Tech-Based PBL for the Young Learner? Yes!   
Tech-Based PBL for the Young Learner? Yes!
Presented by
Christy Keeler and Heather Rampton

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          Microsoft just unveiled another great-looking iPhone app   

Microsoft on Thursday launched the Office Lens app for iOS. The scanning app has been available on Windows Phone for about a year, but it is now the latest Windows app to make the transition to iPhone and iPad, following the release of the mobile Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook apps late last year.

DON'T MISS: Apple might have figured out how to fix the ugliest thing about the iPhone 6

With Office Lens, you will be able to capture and crop images of your work to share with others, make digital copies of documents and business cards and with the app's OCR text recognition capabilities, you can search for words and phrases within the images.

Here are a few of the app's features as they are listed on the official App Store page:

  • With Whiteboard mode, Office Lens trims and cleans up glare and shadows.
  • With Document mode, Office Lens trims and colors images perfectly.
  • Pictures can be saved to OneNote, OneDrive, or your preferred cloud storage.
  • Choose to convert images to Word (.docx), PowerPoint (.pptx), or PDF (.pdf) files that are automatically saved to OneDrive.

Office Lens is free to download on the App Store. You can get it here and start scanning right away.


          Новая глобальная атака шифровальщика: подробности от «Доктор Веб»   

28 июня 2017 года

Специалисты компании "Доктор Веб" изучают новый троянец-шифровальщик Trojan.Encoder.12544, упоминаемый в СМИ как Petya, Petya.A, ExPetya и WannaCry-2. На основании предварительного анализа вредоносной программы компания "Доктор Веб" представляет рекомендации, как избежать заражения, рассказывает, что делать, если заражение уже произошло, и раскрывает технические подробности атаки.

Наделавший много шума червь-шифровальщик Trojan.Encoder.12544 представляет серьезную опасность для персональных компьютеров, работающих под управлением Microsoft Windows. Различные источники называют его модификацией троянца, известного под именем Petya (Trojan.Ransom.369), но Trojan.Encoder.12544 имеет с ним лишь некоторое сходство. Эта вредоносная программа проникла в информационные системы целого ряда госструктур, банков и коммерческих организаций, а также заразила ПК пользователей в нескольких странах.

На текущий момент известно, что троянец заражает компьютеры при помощи того же набора уязвимостей, которые ранее использовались злоумышленниками для внедрения на компьютеры жертв троянца WannaCry. Массовое распространение Trojan.Encoder.12544 началось в первой половине дня 27.06.2017. При запуске на атакуемом компьютере троянец несколькими способами ищет доступные в локальной сети ПК, после чего по списку полученных IP-адресов начинает сканировать порты 445 и 139. Обнаружив в сети машины, на которых открыты эти порты, Trojan.Encoder.12544 пытается инфицировать их с использованием широко известной уязвимости в протоколе SMB (MS17-10).

В своем теле троянец содержит 4 сжатых ресурса, 2 из которых являются 32- и 64-разрядной версиями утилиты Mimikatz, предназначенной для перехвата паролей открытых сессий в Windows. В зависимости от разрядности ОС он распаковывает соответствующую версию утилиты, сохраняет ее во временную папку, после чего запускает. При помощи утилиты Mimikatz, а также двумя другими способами Trojan.Encoder.12544 получает список локальных и доменных пользователей, авторизованных на зараженном компьютере. Затем он ищет доступные на запись сетевые папки, пытается открыть их с использованием полученных учетных данных и сохранить там свою копию. Чтобы инфицировать компьютеры, к которым ему удалось получить доступ, Trojan.Encoder.12544 использует утилиту для управления удаленным компьютером PsExec (она также хранится в ресурсах троянца) или стандартную консольную утилиту для вызова объектов Wmic.exe.

Контроль своего повторного запуска энкодер осуществляет с помощью файла, сохраняемого им в папке C:\Windows\. Этот файл имеет имя, соответствующее имени троянца без расширения. Поскольку распространяемый злоумышленниками в настоящий момент образец червя имеет имя perfc.dat, то файл, предотвращающий его повторный запуск, будет иметь имя C:\Windows\perfc. Однако стоит злоумышленникам изменить исходное имя троянца, и создание в папке C:\Windows\ файла с именем perfc без расширения (как советуют некоторые антивирусные компании), уже не спасет компьютер от заражения. Кроме того, троянец осуществляет проверку наличия файла, только если у него достаточно для этого привилегий в операционной системе.

После старта троянец настраивает для себя привилегии, загружает собственную копию в память и передает ей управление. Затем энкодер перезаписывает собственный файл на диске мусорными данными и удаляет его. В первую очередь Trojan.Encoder.12544 портит VBR (Volume Boot Record, загрузочная запись раздела) диска C:, первый сектор диска заполняется мусорными данными. Затем шифровальщик копирует оригинальную загрузочную запись Windows в другой участок диска, предварительно зашифровав ее с использованием алгоритма XOR, а вместо нее записывает свою. Далее он создает задание на перезагрузку компьютера, и начинает шифровать все обнаруженные на локальных физических дисках файлы с расширениями .3ds, .7z, .accdb, .ai, .asp, .aspx, .avhd, .back, .bak, .c, .cfg, .conf, .cpp, .cs, .ctl, .dbf, .disk, .djvu, .doc, .docx, .dwg, .eml, .fdb, .gz, .h, .hdd, .kdbx, .mail, .mdb, .msg, .nrg, .ora, .ost, .ova, .ovf, .pdf, .php, .pmf, .ppt, .pptx, .pst, .pvi, .py, .pyc, .rar, .rtf, .sln, .sql, .tar, .vbox, .vbs, .vcb, .vdi, .vfd, .vmc, .vmdk, .vmsd, .vmx, .vsdx, .vsv, .work, .xls, .xlsx, .xvd, .zip.

Троянец шифрует файлы только на фиксированных дисках компьютера, данные на каждом диске шифруются в отдельном потоке. Шифрование осуществляется с использованием алгоритмов AES-128-CBC, для каждого диска создается собственный ключ (это — отличительная особенность троянца, не отмеченная другими исследователями). Этот ключ шифруется с использованием алгоритма RSA-2048 (другие исследователи сообщали, что используется 800-битный ключ) и сохраняется в корневую папку зашифрованного диска в файл с именем README.TXT. Зашифрованные файлы не получают дополнительного расширения.

После выполнения созданного ранее задания компьютер перезагружается, и управление передается троянской загрузочной записи. Она демонстрирует на экране зараженного компьютера текст, напоминающий сообщение стандартной утилиты для проверки дисков CHDISK.

screenshot Trojan.Encoder.12544 #drweb

В это время Trojan.Encoder.12544 шифрует MFT (Master File Table). Завершив шифрование, Trojan.Encoder.12544 демонстрирует на экране требование злоумышленников об уплате выкупа.

screenshot Trojan.Encoder.12544 #drweb

Если в момент запуска на экране появилось сообщение о запуске утилиты CHDISK, незамедлительно выключите питание ПК. Загрузочная запись в этом случае будет повреждена, но ее можно исправить при помощи утилиты восстановления Windows или Консоли восстановления, загрузившись с дистрибутивного диска. Восстановление загрузочной записи обычно возможно в ОС Windows версии 7 и более поздних, если на диске имеется используемый системой скрытый раздел с резервной копией критичных для работы Windows данных. В Windows XP такой способ восстановления загрузки не сработает. Также для этого можно использовать Dr.Web LiveDisk — создайте загрузочный диск или флешку, выполните загрузку с этого съемного устройства, запустите сканер Dr.Web, выполните проверку пострадавшего диска, выберите функцию «Обезвредить» для найденных угроз.

По сообщениям из различных источников единственный используемый распространителями Trojan.Encoder.12544 ящик электронной почты в настоящее время заблокирован, поэтому они в принципе не могут связаться со своими жертвами (чтобы, например, предложить расшифровку файлов).

С целью профилактики заражения троянцем Trojan.Encoder.12544 компания «Доктор Веб» рекомендует своевременно создавать резервные копии всех критичных данных на независимых носителях, а также использовать функцию «Защита от потери данных» Dr.Web Security Space. Кроме того, необходимо устанавливать все обновления безопасности операционной системы. Специалисты компании «Доктор Веб» продолжают исследование шифровальщика Trojan.Encoder.12544.

Инструкция пострадавшим от Trojan.Encoder.12544


          Student Data Deletion Day - Wouldn't That Be Great   
From Education Week:
Bradley Shear is a lawyer who focuses on digital privacy and social media. 
He's also the father of two elementary-aged children who attend the public schools in Maryland's Montgomery County. 

A little over a year ago, Shear says, the focus of his professional life became an intensely personal concern, as well.

"I got a phone call from my son's teacher, who said he had performed an internet search for inappropriate content on a school-issued Chromebook," Shear said in an interview. "It got me thinking about all the data being collected about kids, and whether it will ever be deleted.
From Shear's blog, Shear on Social Media Law:

Every time our kids may be admonished for talking out of turn or texting in class they may receive a permanent demerit in Class Dojo.  In the near future, classrooms may be filled with cameras and other tracking technologies that also analyze our kids every interaction with their teachers and class mates. This is not some type of crazy prediction; in China, this Orwellian future is already a reality.

Multiple companies in the educational technology space have intentionally misled students, parents, teachers, administrators, and lawmakers about how they are using the personal data they are collecting about our kids in school. For example, Google was caught intentionally scanning student emails for advertising and other troubling purposes despite prior promises it was not.  ConnectEDU tried to sell personal student data for profit when it went bankrupt despite promising not to do so.* Edmodo, another educational technology company, was recently caught surreptitiously tracking students online to monetize their web surfing habits despite promises to the contrary.

As a parent and privacy advocate, I have come to the realization that more needs to be done to raise awareness about these issues and to effectuate change. Therefore, I am calling for all K-12 public schools and their vendors to automatically delete the following data points each and every June 30th after the school year has ended:

 -All student Internet browsing history
-All student school work saved on platforms such as the Google G Suite
-All student created emails (and all other digital communications)
-All behavioral data points/saved class interactions (e.g. Class Dojo data points)
-All student physical location data points  (e.g. obtained via RFID tags)
-All biometric data collected and tied to a student account (e.g. meal  purchase information)
-Etc…
An Easy To Follow School-Data-Deletion-Request-Template


This is just the beginning of the conversation and as our schools collect more data points on our kids more data will need to be automatically deleted at the end of each school year. Each public school system and their vendors must be required to certify in writing that the requested data deletion has occurred.

None of these above data points were kept on the Greatest Generation, Baby Boomers, or Generation X so they are not needed to be collected and saved for future generations. If we really want to make “America Great Again,” kids should be allowed to be kids without the fear that their every move is tied to them for the rest of their lives.

I'm with Shear - why should your child's  "internet search for inappropriate content" at school follow him/her for the rest of their school years?  

*This happened to SPS until they vigorously told them to give the data back.


          Microsoft Word – nagerechten.docx   
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          Microsoft Word – menus.docx   
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          Microsoft Word – hoofdgerechten.docx   
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          Microsoft Word – voorgerechten.docx   
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          Loving Support Award of Excellence Program    

The 2016 application period opens on October 14, 2016 and closes on December 14, 2016

Who can apply?

  • Must be a local WIC agency*
  • Must have operated a peer counseling program for at least 1 year
  • Peer counseling program must meet all of the required core components of the FNS Loving Support© Model for a successful peer counseling program.

*Local WIC agencies designated by State WIC agencies on WIC Local Agency Directory Report Form FNS–648.

What are the awards?
Recognition will be given at 3 levels of performance:

  • Gold Award
  • Gold Premiere Award (midlevel)
  • Gold Elite Award (highest level award)

Local WIC agencies may apply for any award level and will receive the highest eligible award based on the criteria as noted in the application instructions.


GOLD APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS

The application instructions note the criteria for responses, points awarded for each question and the details about the points required in each award.


GOLD AWARD APPLICATION

To complete this application you must first download and save the fillable form application to your computer.


GOLD PREMIERE or GOLD ELITE AWARD APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS

The application instructions note the criteria for responses, the points awarded for each question and the details about the points required in each award.


GOLD PREMIERE or GOLD ELITE AWARD APPLICATION

This is a combined application, to apply for the higher level awards, the Gold Premiere award or the Gold Elite award.

To complete this application you must first download, complete and save the Gold award application. Then you may download, complete and save the Gold Premiere/Elite application.


SUBMITTING APPLICATIONS

Applications and supporting documents should be submitted to the WIC National Office.

The 2016 application period closes on December 14, 2016. 


APPLICATION OVERVIEW POWERPOINT FOR LOCAL WIC AGENCIES

The PowerPoint presentation, sent to you by your State Agency, will explain the process of applying for the Gold, Gold Premiere and Gold Elite awards.


STEPS NEEDED TO START APPLICATION

1)  Download and save the Application(s) and Application Instruction(s). The Adobe fillable and MS Word fillable application are the same.  However, we strongly encourage that the Adobe fillable Application be used. 

Instructions

Adobe Fillable

MS Word Fillable

Gold Application Instructions Gold Application Gold Application
Gold Premiere/Elite Application Instructions Gold Premiere/Elite Application Gold Premiere/Elite Application

2) View Application Overview PowerPoint.

3) Read the Frequently Asked Questions and Instructions.

4) Complete and save the Gold Application and supporting documentation first, and if desired, then complete and save the Premiere/Elite Application using the Gold Application Instructions for detailed directions.


          EnergyNet. И не будет (статья)   

Опубликованная Концепция создания нового рынка электроэнергии на основе «интернета энергии» в рамках «дорожной карты» национальной технологической инициативы EnergyNet наконец стала обретать очертания чего-то готового к обсуждению. Все, что было на этот счёт до этого представляло из себя набор модных слов о цифровизации и интеллектуализации всего и вся и благих пожеланий в стиле «за все хорошее и против всего плохого». Уже казалось, что это так всё и умрет в нынешних унылых условиях стагнирующей экономики и затяжного кризиса. Но нет, на недавнем тематическом совещании в Севастополе появилась очередная красивая презентация, внутри которой был обнародован состав расширенной рабочей группы (не путать с рабочей группой Energy.net) , а также примерная стоимость и график продвижения или, опять же, «дорожная карта» реализации проекта «дорожной карты», извините за слэнг. Эта информация и стала, по нашему мнению, самым ценным содержанием всей презентации.

Среди участников этой большой рабочей группы обнаружилось много уважаемых и авторитетных экспертов. Однако часть этих самых экспертов, наиболее известных, замеченных в рыночном реформировании электроэнергетики еще времён РАО ЕЭС и А.Б.Чубайса&сотоварищи, на деле оказываются апологетами совсем других идей и постулатов, на которых, собственно, и зиждется наш уродливый рынок – местами бессмысленный, а чаще беспощадный к тем, кому он, собственно и призван служить – потребителям. При этом эти же люди в течение многих и многих вскрывают его многочисленные проблемы, обсуждают необходимость их решения и одну за другой строят «дорожные карты». Но дальше-то дело не двигается. Да, в общем и целом все, правда с разных позиций, согласны, что рынок в России, мягко говоря, нормально не работает. Относительно низкие цены на электроэнергию по сравнению с другими странами (а это то, что часто преподносится как великое достижение реформ) всего лишь результат искусственно заниженных цен на газ, а также широкого использования давно самортизированной советской инфраструктуры при том, что самих амортизационных средств на реконструкцию у её сегодняшних хозяев давно уж нет.

Авторы  
  Алексей Преснов, управляющий партнер, Агентство Энергетического Анализа (АЭА), г. Москва,  www.aeapresnow.com
  Татьяна Иванова, к.э.н., эксперт АЭА

В этом смысле авторы не изменили традициям - они вновь указали на глобальные и вопиющие недостатки того, что у нас есть сегодня, местами прямо назвав вещи своими именами - российская электроэнергетика находится в глубокой стагнации, а конкурентные рыночные механизмы функционируют лишь в очень ограниченном виде в оптовом сегменте, где "сохраняется высокая концентрация активов". Мы бы сказали - не только сохраняется, но и растёт.

Но не суть. Речь о другом. О том, что в эту бочку дегтя авторы Концепции хотят добавить несколько ложек с медом – некие структуры, называемые АЭК (активные энергокомплексы) в которых все будет по новому: цифровизация, автоматизация, demand response и агрегация спроса и производства, отсутствие жесткого регулирования взамен на рыночную ответственность и т.д. Этакие «новые» ячейки рынка, которые свяжутся со старым миром ЕЭС через УИСы - управляемые интеллектуальные соединения по стандартизированным протоколам, которые, по сути, и будут основными элементами архитектуры интернета энергии и в последующем - блокчейна. Именно их посредством ячейки «нового» будут в автоматическом интеллектуальном режиме взаимодействовать и с инфраструктурой ЕЭС – «старым миром», и между собой, и, возможно, внутри себя – между участниками АЭК. АЭК – это в представлении авторов документа некие «коммуны» нового энергорынка, в котором все будет прекрасно, где платежи, технологические процессы, торговые и информационные сервисы будут осуществляться в автоматическом режиме, а впоследствии и вовсе без участия человека, где не будет перекрестки, неплатежей, статусов, ДПМ, надбавок за Калининград и Дальний Восток, мусоросжигательных заводов, не будет 16-го – регламента договора о присоединении и вообще ничего нерыночного. Всё это останется там – в старом порочном мире ЕЭС и как-то продолжит жить, но уже без них, без реформаторов. Другими словами, реформаторы нашли себе новое поле для деятельности (и даже с воображаемой «рыночной ответственностью»), а уродливый стагнирующий рынок пусть загибается без каких-либо изменений в ядре рынка. Только откуда возьмутся эти АЭК? И возможно ли функционирование искусственно созданных ячеек, которые, по сути, инородны для экономической системы и того, что мы называем сейчас рынком электроэнергии в стране. Система не принимает инородных тел – она их либо перестраивает под себя, либо выдавливает – это азы функционирования любых систем, в том числе экономических.

Есть ли аналоги АЭК в мире? На этот вопрос авторы Концепции отвечают уклончиво, приводя какие-то не очень имеющие отношение к делу данные по проектам интернета энергии Китая и Японии, более подробно останавливаются на США, в частности, штате Нью-Йорк, где идут активные процессы эволюции классической модели в полностью дерегулированный рынок, интегрирующий в себя значимые объемы распределенной генерации и стирающий границы между оптом и розницей. Только вот все это примеры проектов, функционирующих в экономических системах и на рынках электроэнергии, построенных на соответствующих принципах, которых у нас как раз и нет.

