various African troops will be ready to do any serious fighting. And there are other problems to deal with apart from training and equipment: the danger, for instance, of unleashing Christian soldiers from Nigeria to suppress Islamic rebels in Northern Mali.
Ironically, as I’ve pointed out in a previous blog, while France’s allies are hanging back, the Chinese, who have huge economic interests and construction projects underway in every one of Mali’s neighbors, continue to go about their business, apparently still content to leave the police work to France and Europe and the West African states. 
The French, for the record, insist that the groups they are battling in Mali –and now in Algeria--are all lumped together as “terrorists”, linked to al-Qaeda. There is no recognition of the fact that most of the different rebel groups, most of them driven by strong ethnic and nationalist aspirations, as much as by religion--not that different perhaps, from the Taliban in Afghanistan.
In that case, it’s obvious that the only way this conflict will ultimately be settled is not by somehow eradicating the “terrorists” ,but by sitting down to negotiate a deal, as will probably be the case in Afghanistan.  
In Mali, such a deal may be not be that different from the kind of settlement that was offered the Touaregs years ago after a series of rebellions, but which the Malian government ultimately reneged on.
So, how do the French feel about this?
Estimates are that anywhere from 400,000 to one million French took to the streets of Paris last weekend. A counter-protest, expected to draw hundreds of thousands of other militant French, is now being organized. Tempers are flaring. 
What’s the issue?
Mali?
Well, actually, no. It’s whether the French government should legalize gay marriage.
As for the intervention in Mali, at first the French, from all ends of the political spectrum, seemed to be solidly behind their government and their fighting men.
That consensus is already unraveling, and it’s certain that as the intervention drags on, the casualties and costs mount, and France’s European allies still drag their heels, the patriotic surge will flag 
Which bring us back to the Roadrunner. At  some point the French may suddenly look down to find to their president has taken them over a precipice, and they’re suspended there, gazing in horror at the chasm below.


          The Saudi-Israeli Nexus (2)   


“What was the real cost for not recognizing Israel in 1948 and why didn’t the Arab states spend their assets on education, health care, and the infrastructures instead of wars? But the hardest question that no Arab national wants to hear is whether Israel is the real enemy of the Arab world and the Arab people.”

A quote from an Aipac press release or a briefing from Israeli Prime Minister Bibi Nethanyahu?   Guess again. These questions are posed not by a source we would normally think of as sympathetic to Israel, but in a recent column in the major English-language newspaper in Saudi Arabia, the Arab News--a paper controlled by the son of the Crown Prince; the author, retired Saudi naval Commodore Abdulateef Al-Mulhim

His premise: that it’s not Israel and its American ally responsible for the current plight of the Arab world, but the Arabs themselves-specifically, their leaders.
 
“…the destruction and the atrocities are not done by an outside enemy. The starvation, the killings and the destruction in these Arab countries are done by the same hands that are supposed to protect and build the unity of these countries and safeguard the people of these countries….

“The Arab world wasted hundreds of billions of dollars and lost tens of thousands of innocent lives fighting Israel, which they considered is their sworn enemy, an enemy whose existence they never recognized. The Arab world has many enemies and Israel should have been at the bottom of the list. The real enemies of the Arab world are corruption, lack of good education, lack of good health care, lack of freedom, lack of respect for the human lives and finally, the Arab world had many dictators who used the Arab-Israeli conflict to suppress their own people. These dictators’ atrocities against their own people are far worse than all the full-scale Arab-Israeli wars.”

“Finally, if many of the Arab states are in such disarray, then what happened to the Arabs’ sworn enemy (Israel)? Israel now has the most advanced research facilities, top universities and advanced infrastructure. Many Arabs don’t know that the life expectancy of the Palestinians living in Israel is far longer than many Arab states and they enjoy far better political and social freedom than many of their Arab brothers. Even the Palestinians living under Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip enjoy more political and social rights than some places in the Arab World.”

In another column, the Saudi Commodore speculated on what would have happened if, rather than attacking the Zionist state, the Arab countries had recognized Israel back in May 14, 1948. The result he claimed would have been better for all parties concerned, particularly the Arabs:

 “…the Palestinians would have been able to free themselves from the hollow promises of Arab dictators who kept telling them the refugees would be back in their homes, all Arab lands would be liberated and Israel would be sent to the bottom of the sea. Some Arab leaders used the Palestinians to suppress their own people and stay in power.
“Since 1948, if an Arab politician wanted to be a hero, he had an easy way of doing it. He just needed to shout as loud as he could about his intention to destroy Israel, without mobilizing a single soldier (talk is cheap.” 

The history of the entire region would have been radically changed, according to this column: among 
other benefits, there would have been no Nasser, no Saddam Hussein, no Muammar al-Gaddafi.

“Even a non-Arab country (Iran) used Palestine to divert its people from internal unrest. I remember Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini declaring that he would liberate Jerusalem via Baghdad, and President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad making bellicose statements about Israel, though not even a firecracker was fired from Iran toward Israel.

“Now, the Palestinians are on their own; each Arab country is busy with its own crisis – from Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Sudan, Yemen, Syria, Jordan, Somalia, Algeria, Lebanon and the Gulf states.”
Intrigued, I called the retired Commodore to ask if he’d had any problems publishing such outspoken views in what is essentially a semi-official Saudi publication. None at all, he said.

“This is read by many from the Saudi Royal family. Nobody was upset. If they were, they would have told me not to write my weekly articles any more. But they haven’t I’ve never been stopped. That doesn’t mean that they agree with it.  It’s an idea that they are interested in having out there.”

On the other hand, when you stop to think about it, such apparently pro-Israeli views in the semi-official Saudi media are not at all that surprising.

One of the most curious of alliances in the Middle East have been the clandestine goings on between the Zionist State of Israel and the Saudi royal family, the guardians of Mecca, among the most conservative of Arab monarchs. As I wrote in a previous blog, that relationship is based on a venerable political tenet:  the enemy of my enemy is my friend. The common enemy, in this case, being Iran, radical Islam, and the political upheaval known as the Arab Spring.

Both Israel and the Saudi royals are threatened by the rise of Iran, the crumbling of the old order, the end of brutal dictators, the explosion of popular political and religious passions.

This is true, even though the Saudis (and Qataris) helped finance the fall of Gaddafi, who they despised, and are backing the rebels in Syria against Assad. They hope to use their money and influence to control the outcomes, to safeguard their own monarchies.

Though Commodore Al-Mulhim decries the brutalities of dictators like Assad, Nasser, and Gaddafi, other columns speaks glowingly of the traditional links between the Saudi people and their benevolent royal family.
The continued political turbulence stoked by the Israeli-Palestinian dispute is also a threat to the Saudi 
royals. And the Commodore’s tough-worded critique of the Arabs’ refusal to recognize Israel dovetails perfectly well with a peace plan the Saudis first put on the table in 2002. In exchange for the Arab states normalizing relations with Israel , Israel would withdrawal to the 1967 borders.  
Indeed, over the years, the Israelis have joined forces clandestinely with the Saudis to take on other mutual enemies.

In 1962, for instance, when civil war broke out after the monarch was toppled in Yemen, a coalition of the Mossad, the Saudis, and the British SAS took on rebels backed by the armed forces of Egypt’s President Nasser.

Again in Beirut in March 8,1985 the Saudis and the Mossad joined in an attempt to assassinate Muhammad Fadlallah, the cleric who founded Hezbollah. According to Bob Woodward, William Casey then director of the CIA claimed that the Saudis helped organize placement of an explosives-laden vehicle, which went off in front of Fadlallah’s home. Several buildings collapsed,80 people were killed, but Fadlallah survived.

It’s a good bet that similar clandestine adventures between the Israelis and the Saudis continue to this day.

          Algerian intellectuals defy extremists, rally for anti-takfir lawBy: Lamine Ghanmi   
'Algeria has experienced “a resurgence of political Islam disguised as social conservatism, Algerian writer H’mida Ayachi
          L'Europa non capisce cosa è la Libia e lascia sola l'Italia   

Parole al miele, tante. Sostegno concreto, nessuno. Nella sostanza, una presa in giro. Così l'Europa dei muri e dell'ipocrisia ha risposto alle richieste italiane di una condivisione dell'intervento sull'emergenza migranti nel Mediterraneo, la rotta più battuta e più mortale.