Вообще штат Нью-Йорк и город Нью-Йорк в силу определенных причин, наверное, субъективного характера, в плане продвижения идей развития распределенной генерации и ресурсов стал у нас в некотором роде тем, чем в свое время для РАО ЕЭС и энергетики страны в период начала реформ были американские рыночные юрисдикции PJM и ISO – New England. По тамошним лекалам делался наш нынешний рынок, правда, со значительными упрощениями, местами исказившими одни из самых эффективных моделей рынка электроэнергии до степени неузнаваемости. Понятно, что эти упрощения были результатом различных компромиссов, прежде всего, социально-политического характера, но не только. Рынок по образцу и подобию ведущих американских юрисдикций предполагал наличие мощных технологических и информационных инструментов, глубоких рыночных и биржевых традиций - всего того, чего у нас не было тогда, нет и сейчас. И пока не предвидится в силу существующего инвестиционного климата.  В PJM торги ведутся каждые 5 мин (при этом диспетчерский график формируется по заявкам с учётом заданной надёжности, а не по надёжности, с учётом уточняющих заявок как у нас), в то время как у нас ещё до недавнего времени индексы БР рассчитывались несколько раз в день.

Аналогичным образом работает рынок и в Нью-Йорке, и именно на таком рынке с реальным балансом спроса и предложения и неискаженными ценовыми сигналами все больше и больше востребованы распределённые энергоресурсы - будь то генерация, включая ВИЭ, когенерация, агрегированный demand response, просьюмеры и различные смарт-технологии в сетевом сегменте, позволяющие гибко интегрировать новые устройства и новых участников в один общий эволюционирующий рынок. Который, заметим, как и другие – PJM, ISO NE, ERCOT и прочие - не очень велики территориально, но сопоставимы по объёмам с нашими ценовыми зонами. Распределённый рынок, основанный на новых технологиях, в первую очередь возникает в городах и жилых зонах - там, где они оказываются востребованными на фоне волатильного спроса и ценовых колебаний, где для хеджирования рисков возникает нужда в агрегаторах спроса, и наряду с традиционной конкуренцией на розничном рынке между поставщиками появляются новые субъекты - энергосервисные компании, на базе которых и формируются агрегаторы. Этот процесс углубляется с проникновением в отрасль новшеств информационных технологий, которая в свою очередь сама становится источником спроса для их совершенствования и развития. В авангарде идут университетские кампусы и разнообразные «долины», где сосредоточены инновационные ресурсы, прежде всего, людские, затем следуют жилые комплексы и только потом уже традиционные индустриальные зоны (которых в Америке осталось не так уж много).

А что у нас? Авторы Концепции говорят о так называемых территориально-производственных комплексах (вообще говоря – о понятиях родом из СССР) как о прототипах тех самых ячеек новой жизни – АЭК и вскользь упоминают о каких-то кампусах. Что касается первых - это не что иное, как собственная генерация и сети крупных промышленных объектов, в основном сырьевых, блок-станции и внутренние сети, к которым часто присоединены и иные потребители, и даже население в их зоне расположения. Как они родились? Это и старые, ещё советские блок-станции, как правило, ТЭЦ, которые промпредприятиям удалось сохранить во время реформы, а потом не дать их вывести на опт. Это и новые объекты, построенные в нулевые и начале десятых, когда резкий рост цен и тарифов в ЕЭС вынудил ряд энергоемких предприятий, в первую очередь металлургов, заняться самообеспечением энергией. Наконец, это удалённые объекты, в силу своего территориального расположения не имеющие подключения к ЕЭС, при том, что экономически такое подключение в принципе нецелесообразно. Есть ещё и средние, и даже относительно небольшие предприятия, например, торгово-развлекательные комплексы, которые на фоне требуемых с них огромных сумм за технологическое присоединение к сетям по индивидуальным проектам занимаются строительством собственных источников электроэнергии, а также тепла и холода на базе газопоршневых двигателей. Основной эффект для потребителей во всех случаях связан с отсутствием сетевой составляющей в конечной цене на объемы внутреннего производства и потребления. ЕЭС и регуляторы не первый год думают над тем, как заставить таких субъектов платить за подключение к общей сети на всю присоединенную мощность, а потребители, имея мощное лобби во властных структурах, пока отбиваются. Но это отдельная история, хотя и тесно связанная с темой развития распределенной генерации и её корректной тарификацией.

Имеет ли это отношение к тому, о чем говорится в Концепции? К неким АЭК, которые будут созданы на их базе? Мы сильно сомневаемся. Это собственная генерация потребителей и именно так они её и рассматривают. Большие - исходя из принципа "все своё ношу с собой", поменьше - просто потому, что считают, что платить за техприсоединение огромные деньги и потом почему-то отдать построенные на эти деньги объекты другому юрлицу и всю оставшуюся экономическую жизнь платить ему за передачу, неправильно в принципе. Не по фэн-шую. Это примерно – 7-9 ГВт и около 60-80 млрд. кВт ч в год в объемах. Иногда эту генерацию называют розничной, и некоторые даже пытаются найти ей покупателей из числа розничных потребителей. Насколько успешно, не знаем, но, похоже, не очень.

Кампусы? Не слышали. Возможно, Сколково? Но это вопреки, а не потому. Например, в МЭИ с 1950 года существует собственная опытно-промышленная ТЭЦ, модернизированная в 60-х, которая участвовала и в учебном процессе, и обогревала и снабжала электроэнергией район, включая общежития - то есть «кампус» МЭИ, занимающий несколько кварталов в Лефортово. Что ни на есть распределённая генерация - ТЭЦ была розничной, около 16 МВт. Один из нас бывал там ещё студентом. Но несколько лет назад она была закрыта на реконструкцию и модернизацию - там строят небольшую ПГУ на японском оборудовании, надеемся, что скоро закончат. Но пока станция выведена из эксплуатации, и подозреваем, что не только потому, что устарела. В реалиях нашей модели розничная ТЭЦ не нужна рынку – у нее нет покупателей электроэнергии, потому что для гарантирующего поставщика это лишние хлопоты – ее совокупная цена вряд ли может быть ниже оптовой на РСВ, а мощность, запланированную к продаже на опте, потребители ГП все равно обязаны так или иначе купить. Не те, так эти – по зоне свободного перетока, по ценовой зоне в целом или в регионе в случае наличия вынужденных генераторов по теплу. Собственных прямых потребителей для такой ТЭЦ найти также сложно - она не может следовать за волатильной нагрузкой в теплофикационном режиме, а потребителей с ровным графиком и ночной загрузкой в Москве и стране осталось немного. Потенциальная выгода для потребителей ТЭЦ опять связана с тарифом на передачу: если ее потребители - студенческие общежития и близлежащие жилые кварталы плюс СИЗО «Лефортово» (а возможно, и авиамоторный завод – когда-то он работал по ночам, испытывал моторы), то зачем им платить полный тариф на передачу, включая плату ФСК?

Но это не всё. Как правильно отмечено в одной из сносок Концепции при наличии перекрестки, пусть и незначительной по объемам в Москве, прочно «зашитой» в модели рынка и в механизмах формирования сетевых тарифов, и общежития, и жители Лефортово, и тюрьма демотивированы что-либо предпринимать. Им никакой «интеллектуальный активизм» не нужен. Как и ТЭЦ МЭИ. Возможно ли создать АЭК, описанный в Концепции, на базе «кампуса» МЭИ вокруг его ТЭЦ? Отделившись от энергосистемы в центре Москвы и общаясь с ней через УИС? Теоретически да, но вряд ли овчинка стоит выделки, прежде всего, для потребителей – то есть того же МЭИ. Потому что, помимо множества технических проблем одно только резервирование через УИС потребует, согласно той же Концепции, оплаты тарифа на содержание сети, что нивелирует потенциальные выгоды.

В общем и целом стремление ввести в правовое поле то, что называется авторами концепции АЭК (как и его частный случай ЭССО – энергоснабжающая самобалансирующаяся организация) в наших условиях не что иное, как попытка разрешить все более углубляющийся конфликт между крупными промышленными потребителями с собственными энергокомплексами, а также средними, желающими присоединится к сети, и централизованной ЕЭС во всех ее ипостасях – начиная с Минэнерго и Системного оператора и заканчивая ТСО и гарантирующими поставщиками. Конфликт из-за и в связи с ростом цен и особенно сетевых тарифов в условиях навязывания всё новых платежей монопольного характера, в то время как у потребителей появляется возможность альтернативного энергоснабжения на базе новых технологий. И, пожалуй, всё. Всё остальное – мишура, хотя и модная.

Но данный конфликт имеет другую природу, другие корни, нежели пытаются представить авторы Концепции. Это не конфликт технологий – старой традиционной централизованной и новой – распределенной и интеллектуальной, который можно разрешить через некое соединение, своего рода market coupling. Это конфликт подходов к пониманию того, как должен быть устроен рынок электроэнергии вообще (надо сказать, не только электроэнергии). Кто на нем главный? Потребители с их интересами, или некая абстрактная субстанция – жестко централизованная энергосистема и её надежность в широком смысле, которая лучше знает, что нам всем нужно и которой занимаются у нас все, кому не лень – от регуляторов до депутатов?

Интересно, что в Европе, скажем, на скандинавском рынке, проблемы интеграции распределенной энергетики в традиционный рынок почти не имеется. Потому что существующая там система отношений уже основана на самодиспетчиризации и самобалансировании субъектов, каждый из которых должен иметь на рынке соответствующие balance responsible parties - ВRP, взаимодействующие с системными операторами. Роль системного оператора - управлять рынком при заданных, согласованных с потребителями параметрах надёжности. И распределённая генерация, какой бы она ни была, растёт здесь не потому, что в системе слишком дорого, а потому, что управлять собственными ресурсами, хеджировать риски волатильности цен из-за водности в Норвегии, или атомной политики в Швеции, реагировать на них самостоятельно - экономичнее и эффективнее, и просто удобнее для независимых по характеру скандинавов. C учётом развивающихся технологий - прежде всего ВИЭ, которые из цели, которую поставили себе традиционно живущие согласии с природой североевропейские страны и их балтийские соседи, превращаются в средство повышения эффективности рынка.

Аналогичные процессы происходят и в континентальной Европе, и в Великобритании. В последней генерация оплачивает тариф на передачу, и распределённая генерация в этих условиях оказывается в дополнительном выигрыше - поскольку не платит тариф магистральных сетей - то есть имеет как раз то, чего не хватает нашим ТЭЦ. Так называемая embedded generation, находящаяся непосредственно у потребителей - преимущественно газотурбинные установки и газопоршневые двигатели (а иногда и дизельные), с чрезвычайно низкими капексами и высокими опексами вытесняют с рынка традиционные высокоэффективные, но дорогие в строительстве ПГУ, заменяя их в качестве маневренных мощностей для поддержки ВИЭ. В этом одна из причин стабильно низких цен на введённом несколько лет назад рынке мощности Британии. Такие станции стали своего рода «сланцем» для электроэнергетики страны, и именно они, а не крупные проекты формируют цены. Управление множеством таких станций требует развития и широкого применения инновационных информационных технологий, в том числе распределённых реестров операций, то есть того, что называется Blockchain и IoT. Мы не большие специалисты в это сфере и не будем углубляться в детали, но суть в том, что эти технологии растут преимущественно из рынка, а не наоборот, хотя конечно наблюдается и обратный, часто кумулятивный процесс.

В США немного другая история - в либерализованных юрисдикциях применяются более централизованные модели, хотя и там выход на оптовый рынок и участие в торгах не является обязательным как у нас. Скажем, когенерация, как правило, не участвует в оптовом рынке, а работает в данном локальном районе, обеспечивая теплом/холодом и электроэнергией его потребителей обычно с заданным относительно равномерным графиком нагрузки. Но в США существует множество параллельных основным централизованным площадкам рынков - рынки резервов, финансовых прав на передачу, системных услуг и т.д. Они, в отличие от наших, являются живыми и прозрачными, цены устанавливаются без искажений, на основе баланса спроса и предложения. Все они обеспечиваются мощными программными комплексами и средствами измерений. Поэтому там demand response это действительно response и совсем не то, что у нас уже несколько лет с мира по нитке пытается внедрять Системный оператор. В таких условиях интеграция розничных потребителей в активный рынок, о которой упоминается в Концепции, является органичной и реально востребованной. Рынок эволюционирует именно с учётом новых возможностей, которые стали ответом на вызовы - изменения привычных балансов генерации, цен на ископаемое топливо, климатическую политику и т.д. То есть новое и здесь произрастает из благодатной почвы старого. И никаких специальных "интеллектуальных" или каких-либо других каналов между новым и старым здесь нет. Илоны Маски, Сергеи Брины и Павлы Дуровы не живут по дорожным картам. Им нужны две вещи – подлинная рыночная среда и независимость.

Все эти модели имеют одно существенное отличие от нашей - они в разы меньше. Даже PJM и зона Nord Pool хотя и достаточно крупные и сравнимые по объёмам, все же территориально значимо меньше. И это тот, случай, когда, возможно, размер имеет значение. Все-таки не надо забывать, что наша единая энергосистема была сформирована в других экономических условиях и в другой стране. Часто говорят, да это и прописано в законе, что ЕЭС России - это стратегическое достояние и преимущество страны. Ссылаются и на то, что ЕС строит единый внутренний энергорынок и объединяет между собой разные энергосистемы и рынки. В Америке и Канаде строятся интерконнекторы. Всерьёз обсуждается азиатское суперкольцо. Все так. Но нужно помнить, что единого жёстко централизованного оперативного управления, с одними и теми же стандартами надёжности, приоритетами по миксам генерации, едиными правилами розничных рынков, в объединяемых энергосистемах не существует. Даже в Nord Pool есть существенные страновые различия. Системные операторы независимы и проводят собственную рыночную и техническую политику, хотя и в рамках определенных стандартов и общей координации.

Совершенно очевидно, что интеграция новой распределенной энергетики в относительно небольших системах, изначально менее централизованных, проходит более гладко, чем в больших и вертикально жестких. Это вообще относится ко всему – не только к энергетике. Закономерности функционирования больших систем дают основание сомневаться в реализуемости Концепции (уж тем более в сроки, представленные в Презентации). Жесткие, вертикально интегрированные системы возможно более эффективны для решения краткосрочных задач в периоды стрессов и кризисов, но гораздо менее живучи на длинных дистанциях, слишком инерционны и неповоротливы. В этом контексте недавно сказанная фраза в интервью зампреда правления Совета рынка В.А. Шкатова о том, что возможно нам нужно отказываться от единой энергосистемы приобретает понятный смысл. Это тема отдельной дискуссии, там есть свои за и против – но, вообще говоря, вопрос для обсуждения созрел.

В любом случае, представленная Концепция, поднимающая безусловно важные вопросы, по нашему мнению, существенно промахивается - misses the point - поскольку основана на ложном представлении о том, что внешними инструментами, созданием «резерваций» для субъектов, использующих новые технологии, можно улучшить всю систему, не утруждая себя её внутренней перестройкой и коренной трансформацией. Это не так. Теория малых дел здесь не применима. Рынок электроэнергии – это сложная комплексная система с внутренними уникальными взаимосвязями и перестроить её, сделать способной развиваться и интегрировать новое, можно только изнутри – обновляя ядро этой системы. На этом пути множество терний, но это единственный путь.

Ссылки по теме:
«Концепция развития электроэнергетического рынка на основе новых технологий» представлена для обсуждения


          Office Development with VS 2010   
Get up to date with office development on .net platform with Somasegar’s post <a href=”http://blogs.msdn.com/somasegar/archive/2009/01/10/office-client-developer-enhancements-with-vs-2010.aspx”>here</a> My personal favourite is simplification of .net’s integration with COM’s OM. As per the example posted in Somasegar’s blog. Instead of doing the following object fileName = “Test.docx”;object missing  = System.Reflection.Missing.Value;doc.SaveAs(ref fileName,    ref missing, ref missing, ref missing,    ref missing, ref missing, ref missing,    ref missing, ref missing, ref missing,    ref missing, ref missing, ref missing,    ref missing, ref missing, ref missing); You can do with VS 2010 object fileName = “Test.docx”;doc.SaveAs(fileName);
          thủ   
ĐÓNG QUỸ HỘI NĐ.docx (482,8 kB)
          Apache OpenOffice 4.1.2 Intel-La suite di lusso che non ti costa nulla   

OpenOffice.org è la più popolare suite office gratuita. Tra le novità introdotte dalla versione 3.0 spicca l'attesa compatibilità con i formati di Office 2007 e finalmente non è più necessario installare X11 per farla funzionare

Sono finiti i tempi in cui eri obbligato a pagare un prezzo proibitivo (o a procurarti una copia illegale) per avere una suite efficiente di programmi che ti permettesse di scrivere una lettera, creare una presentazione o utilizzare un foglio di calcolo. Adesso ci sono soluzioni totalmente gratuite, che non hanno nulla da invidiare a Microsoft Office. Tra queste, OpenOffice.org è probabilmente la migliore.

OpenOffice.org comprende Writer (processore testi), Calc (foglio di calcolo), Impress (presentazioni), Base (database), Math (formule matematiche) e Draw (grafiche vettoriali). La suite lavora con molti formati di documenti, è capace di modificare ed esportare file PDF, ed è pienamente compatibile con quelli più diffusi di Microsoft Office (tra cui .doc, .xls e .ppt).

Dalla versione 3.0, OpenOffice.org è finalmente un'applicazione con interfaccia Aqua e non è più necessario installare X11 per farla funzionare. Tra le altre novità spicca la capacità di aprire i file Open XML introdotti in Office 2007, tra cui .docx, .xlsx e .pptx. Per quanto riguarda l’interfaccia, le icone e alcuni dettagli sono stati rivisti, ma il design resta molto simile a quello della versione precedente e ci aspettavamo un'evoluzione maggiore da questo punto di vista.

Altre novità presenti dalla versione 3.0 di OpenOffice.org comprendono una finestra di avvio, chiamata Start Centre, per accedere alle diverse applicazioni e ai template, il supporto di 1024 colonne nei fogli di calcolo, una funzione migliorata per ritagliare le immagini in Draw e Impress, e la capacità di mostrare molteplici pagine di testo mentre si lavora in Writer.

Download Apache OpenOffice 4.1.2 Intel in Softonic


          Escenarios computacion 1_a_1.evaluacion.docx   

esenarios de computacion
          Open .docx documents in Linux (OpenOffice)   
Well, as for now it is not a problem anymore to open Microsoft Office 2007 .docx documents in any Linux distribution coming with OpenOffice suit. It may be Ubuntu (Feisty, Gutsy, Interpid whatever), almost any version of Fedora/RedHat/Centos, *SUSE, Mandriva and of course Debian (as per my personal opinion it’s the best one). What is .docx actually? It’s Microsoft’s file format representing word processor documents and named OpenXML (as an […]
          تحقیق در مورد گلبول قرمز   

تحقیق در مورد گلبول قرمز لینک دانلود و خرید پایین توضیحات دسته بندی : وورد نوع فایل :  .docx ( قابل ويرايش و آماده پرينت ) تعداد صفحه : ۴ صفحه  قسمتی از متن .docx :    گلبول‌هاي قرمز (Erthrocytes) به سلولهاي قرمز خون مشهورند. و بيشترين سلولهاي خوني را تشکيل مي‌دهند. سلولهايي بدون هسته و…

ادامه نوشته →

تحقیق در مورد گلبول قرمز در سایت DOCZ.ir


          Масштабная кибератака на 64 страны, больше всего пострадавших в Украине   

27 июня 2017 года началась крупномасштабное поражение компьютеров новой версией вируса-шифровальщика Petya.A. первые сообщения в каналах, посвященных кибербезопасности были о заблокированных рабочих станциях Роснефти и Башнефти, через час стали появляться сообщения о глобальном отключении компьютеров в банках, общественных организациях, торговых компаниях, государственных учреждениях Украины. Зараженный компьютер после перезагрузки показывал черный экран с требованиями выкупа в сумме $300 на биткоин-кошелек. Следом появились сообщения о заражении вымогателем компьютеров в Великобритании, Индии, Нидерландах, Испании, Италии и Дании. В очередной раз пострадали те, кто пользовался устаревшими версиями Windows, не обновлялись своевременно и не соблюдали давно известные правила информационной гигиены.

 

\"Вирус-вымогатель

 

Самое плохое в данном случае (кроме беспечности пользователей и сисадминов) то, что «шифрование» было в один конец, а требование выкупа лишь имитацией, пользователи теряли свои локальные данные навсегда. Некоторые пострадавшие выплатили $2900 но провайдер почты заблокировал ящик самих вымогателей, так что в любом случае получить код для расшифровки никто не сможет. Кроме этого, эксперты по безопасности (например, Лаборатория Касперского) подтвердили, что расшифровать файлы невозможно.

Атак происходила по нескольким направлениям. Рассылались фишинговые письма, имитирующие корпоративный стиль рассылок с вложениями файлами *.pdf и *.docx и эксплуатирующими уязвимость офисных пакетов. Был взломан сервер разработчика программы документооборота M.E.Doc (использовавших старые компоненты FreeBSD). И автоматическое обновление 27 июня принесло заражение на тысячи компьютеров, использовавших  M.E.Doc для делопроизводства. После поражения компьютеров, вирус начинал распространение по внутренней сети, используя уязвимости Eternalblue в протоколе SMB.

 

\"Страны

 

Так как первый этап состоял в шифрации загрузочного сектора, некоторым удалось спасти данные, сразу же выключив компьютер после странного сообщения. Но большинство наблюдали сообщение о, якобы, проверке диска, во время которого шифровались основные данные. Среди пострадавших компаний Maersk, Роснефть, Mondelez, DLA Piper, Башнефть, «Укрпочта», «Ощадбанк», «Нова пошта», телеканал «Интер», «Кредобанк», газета «Корреспондент», сеть магазинов «Эпицентр» и заправки «Кло». Под атакой были также сайты «Укртелекома», «Укрзализныци» и «Киевэнерго».

Следует отметить, что эта масштабная и многовекторная атака была тщательно спланирована и организована, реализована злоумышленниками высокой технической квалификации, но сопровождалась бездарной организацией получения выкупа, что намекает на то. Что основная цель была — просто нанести вред.


          Le Bigourd'hand N°32   

BIGOURD'HAND n° 32_1.jpgVous trouverez ci-joint en téléchargement le dernier numéro du Bigourd'hand, le journal de la délégation, juillet, août et septembre 2017, en cliquant ICI

Au sommaire, notamment,l'Edito, Actualités Nationales, actualités Départementales, etc...

Vous trouverez aussi le COUPON REPONSE A RENVOYER (en format Word) en cliquant : ICI


          Brains are Machines: Blog 2: Innovation, Automation & Investment   
Personal development is often viewed as ‘fluffy’, with little relationship to the bottom-line, not something a CIO would hang a vision and strategy on. This Blog series: Brains Are Machines, attempts to demonstrate that the reverse is true. In this second blog, we highlight that despite our rapid innovation and adoption of automation within software development, the need for higher levels of investment in developing people remains.

Innovation

Technology innovation is rapid, the speed of innovation is accelerating and technology is ubiquitous. So whichever way you look at it, you either need to excel at creating & distributing software or you need to excel at assessing, purchasing and integrating software into your existing architectures, processes, people and culture. And this trend is only going to increase.
So if you were given a strategically critical project this year, i.e. the future P&L of the company depends on its successful implementation and return on investment, who would you trust to deliver it? Would you out-source it? Would you bring in contractors? Or would you give it to your own teams? I.e. Your own ‘machinery?’
If you wouldn’t give it to your people i.e. your brains, your machinery, what does that say about the state of your machinery and your ability to maintain it? What does it say about your capabilities for creating a team or organisation that meets the needs of the business?
Furthermore, what is the reason for not trusting your machinery with the job? Lack of knowledge? Lack of capability? Or lack of capacity?

Automation

Some of your competitors are now able to deploy enterprise-level, mission-critical applications on a daily basis. Through Continuous Delivery [1] (an encapsulation of many agile practices) the business can ask for a change, have it designed, developed, tested and deployed live, on an enterprise scale within 24 hours if required.
Test-driven development, continuous integration, automated acceptance testing, automated environment provision, automated configuration, automated load & performance testing, automated application and database deployments enable this capability…
Each of these individual innovations has removed many manual processes from the value stream of creating and delivering software, and the effect has been to rapidly reduce cycle time to market. These innovations implemented in concert, represent a fundamental shift in software development capability and capacity. Continuous delivery is starting to incrementally evolve business models.
But even accounting for this automation and reduced cycle-time, you still need people to establish and maintain that capability… The brains are the machinery, and are needed to write the automated tests, configuration and deployment scripts, to design the environments to be automatically provisioned and to establish the continuous integration process, as well as design and write the code.
And you’ll need resources to take you on beyond this point, adopting the next level of processes and technologies that drive the business forward in this ever-changing technology landscape.

Investment

So if the brains of your teams are the machinery of business, if technology is moving so fast, if you’re in a talent war and your people are implementing these technologies or assessing and integrating them… Do you really have the right level of focus on, and investment in the attraction, retention and development of your people?
          Brains are Machines Series: Blog 1: Shifting Sands   

Original post: http://businessvalueexchange.com/brains-are-machines-series-blog-1-shifting-sands/

The industrial revolution saw the landscape of Britain transformed from rural & agricultural to urban & industrial. The mass exodus of people from the country into the city represented a fundamental shift in the social fabric of the country.

The companies themselves were able to recruit and retain low-skilled workers, working on high-cost machinery that required constant maintenance and investment. The machines had maintenance schedules, were constantly oiled, monitored, measured, and had parts regularly replaced because they were the core contributor to the profitability of a company.

 A worker leaving the company had little impact on the capability of the business to create its product.

The information age has brought with it a shift in power toward the knowledge worker due to the nature of work. The information worker is a higher-cost resource, holds more tacit knowledge and intrinsically more value to a business, as their knowledge is part of the whole make-up and fabric of a company. Put bluntly “their brain is part of the machinery”. And therefore a business has more reliance on its people as resources, rather than its machinery (or infrastructure).

A worker leaving the company has a larger impact on the capability of the business to create its product or service. Tacit knowledge is leaving the business, a new worker is required and their induction into the collective takes far longer and costs a lot more.

So if brains are the machinery of your company, what kind of shape are they in? How much are you investing in them, what does their maintenance schedule look like?

The software industry has a scarcity of resource, and this scarcity of resource has existed for a number of years. In the manpower survey of 2012[1], 25% of EMEA employers reported difficulty filling jobs due to a lack of available talent. It has led to you being in a talent war, having to pay c20% fees for recruitment of team members before they’ve walked through the door. Also, your best ‘machinery’ is at risk of being head-hunted by the competition.

So if you’re paying c20% to a 3rd party just to bring talent through the door, and your best talent is at risk of being pinched, how much should you be paying to develop and maintain that talent?

[1] Talent Shortage Survey 2012, Manpower Group
          Rules Engine: Defining version string   

Hey all

Hope someone can help me with this. Because I'm not quite seeing the full picture.

Where do I define the Rules Engine's default version string: XYY.ZZ...??? 

According to the document "ProjectWise Rules Engine Guide_v2.docx" I can have the Rules Engine control the versioning of documents in PW, by using the action type "CHANGE_REV_NO".

The default version string is: XYY.ZZ
X = prefix letter
YY = Major numerical revision
ZZ = Minor numerical revision

 But where do I, for example, define the prefix letter (X)..??

 Thanks..!!


          Creating a Marketing Plan   

The role of your marketing plan is to help determine the strategies and tactics you will employ to help you meet your overall business goals by expanding your business and connecting with customers. Some of the standard components we recommend you include in every marketing plan are:

  • Situation Analysis: Normally this will include a market analysis, a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats), and a competitive analysis. The market analysis will include segmentation, customer information, and market needs analysis.
  • Marketing Strategy: This should include objectives, and focused strategy including target market and value proposition.
  • Goals & Objectives: Specific goals on leads and opportunities generated or sales influenced by product or geography.
  • Budget & Execution Plan: Include enough detail to track expenses accurately and follow up on a plan vs. actual analysis. Include specific tactics and mediums you will employ, at what times, to target your market. It is helpful to include a calendar of events.

Effective marketing is not just about quantity of activity, it is about quality, planning and consistency. Position yourself for success by taking it one-step at a time. To help you prioritize and get the most out of your investment of time and budget, we have developed tools to help you get started.  If you are not sure where to start, or have never completed a marketing plan, use the Pre-Marketing Plan Brainstorm Guide and the Marketing Plan Schedule Template, which enables you to plan your budget, ensure you are reaching the right customers and prospects and helps to drive a steady flow of leads to your sales pipeline.

Finally, your marketing plan should be measured by the results that it produces. To measure success, you need to set marketing goals by first defining what you wish to achieve in quantifiable terms. A good place to start is by calculating the realistic number of marketing touches, enquiries and qualified sales leads that are required to meet your sales revenue objectives. To assist with this process, we recommend completing the Marketing Leads Calculator. Partners may leverage this template to plan their marketing campaigns, estimate ROI and track the performance of those campaigns throughout the year.

The key to driving results is to actually implement your plan; consistently and on time. Ensure that your plan is practical, achievable, and that the goals are measurable. We highly recommend you analyze your plan versus actual performance at the end of each fiscal year.

If you need help creating your marketing plan, we recommend contacting a Marketing Services Bureau (MSB) or Partner Development Center (PDC).  For additional help developing a strong marketing strategy and all of the foundational elements needed to drive successful lead generation, we recommend the Partner Marketing & Lead Generation Toolkit, a step-by-step guide on how to plan, invest, execute and measure more effective marketing.


          Part 3 of 3: Defining your Company in Marketing Terms   

This is the third and final part of the "Defining your company in marketing terms" series, you can read Part 1 here and Part 2 here.

In this blog, I will touch on tips to help develop credibility and provide a link to an exercise on how to develop an elevator pitch.

If you find this useful, let me know via twitter @FallonEmery. I'm here to help you--let me know what other topics you would like to see me cover.

DEVELOP CREDIBILITY

When defining your company in marketing terms and preparing for promotion, establishing credibility quickly is an important part of differentiation and creating your value proposition. Think about how you can reference your strengths such as:

  • Third party accreditation, for example "Microsoft Gold Partner"
  • Awards, for example "Microsoft Partner of the Year"
  • Experience in servicing an industry, for example "more than 15 years helping manufacturers get the most out of an investment in technology"
  • Customers, for example "Servicing 4 of the top 5 apple growers in Washington State"

 THE ELEVATOR PITCH

An effective elevator pitch should be unique, and have the following characteristics:

  • Brevity: be concise and think of the bigger picture.
  • Customer-focused: Why should they care?
  • Benefit-driven: What is in it for them?

 Develop multiple versions for different uses:

  • 30-second verbal: phone pitches, presentations, networking
  • 50-word version: email, websites other than your own
  • Single paragraph version: brochures, website, written presentations, press releases

EXERCISE: Can you describe your company in 30 seconds or less? Can you write a simple sentence describing your company? What does it really say about you to your prospects, existing customers and internal staff? Do all of your employees know your elevator pitch? The Partner Messaging Framework Template is a valuable resource to help you with this process

 

 


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          خلاصه فصل 2 علوم دوم راهنمایی   

اینم خلاصه فصل 1 علوم دوم راهنمایی 

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          Punca-punca dan kesan-kesan gejala rasuah.   

Sejarah rasuah bermula sejak awal kehidupan manusia bermasyarakat lagi, iaitu pada tahap organisasi kemasyarakatan yang rumit mulai wujud.  Gejala rasuah telah membelenggu manusia sejak beribu tahun lamanya.  Kegiatan rasuah yang berlaku adalah berbeza-beza pada waktu dan tempat yang berlainan. Terdapat banyak catatan kuno yang menceritakan tentang gejala rasuah yang telah berlaku dimasa lalu contohnya mengenai masalah penyuapan terhadap para hakim dan tingkah laku para pegawai pemerintah.  Kegiatan rasuah ini terus menular dan berlaku sehingga kini dan telah meninggalkan pelbagai kesan yang negatif kepada sesebuah negara.  Misalnya Empayar Rom, Empayar Uthmaniah, Dinasti Ming dan sebagainya yang tidak terurus pentadbirannya sehingga menyebabkan tentera dan kakitangan awamnya terpaksa mengamalkan rasuah sehingga akhirnya meruntuhkan  pemerintahan negara tersebut.
            Mengikut sejarah, kegiatan rasuah di negara ini berlaku sejak zaman kesultanan Melaka lagi.  Kejatuhan kesultanan Melaka di tangan orang-orang Portugis dikatakan ekoran dari sogokan wang dan hadiah oleh tentera-tentera Portugis kepada pegawai-pegawai tertentu yang bertugas di Istana Sultan Melaka.  Kegiatan rasuah ini terus wujud sehingga pemerintahan orang-orang British di Tanah Melayu dan dibuktikan bilamana pentadbiran British ketika itu telah menguatkuasakan undang-undang rasuah dalam tahun 1871 di mana perbuatan menerima hadiah yang boleh disifatkan sebagainya sebagai rasuah telah dikanunkan sebagai satu kesalahan undang-undang iaitu dalam kanun kesiksaan, 1871.  Kemudian budaya rasuah ini terus menular dan berlaku di Malaysia seperti tiada jalan penyelesaiannya.
            Perkataan rasuah berasal daripada perkataan Arab “al-risywah”.  Dalam Al-Quran, perkataan rasuah digolongkan dalam kata umum batil iaitu meliputi juga perbuatan jenayah lain seperti merompak, memeras ugut, dan menipu. Terdapat banyak definisi rasuah yang telah diutarakan oleh para sarjana.  Namun setelah diteliti, hampir setiap definisi tersebut mempunyai dua unsur iaitu penyalahgunaan kekuasaan yang melampaui batas kewajaran hukum oleh para pejabat atau apatur negara dan mengutamakan kepentingan peribadi atau klien diatas kepentingan publik oleh para pejabat atau apatur negara yang bersangkutan.
            Menurut Syed Hussein Alatas (1995) inti rasuah adalah penyalahgunaan kepercayaan  untuk kepentingan peribadi.  Beliau telah menyenaraikan ciri-ciri rasuah yang telah diringkaskan seperti suatu pengkhianatan terhadap kepercayaan, penipuan terhadap badan pemerintah, lembaga swasta atau masyarakat umumnya, dengan sengaja melalaikan kepentingan umum untuk kepentingan khusus, dilakukan dengan rahsia, kecuali dalam keadaan di mana orang-orang yang berkuasa atau bawahannya menganggapnya tidak perlu, melibatkan lebih dari satu orang atau pihak, adanya kewajipan dan keuntungan bersama, dalam bentuk wang atau yang lain, terpusatnya kegiatan (rasuah) pada mereka yang mengkehendaki keputusan yang pasti dan mereka yang dapat mempengaruhinya, adanya usaha untuk menutup perbuatan rasuah dalam bentuk-bentuk pengesahan hukum dan menunjukkan fungsi ganda yang kontradiktif pada mereka yang melakukan rasuah.[1]
            Dari jenis taipologi, rasuah dapat dibahagikan kepada tujuh jenis iaitu rasuah transtaktif, rasuah yang memeras, rasuah invesif, rasuah perkerabatan, rasuah defensive, rasuah autogenic, dan rasuah dukungan.  Jenis-jenis rasuah ini dikategorikan mengikut kelakuan rasuah tersebut.