L'Europa resta ostaggio dell'asse del Nord, quella che ha sempre guardato alla sponda sud del Mediterraneo come minaccia e mai come cruciale luogo geopolitico di cooperazione. Una Europa miope non riesce a mettere a fuoco gli eventi che stanno segnando il Nord Africa, con il tratto comune dell'instabilità che si fa sempre più esplosiva. A cominciare dalla Libia. Intervenire in uno Stato fallito, con un governo rintanato in una base navale a Tripoli, guidato da un primo ministro la cui autorevolezza è pari a zero. Far finta di mostrare i muscoli, anche "solo" con un blocco navale, in un Paese dove sono presenti 200.000 uomini armati sotto innumerevoli bandiere, più che una scelta avventurista è una colossale idiozia. Che diventerebbe tragica se si provasse ad attuare. Perché la Libia, al di là di qualche esibizione terrestre di teste di cuoio di varie nazionalità (un manipolo anche italiano), era e resta una terra di nessuno, alla ricerca, paradossi della Storia, di un "nuovo Colonnello", o, se vogliamo attualizzare, di un "Sultano" modello Erdogan, non tanto per stabilizzare l'instabilizzabile, ma per assurgere al ruolo di "Gendarme" del Mediterraneo centrale.

In questo puzzle irricomponibile, l'Italia prova ad esercitare la diplomazia delle "due carte": da un lato sostenendo il premier-architetto al-Serraj, senza però togliere dal tavolo la "carta" Haftar, l'uomo forte della Cirenaica, il generale indipendentista che tiene in scacco il Parlamento di Tobruk – l'unico riconosciuto internazionalmente, quello in teoria favorevole a Serraj – e che si muove alle strette dipendenza del suo protettore esterno: il "Pinochet delle Piramidi", il presidente-generale Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. La versione libica del "modello turco" – stato di polizia al servizio dell'Europa costruttrice di muri e di hotspot-lager – è dunque Khalifa Haftar, un tempo al servizio di Gheddafi, oggi messosi in proprio con un esercito bene addestrato, meglio armato, e sostenuto dall'Egitto di al-Sisi e dagli Emirati Arabi Uniti. Haftar mentre tiene in scacco politicamente Tripoli, sul campo concentra le sue forze armate in Cirenaica, con due obiettivi: sbarazzarsi del Consiglio della shura dei rivoluzionari a Bengasi e liberare Derna. Al momento per il "generalissimo" combattere l'Isis è l'ultimo dei problemi. Al primo posto, c'è l'odiato Serraj.

"Non molla Haftar – annota Angelo Del Boca, il più autorevole storico del colonialismo italiano in Nord Africa - perché è ben consapevole che se riconosce l'autorità del nuovo "premier", non sarà mai il leader militare della nuova Libia, come ha sempre aspirato a diventare".

Altro che stabilizzazione: in Libia è guerra di tutti contro tutti. Le milizie islamiste di Tripoli e Misurata, che godono del sostegno dei berberi del deserto, contro quelle di Zintan alleate di Haftar. Lo stesso uomo forte della Cirenaica comincia a perdere pezzi. Quanto al premier "unificatore", è difficile vederlo in questi panni quando anche nella capitale del suo governo, Tripoli, milizie ostili e in guerra l'una contro l'altra controllano interi quartieri e perfino l'aeroporto. L'insicurezza regna sovrana. A darne conto non sono solo i tanti signori della guerra in campo, ma le lunghe code a Tripoli davanti alle banche: il contante scarseggia, il cambio del dinaro è in caduta libera. E come non bastasse, oltre ai due governi rivali della Libia orientale e occidentale ci sono anche due banche centrali. Nessuna illusione di costruire, sulle macerie della scellerata guerra del 2011, uno Stato di diritto, nel momento in cui è già una impresa immaginare la Libia del futuro possa configurarsi ancora come una parvenza di Stato unitario, visto che potenti attori regionali operano alacremente per la tripartizione del territorio con la costituzioni di tre protettorati: Tripolitania, Cirenaica, Fezzan.