PUNCA-PUNCA BERLAKUNYA GEJALA RASUAH
Rasuah yang telah melanda segenap sistem yang ada pada waktu lepas adalah berpunca daripada Perang Dunia Kedua.  Hal ini telah dibuktikan dengan Laporan Jawatankuasa Santhanam seperti di India, menurut jawatankuasa tersebut peperangan yang berlaku dengan begitu meluas telah memberi peluang untuk gejala rasuah berlaku.  Manakala di Tanah Melayu pendudukan Jepun telah menyebabkan timbulnya rasuah yang membengkak secara mendadak.  Kelangkaan barang dan bahan makanan, inflasi yang menggila, dan lemahnya pengawasan pemerintah telah menjadikan rasuah sebagai senjata yang ampuh untuk menutup kurangnya pendapatan.  Disini jelas menujukkan bahawa situasi perang melahirkan banyak masalah rasuah.[1]
Selain itu, faktor lain yang menyumbang terus berlangsungnya rasuah adalah pemerintahan kolonial.  Rasuah tidak hanya ada dalam pemerintahan kolonial tetapi juga terus berkembang sebagai satu pengaruh yang tidak langsung yang menghasut kaum nasionalis untuk melawan pemerintah.  Sebagai contoh, di India, semasa penjajahan Inggeris, perbuatan menipu pemerintah umumnya dianggap sebagai perbuatan yang patriotik.  Begitu juga dengan perbuatan mencuri bola lampu  serta perlengkapan lain dalam gerabak kereta api, melindungi para pelanggar undang-undang dari tangkapan polis, penghindaran cukai, dan lain-lain yang dianggap sebagai perbuatan yang bertujuan agar pemerintah kolonial tidak merampas wang rakyat India.   Namun setelah kemerdekaan pada tahun 1947, kebiasaan bersikap tidak jujur terhadap pemerintah terus berlanjut begitu juga dengan gejala rasuah.
Punca rasuah seterusnya ialah keadaan perang yang disusuli dengan penyerahan kuasa kepada kelompok baru yang memerintah secara tiba-tiba telah mewujudkan banyak peluang rasuah yang sebelumnya tidak ada.  Watak para pemimpin yang menentukan kepada situasi seperti ini.  Jika mereka melakukan rasuah atau membiarkan berlakunya rasuah, maka anasir-anasir rasuah akan mengukuhkan kedudukan mereka.  Di negara-negara Asia yang baru sahaja merdeka, para pemimpinnya telah mengamalkan rasuah atau membiarkan terjadinya rasuah contohnya di India, Nehru seringkali dipersalahkan kerana sikapnya yang membiarkan rasuah terjadi seperti kes rasuah yang menyangkut teman baiknya, Krishna Menon yang melakukan banyak pelanggaran dalam kes yang disebut sebagai skandal jeep ketika dia menjawat jawatan sebagai Pesuruhjaya Tinggi India di London.[2] 
 Punca berlakunya rasuah juga ialah daripada bertumbuhnya jumlah pegawai negeri dengan cepat, dengan akibat gaji mereka menjadi sangat kurang atau sedikit.  Keadaan ini seterusnya menuntut mereka untuk mendapatkan pendapatan tambahan menampung keperluan hidup.  Keadaan semakin bertambah runcing apabila pengarah melakukan rasuah semasa perang, bertambahnya jumlah pegawai awam dengan cepat, bertambah luasnya kekuasaan dan kesempatan birokrasi, ditambah pula dengan lemahnya pengawasan pemerintah, dan pengaruh-pengaruh parti politik yang menyediakan peluang yang sangat besar untuk berlakunya rasuah. 
Terdapat juga punca lain berlakunya rasuah selain daripada disebabkan oleh  peperangan iaitu institusi hadiah dan kewajipan menyantuni keluarga.  Menurut kajian sarjana, orang Asia tidak tahu perbezaan antara kewajiban kemasyarakatan dan kewajiban perseorangan, dan seringkali juga perbezaan antara sumber milik pemerintah dan juga sumber milik peribadi.  Hal ini kerana fikiran naif orang Asia yang tidak membezakan antara kewajiban kemasyarakatan dan kewajiban peribadi ini, maka terjadilah rasuah dan mereka tidak mengira yang mereka melakukan sesuatu yang salah sehinggalah beberapa orang eropah mengatakan perbuatan tersebut adalah salah.  Sebagai contoh, seorang wanita penjual makanan di sebuah warung, anaknya datang dan ibunya memberinya makanan. Ini adalah pemberian keibuan dan pembayaran bukannya yang diharapkan tetapi yang diharapkan ialah cinta kasih anak.  Lalu datang pula seorang Inspektor keselamatan dan wanita itu memberinya makanan serta menolak bayaran daripada Inspektor tersebut, ini adalah satu suapan.  Pemberian makanan tersebut bukanlah suapan jika tidak ada harapan bahawa Inspektor itu akan menggunakan jabatannya untuk melindungi kepentingannya.  Tetapi jika Inspektor itu tidak mempunyai wang lalu wanita tersebut memberinya makanan, perbuatan tersebut adalah dermawan.  Dorongan psikologis yang menentukan pertukaran tersebut.  Dengan adanya pelbagai bentuk perilaku dan pola-pola motivasi tidak membenarkan kita untuk menarik kesimpulan bahawa suatu bentuk bersumber dari bentuk yang lain.[3] 
Punca peribadi juga adalah sebagai satu penyebab dan penanggungjawab daripada mereka yang menganggap situasi eksternal, iaitu struktur sosial, sebagai sesuatu yang menentukan dalam masalah rasuah.  Bagi memudahkan penghuraian, istilah “individual” dan “sosial” akan digunakan.  Istilah individual yang dimaksudkan ialah penjelasan tentang rasuah yang pada akhirnya mengecilkan gejala itu sebagai keperibadian perseorangan.  Sedang yang dimaksud dengan sosial ialah penjelasan untuk mencari penyebab rasuah di luar keperibadian seseorang.  Institusi budaya, kemiskinan, penderitaan luar biasa, perubahan politik besar-besaran, peperangan, sistem hukuman yang tidak sempurna adalah pengaruh yang berasal dari luar diri individu ini dianggap sebagai sebab-sebab rasuah yang menentukan.  Apabila ada sesuatu yang menciptakan hambatan dalam tatapemerintahan pada sektor-sektor yang berhubungan dengan khalayak ramai, hal itu akan menjadi sumber kepada berlakunya gejala rasuah.[4]
Punca-punca lain berlakunya rasuah ialah modenisasi.  Huntington mengatakan bahawa modenisasi membawa perubahan norma.  Penyataan ini hanya berlaku bagi dunia bukan Barat, sedangkan di Barat, modenisasi membawa perkembangan sumber-sumber kekayaan dan kekuasaan baru serta menampilkan kelas-kelas baru dengan tuntutan-tuntutan baru.  Dalam masyarakat Barat, Huntington melihat terjadinya rasuah yang meluas sebagai akibat industrialisasi, yang membuka peluang kepada orang untuk mencari kekayaan lebih banyak.  Modenisasi membantu pengaruh rasuah kerana ia menciptakan sumber kekayaan baru dan kelas-kelas baru yang mencita-citakan kekuasaan dengan menggunakan sarana rasuah dan ia menciptakan perluasan kegiatan-kegiatan pemerintahan.[5]
Dikatakan oleh seorang sarjana bahawa penyelewengan yang melanda di pelbagai negara yang sedang membangun itu adalah kerana tidak cukupnya gaji pegawai negeri. Hal ini kerana disebabkan oleh adanya rasuah dan perencanaan yang buruk. Syed Hussein Alatas telah diberitahu oleh oleh Laksamana Sudomo pada waktu beliau berkunjung ke  Jakarta pada Ogos 1982, bahawa pemerintah Indonesia akan mempunyai wang yang cukup untuk menggaji pegawai negerinya jika cukai dibayar secara jujur. Hal ini kerana rasuahlah yang telah menggurangkan sumber-sumber pendapatan pemerintah.  Walaupun pembaikkan struktur cukai atau peraturan pentadbiran telah dilakukan, namun ianya tidak akan mengubah  masalah selagi mana orang-orang yang terlibat didalamnya tetap melakukan rasuah.[6]
Ada juga sarjana yang mengatakan bahawa peperangan, pembukaan tanah baru secara besar-besaran dan situasi-situasi lain yang memberi peluang besar bagi rasuah dan juga sebagai penyebab meledaknya rasuah tetapi tidak menjelaskan kelangsungan dan kekukuhan rasuah yang berlaku pada waktu-waktu lepas tersebut.  Rasuah yang berlaku di Indonesia dewasa ini tidak dapat dijelaskan dengan hal-hal yang ada di masa peperangan sementara dua  generasi ini telah terbiasa dengan cara-cara rasuah.  Hal yang sama juga berlaku di negara-negara yang sedang membangun yang mengalami peperangan.  Sebaliknya, setelah peperangan berakhir, rasuah diketahui mereda tetapi bermaharaja kembali sesudah mencapai kemerdekaan.  Hal yang demikian juga berlaku di Malaysia. Walaupun memang benar bahawa mereka yang berkuasa pada awal kemerdekaan menjadi kecanduan rasuah dari masa berlangsungnya peperangan, tetapi perang itu adalah situasi sementara yang telah melahirkan rasuah yang meluas pada waktu seterusnya.  Kelangsungan dan meluasnya rasuah adalah disebabkan dari faktor-faktor lain yang tidak timbul dari peperangan sahaja.
Punca seterusnya ialah faktor kelemahan individu.  Punca asas seseorang melakukan rasuah adalah kerana kurangnya iman dan ketaqwaannya terhadap Tuhan.  Walaupun diketahuinya rasuah itu salah tetapi tetap melakukannya dengan alasan-alasan tersendiri dan selagi manusia lain tidak tahu.  Selain dari itu, faktor-faktor seperti suka menyenggara hidup melebihi pendapatan, suka hidup mewah, tamak haloba, ingin cepat kaya, suka berjudi, dan berhutang menyebabkan seseorang itu terjerumus ke lembah rasuah.[7] 
 Rasuah juga berlaku disebabkan dari faktor kelemahan kepimpinan dan pentadbiran.  Kelemahan yang lemah hingga menyebabkan kurang atau tiada penyeliaan serta pengawasan pihak atasan boleh menyebabkan rasuah berlaku.  Hasil pemerhatian dan kajian Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah (SPR) ke atas kes-kes yang telah disiasat tetapi tidak dapat dibawa ke mahkamah, menunjukkan bahawa antara faktor-faktor berlakunya rasuah dalam perkhidmatan awam berpunca dari kurangnya pengawasan oleh pegawai atasan.  Di samping itu terdapat juga kelemahan-kelemahan dalam sistem atau prosedur kerja yang membuka peluang serta memberi laluan kepada pegawai-pegawai melakukan rasuah dan penyelewengan.
Seterusnya rasuah juga berpunca daripada faktor sosial dan kebudayaan.  Setiap kaum di negara Malaysia mempunyai budaya hidup dan tradisi masing-masing berhubung dengan pemberian wang atau hadiah.  Kaum cina suka memberi angpau, manakal tradisi orang-orang Melayu pula suka memberi buah tangan dan bersedekah, walaubagaimanapun pemberian-pemberian ini di buat di masa-masa tertentu di luar masa atau keadaan yang sepatutnya ia diberikan.  Ianya bertujuan untuk mengaburi mata orang ramai agar tidak disebut rasuah. Dalam proses menerima dan memberi wang atau hadiah ini diwujudkan suasana termakan budi yang mengakibatkan “social obligation” dan keadaan ini mempercepatkan merebaknya amalan rasuah.[8]
Rasuah juga semakin menular disebabkan dari faktor pembangunan sosio-ekonomi dan modenisasi.  Walaupun tidak ada kajian untuk menunjukkan nisbah yang mengaitkan pertalian antara kadar amalan rasuah dengan kadar kepesatan pembangunan sosioekonomi, tetapi kita dapat perhatikan bahawa kadar rasuah meningkat dengan meningkatnya proses pembangunan dan modenisasi dalam negara.  Secara logiknya, ini adalah kerana dalam proses pembangunan dan permodenan, banyak rancangan-rancangan pembangunan dijalankan dan dengan demikian pengaliran wang turut bartambah. Orang-orang tertentu yang terlibat dengan projek tersebut mengambil kesempatan mengaut keuntungan untuk poket sendiri.  Selain dari itu, tekanan untuk hidup berlumba-lumba dan mendapatkan faedah-faedah daripada rancangan-rancangan pembangunan tadi akan berlumba-lumba inilah yang akan mendorong mereka untuk sedaya upaya cuba mendapatkan tempat untuk memenangi hati pegawai-pegawai kerajaan yang mempunyai urusan dengan kepentingan mereka.  Oleh itu, jalan yang paling senang untuk memikat hati pegawai-pegawai tersebut ialah dengan memberi sogokan agar sesuatu urusan itu cepat diberi pertimbangkan dan diambil tindakan.[9]
Seterusnya rasuah juga berpunca daripada faktor politik.  Dalam konteks ini, perbuatan pilih kasih (nepotisme) serta salahguna kuasa dan jawatan berlaku demi kepentingan dan faedah untuk diri sendiri.  Kelemahan pengawasan semakin memudahkan gejala salahguna kuasa ini berlaku.  Pemerintah pula seakan-akan membiarkan sahaja apa yang berlaku kerana gejala rasuah tersebut mengukuhkan kedudukannya.  Perbuatan pilih kasih ini juga bersangkkutan dengan pemilihan pekerja-pekerja, iaitu ahli keluarga dan kaum diutamakan berbanding yang lebih layak atau yang sepatutnya diberi kerja kerana tiada pertalian terutamanya dalam sektor awam.  Keadaan ini dapat dilihat sendiri dalam sesuatu jabatan itu yang dipenuhi dengan asal usul yang sama.[10]
Kesimpulan yang dapat dibuat oleh saya ialah kebanyakkan sarjana-sarjana memberikan punca-punca berlakunya rasuah lebih kurang sama jenisnya dan hanya berbeza pada huraiannya.  Punca-punca yang diberikan oleh mereka jika diteliti dengan jelas kebanyakkannya berkait rapat dan berpunca daripada pucuk kepimpinan dan pentadbiran sesebuah negara.


KESAN-KESAN GEJALA RASUAH
Hasil kajian dan penyelidikan oleh ahli-ahli akademik seperti Gunner Mydral, Colin Leys, James Scott, David H.narey dan lain-lain menunjukkan bahawa rasuah mempunyai kesan-kesan bukan sahaja negatif tetapi mempunyai kesan positif jika dinilai dari segi fungsi rasuah.  Walaubagaimanapun, ianya bergantung kepada sistem nilai dan norma masyarakat berkenaan.  Walau apapun tanggapan individu dalam menilai kesan-kesan rasuah, namun hakikatnya rasuah melahirkan lebih banyak keburukan dan kebinasaan.  Umpamanya walaupun pemberi rasuah boleh mempercepatkan proses kerja jika dinilai dari segi fungsi positif rasuah sebagai “catalyst”, namun disebaliknya berlaku keburukan yang mana ia mengajar seseorang itu malas bekerja, kurang inisiatif, tidak amanah serta ketidakadilan sosial berlaku.
Kesan pertama ialah kesan terhadap pelaku rasuah.  Kesan yang paling cepat dirasakan adalah keatas individu-individu yang terlibat dengan rasuah itu sendiri.  Mereka akan kehilangan pekerjaan dan kepercayaan masyarakat terhadapnya.  Terdapat satu kes di mana SPRM telah menangkap seorang awam yang telah melakukan rasuah.  Beliau telah didapati bersalah dan menerima hukuman penjara. Lanjutan peristiwa itu, isteri dan empat orang anaknya masih kecil datang ke pejabat SPRM bagi menyara hidup keluarganya.  Pesalah serta keluarganya juga mengalami gangguan emosi dan psikologi.  Kajian yang telah dijalankan oleh SPRM keatas orang-orang yang pernah ditangkap dan dihukum kerana rasuah mendapati bahawa pesalah-pesalah rasuah telah mengalami tekanan jiwa, malu, terhina, menjadi sensitif, kebebasan tergugat serta pergaulan sosial yang terhad. Satu lagi kesan yang dirasai ialah bilamana mengalami kerugian wang yang banyak kerana terpaksa membayar khidmat peguambela sehingga ada yang terpaksa bergadai harta benda.[11]
Rasuah juga telah menyebabkan  tumpuan pelaburan dan pembangunan tidak seimbang dan saksama, iaitu jika berlakunya rasuah dan penyelewengan, maka ia akan mewujudkan golongan masyarakat yang terpaksa menanggung kesan buruknya.  Tumpuan pembangunan dan pelaburan berpusu ke sektor tertentu sahaja.  Ketidakseimbangan ini wujud bukan kerana sektor ini mempunyai permintaan dan keuntungan yang tinggi tetapi kerana rasuah.  Maka berlakulah pertumbuhan ekonomi yang berat sebelah dan sektor-sektor lain yang tidak ada peluang untuk melakukan rasuah, maka ia tidak diperkembangkan.[12]
Selain itu, rasuah juga akan menjauhkan jurang perbezaan di antara golongan miskin dan kaya.  Lazimnya golongan yang kaya mempunyai sumber kewangan yang banyak untuk mempengaruhi keputusan-keputusan yang dibuat oleh pegawai kerajaan, lalu membolehkan mereka memperoleh lebih banyak peluang yang ditawarkan oleh kerajaan, walaupun kadangkala mereka tidak berhak mendapatkannya.  Rasuah kepada mereka merupakan satu jambatan untuk mengaut lebih banyak keistimewaan dan menambahkan kekayaan.  Keadaan ini akan menimbulkan ketidakadilan sosial yang akhirnya akan menjejaskan integrasi nasional.
Seterusnya, rasuah turut menaikkan harga barangan dan perkhidmatan.  Apabila amalan rasuah berlaku dalam dunia perniagaan, peniaga-peniaga biasanya akan memindahkan kos memberi rasuah kepada para pengguna dengan cara menaikkan harga barang dan perkhidmatan kerana ianya dianggap sebagi kos modal.[13]
Rasuah juga turut menyebabkan pengaliran wang keluar negara (capital outflow).  Mengumpul dan menyimpan wang rasuah di dalam negara dirasakan tidak selamat oleh penerima-penerima rasuah, kerana ia boleh dikesan oleh pihak berkuasa dan merampasnya.  Oleh yang demikian, wang rasuah (yang merupakan wang negara) di simpan di bank-bank luar negara.  Ini bermakna negara akan kehilangan pertukaran wang asing dan modal.  Hal inilah yang telah berlaku di Amerika Selatan pada tahun 1954-1959 di mana tiga diktaktor Amerika selatan iaitu Peron, Parez Jimenez dan Batista) telah memindahkan US 1.5 billion dollar wang negara mereka ke negara lain.[14]
Selain daripada itu juga, gejala rasuah yang berleluasa turut mengancam keselamatan negara dan rakyat.  Kontraktor-kontraktor yang memberi rasuah kepada pegawai-pegawai kerajaan akan menyebabkan mereka menghasilkan kerja atau perkhidmatan yang kurang bermutu dan tidak menepati spesifikasi demi mencapai target keuntungan yang diharapkan.  Bayangkanlah, apa yang akan terjadi kepada rakyat jelata yang menyeberangi sebuah jambatan yang dibina tidak mengikut spesifikasi atau menghuni rumah-rumah yang dibuat tidak mengikut mutu yang ditetapkan.  Juga, tidak mustahil sekiranya dadah dan senjata api dapat menembusi kubu pertahanan keselamatan sekiranya berlaku suapan di pintu masuk negara.
Rasuah juga antara lainnya dapat mencetuskan pergolakkan sosial dan rusuhan.  Walaupun negara kita belum lagi mengalami tindakan ganas dari rakyat kerana kepimpinan yang dilanda rasuah, namun contoh-contoh dari pergolakkan sosial dan rusuhan lain yang berlaku di beberapa negara lain boleh dijadikan contoh.  Apabila rakyat merasa kecewa dan perasaan benci meluap-luap kerana ditindas, ditipu, kecurangan dan ketidakadilan dilakukan oleh golongan pemerintah, maka kebangkitan rakyat tidak dapat dielakkan.[15] 
Kesan rasuah juga dapat menjejaskan kecekapan dan kelicinan pentadbiran.  Apabila seseorang pekerja itu telah biasa disogokkan supaya mempercepatkan sesuatu kerja, maka ia akan dengan sengaja melambat-lambatkan pengendalian tugas-tugasnya kerana megharapkan untuk memperoleh lagi “speed money”.  Lebih banyak sogokan, lebih istimewa pula layanan serta tumpuan yang diberikan.  Keadaan ini sudah tentu menjejaskan moral, etika perkhidmatan, kecekapan dan prestasi kerja dalam sesebuah jabatan.  Akhirnya juga akan menjejaskan keseluruhan imej dan keutuhan jabatan tersebut.[16]
Gejala rasuah yang melanda di dalam sesebuah negara juga akan menggalakan jenayah dan melindungi para penjenayah.  Undang-undang yang diwujudkan adalah untuk melindungi rakyat dari jenayah dan untuk menghukum penjenayah-penjenayah. Sekiranya pegawai-pegawai yang diamanahkan untuk menguatkuasakan undang-undang tidak menjalankan tanggungjawabnya kerana sanggup menerima rasuah, maka penjenayah-penjenayah akan terlepas kerana tidak diambil tindakan undang-undang.  Keadaan ini seterusnya akan menggalakkan lagi mereka untuk melakukan jenayah kerana mereka tahu untuk melepaskan diri.
Di antara akibat-akibat rasuah yang telah dicatat oleh mereka yang menaruh perhatian terhadap masalah itu, yang paling jelas adalah pelbagai bentuk keadilan  telah mempengaruhi peribadi-peribadi yang terbilang banyaknya, di saat-saat yang sangat menyedihkan.  Sebuah contoh adalah banyaknya kematian sebagai akibat kepayahan kerana bantuan untuk mereka dicuri oleh orang-orang yang melakukan rasuah.  Andreski mencatat banyak contoh ketidakadilan yang ditimbulkan oleh rasuah di Afrika Barat.  Di rumah-rumah sakit para pesakit harus membayar jururawat untuk mengambilkan mangkuk najis.  Para doktor pun harus disuap.  Para pesakit yang tidak mampu berbayar akan disuntik dengan air yang diberi dengan zat pewarna kerana ubat-ubatan telah dicuri di farmasi.  Seluruh masyarakat tersebut telah dirasuki rasuah sehingga akan tampak sangat mengerikan bagi orang yang hidup dalam masyarakat terbabit.[17] 
Rasuah juga akan menumbuhan ketidakcekapan yang menyeluruh di dalam birokrasi dan lembaga-lembaga lainnya.  Yang pertama di antara mata rantai sebab akibat berupa hancurnya dasar-dasar akademik.  Kenaikkan tingkat atau pangkat didalam bidang akademik tidak benar-benar didasarkan pada karya penelitian dan penerbitan seseorang, melainkan mendapat berkat antara hubungan, sikap menjilat, keperluan pertandingan atau sekadar kemampuan menaiki tangga karier.  Para pensyarah sama sekali tidak berminat pada mata kuliah yang dipegangnya, tidak ada perhatian intelektual terhadap masalah pendidikan, tidak mempunyai kecenderungan banyak membaca agar dapat memperolehi pengetahuan muktahir dalam bidangnya, dan akhirnya tidak mempunyai harga diri. Apa yang terjadi di kampus-kampus juga terjadi di birokrasi dan lembaga-lembaga lain yang serupa.  Tidak terdapat kreativiti kerja yang terbit dari suasana yang sihat.  Tenaga dihabiskan untuk mewujudkan bentuk dan hakikat serta minat membangun tertimbun oleh semangat rasuah.  Wang suap yang diberikan oleh sebuah perusahaan telah mengurangkan kecekapan pemerintahan kerana membuatkannya abai terhadap alternatif lainnya yang realistik dan rasional.  Keuntungan yang diperoleh oleh perubahan itu adalah kerugian bagi pemerintah  kerana harga barang-barang yang bersangkutan sering dinaikkan.[18]
Rasuah juga jelas telah menyuburkan jenis kejahatan lain di dalam masyarakat.  Melalui rasuah sindiket kejahatan atau penjahat perseorangan dapat membengkokkan hukum, menyusupi organisasi negara, dan memperoleh penghormatan.  Secara luas dikenal di India, bahawa para penyeludup yang terkenal menyusupi ke dalam tubuh parti dan memegang jawatan.  Di Amerika Syarikat, misalnya melalui pemberian suap, polis yang melakukan rasuah memberi pelindungan kepada organisasi-organisasi penjahat.  Sebagai akibat pengaruh metastiknya, rasuah menyebar dari satu bidang ke bidang yang lain.  Hal itu mungkin semula hanya berupa pemberian dengan tujuan yang tersembunyi.[19]
Pengaruh kolektif dan komulatif dari rasuah akan melemahkan semangat birokrasi dan mereka yang menjadi korban.  Pengaruh pertama yang melemahkan itu ialah pelayanan palsu.  Kerja yang dilakukan oleh orang yang menyeleweng adalah tidak tulus.  Dia tidak menaruh minat pada kerja itu dan  dengan demikian seorang kepala polis yang terlibat didalam penyeludupan ubat bius dan rasuah yang bermaharajalela tidak akan memperhatikan pekerjaannya di dalam pasukan polis, tidak akan mencurahkan kemampuannya yang terbaik untuk pekerjaan itu, tidak akan mencurahkan waktu sepenuhnya untuk memikirkan pekerjaanya.  Kegiatan yang tampak hanya dirancang sekadar untuk mengabsahkan kehadirannya pada kedudukannya yang ditempatinya itu.  Dia tidak mempunyai minat yang sesungguhnya di dalam pekerjaannya.  Maka kerjanya hanyalah sesuatu yang semu sebagai ganti sesuatu yang murni yang tidak dia lakukan.[20]
Rasuah juga turut membantu kepentingan musuh di dalam perang.  Rasuah di Vietnam bukan sahaja sesuatu kejahatan malahan juga sebagai pengkhianatan.  Perlengkapan tentera dan ubat-ubatan jatuh ke tangan Vietcong (musuh) melalui pasar gelap.  Salah satu pasar gelap ialah di Qui Nhon di mana dapat diperoleh segala macam barang seperti makanan dan minuman, pakaian, senjata ringan, meriam, peluru, berpeti-peti bom tangan, peti televisyen, dan mesin cuci.  Dapat pula orang membeli trak-trak berat, kenderaan lapis baja, dan bahkan helikopter melalui pasar gelap.  Kenderaan-kenderaan ini lenyap begitu sahaja pada malam hari dan dinyatakan telah dirampas oleh Vietcong sedangkan penyelewengan yang dilakukan oleh orang dalam.
Selain itu rasuah juga akan meninggalkan kesan yang mendalam di dalam ekonomi sesebuah negara.  Kita telah sedia maklum bahawa beban ekonomi yang timbul akibat dari gejala rasuah jatuh ke bahu masyarakat.  Segala kos suapan atau pemerasan telah dimasukkan kedalam kos pembiayaan atau modal perniagaan.  Hal ini telah menyebabkan harga-harga barang menjadi lebih mahal, di samping beban berupa cukai dan pungutan lain yang sah.  Kebebasan yang timbul sebagai akibat rasuah mendorong para pengusaha dan indrustriawan yang serakah untuk menambah batas keuntungan dengan melalaikan mutu dan menaikkan harga.  Ini adalah akibat langsung terhadap pengguna.  Selain itu penderitaan masyarakat masih bertambah kerana orang-orang yang melakukan rasuah yang kaya dan mengetahui cara-cara menghindarkan diri daripada membayar cukai.  Pengelakkan seperti ini mengakibatkan lebih tingginya pungutan cukai yang harus dibayar oleh warganegara  yang jujur, untuk menutup jumlah yang tidak dibayar oleh orang-orang yang melakukan rasuah itu tadi.

(1.0)      PENUTUP
Setelah meneliti dari pelbagai pendapat para sarjana mengenai rasuah, punca-punya dan kesan-kesannya dapat disimpulkan di sini bahawa rasuah adalah satu gejala yang harus di banteras dengan segera .  Program yang di atur oleh pemerintah untuk menghapuskan atau melenyapkan gejala rasuah bergantung kepada keadaan dan kemahuan kelompok pemimpin itu sendiri.  Penyusunan program bergantung kepada kesedaran mereka yang terlibat iaitu pengertian mereka terhadap sifat, punca-punca dan kesan-kesan rasuah.  Begitu juga jika suatu pemerintahan menetapkan untuk membanteras rasuah dan dan mempunyai kesempatan untuk itu, tidaklah sukar untuk mengubah keadaan, secara bertahap tetapi mantap.  Kesedaran yang kuat harus wujud dari setiap sudut organisasi dan di setiap peringkat pemerintahan agar gejala rasuah ini dapat di bendung.  Perencanaan haruslah benar-benar dilakukan dan tidaklah cukup jika hanya publisiti yang dilakukan.  Masyarakat dari setiap sudut negara haruslah prihatin terhadap masalah ini agar ianya tidak terus berlaku dan berlaku sehingga mereka yang terpaksa menanggung kesannya.


[1] Syed Hussein Alatas. 1995. Rasuah. Sifat, Sebab dan Fungsi. Hlm 125.
[2] Syed Hussein Alatas. 1995. Rasuah. Sifat, Sebab dan Fungsi. Hlm 127.
Mohd Yusuf Bahir. (2007). Kuasa pemangkin Rasuah. Hlm 35.

[3] [3]Syed Hussein Alatas. 1995. Rasuah. Sifat, Sebab dan Fungsi. Hlm 128.
[4] Rasidah Abdul Rasyid. (1990). Rasuah:Satu Kajian Mengenai Sebab-Sebab Berlakunya Rasuah.
Bertrand De Speville. (2010). Overcoming Corruption. Hlm 75.
[5] Bertrad De Speville. (2004).Overcoming Corruption. Hlm 73.
[6] Syed Hussein Alatas. 1995. Rasuah. Sifat, Sebab dan Fungsi. Hlm 175.
[7] Mohd. Nordin Ahmad. (1995). Masyarakat Melayu. Budaya Rasuah dan Penyelesaiannya. Hlm 13.
[8] Rasidah Abdul Rasyid. (1990). Rasuah : Satu Kajian Mengenai Sebab-Sebab Berlakunya Rasuah. Halaman 35.
[9] Kamarudin Bin Arim. (2004). Tesis Kajian Kes Rasuah Di Malaysia. Hlm 145.
[10] Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad. (2011). Barah Rasuah dan Transformasi di Malaysia.
[11] Ismail Awang. (1999). Gejala Rasuah dalam Budaya Kerja. Hlm 43.

[12] Hussain Mohamed. (2003). Rasuah :Mewah, Bergaya, Tetapi Celaka Padahnya. Hlm 60.
[13]Hussain Mohamad. (2003). Gejala Rasuah : Mewah, Bergaya, tetapi Celaka Padahnya. Hlm 63.
[14] Bertrand De Speville. (2004). Overcoming Corruption. Hlm 78.
[15]  Kamarudin bin Arim. (2004). Tesis Kajian Kes Rasuah di Malaysia. Hlm 345.
[16] Abd. Khalil Abdul Manap.(1974) Satu Taipologi Rasuah di Malaysia. Hlm 37.
[17] Syed Hussein Alatas. 1995. Rasuah. Sifat, Sebab dan Fungsi. Hlm 184.
          G17: Microprocessor Price Index Released   

An annual price index for microprocessors for the period 2007 through 2011 is now available. The index provides an estimate of year-to-year price changes for microprocessors assuming that the quality of the chip is unchanged. Wholesale prices from publicly available price lists were adjusted for performance using a hedonic regression. This price index will be incorporated into the industrial production index for semiconductors and related components that will be published on March 22, 2013, as a part of the annual revision to the G.17 statistical release on Industrial production and Capacity Utilization. A comma-delimited text file containing annual data (as well as a description of the estimation technique) is available for download. More details are available here.


          Staines Black Swan Summer Open Meet 2017 - IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND ACCEPTED ENTRIES LIST   

Staines have provided us with an Accepted Entries List (Kingston's entries can be found on page 11-17) but have advised all Clubs that their meet is highly oversubscribed and, as a result, they are running over the timing limits allowed by their licence.  To try and resolve this issue, they have had to move the Boys 50m Freestyle from Session 3 to Session 4 so they can stay within the timing limits as per the licencing laws and still allow everyone to swim.  Click here to see the Revised Programme of Events.

If this newly scheduled time for the Boys 50m Freestyle causes you any problems, please can you let Sally-Anne Hawley know asap (click blue link).  

Please note Staines operates a withdrawal system and, as a result, if you are aware you will no longer be attending, please can you let me know using the link above.

 

Tags: 

          survival.docx   
http://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/81285781?access_key=key-13jsrwsvmwwhwsd5pihf
          You are (most likely) a descendant of the Prophet Muḥammad   
NJ Bridgewater
4 January 2015

Introduction

The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina, Arabia

















Mecca with the Kaaba in centre












If you a Western European, or a North American or, perhaps, from the Western world in some way, shape or form, you are most likely a descendant of the Prophet Muḥammad ibn‘Abdu’llāh (c. 570 – 632 AD), the Revealer of the Qur’ān, the Messenger of God and Seal of the Prophets (peace and prayers be upon Him and His family and companions). In my case, He is my 45th-great-grandfather (or, in other words, my great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great- great-great-great-great-great- great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great- great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great- great-great-great-great-great-Grandfather, with a capital ‘G’), through a rather circuitous line via New England settlers, the Plantagenets and the Spanish royal family). In fact, anyone with any connection to Edward III of England or to the Spanish Royal Family is also descended through the same European route to antiquity, including Elizabeth II, Prince Charles, Prince William and Prince George.[i] Cole, a Middle East scholar, even goes so far as to call it ‘common knowledge to anyone interested in genealogy’.[ii] In an article published in the Guardianon 24 May 2015 (Sunday), Adam Rutherford  argues that every living European is a descendant of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor.[iii]While this claim might appear astonishing to the layman, to the enthusiastic genealogist, it is a matter of common sense. Every human being has two parents—that is clear enough—and four grandparents. Very few of us, with the exception of genealogists, consider the generations which must inevitably precede these forebears. You probably know your parents and most, if not all, of your grandparents, and most or all of them will still be alive. In my case, both my parents and one grandparent (my maternal grandmother) are still alive. I knew three of my grandparents but never knew my paternal grandfather, even though he did sit me on his lap when I was a toddler. Nevertheless, I know the names, birth dates and marriage dates of all my grandparents and, for those that have died, their death dates. Furthermore, I know the names of all of my great-grandparents—there are 8 of these. It is fairly easy to get that far back in one’s family tree, at least in countries such as Britain and America where records of births, marriages and deaths, as well as census records, exist for the last century.

The Genealogy of the Prophet Muhammadin calligraphic form (Arabic) by İsmaʿil 
b. İbrahim Bosnavi (d. 1748)

























When you get beyond that generation, it gets trickier, and parish records, historical records and other sources must be consulted. We each have 16 great-great-grandparents, excluding repetitions where inbreeding has occurred. We then have 32 great-great-great-grandparents, 64 great-great-great-great-grandparents and 128 great-great-great-great-great-grandparents. If we assume that each generation is roughly 30 years apart and my parents were born in the 1940s/1950s (I was born 30 – 40 years later), then my grandparents were born in the 1910s, great-grandparents in the 1880s, great-great-grandparents in the 1850s, and so on. The 128 5xgreat-grandparents were born around the 1760s, or the middle of the 18th century. In other words, there were 128 people born in that era who were my ancestors. Each one of them lived an individual life, had hopes and aspirations, challenges and suffering and found a partner or spouse and had children, passing on their genetic legacy to today. If even one of these people had not lived, I would also not have been born. Imagine the amazing coincidences and/or destiny which brought each one of us into being. Let’s extend this further:

Chart 1: The Number of Ancestors by Generations
















According to the chart above, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), being in the 48thgeneration (and being my 45th great-grandfather), He would have been one of 140 trillion, 737 billion, 488 million, 355 thousand, 328 potential ancestors who lived in the 570s of the Common Era. The total population of the world in 670 AD was roughly 277 million, 700 thousand—far less than one billion.[iv]That’s not the population for one continent but for the entire inhabited world. Of course, people didn’t marry very widely or diversely in the past and usually within a specific geographical area. As such, there are a huge, absolutely immense, number of repetitions in genealogy. 

Samuel Lincoln House, Hingham, Massachusetts


















For example, a lot of my New England ancestors came from Hingham, Massachusetts, and many of the inhabitants of this town intermarried with their cousins, resulting in significant inbreeding. It was from this same town that Abraham Lincoln’s ancestors emerged, including our common ancestors, Samuel Lincoln (1622 – 1690) and Martha Lyford. Due to inbreeding, however, President Abraham Lincoln is both my 5th cousin, five times removed, a 7th cousin, five times removed and an 8th cousin, four and five times removed. Such was the nature of human relations in the past. In fact, in many villages in rural areas across the world, including many Arab tribes, cousin marriage is still a common practice. It has been a common practice throughout history. Nevertheless, the common consensus is that, if anyone was alive during the 9th century in Europe and you have any European ancestry, you are a descendant of that person.[v] In other words, if you are a European or North American of European descent, any famous king, ruler, duke, or any common peasant and farmer, any beggar on the street or, indeed, any priest or pope, who left a line of descendants continuing to the present day, is your ancestor—and that’s a fact.