Sul fronte jihadista, le insidie più temibili vengono dai qaedisti di Ansar Al Sharia – che può contare su almeno 5.000 miliziani, schierati tra Bengasi e Derna- dallo Stato islamico. Attorno ad Hon, capoluogo del distretto di Giofra tra Sirte e Sebha, sono stati creati alcuni campi di addestramento per accogliere e formare combattenti provenienti dal Sahel e dal Senegal e uomini di Boko Haram che stanno dando una decisa impennata agli organici di Isis in Libia. Del resto, uno dei principali obiettivi di al-Baghdadi in Libia è proprio questo: ingrossare la truppa e arruolare nuovi combattenti. Radicarsi nel centro-sud della Libia consente a Isis di penetrare i canali del contrabbando e dei traffici illegali e sfruttarli accedendo così a nuove risorse. Esattamente quanto accaduto in "Siraq". Oggi, la forza dello Stato islamico in Libia si può stimare in circa 8.000 uomini. Il nucleo forte è costituito da foreign fighters rientrati nel Paese nordafricano e da quadri intermedi del gruppo giunti nel Paese negli ultimi mesi, in particolare da Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Sudan, Mali, Niger e Ciad. Al gruppo hanno poi via, via aderito elementi scissionisti di Ansar Al Sharia, combattenti africani e appartenenti, soprattutto giovani, della tribù dei Gheddafi Qadadfa. Sconfitta a Sirte, l'Isis si è spostata verso il confine con la Tunisia, a Surman, un'altra città costiera a circa 60 km dalla capitale, dove gli affiliati di al-Baghdadi hanno distribuito volantini con indicazioni per le donne, minacciando il ricorso alle armi per chi non si adegua. I confini meridionali della Libia controllati dal Daesh e dai Tuareg sono spesso teatro di arruolamenti forzati di massa tra i migranti in transito nel deserto e provenienti da sud.

Ma più che nel governo dell'ex architetto al-Serraj, che può contare sul sostegno di Qaatar, Sudan e Turchia, il futuro della Libia sembra essere nel suo passato. Se si vuole contrastare "l'ordine" del Califfato, occorre puntare sull'ordine tribale. E delle tribù più importanti, più radicate. Warfala, Zintan, Rojahan, Orfella, Riaina, al Farjane, al Zuwayya, Tuareg. Le stesse che nel 1911 affrontarono gli italiani durante la guerra di Libia. Sono le tribù, oltre 140, alle quali appartiene l'85% dei libici, a essersi sollevate in Libia contro Gheddafi, non i giovani intellettuali né le masse operaie, che nel Paese sono perlopiù composte da lavoratori stranieri. Sono loro che hanno assestato il colpo definitivo al regime del Colonnello. E con le grandi tribù la comunità internazionale dovrà fare i conti per contrastare l'avanzata jihadista ed evitare che il Paese nordafricano si trasformi in una "nuova Somalia" a trecento chilometri dalle coste italiane.

Una realtà nella quale il commercio illegale di migranti attraverso il Mediterraneo è ormai un traffico da 323 milioni di dollari l'anno nella sola Libia: risorse che vengono incanalate verso gruppi terroristici, tra cui il Daesh, secondo un rapporto pubblicato dal Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, una rete di esponenti di forze dell'ordine e gruppi per lo sviluppo, con il centro di analisi Rhipto in Norvegia. La migrazione forzata è quella illegale (ma volontaria) è diventata una delle maggiori fonti di reddito in Libia, e un vasto spettro di gruppi stanno approfittando, afferma il rapporto. Come nell'era Gheddafi, gruppi di miliziani in Libia hanno continuato a raccogliere migliaia in centri di detenzione per migranti, e continuano a farlo. "Chiunque può accedere ad un barcone può concludere un profitto significativo mettendo i migranti in mare". Di solito i contrabbandieri chiedono 800-1000 dollari a persona per il passaggio in Libia e poi altri 1.500-1.900 per il viaggio attraverso il Mediterraneo, spesso estorcendo il denaro con la forza. E in Libia nasce e si sviluppa il "patto d'azione" tra le organizzazioni criminali e i gruppi jihadisti. I gruppi criminali tradizionali ormai specializzati nel traffico di persone organizzano i trasferimenti dei migranti attraverso le zone desertiche del Sahara non controllate dalle forze di polizia, dai Paesi del Corno d'Africa fino ai territori che si affacciano sul Mediterraneo. Una volta raggiunta la Libia entrano in contatto con gruppi tribali, signori della guerra e terroristi che "gestiscono" quest'area dove non esiste nessun controllo istituzionale. E' in questa terra di "nessuno" che si concretizza il business e la collaborazione tra i gruppi criminali tradizionali specializzati in tratta di vite umane e i gruppi terroristici legati all'Isis. I terroristi "concedono" l'utilizzo del territorio e quindi la sosta dei migranti in quella fascia di costa sotto il loro controllo in cambio di una parte dei soldi richiesti per la traversata. Ovviamente, considerando il numero dei migranti imbarcati ogni volta su questi barconi è facile comprendere che si stratta di un giro d'affari di milioni di dollari. E di migliaia di morti.

Questa è oggi la Libia: terra di predoni e signori della guerra. Con l'Italia lasciata sola in un Mediterraneo sempre più instabile e destinato sempre più ad essere la rotta principale dei migranti.


          Algerian activist faces trial for comments against new government regulation   
An Algerian activist is facing trial for comments he made on social media regarding an official government announcement.
          The Untamed Web   
For over a century, propaganda war has been one of the greatest weapons among the countries and blocks. From Hitler to the WMD gaffe, the mighty and the powerful have used the media to convince the masses across the world about stories that never happened. In retrospect, it appears as if the past and future events were premeditated, orchestrated and implemented with impeccable precision. Thank God, the premeditated and orchestrated outcomes of such events are not predictable.

But, since the dawn of the internet era, the clout on the propaganda game is shifting towards a small group of people from different countries and ethnic groups. They might be small, but their collective power has helped topple governments and shutdown biggest corporations. They might look different and speak different languages. But, they all have a common goal: Fight against the unjust. And, the superpowers or the rich or the powerful can do nothing about it. Thanks to the Web and Social Networking. It is called the Cyber War.

This is how it works to wage a Cyber War.

All you need is to mobilize an intensely fast-paced Internet forum with hundreds of determined activists and a simple piece of software called a Low Orbit Ion Cannon. Activists choose targets by consensus, download the LOIC – initially developed to help Internet security experts test website vulnerability to DDoS attacks – and start firing packets of data at the targeted website.

• Role in Tunisia’s “Jasmine Revolution”.
• Wikileaks-inspired attacks on Mastercard and Visa.
• Attack on Zimbabwe government (seen as enemies of free speech).
• Attack on Estonian government (due to a row between Estonia and Russia)

There have been reports about Tunisian inspired demonstrations in Yemen and Algeria. I can imagine a group of activist working day and night to facilitate demonstrations and add fuel to fire. Most of these activists claim that they do not have bad intentions and they consider themselves as good Samaritans fighting for the weak against the unjust powers.

Pen is mightier than the sword. Cliché, but it is apt for any generation, as it reflects the power of the human mind and spirit. Books and Newspapers are used to rekindle the human spirit, but the power of it has lost its thrust and reliance, as most of the World events are perceived by the public as orchestrated. Thanks to the Corporations that have tamed the offline media.

The Internet has evolved as an effective online platform for Social Networking. The intuitiveness and accessibility of the Internet for the masses has made it so powerful and intensive to stir the human spirit across boundaries.

Thanks to the untamed Web. At least, it is untamed for now.......
          French police afraid of large group of Arabs angry in Paris   
French police ejected of a arab neighborhood called " Barb`es " the majority of people living here are from Algeria. The people in the video shout " one, two, three, viva l'Alg'erie ( one , two , three viva Algeria ).
          Avery Table Tents 5305   
Mohamed Hassan: "the causes of the revolution far beyond Tunisia Ben Ali and his party. "

Tunisians brought down the dictator Ben Ali. Today, they continue to fight against his men to head the transitional government. In this new chapter of our series "Understanding the Muslim world," Mohamed Hassan * ((photo-cons) explains the implications of the revolution of Tunisia and its root causes: how nationalism Liberal advocated by Tunisia under Bourguiba interests Western, plunging people into poverty, how a repressive state has put in place to maintain this system, why dictatorships in the Arab world are caused to fall, and how Islam became the condom imperialism





(Gregory Lalieu Michel Collon)


In December 2010, riots broke out in Tunisia. A month later, President Ben Ali fled the country after twenty-three year reign. What are the causes of this revolution? And why is it popular movement succeeded in bringing down the dictator where other attempts have failed?

For there to be a revolution, it is necessary that people refuse to live as before and that the ruling class is no longer able to govern as before. On December 17, 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi, a young seller of fruits and vegetables, has sacrificed out of desperation after police had confiscated his goods himself, and that local authorities have to stop working. The conditions were ripe for a revolution broke out in Tunisia Bouazizi and suicide was the trigger.