The Link to Europe: The Umayyad Conquest of Spain (711 – 718 AD)

Expansion of the Islamic Caliphate











The question then, remains, how does the Prophet Muḥammad’s progeny relate to the above? The simple answer is, through the Umayyad conquest of Spain in the 8thcentury (711 – 718). If you are descendant of every European who left a line of descendants continuing to the modern day, you are also a descendant of every Arab and North African Muslim settler of Spain who left descendants. But let’s go back to the beginning. The Prophet Muhammad (c. 570 – 632 AD) (pbuh) was the son of ‘Abdu’llāh, a merchant and senior member of the clan of Hāshim, and Āminah daughter of Wahb ibn ‘Abd-Manāf. ‘Abdu’llāh, who died two months before Muhammad’s birth, was the son of ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib, son of Hāshim (the ancestor of the Hāshimite Clan, including the Abbasid caliphs, the twelve Imāms and the modern-day ruling dynasties of Morocco and Jordan). Hāshim was the son of ‘Abd-Manāf (Āminah’s grandfather), son of Quṣayy, son of Kilāb, son of Murrah, son of Ka‘ab, son of Lu’ay, son of Ghālib, son of Fihr, son of Mālik, son of An-Naḍr (also known as Quraysh, the ancestor of the Quraysh Tribe), son of Kinānah (ancestor of the Banū Kinānah, the largest Mudhari Adnanite tribe), son of Mudrikah, son of ’Ilyās, son of Muḍar, son of Nizār, son of Ma‘ad, the son of ‘Adnān.[vi]The famous Orientalist, Richard Francis Burton, quoted the well-known saying of the Prophet Muhammad: “Beyond Adnan none save Allah wotteth and the genealogists lie”.[vii]According to Burton, ‘Adnān is sometimes reckoned as being in the eighth generation from the Prophet Ishmael (pbuh), son of Abraham (upon whom be peace), through his son, Kedar, though Aṭ-Ṭabarī holds that He is in the fortieth generation from Ishmael.[viii]

An Arabic tree tracing the ancestry of Muhammad (pbuh)
back to Adam (pbuh)
, the Father of Mankind


























That gives a bit of background on the ancestry of the Prophet and His tribe; this is essential as the descendants of the Prophet, as well as the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs, are all from this tribe. In the year 595 AD, the Prophet Muhammad’s virtuous character and trustworthiness as a merchant had attracted the attention of a wealthy widow named Khadījah, the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad (of the Asad clan of the Quraysh tribe), who was 40 years’ old at the time. Again, we see that the numerous intermarriages within a tribe, who are all close relatives, eliminate many of the millions or billions of potential ancestors who existed in the 48th generation of our ancestors. This marriage, like every other union in history, was essential to the existence of His progeny. Had Muhammad chosen to marry someone else, we simply would not exist—at least I and the millions of other descendants of Muḥammad would not exist. They had two sons together—Qāsim and ‘Abdu’llāh, who both died in childhood, and a daughter, Fāṭimah. According to Sunni sources, they had three other daughters together: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, and Umm Kulthūm. Shī‘ī scholars, such as Abu’l-Qāsim al-Kūfī, argue that these were either Khadījah’s daughters by a previous marriage or her sister’s (Halah’s) daughters who were raised by Muhammad and treated as His own daughters. In any case, the only universally-agreed descendants of the Prophet are through His daughter, Fāṭimah (605 – 632 AD), known as Az-Zahrā’ (the ‘Shining One’) and Ummu’l-Ḥasanayn (the ‘Mother of the Two Ḥasans’, i.e. Ḥasan and Ḥusayn). She married ‘Alī, the son of Abū-Ṭālib, the son of ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib (the grandfather of the Prophet). ‘Alī was thus a member of the Hāshimite Clan and a first cousin of the Prophet, who was his father-in-law. ‘Alī, who later became the Fourth of the first First Caliphs of Islam (and the first Imām by Shī‘ī reckoning), married Fāṭimah circa 622/623 AD, and they had two sons: Ḥasan and Ḥusayn, and two daughters: Zaynab and Umm-Kulthūm (who were named after the aforementioned aunts of the same name). Zaynab married her cousin, ‘Abdu’llāh ibn Ja‘far, ‘Alī’s nephew, and had four sons: ‘Alī, Muhammad, ‘Awn and ‘Abbās. Umm-Kulthūm initially married the second of the first Four Caliphs, ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, with whom she had a son named Zayd and a daughter named Ruqayyah. After his death, she married ‘Awn ibn Ja‘far, brother of ‘Abdu’llāh ibn Ja‘far and, after his death, his brother Muḥammad.

The Descendants of ‘Alī and Fāṭimah

The name of Imam 'Ali (may God be pleased with him)




















The principal descendants of ‘Alī and Fāṭimah, however, are those via their two sons Ḥasanand Ḥusayn, whose tragic lives inspired the formation of Shī‘ism, and who are the ancestors (in the direct male line) of the Idrisid and Alaouite dynasties of Morocco, the Hashemite Royal Family of Jordan (1921 – present) and, formerly, Iraq (1920 – 1958), the Al Qassimi dynasties of Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates (18th century – present), as well as the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt (909 – 1171 AD), the Twelve Imāms of Twelver Shī‘ism (632 – 872), the Sharīfs of Mecca (1201 – 1923), the Nizari Ismaili Imams (799 AD – present), and numerous families of Sayyids, Sharīfs and Ashrafs scattered throughout the world.

The name Muhammad, repeated 4 times, in Kufic script














Chart 2:
THE PROPHET MUḤAMMAD [45x Great-Grandfather) to ZAIDA [28x great-grandmother]:
49. The Prophet Muḥammadibn ‘Abdu'llāh (570-632) = Khadījah bint Khuwaylid
48. Fāṭimah bint Muḥammad(c. 605 – 632) = ‘Alī ib Abī-Ṭālib (601 – 661), 1st Imām, 4thCaliph
47. Ḥasan ibn ‘Alīib Abī-Ṭālib (625 – 670), 2nd Imām of Shī‘ī Islam = Umm-Isḥāq bint Ṭalḥah
44. Zahrā’ (Zohra) = Abū-Fārisī al-Lakhmī, descendant of the Lakhmid Dynasty
43. Na‘īm al-Lakhmī (or ‘Aṭṭāf)
42. Na‘īm al-Lakhmī
41. ‘Aṭṭāf al-Lakhmī
40. ‘Amr al-Lakhmī
39. ’Aslam al-Lakhmī
38. ‘Umar al-Lakhmī
37. ‘Abbād al-Lakhmī
36. Quraysh al-‘Abbādī
35. Ismā‘īl al-‘Abbādī
34. ’Abu’l-Qāsim Muḥammadibn Ismā‘īl (984 – 1042), Ruler of Seville, first Abbadid ruler
33. ‘Abbād IIal-Mu‘taḍid (1042 – 1069), Ruler of Seville
32. Muḥammadal-Mu‘tamid (1069 – 1095), Ruler of Seville, Ruler of Cordoba (from 1071 – 1081)

Notable descendants of ‘Alī and Fāṭimah include Imām Ja‘far Aṣ-Ṣādiq (c. 700 – 765), the Sixth Shī‘ī Imām and Founder of the school of Ja‘fari jurisprudence, Al-Ḥākim bi-’Amri’llāh(985 – 1021), the Fāṭimid Caliph referred to in Western literature as the “Mad Caliph” (as he ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009 AD), the Sufi saint ‘Abdu’l-Qādir al-Jīlānī (c. 1077 – 1166 AD), the founder of the Qadiriyya Order, Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi (1844 – 1885), who proclaimed himself the Mahdi on 29 June 1881 and became the Ruler of Sudan in 1885, Mirza Sayyid Mohammad Tabatabai (1842 – 1920), a leader of the Iranian Constitutional movement, King Idris I of Libya (r. 1951 – 1969), Aga Khan IV(b. 1936), who is the current Nizari Ismaili Imam, Sayyid Kāẓim Rashtī (1793 – 1843) (the second leader of the Shaykhi School), Sayyid ‘Alī-Muḥammad Shīrāzī(known as ‘the Bāb’) (1819 – 1850), who was the Founder of the Bābī Faith, SayyidYaḥyā Dārābī (known as ‘Vaḥīd’) (1811 – 1850), a famous Bābī and their military leader during the battles of Nayriz, Mīrzā Muhammad-Husayn and MīrzāMuhammad-Hasan (d. 1879), collectively known as the Nūrayn-i-Nayyirayn (‘Twin Shining Lights’), who were famous Bahā’ī martyrs from Esfahan martyred in 1879, and Shoghi Effendi Rabbānī (1897 – 1957), the Guardian of the Bahā’ī Faith, as well as the other members of the Afnān Family who descend from the Bāb’s maternal uncles. The Safavid dynasty of Persia (r. 1501 – 1736) also claimed descent from Imām Ḥusayn, though the veracity of their claim is disputed by historians. A dynasty of sayyids did hold power for a time in northern Iran, the Zaydids of Tabaristan, who ruled over the northern regions of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan along the Caspian Sea from 864 – 900 and 914 – 928 AD while, in Arabia, the Ukhaydhirites ruled Najd from 862 until the mid-11th century and the Sulaymanids of Yemenheld power from 1063 – 1174.

The Lakhmids and the Abbadid Dynasty in Spain

Now, let’s take the line from ‘Alī and Fāṭimah to Europe. The eldest of their two sons, Ḥasan (also transliterated as Hassan) (625 – 670 AD), is regarded by Shī‘īs as the second of the Twelve Imāms, in succession to ‘Alī, whom Shī‘īs believe to be the appointed successor and infallible heir to the Prophet Muḥammad (pbuh).  Along with ‘Alī, Fāṭimah and Ḥusayn, he is regarded as being a member of the Ahl al-Bayt(the ‘People of the House’), referred to in Qur’ān 33:33. He is known to have married multiple times and may have had 15 sons and 9 daughters from 6 wives. His brother, Ḥusayn, is known to have had 6 sons and 4 daughters, though other sources say 4 sons and 2 daughters. One of Ḥasan’s numerous sons was known as al-Ḥusayn al-Athram, who only had descendants through his daughters.[ix]One of these, Fāṭimah, married the aforementioned Imām Ja‘far Aṣ-Ṣādiq, giving birth to Isma‘īl ibn Ja‘far, the 6th Imām according to the Nizari Ismailis,[x]while other daughters include (according to the article on Arabic Wikipedia), Umm-Salmah bint al-Ḥusayn and Umm-Kulthūm bint al-Ḥusayn the latter of whom married Ismā‘īl ibn ‘Abdu’l-Malik ibn al-Ḥarb ibn al-Ḥakam and they had four children: Muslimah, Isḥāq, Muḥammad, and al-Ḥusayn.[xi] According to several pedigrees floating around the internet, al-Ḥusayn al-Athram had a daughter called Zahrā’ (usually spelled as Zohra) who married one Abū-Fārisī, though the source of that information is unclear. It appears, for instance, in Lineage of the Saints by Brian Starr, p. 277, as well as in Roderick W. Stuart’s Royalty for Commoners, published in 1998.[xii]  According to several of the pedigrees, Zahrā’ has a son named Na‘īm al-Lakhmī (i.e. ‘the Lakhmid’) who has also has son named Na‘īm al-Lakhmī. In Starr’s book, the first Na‘īm is listed as ‘Itaf, the son of Abu Farisi, son of Abu Abed, son of Qabus, son of Numan, son of Mundhir, son of Imrulcays, son of Numen, son of Imrulcays, son of Numan, son of Amr (b. c. 338), son of Imrulcays (d. c. 288), son of Amr (d. c. 268).[xiii]

The Lakhmids were descendants of An-Nu‘mān III ibn al-Mundhir, known as ’Abū-Qābūs, a Nestorian Christian ruler and the last Lakhmid King of Al-Ḥīrah, who succeeded his father in 580 AD.[xiv]He traced his line to ‘Amr ibn ‘Adī ibn Naṣr ibn Rabī‘ah ibn al-Ḥārith ibnMas‘ūd ibn Mālik ibn Ghanam ibn Namārah ibn Lakhm (d. 295), who reigned as the first Lakhmid king from 268 – 295 AD.  ‘Amr inherited his kingdom from Jadhīmah, his maternal uncle, the Tanukhid king, who was killed by Zenobia (240 – c. 275 AD), the Queen of Palmyra.

Muḥammad ibn ’Abbád al-Mu‘tamid





















Recherche de stage - BTS Gestion et Protection de la Nature - 8 semaines+

Description de mon profil : Recherche de stage "éducation milieu montagnard/biodiversité" dans le cadre d'un BTS Gestion et Protection de la Nature : "Actuellement étudiante en BTS Gestion et Protection de la Nature au lycée-campus de Briacé (44), j’aimerais effectuer un stage de 8 semaines minimum au sein de l'un de vos organismes. Cela me permettrait d’approfondir mes connaissances sur le milieu montagnard et sur la biodiversité de ce dernier. Je souhaiterais apporter ma contribution à votre structure à travers mon dynamisme, ma capacité à travailler en groupe, mon sérieux et ma motivation.
Les différents chantiers de bénévoles que j’ai pu réaliser dans les Alpes et les Cévennes m’ont donné envie de découvrir davantage le milieu montagnard. Ils m’ont également permis d’acquérir une certaine faculté d’adaptation vis-à-vis d’un environnement particulier et d’un groupe mêlant différentes cultures, horizons, opinions… Ces chantiers m’ont aussi apporté des connaissances techniques telles que la fabrication de ciment, l’utilisation d’outils de menuiserie afin de réaliser un bardage, la remise en état d’un chemin de randonnée… J’ai également randonné en famille en effectuant le tour du Massif du Mont Blanc en 2008 sur 10 jours. Cette expérience a participé à mon désir de découvrir davantage le milieu montagnard avec toutes ses richesses de biodiversité.
L’éducation et la sensibilisation à l’environnement m’intéressent particulièrement. La création d’animations, d’outils pédagogiques, d’événements sont des éléments importants que je souhaite approfondir pendant ce stage. De plus, j’aimerais accroître mes connaissances naturalistes. Le contact avec un public divers et varié est également un paramètre de ma formation que j’aimerais développer."
Maïlys VIAUD
Niveau de diplôme : Bac +2
Informations complémentaires : • CV en pièce-jointe ci-dessous.
Prénom du contact : Maïlys
Nom du contact : VIAUD
Téléphone : 0680644022
Télécharger le fichier : 1_CV_Mailys_Viaud.docx
Date de début de parution (= fiche devient visible sur le site) : 16.05.2017
Date de fin de parution (= fiche disparaît du site) : 16.08.2017
(* champs requis)

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 11   
E7: 1938-1940

As at Princeton, I waited until I reached Madison to make living arrangements. This time I had a shorter trip from home and I had my car to carry my personal luggage. I learned where North Hall, the mathematics building, was and went there directly to announce my arrival and inquire as to procedures to find off-campus living quarters. By good luck, a Mrs. [Adelaide] Skinner, widow of a late department member, had a room to rent. In short order I went to her house and rented the room (again $15 per week). Here I would be the only roomer, and my room was very large, even equipped with a washstand. There was no shower – only a tub – but I couldn’t expect everything. On [Lathrop] street-parking was OK, but I later found that with 25° to 30° below zero temperatures, a heated garage would be needed. And there was one a block away, which I used each winter.

There were no private offices for faculty. (I had had one since the U of C.) The building was much too small for such a large department. (In fact, this was a gigantic University compared to those that I had known.) Apart from about twelve mathematics faculty members with professional ranks, there were seven instructors, of whom I was one. It turned out that the others – Don Hyers, Dick Kershner, Bernard Friedman, Bob Wagner, Churchill Eisenhart, and someone whose situation was special – were not regarded as slated for ultimately permanent appointments, but that I was. 

Don Hyers, Roy Wilcox, Dick Kershner

The department had no faculty member in the field of geometry and I had been selected to work toward the geometry slot, because of my background in that field. (Accordingly, I was getting $400 more in salary than each of the others.) If a department of 18 members seems small for a big University it should be remembered that there are countless graduate assistants, each teaching one or two elementary courses in small sections. (Often, but not here, such courses are handled through big lectures and “quiz sections.” I later came to realize that the Wisconsin system was by far the better one.)

My teaching assignment was a bit heavy I thought (14 class hours per week in for courses). The first year was uneventful. Teaching went well, due in part to my previous experience; I taught only freshmen and sophomores. Engineering majors too, a different sequence of math courses, and the faculty for them was separate from the main (liberal arts) group, though all were in the same department, headed by Prof. Mark Ingraham, who later became Dean and became very active in American Mathematical Society and organizational affairs.

My closest friends among my fellow instructors were Don Hyers, whose mathematical and musical interests were close to mine, Bob Wagner with whom I played billiards, and Dick Kershner. Dick and I didn’t have much in common during my first year, except that he and his wife Amanda liked to play bridge and sometimes invited me to “fill in.” Bob Wagner left after one year, and our association was short, though we have kept up contacts through the years.

But I felt it too narrowing to limit my contacts to fellow mathematicians. A small taste of faculty club life during my U of C Summers led me to investigate the University club. While this club was designed for, used by, and managed by faculty members, it was run as a private club with no administrative or financial connections with the University. The building was not even on University property, but was adjacent to the campus. I immediately joined, so that I could eat lunch there and use the facilities. Except for Kershner, the other male instructors had a living quarters there. Even had I known of the existence of such quarters I would have preferred the more quiet environment that I had selected.

It was at the club that I learned to play billiards seriously (not pool, but three-ball, straight rail billiards). This activity alone got me contacts, some becoming quite important to me, with non-mathematical people. The man who taught me what I learned (and know even now) about billiards, was Miles Henley, English professor, who was a renowned linguist. He specialized in American dialects and provincial usages; what a find, for one incipient linguist such as I! I spent many hours with him at the billiard table soaking up what I could about language. From here I first learned what “hyper urbanisms” are and the mysteries of “virtual words.” These latter would have given me plenty to do research on, had I carved out a career in linguistics.[1]

There were several things which were unpleasant about Madison. First, it is a city with many hills, and the campus has its share. Parking on campus was impossible unless one was a Dean or a Regent; I couldn’t even wangle a permit out of a M. Wilcox, in charge of campus grounds. So I made a practice of parking near the University Club, except during the cold weather, i.e. most of the winter, when I walked the mile or so to and from the campus, leaving the car in the garage. Also, my abode was across the street from the athletic field, the source of much noise at times. (I had learned at Princeton to try to get out of town on football weekends and of course here I could do the same by spending such weekends in Wilmette.) But there is no denying that Madison was a beautiful city, with three lakes nearby, one right next to the campus. (North Hall was so named because Lake Mendota precluded any building north of that building.).

The year was a smooth one; I had plenty to do, with my teaching, research work, and recreational activities, including tennis principally with Don Hyers, flute duets with Don, evenings with the “gang” at a local pub, etc. As to feminine company I thought that my experiences with the dearth of it during my E4, E5, E6 periods would not be repeated, since a State University would teem with females. The U of W was no exception: hordes of girls covered the campus, and it was said about their climb up the hill toward North Hall, with the statue of Lincoln (seated) at the top, that he would rise whenever a virgin reached the top. But I soon learned of the roadblocks. It was against University policy for (male) faculty members to date undergraduate students. Mathematics had a few female graduate students who were normally sought by the younger (male) graduate students. There were townspeople, a hospital with courses, even a nursing school, but there was no ready way to get acquainted with these people (unless one went to church or joined some local organization). Of my instructor friends only one, Bob Wagner, seemed to make out. Churchill Eisenhart eventually made out by cozying up to a waitress at a local restaurant and then marrying her. Somehow Don Hyers got acquainted with a girl at the nursing school, whom he dated a bit. On one occasion I joined him on a blind double date. But she wasn’t too bright or attractive, and, although I later accepted her invitation to her school dance, I had no interest in furthering the matter.

Occasionally one learns an important principle respecting one’s behavior; after all, one isn’t born wise. My first lesson along this line I learned at the end of my first Madison year. While elementary courses were large, they were taught in grade sections, as already noted. But final examinations were common, held in large rooms, and were designed by those teaching the course. In the second semester I taught such a course and all the remaining were graduate assistants. During the writing of the examination, the other instructors insisted on including a question on a book outside the course syllabus, all of them had covered it, but I had not. My negative vote carried too little weight. So at the examination time I announced that students in my section would not be required to answer that question. Chairman Ingraham learned of this later and called me on the carpet. I argued my case, but he claimed that I should have been more forceful in trying to keep the question off the examination. He was wrong, of course. More than that, the procedure was wrong in two ways: first, examinations should be separate for separate sections, since students should be tested over only the material they were exposed to; secondly, if common exams are given, they should result from a unanimous decision of the group. Here I learned that one must be more creative in going along with existing policy, however stupid it might be. It would take more experience to direct me toward a good personal policy for dealing with such matters. Later items relevant to this should get described in E8 and E9.

The next summer was spent in Wilmette where I worked on my research projects and enjoyed a vacation. There was swimming with Mort Mergentheim in Winnetka, and I was able to play billiards, since the University club had reciprocity compacts with the faculty clubs, and I could get a summer membership at the club at Northwestern University. There I played often with a returned professor who was a good match for me. During this summer the Pontiac developed transmission trouble and so I traded it for a 1936 Chevrolet two-door sedan. Again, price was $365 (less trade in).

My second Madison year was an eventful one indeed, good and not so good. On the first day I met Bob Coe, who was enrolling as a graduate assistant in our department. He had been a theater organist until sound films knocked him out of his profession, had briefly worked for the telephone company, and then decided to get a college education at Carroll College, majoring in mathematics. He was found so capable there upon graduation he was recommended for graduate work at the U of W – Madison. The day I met him, we conversed briefly, and then he told me about his background. I made a comment something like “So you are a tibia roller.” He perked up, knowing that I was no novice regarding the theater organ. This began our close friendship and association lasting until his death in [April] 1982.

Now it happened that Bob had a connection with the firm that owned the Capitol Theater* in town which he knew had a fine organ, which had undoubtedly deteriorated. Through some conniving he got permission to repair the organ and use it for his enjoyment. I was to be his assistant and thus have the opportunity to play on it. So from 8 to 12 AM [unclear if this is really 8 AM – 12 PM or 8 PM – 12 AM; the transcriptionist suspects the latter since the author was not a morning person] twice a week we worked through most of the 1939 – 40 year bringing the organ up to par and having great fun. I learned much from Bob not only about repairing and tuning but also about playing techniques. The manager was opposed to this project (since power use cost him money), but he had been overruled. Now one part couldn’t be repaired there, but had to be taken out. It was a heavy box; and we had sneak it out lest the manager see us “stealing” theater property. So one morning Bob enlisted three of his student friends; we parked by the rear theater door which was open. Luckily the theater was dark: Bob and I went to the balcony where the organ chamber was located, secured the box, tied a long electric cord around it, let it down over the balcony front to the fellows below. They received it and rushed it to my car. We had noted that the manager was there (an unusual event so early), and we knew that if the electric cord broke we would all be in the soup. What luck we had! The repair was made by the time of our next scheduled visit to the theater; we knew that no secrecy was now needed, since the manager wouldn’t object to our bringingsomething in.

The second important event stemmed from the fact that Don Hyers was no longer dating the nurse, but had become acquainted with a girl in Milwaukee, Wanda Deming, in whom he had become quite interested. One day he asked whether I’d like to join him in a double date: Wanda had a friend, Virginia Johnson, who would be my date. Don and I would drive to Milwaukee (in his car), and plan to stay in a hotel overnight. We could thus see the girls both Saturday evening and Sunday afternoon before returning to Madison. Answer: yes. (As it developed, the answer should have been YES!!)

Virginia’s family was by no means an academic one; in fact her father was …?... though a business man, and a good one. But she had an academic orientation having graduated from Carroll College (my second “contact” with Carroll) and had a Master’s degree in journalism from Marquette University in Milwaukee. I was especially struck by her voice – not deep but very sonorous and distinctive.

I looked forward to possibly more dates with her; if – and this crossed my mind – we were to see each other further, there was the advantage of dissimilarities in our educational and professional backgrounds. Of course there were indeed several double dates thereafter, Don and my cars alternating. I planned to spend the Christmas holidays in Madison, and so I tried to get a date with Virginia for New Year’s Eve. No soap, since she already had one. Oh well. So I spent the evening with Bob Coe and his friends. But the following spring things picked up with even some single dates in Milwaukee. Then it developed that Don and Wanda were to be married in April (1940); he asked me and I agreed to be his “best man.” After the wedding, Virginia and I had another date – an important one, based on some careful consideration by me of the pros and cons of single life. We planned to marry in December.

Throughout the academic year, Dick Kershner and I became better acquainted. Initially he and I didn’t see eye to eye on some basic mathematical ideas.[2] But slowly he was coming around to my position, and by my second Madison year we were very much in harmony; he even proposed that we might take some steps toward dissemination of the “gospel.” Suffice it to say here, we agreed to write a book and started on it the following summer. Because of WWII, we didn’t get to complete it and have it published until 1950. More on this elsewhere.[3]Our affinity led to closer social relations between me and the two Kershners. So when Virginia would come to Madison, for our date or a dance at the University Club, she would stay at the Kershners. So even before our marriage, the Kershners and Wilcoxes became very close friends.

Of course, Virginia met Bob Coe, and they hit it off quite well. On one of the visits to Madison, Bob took us to the Capitol Theater where, by that time, the organ was in superb condition. She and Bob sat in the balcony, and I serenaded her. Since the theater, as usual, was dark, I always suspected that she didn’t listen very much but instead conversed with Bob throughout the “concert.” Oh well; there would be times later when ignoring my playing wasn’t so easy. Clearly Bob was the right guy to play the organ at our wedding, which would be at Virginia’s church in Milwaukee.

Now came the first setback in my career. In April, a new governor was elected in Wisconsin – a “self-made” plumbing goods manufacturer, Julius Heil. Now Heil had no idea what a university was or how one operated. So he sneaked around the campus to find out. When he found that professors were often not in their offices on “working” days, he decided that the university was mismanaged and should have its funds reduced. (He might have asked a few questions and learned that professors are often in libraries or teaching classes, or attending seminars or meetings or working at home; but he didn’t have sense enough for that.) He had no trouble getting the State Legislature (largely ignorant farmers) to vote a 10%, across the board, decrease in the University appropriation. When this news reached our department, there was consternation, since costs had to be reduced. I still don’t know how Chairman Ingraham planned to deal with this disaster; the tenured faculty would be secure of course, except for possible payouts; but we little guys could be dispensed with. In my conference with the Chairman I was told that my job wasn’t in jeopardy, but there could be no promise of the future for me as had been envisaged. After all, no one could know how long Heil would remain as governor or how long it would take to restore proper level of financing the University. (As it turned out, Heil was voted out of office two years later; but it took ten years before the University got back to where it had been, in size, scope, quality, and the level of funding.)

My decision was clear: I would put out the word that I was available. And it was clear to me that, if I had a choice, I would prefer a private rather than public university, because too many uninformed and disinterested people could exercise power over the latter, while the former would be managed by an interested and, one hopes, an informed board of trustees. Our marriage plans remained in place; as a last resort my Madison job would be in hand; after marriage we could get an apartment and live there. The next summer, while I was spending some time at Virginia’s family’s summer home at Beaver Lake, Wisconsin, a phone call came to me from a Dr. Grinter, vice-president of Armour Institute of Technology on the South Side of Chicago (in the process of combining with a liberal arts college to become Illinois Institute of Technology). Would I be interested in considering an assistant professorship at $2400 a year? If so, when could I confer about it with him at the Armour campus? Answer: yes, and as soon as convenient.

I knew little about Armour Institute, except that I had seen from the “L” its “campus” – a few old buildings and a big vacant lot (for athletic events): hardly an impressive-appearing place. But teaching in Chicago would have its advantages, since I already had friends there, including the U of C people. I knew only one faculty member at Armour, a U of C PhD, who was rather kooky. Also, the assistant professor rank was appealing. The interview was a pleasant one; apparently the VP Grinter was satisfied with my background and promise. He turned me over to the President, Henry T. Heald, for an hour’s conference. He also presented his long-range program to me: expansion of IIT into a true University, enlargement of the 7.5 acre “campus,” upgrading faculty – especially by adding promising young PhD’s to the very meager thus …[looks like “audified”...] existing faculty and weeding out deadwood. With this story and Heald’s compelling personality, I became almost enthusiastic to accept. Leaving the President I then went to talk to the mathematics Chairman, Lester Ford. This interview was a minor detail, for he told me almost immediately that my appointment was up to the higher-ups; he evidently had no voice in the matter. In due course I got the appointment letter: things were looking up.

I had often in the past attended summer meetings of the American Mathematical Society. The meeting in 1940 was in Madison, a sort of last hurrah for me. With the opening of the fall term I would live at home in Wilmette and commute to IIT by car or train until the Christmas holidays, during which the big event would take place.

Maybe my career hadn’t been set back a great deal after all; much would depend on how Pres. Heald’s vision of the future of IIT would materialize. After all, life is made up of gambles: now I was gambling on a new career, the effectiveness of college President, and shortly a new life as a married man. Possibly this new gamble would be a success, as early will ones had been.






[1]See appendix.
* Now the Overture Center
[2]See F2.
[3]See F2.

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 10   
E6: 1936-1938, POST-DOCTORAL PERIOD AT THE INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY

The Pennsylvania Railroad was to see me from time to time in these years. An overnight trip got me from Chicago to North Philadelphia. A change of trains was needed to get to Princeton Junction, whence by a three-mile shuttle trip I would arrive at Princeton. At Christmas the trip was reversed; after the holidays the entire process would be repeated, and I would be home for the summer after the second term.

In those days one shipped most belongings in a trunk; I didn’t travel light. Although we were still poor, I learned that a trip by coach worth the small extra cost. I found the upper berth better than the lower. This was the routine until I got a car in 1937.

On my first arrival at Princeton I was a bit [unprepared], not having been able to make any contacts earlier. So I stayed one night at a hotel in town (not the best, I learned later, but with space) and the next day made my way to the IAS headquarters in “Fine Hall,” graduate mathematics building of Princeton University. The two institutions were almost entirely separate, but a close relationship existed between the two groups of personnel.

To help indentify the IAS, I quote here from the foreword The Institute for advanced study 1930 to 1954:
“The Institute . . . will permit.” – Robert Oppenheimer (then Institute director) [It is apparent that the intention was to reference this work to complete this quote, not included in the manuscript.]
Initially, the IAS was intended solely [for] mathematics and mathematical physics; later a few other fields were added.

On my first day I quickly made some acquaintances and inquired as to how I might find a place to live. By luck I asked the right person, Al Clifford who summoned another man Wallace Givens. They both were renting rooms in a private residence where there was still one vacant room. It took little time to make necessary arrangements, ending with my renting, for $15 weekly, a small room; ideally located well away from the other four rooms which were respectively occupied by Al, Wallace, a chemist Joe Hüstenfelder, and the landlady Elizabeth Cleary, 60ish but vivacious and most pleasant. This was to be my Princeton abode for the next three years. As it turned out, I couldn’t have asked for a better “family.” And 43 Vandeventer was located only three blocks from Fine Hall.
Roy in front of the Vandeventer residence, Princeton, New Jersey


I learned the ropes easily from my newly found friends. There was an excellent French restaurant only a few blocks away. There one could have three meals a day for one dollar! (I tried that arrangement briefly but soon shifted to a dinner only plan – $.60 per day – since breakfast and good light lunches could be had elsewhere.) There were teas daily (4:00 to 6:00 PM daily) for social and professional contacts, bridge playing, etc.[1]

Soon an appointment with the Institute director, Dr. Abraham Flexner, was made for me. The main purpose was to tell me – and I remember his exact words: “Here you have no duties only opportunities” – which I had already surmised. And the opportunities were many indeed; there were six “professors”: Oswald Veblen, John von Neumann, Marston Morse, Albert Einstein, James Alexander, and Herman Weyl; in addition there were some members, including professors on sabbatical leave known all over the US, and post-doctoral people like me, and a few “assistants” to the professors. Everyone was free to conduct lectures, a lecture series, seminars, gab fests, etc.; And everyone was free to attend any of them as he chose, as well as similar offers by the Math Department of Princeton University.

My first appointment was with Prof. Oswald Veblen, friend and erstwhile colleague of my thesis advisor (Mr. Lane), and now the principal professor in the School of Mathematics. He gave me the information I needed concerning the way the Institute operated. For example, I learned that Fine Hall was open to members 24 hours per day (each member having a key), and that the library (all of the top floor of Fine Hall) was also open all the time. I later realized that this library had as complete an advanced mathematics collection as existed anywhere. It was effectively run strictly on the honor system, with a top librarian to help find things if need be. It took me little time to learn the details necessary for coping with a living and working situation of a kind new to me. I had never been away from home and family before, nor had I been in such a situation of complete self-management.

I took full advantage of the new opportunities by attending lecture series in several subjects that I had never heard of. The mathematics here was unbelievably far ahead of any I had met at the U of C and I was beginning to realize that my graduate education there was far less than it seemed and as it should have been. The reason I began to realize, was that most of the U of C professors had been students of the professors of earlier times, who had done pioneer work in their field, and that their students were engaged in focusing on more or less routine extension of the earlier work. When my thesis submitted earlier for publication was turned down on the grounds not that it wasn’t good work, but that it was in a work “passé.” The full force of the need to get myself into the modern mathematics world hit me. One of my objectives, though, was to learn at least one field, new to me, adequately enough to do acceptable research in it – no small task, but my start was underway.

My career had so far exhibited fortuitous features; another piece of good luck was about to occur. Professor von Neumann had a lecture series I had attended in the first term. The Professor began a new series at the start of the second term. As it happened, his assistant had got seriously behind in his work and for some reason didn’t attend the first second-term lecture. Von Neumann, noting this absence, asked if someone would be willing to take notes. He seemed to be looking at me and I nodded: Von Neumann’s new subject was “continuous geometry” of furthering of a brand new field of mathematics lattice theory. Secretly I hoped that I would be continuing to “pinch-hit,” so that I could grow easily in the new field which excited me greatly. And this is just what did happen: the absent assistant had all he could do to complete work on the notes of the first term!

Now Flexner’s promise seemed violated, for I did indeed have duties! Typically my afternoon after a lecture was spent preparing “the notes,” discussing them with von Neumann, and getting them to the secretary, who would prepare the stencils the next morning. Then an afternoon (sometimes going into the evening) I would process them and get them back to the secretary. By the next day, the time of the next lecture, the pages were ready for distribution. This task might have been less daunting had von Neumann been an ordinary lecturer. But his speed was about three times great as the one lecture, and the size of the notes reflected that. I was now performing the exact functions of an assistant (without pay for it, of course).

With these duties, I had gained untold opportunities. In order to get to the point of doing research in any established field, even in a small one, one mainly has to gain considerable background – to learn what has been done already. But when one enters a fledgling field as lattice theory was then, there is precious little by way of background to research. And one has the advantage of participating in the building of the foundations of the subject, almost from the start.

As the end of the first year near, a decision as to the following year had to be made. But before I even inquired about a shift in role from member to von Neumann’s assistant, I was told by Veblen in that, at von Neumann’s request, I would be so named. The lecture series carried out with term ending could go on for at least another year. (I had an offer of an instructorship at UCLA, but had turned it down, feeling that I needed more of the post-doctoral work that I was doing before entering teaching.) Now I would have a salary of $1500 per year. Actually, I remained as von Neumann’s assistant for an additional year, since he had, by that time, done enough research to present a further year of lectures. As it happened, my duties in that last year were lessened, since for some reason von Neumann felt that his approach in the final year’s development wasn’t the best possible and he therefore did not want notes prepared and distributed. (I took them anyway, but did not [type] them up, on the chance that he would change his mind! He did not.)

By my second year at the IAS I reduced attendance at seminars, etc. so that I could give thought to research areas. During that year and the following I was able to work on and complete two definitive papers (one with a coauthor, Malcolm Riley,[2]an old friend from the U of C who had got his degree two years after I had), later published; and I began work on a third paper, also ultimately published.

During my last year at the IAS I had two job nibbles, the first from the University of Cincinnati and a later one from the University of Wisconsin. The first resulted in a sort of offer after I had visited Cincinnati during the winter break but it never became definite. I had little enthusiasm for the location and didn’t pursue the matter. When Prof. Cyrus MacDuffee from the University of Wisconsin at Madison [result of an IAS project] approached me with a definite offer, it didn’t take me long to decide to accept. I would be an instructor at $2200 per year.