Indeed, the Tunisians did not want to live as before: they were not accepting corruption, police repression, lack of freedom, unemployment, etc.. Moreover, the ruling class could no longer govern as before. Corruption under Ben Ali had taken a phenomenal amount while the majority of the population had to face insecurity. To maintain this status, police repression would be higher but it had reached its limits. The ruling elite was completely disconnected from the people for whom there was no interlocutor. Therefore, when popular revolts broke out, the ruling class had no choice but to quell the violence. But with the determination of the people, the repression reached its limit. This is one of the keys to the success of the popular revolution of Tunisia: it managed to reach all segments of society, including members of the army and police who sympathized with the demonstrators. The repressive apparatus could no longer function as before either. If a revolt occurs but is not able to combine different segments society, it can not lead a revolution.

Even after the departure of Ben Ali, the protests continue. The situation that Tunisians refuse is not the result of one man? For

signs "Ben Ali emerges" signs were followed by "CDR releases. Tunisians are attacking the president's political party because they fear that one of his men to take power. But in reality, the root causes that led to revolt Tunisians far outweigh Ben Ali and the RCD. It is not enough to turn the president for the people earns his freedom and improves living conditions.

corruption, unemployment, social inequality ... What are the effects of imperialist domination of the West over Tunisia. For Tunisia, after independence, became a project of the United States.

What do you mean by imperialism?


Imperialism is the process by which capitalist powers politically and economically dominated by foreign countries. Western multinationals plunder the resources of Africa, Latin America and Asia. They find opportunities for capital they will accumulate and exploit cheap labor market. I say that multinationals are not buying as they plunder the resources at their fair value and the local people not benefiting from these riches. And this looting would not be possible if these countries operated, there were no leaders to defend the interests of multinationals. These leaders are getting richer in the process. They constitute the so-called comprador bourgeoisie. They have no political vision for their own country does not produce wealth and do not develop a real economy. But personally enriched by trading resources their countries with multinationals. Obviously, the people are the biggest victim in all this!

When you're a nationalist anti-imperialist cons, you are looking to develop for yourself. You nationalize key sectors of your economy, rather than leaving the management to foreign companies. This will create a national economy in the country and you allow it to grow on the basis of independence. That's what I call a national democratic revolution: national independent because of the imperialist powers, democratic as against feudalism and the elements reactionaries in the country.

However, Bourguiba, Tunisia's first president, was considered a socialist. And during his reign, the state played a very important role in the economy.


Bourguiba's political party was socialist in name only. If the state played an important role, it was only for the benefit of an elite only. This is called state capitalism. In addition, Bourguiba has systematically eliminated all the progressive elements and anti-imperialist in his party. So that this party became the party of one man, completely subject to U.S. imperialism.

Habib Bourguiba , great actor in the struggle for independence, was president of Tunisia from 1957 to 1987


What Was Tunisia important for the United States?

To understand the importance of that country to the U.S. strategy, we must analyze the political context of the Arab world in years 50 and 60. In 1952, officers overthrew the monarchy of King Farouk of Egypt and proclaim a republic. With Nasser at the helm Egypt becomes the basis of Arab nationalism inspired with revolutionary ideas of socialism. As evidenced by the nationalization of the Suez Canal, Nasser's arrival in power is a blow to the West because the Egyptian president's policy is totally at odds with the hegemonic Western powers in the Near and Middle East. Worse still: the anti-imperialist ideas of Nasser are emulated in the region. In Yemen for example, where in 1962 a revolution divided the country, the South becoming a bastion of Arab revolutionary movement. The same year, the independence of Algeria sends a strong signal to Africa and the Third World, the imperialist powers put on alert. Libya also note the Qaddafi coup in 1969. The colonel took power and nationalized major sectors of the economy, to the chagrin of the West. The same year, the Islamic revolution in Iran toppled the Shah, one of the most important pillars of U.S. strategy in the Middle East.

short, at that time, an anti-imperialist movement defies strong strategic interests of the United States in the Arab world. Fortunately for Washington, all countries in the region do not follow the path of Nasser. It the case of Tunisia. In 1957, a year after the independence of Tunisia, Bourguiba was one of the first Arab leaders to send U.S. in the prestigious journal, Foreign Affairs. The title of the article? Nationalism best antidote to communism. For the United States who want to counter the influence of Nasser is a godsend! Bourguiba wrote in his article: "With the regard, Tunisia has chosen to make unequivocal its way into the free world from the West." We are in the Cold War. The Soviets argued that Nasser's influence grows in the region. And the U.S. needs pro-imperialist agents Bourguiba as not to lose strategic control of the Arab world.

Nasser announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956

Can we be both nationalist and pro-imperialist?

Bourguiba was a liberal nationalist with anti-communist ideas which led him to join the imperialist camp in the West. In fact, I feel like George Padmore Bourguiba Arabic. Padmore was a leading Pan-Caribbean origin. In 1956 he wrote a book called Pan-Africanism or Communism: The battle ahead in Africa. Like Bourguiba, he fed anti-communist ideas and even if he declared himself a nationalist, his political vision was largely subservient to the interests of imperialist powers. Nationalism served as a cover, their policy is far from being independent. Padmore had a great influence on the first president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, one of the instigators of the African Union. Its pro-imperialist ideas were able to spread across the continent with the result that we see today is celebrated around the golden jubilee of independence in Africa, but many Africans know they have never become independent. President Nkrumah himself later regretted having taken the advice of Padmore.

In Tunisia too, the submission to imperialist interests has quickly been felt and it turned out that nationalism advocated by Bourguiba was a facade. In the 70s, for example, the President has passed a series of measures intended to attract foreign investors: tax exemption on company profits for ten years, exemption from all duties and taxes for twenty years, exemption from Tax Income property values, etc.. Tunisia has become a vast workshop of Western multinationals in recent repatriation of profits.

Tunisia did she not still been some good progress under Bourguiba?

Yes, there have been positive developments: education, status of women, etc.. First, because Tunisia were the progressives in his elite players, but they were quickly dismissed. Then, because Tunisia was to be dressed in his finest dress. Indeed, this country played a major role in the strategy of the United States to counter the influence of communism in the Arab world. But what had you on the other side? Progressive revolutionary movements that had toppled backward and monarchies who enjoyed popular support. You could not counteract this movement by advocating a feudal system. Saudi Arabia has done so because it could use its oil money for that. But Tunisia, unable to rely on such resources, should provide some progressive image. In the fight against communism, it was supposed to represent a successful Third World countries have chosen the path of liberal nationalism.

But behind the scenes was less flattering. As I said, Bourguiba has systematically eliminated the progressive elements that do not follow his steps. The anti-imperialists who wanted an independent Tunisia both economically and politically, those who wanted to assert their own position in the Third World and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, all were opposed. Tunisia has in fact been used as a laboratory of the imperialist powers. And what was supposed to represent the success of liberal nationalism has become a dictatorship.

When Ben Ali Bourguiba succeeded in 1987, he continues on the same track?


Absolutely. One can even say that the submission to Western interests has grown. Ben Ali was a pure agent of U.S. imperialism. In 1980, as ambassador to Poland, he even served as a liaison between the CIA and Lech Walesa, the union leader who fought against the Soviet Union.

In 1987, when Ben Ali assumed the presidency of Tunisia, the country was deeply in debt by the capitalist crisis of 1973. Moreover, at that time, the ideas of Milton Friedman and his Chicago Boys were very popular. These ultra-liberal economists believed that the market is an entity capable of regulating themselves and that the state should certainly not interfere in the economy. The technical elite Tunisian largely from U.S. schools were highly influenced by theories of Friedman. Ben Ali then left the state capitalism in effect at the beginning of the era Bourguiba. Under the supervision of the IMF and World Bank, he began a privatization program much more massive than what his predecessor had already begun in the 70s.

What were the effects of this new economic policy?


First, privatization of the Tunisian economy has allowed Ben Ali and his wife's family, Trabelsi, personal enrichment. Corruption has reached a very high level, Tunisia has become a country totally subservient to imperialism, headed by a comprador bourgeoisie. Obviously, Ben Ali and his clan did not have many raw materials to selling out to Western multinationals. But they took advantage of the education system established under Bourguiba to develop a service economy. Indeed, the Tunisian workforce is highly educated and inexpensive at a time. It therefore attracts foreign investors.

Tourism has also developed strong as to become the mainstay of the Tunisian economy. Here we see the lack of political vision of the elite. Indeed, no country can develop its economy based on tourism if not first developed a national economic base. The tourism industry consumes a lot but reported very little to the Tunisian people. Imagine: while Western tourists consume hectoliters of water to bask in pools, Jacuzzis or golf course, the poor peasants in the south face of the drying soil.

But it's not just the farmers who have suffered from this policy. Overall, the social conditions of the Tunisian people deteriorated while the president's entourage has amassed a huge fortune. Everyone knew the regime was corrupt. So to maintain this system, the system should prevent any disputes. The repression became even more brutal penny Ben Ali simple criticism or even the desire for modernity and openness were not allowed. Such a situation could lead to popular revolt. Moreover, trying to monopolize his clan the wealth of the country, Ben Ali has also drew the ire of some of the traditional bourgeois Tunisia.


You say that political repression was very strong. Is there anyway today, opposition forces can guide the people's revolution now that Ben Ali has fallen?

Genuine opposition parties were banned under Ben Ali. However, some continued to exist underground. For example, the first Tunisian Communist Party could not live openly and organize like any political party in a democracy. But he continued to operate secretly through associations of civil society (teachers, farmers, doctors, prisoners ...). The PGWPP was able to form a social base and fired a solid experience of this period. It is exceptional in the Arab world.

I think two major challenges now await the opposition parties. First, they must come forward and make themselves known to the general public in Tunisia. Then they must organize a united front of resistance to imperialism. In fact, the imperialist powers seek to maintain the system without Ben Ali Ben Ali. We see now with the Union government National rejected the Tunisians, which is very positive. But the imperialist powers will not stop there. They will certainly seek to impose an International Electoral Commission to support candidates who defend to their best interests. It is therefore necessary to resist interference by creating a united front to build a true democracy.


Opposition parties are they able to overcome their differences to create such a front?

I know that some political parties were reluctant to associate Islamo-nationalist movement Ennahda. This movement emerged in the 80s. He advocated an anti-imperialist line and in fact, has suffered political repression. Why not combine Ennahda in front of resistance to the interference of foreign powers? Tunisia is a Muslim country. It is normal that a political force emerges with an Islamo-nationalist trend. You can not prevent that.

But each of these movements must be studied separately, with its own specificities. This was done by the communist PGWPP. They studied scientifically objective conditions that apply Tunisia. Their conclusion is that the Communists and Islamo-nationalists have been victims of political repression and that even though their programs differ, they share common ground: they want an end to dictatorship and the independence of Tunisia. The Communists have proposed an alliance with the Islamo-nationalists long ago. Of course, the PGWPP does not make Tunisia a Islamic state. Its political agenda is different from that of al-Nahda. But it is the Tunisian people who will judge these differences democratically. Elections should be a contest open to everyone. That is true democracy.

Precisely opposition parties gathered in front of 14 January to fight against the interim government of Mohamed Ghannouchi, a henchman of former President Ben Ali. A hopeful sign?

Absolutely, Tunisia is on the right track: all opposition parties banned so far have created a united front to prevent the system is maintained without Ben Ali Ben Ali. Also underline the role played by the base of the union UGTT. The head of the union authorized under Ben Ali was corrupt and working with the state police. But since the basis of the union put pressure on its leaders and members who UGTT were part of the transitional government have resigned. Although much remains to be done, democracy wins Tunisian institutions under pressure from the people.

Western powers opposed to that. They want to impose democracy in Tunisia where only low-intensity "good" candidates would be allowed to stand for election. If you look at the type of democracy that the United States enjoy, you come across Ethiopia. The U.S. government has provided $ 983 million to countries in the Horn of Africa for the year 2010. That same year, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, in office since 16 years, was reelected with 99.5 percent of the vote! It's even better than Ben Ali! The reality is this: behind their rhetoric in support of the Tunisian people, the Western powers continue to actively support many other Ben Ali in the world.

The United States could not they support other candidates pro-imperialist, but in the eyes of Tunisians, were not associated with the Ben Ali era?

It would be difficult. There is a part of the comprador bourgeoisie which was lésinée by the corrupt system of Ben Ali. But this elite is not strong enough control the popular movement and not enough grounding in the Establishment to win.

The United States had also thought of another strategy: a few months ago, while Ben Ali was still in power, the U.S. ambassador has visited a Communist leader in prison. Officially, a simple observation visit in the framework of respect for human rights. Unofficially, the U.S. anticipated the departure of Ben Ali and wanted to test the waters. Their goal was to get the Communists against the Islamo-nationalists, divide the resistance to imperialism to weaken more. But the Communists Tunisia does not fall into the trap. They are very familiar with the strategy developed by Henry Kissinger in the 80s in the Middle East. They published a very good study on the subject and know they should no