Very few “eligible” young ladies were left in Princeton. The school was then for males only, and there were very few females at the IAS. The town “girls” were maiden ladies left over after the graduating seniors from the University had carried off the cream. There were occasional dances (one per year hosted by Dr. Flexner); for dates to these I made do with the maiden ladies available. Some members at the IAS had wives and had brought them to Princeton. These were evenings with some of these couples. At 43 Vandeventer we roomers sometimes had parties inviting town girls. But most of the social life was in the form of gab fests, games (e.g., Go, Canasta, Bridge) among single males. The exception occurred during my second year, when I somehow got acquainted with a nursing student in Philadelphia. (She was related to some people I knew in Princeton.) There were a few dates with her and after a period of inactivity I learned that she had married.

It was some consolation that Princeton was place of many musical events. There were organ concerts by famous organist at the chapel; and there was a fair amount of chamber music on the campus. (Einstein usually attended and always congratulated the performers afterward.) A few other musical matters are dealt with in F 1. Unfortunately I was able to get to New York or Philadelphia [only] occasionally, to hear their reputation-great symphony orchestras.

Once during my first IAS year at the spring break I went to Boston (train to New York, boat to Boston) to visit with Mort Mergentheim, now at Harvard Law school, during our spring break. And during my second and third years I took weekend trips to northern New Jersey where my old friend Clarence Baerveldt was living and preparing for the Presbyterian ministry. I hadn’t made those trips (by railroad) more than a few times when Clarence suggested that I get a (used) car. In fact, he took me to a dealer in East Orange; I bought a 1933 Pontiac four-door sedan for $365 (the only car I ever bought on time). 

I secured a New Jersey driver’s license (Illinois still didn’t require one). Thenceforth I had better control over my transportation. I could now enjoy more local attractions than I could earlier. Thus I could get over to Asbury Park, a delightful town on the coast, and could try a variety of seafood restaurants in the Princeton area. (It was at this time that I enjoyed my first experience with oysters, clams, crabs, etc.)

My years at Princeton added up to nothing short of a wonderful experience. I grew professionally, became weaned from my family, and learned the art of “personal administration.” A typical workday, when I became an Assistant, went something like this:
               12 noon or so:                   Arise, get a brunch
               1 – 2 PM:                         Attend a lecture or seminar (not all were                                                         where I had duties!)
               2 – 4 PM:                            Play tennis or squash with a colleague[3]
               4 – 8 PM:                            Tea, plus a long bridge game
               8 – 9 PM:                            Dinner at Lakiere’s[?]
               9 PM – 12 AM:                   Late movie
               12 – 1 AM:                          Game (usually with Al Clifford) at 43                                                             Vandeventer
               1 – 5 or 6 AM:                    Work on my research

The schedule was of course different on von Neumann’s lecture days, with the 2 to 4 and 9 to 12 periods devoted to work on lecture notes. As can be seen from the table, I had become fed up with the U of C early morning schedules and chucked them as soon as I could; I became and remained a “late” person. The main advantage to working through the wee hours was that there were then no distractions. More on this in section F2.

(One word about bridge, etc. while as a grad student at the U of C, I noted that some of my fellows’ students played bridge incessantly – to the point of addiction. So I steered clear of the game. At least one very capable but addicted student I knew substituted bridge for studying and never got his degree. But at the IAS I got interested in the game and found it possible to work it in without damaging my professional life. After leaving the IAS I played only rarely; usually people who played didn’t do so very seriously, and I wasn’t accustomed to that. While I always enjoyed games of skill, e.g., chess, Bridge, billiards, they never played a major role in my life.)

Summers during this period were by no means wasted: they supplemented the important active things at Princeton. I lived at my Wilmette home, of course, but spent weekdays at the U of C, where office facilities were available for visiting mathematicians. I was surprised to find a number of my IAS colleagues there too, taking advantage of the U of C hospitality – one of our group, a Princeton University professor, was teaching at Northwestern during the summer and rooming in Wilmette. Since he joined the group at the U of C, I got a ride home, since he had a car. The U of C gave us privileges at the Quadrangle (faculty) club, with facilities for tennis, billiards, and meals. All in all this was a most enjoyable summer.

The second summer (of 1937) was much like the first, except that I had a visiting instructorship at the U of C; many of the old group were there again. 
Roy, his mother Pauline (in car), and the 1933 Pontiac; ca 1937, Wilmette, Illinois


The course that I taught was along the lines of my new lattice theory interest; one of my students became so interested he asked me to become his Master’s thesis advisor. I readily gave him a Master’s level problem and started him off. After I left, he continued his work under Mr. Barnard[?] and, I understood, later got the degree. Another experience was to be appointed to the PhD final oral examination committee for my old friend Malcolm Smiley who had now completed his work toward the PhD. He passed, of course, and turned up at the IAS in the fall! In fact, a room at my rooming house became available and he moved in. That year we developed and wrote our joint paper.

When these years were over, I had about finished my “growing up” period; I had positioned myself well for future research work, and a proper University teaching career seemed assured. I had also grown up politically. Wilmette was my official residence, and so I voted absentee in the 1936 Presidential election – for Roosevelt (and I voted for the same candidate three more times). My Pontiac was still running well; I maintained the New Jersey registration until I got to Madison. The summer of 1938 passed uneventfully, except that I again frequented the U of C and [commentary ends here].*






[1] At the IAS the custom was to use appropriate titles – Professor, Doctor, etc. as appropriate.
[2]Malcolm eventually became a professor at …?… where he stayed until …?… was too much. His career ended at SUNY. (He died a few years ago.)
[3]Shortly after arriving at Princeton I asked the gymnasium management for privileges at the gym – locker, towels, free use of facilities, etc. They hadn't heard of the IAS, but heard my request and decided to extend a special reduced rate privileges not only to me but for all IAS personnel. I was thanked by many for my action.
* Not included here but most likely the process during the Princeton years, during the summer, after Roy got a car: his Sundays were spent taking his parents to church, then his father to the Cook County Jail to play music for and preach to the inmates and taking his mother to the Foster Park German Baptist Church on Paulina, later picking up his father from the train and driving him to the home of a German Church parishioner to join his wife for dinner at that location. (This according to oral interviews by the transcriptionist with Roy Wilcox in ca. 1979 and 1997-99.) 

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 9-B   
E5: 1929-1935

Part B – Graduate Period: Winter 1932 – Spring 1935 inclusive

It seems that from an academic point of view I was now sitting pretty. No tuition to pay and an ideal plan of study: continue the differential geometry with E. P. Lane (one of the best instructors in my view) begun in the fall; I could anticipate learning enough in the two spring months to specialize in that field and maybe begin a Masters thesis by summer. With the free period then I might be able to complete the thesis in time to come up for the degree the following December.

The University, however, threw a nasty communication at me. True, I had been extended the one-year senior mathematics scholarship; but my letter stated, I was no longer a senior and so I couldn’t use the scholarship. (No such condition had been stated in my acceptance document.) The Department’s Chairman and Division Dean tried without success to get the University to back down from its high-handed action, and so the Dean assigned me a “service” scholarship for the two quarters which would cover tuition, but would require me to perform some minimal task. As it turned out, this worked out well, since my task was to grade homework papers for one of the instructors (with whom I had taken calculus and whom I knew well and liked). The experience I got was well worth the effort I put in. At the end of the year I was awarded a fellowship paying tuition plus $200 ($500 in all) for 1933 to 1934. For that I would have to give some sort of service. Otherwise, my plans all worked out perfectly. In fact Mr.[1]Lane was delighted to take me on and gave me a master’s [skewed] research problem. I returned the following fall and had conference with Mr. Lane during which I presented my results, led [sic.] to his accepting what I had done as sufficient to be written up as the thesis. The fall quarter was spent in writing, getting Mr. Lane’s approval, reviewing for the Master’s exam (which was oral only), passing same, and of course, taking three courses; broadening my background into some new (to me) subfields. My fellowship service would be to teach an elementary course in the spring.


With the S. M. Degree under the belt by winter I could now get down to business. Again I took courses, including one or two in my specialty. Near the end of the year it was déjà vu: I got a doctoral thesis problem from Mr. Lane to be worked on in the summer. The spring course that I was assigned to teach was analytic geometry, which would have been my first choice anyway. This first full teaching experience was fun; by now I had already decided that University teaching would be my profession, and this taste assured me of the correctness of my decision. In the class was a bright, attractive girl with whom I had some campus “dates,” at which I usually played piano for her (at her request). (There was no rule against such socializing.) I wasn’t serious about Olga Adler of course – she was good company. (I’m sure my mother would have been nonplussed – Olga was Jewish!) We corresponded over the summer but the next year I saw her only once or twice, from afar, with a boyfriend. Oh, well, now that I had a fellowship (this time for a total of $800, the highest amount ever given, and enough to pay me back for the $300 the University had wheedled out of me), I might teach another course.

The next fall I returned with my thesis results. Before I had presented all of them to Mr. Lane, he stopped me and said, “Write up the material to this point, and that will be your thesis.” I had of course a full year to write this material and have it typed. The idea would be perhaps to work up the remainder for publication in a post-doctoral paper. While I had a full year of more coursework to take there was plenty of time to do other things so I extended some of my Master’s thesis work, presented it to Mr. Lane, and at his suggestion submitted it for publication. His influence might have helped – the paper was accepted!

My last quarter was spent preparing for the final examination (oral, of course), finishing off the thesis, taking the usual three courses, and teaching analytic geometry again. One of the members of that class was Herbert Simon, who later became an economist, was a colleague of mine at IIT, and a few years back was awarded a Nobel Prize. I got to know him quite well, but much later: he seldom attended class preferring to work independently. (More comments on this shortly.) And there was a bright, attractive girl in the class. Again there were some “campus ‘dates’,” and again I didn’t get serious. (My mother would have been nonplussed: Margaret Stone was Catholic!) The exam went well; I was elected to Sigma Xi (honorary scientific society) and got my PhD on schedule on June 11, 1935.


Art and Leora, who attended the convocation along with my parents graciously suggested a celebration at their home afterward: dinner and a social evening. They also asked me to select and invite one of my classmates. A friend who also received the PhD seemed an appropriate choice since his family lived too far away to attend the convocation. 


The event was enjoyed by all; I remember few details except that I played the piano, sight-reading Schubert’s Rosamunde Suite from Leora’s sheet music, and that even Leora played along on the violin.

My memories of the graduate friends are pleasant ones. I got to know well and enjoy a number of graduate students. There were several aids toward this end. First, the department provided the fellows and a few other graduate students with small private offices on the top floor of the mathematics building; this facilitated interplay. There were weekly afternoon teas, attended by most mathematics faculty and graduate students. Every other week the Mathematics Club (research oriented) met after the tea, and on off weeks the Junior Mathematics Club met (with a more elementary orientation). I spoke several times at each club and as senior fellow, served as president of the Junior Club during my last year. The Mathematics Library was separate from the main University library (a correct plan) – it was heavily used, so that people “ran into” one another often. We had a close-knit group. Relations between students and faculty were also easy and cordial.
Junior Math Club (Roy is at far left)


I had high personal regard for almost all the mathematics faculty members; there were at least six (out of about 10) from whom I learned a great deal and toward whom I felt indebted for one reason or another. Mr. Lane was of course no one to whom I felt most gratitude not only was he an ideal thesis adviser, but he had an important effect on my entire future. As my impending completion of work at the U of C approached, we discussed possible plans for my next year. I had applied for a National Research Council (NRC) fellowship – support of me for or guidance of post-doctoral research at a chosen university, but was not appointed. So Mr. Lane agreed to recommend me for a “membership” on the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) at Princeton, N.J., similar to an NRC fellowship. He knew well the mathematics director there. Another possibility was a one-year instructor ship at the U of C. But Mr. Lane advised me to keep that possibility as a last resort, feeling that it would be to my interest to receive the branding that would result from a connection elsewhere. The Institute for advanced study appointment came through in due time, and my immediate future became secure: the stipend would be $1200, and the period at the IAS would be expected between October and May with a month break at holiday time.


Also, Mr. Lane gave me great insights into what applied mathematics and indeed science in general is all about, and Mr. B[ounend?]’s courses provided me with an understanding of what mathematics itself is all about – what makes it tick, and what constitutes precision of thought and critical attitude throughout one’s contacts with the subject. It was he who provided the inspiration which led later to my co-authoring the Anatomy of Mathematics.

There was one more other faculty member who deserves special mention: Mr. Walter Bartky, my freshman astronomy teacher, the top member of the astronomy trio, with whom I had had several courses, seemed to take a special interest in me. Early in my last year he called me to his office after having received an odd request: two executives at the Saturday Evening Post magazine had called him to ask for help in navigating. Each owned a yacht and did his own navigating but was anxious to get some instruction in the whys and wherefores of indulging the “cookbook” approach plus tables in common use by navigators. Would I, said Bartky, be interested in teaching these men navigation? I immediately pleaded lack of knowledge of the subject. No excuse, said Bartky; essentially only spherical trigonometry was involved;[2]and I could certainly learn the rest in a week or two; he even had a book that he suggested my using. I was still dubious and reminded him that as a fellow, I was prohibited from doing outside work. No problem said Bartky. Never shy away from something new, he advised, and cited his own acceptance of the job of teaching some industrialists the theory of sampling (for quality control), even though he would have to learn it from scratch himself in a week or so. [But I pointed out that as a fellow I wasn’t permitted to do outside work. This is repeated here.] No problem, he said; a trustee would write a letter waiving the restriction in my case. Upon that I had no choice [but] to agree. On my own I learned navigation, then taught over a five- or six-week period to the two yachtsmen at five dollars per weekly lesson each. This experience gave a tremendous boost to myself-confidence. Just after my final PhD examination Bartky and his wife congratulated me by taking me out to dinner at a local swanky restaurant. I kept contacts with him for many years; he later became a Dean of Physical Science at the U of C.

At this stage I had now reached, it was natural to look back and ask myself whether I had made a good choice to major in mathematics. I recall that at an early stage when I returned to new Trier for a visit Mrs. Walker, who had really led to me to the U of C via the German examination, expressed great disappointment that I had shifted from languages. “Mathematics is so cold,” she said. What she failed to realize was that mathematics is every bit as much a human activity as language, in that mathematical and ordinary language have much in common. Also she couldn’t know how useful to me would my language skills be later on [sic.]. Thus, instructors in the graduate courses always tried to select the best textbooks available whether in English or not. (In two of my courses, the texts were in German, and in one the book was in Italian. In anticipation of this latter I spent part of the previous summer learning Italian, a language which comes easily to one who knows French. Oddly, the Italian versions of mathematical terms are usually closer to the English counterparts then are the German versions.) Then, of course, a prerequisite for a PhD degree was the passing of examinations in two languages to test reading knowledge. The German and French exams were my choice and turned out to be no trouble.

I think that Mrs. Walker would be pleased to learn that I never lost my interest in languages. My interest in linguistics motivated a curious move I made during one of my graduate quarters. I learned that a graduate level course on modern German dialects was to be given by Leonard Bloomfield, a recognized scholar in this field. Since the University permitted auditing of any [offered?] courses by full-time students, I decided not to pass up this opportunity. I knew the Bonn dialect, learned in childhood from Gertrude, and I knew that there were many German dialects differing from one another to the extent that persons from towns as close as 50 miles might not be able to understand each other. (Educated Germans generally learned “stage German” in addition to the local dialects version.) I bought the textbook and attended all the sessions. My presence confused Mr. Bloomfield on the first day of class; he expected only graduate students in German, all of whom he knew. But he accepted my indication that I was only an auditor – probably the first such that he had ever had. The course was fascinating and I felt that in a way it grounded out my academic efforts.

As in earlier periods I developed very few personal friendships during the graduate years. Of my classmates, there were only two or three; with only one of these, Malcolm Smiley, did I maintain close contact for a period of years. He will appear here and there in the sequel. Aside from classmates, there were two friends deserving of mention. One, John Simpson, a prelaw student [who] was an undergraduate during my graduate years. We met on the L: I would leave the North Shore train downtown at the station adjoining the terminal of the Chicago Union and Elgin Railroad (similar to the North Shore line). He would arrive there from A[…?…], making a transfer to the L like mine, and at about the same time. (We both had 8 o’clock classes. I always had them during my whole six-year stint, necessitating my leaving Wilmette on the first morning train at 6.) We had common interests, including music: we were both analytic about most issues. So there was much to discuss, and we both looked forward, over a two-year period, to our frequent meetings, rides, and walks. I was sorry to have seen but little of him after I left the U of C.

A second contact stemmed from my paper-grading year: Harry Harman was a student in a class for which I was grading. Since he always did perfect work, I was determined to meet him. He turned out to be a very close friend up to and beyond my marriage. In fact, he was an usher at my wedding. We had little contact while I was studying at the U of C but later got together often for tennis, bridge, and talk. He was interested in mathematical psychology and statistics. After he and his family moved to California we maintained contact by mail; unfortunately both he and his wife died too soon a number of years ago.

In some ways it was fortunate that I began work at the U of C when I did rather than later, for President Hutchins viewed himself as an educational warden and in a few years after his arrival in 1929 effected major changes in the University’s programs. Students entering under the “New Plan” had little freedom to choose courses and had …?…: They took, during their first two years, four “survey” courses, in humanities, social science, biological sciences, and physical sciences. The idea was to give each student a “broad general familiarity” with major academic areas. A student’s success in these was judged by his performance on “comprehensive examinations,” which could be taken at any time, whether a student had actually attended the course or not. Admission to upper division work in a major field was contingent on the passing of all those four examinations. Hutchins (erroneously) believed that U of C students would be mature enough to govern their handling of this work – whether they wished to attend or not and whether they wanted to take a few other (regular…?…) courses too. (Even passing or finishing ordinary such course at the freshman/sophomore level depended only upon a departmental examination, not on an instructor’s guide.)

Having started my studies under the “old plan” I could continue that way, and, of course, I did. (To change over would undoubtedly have entailed extra time expenditures.) My disapproval of the “new plan” was solidified during my teaching period as a fellow. I learned afterward that very few students in my first class actually appeared for examination so as to “pass” the course; many of these could have passed, had my grade counted. And it is common knowledge that this condition was wide-spread.

The summer of 1935 was spent mostly in preparing a version of my doctoral thesis for publication. While not required, publication clearly would be in my interest. After it was completed I sent it to the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society (AMS) the major research journal in the field.

There was a small additional job: the Wilmette State Bank, which had provided my parents with a mortgage back in 1923, decided to call all such loans and get out of the mortgage business. This meant that $5000 had to be raised somehow – apparent [im]possibility, since the Depression was now in full force. But there was a bit of luck: just formed was the First Federal Savings and Loan Association of Wilmette, ready to enter the business. After a conference with its president, Carl Clifton, approval of my application followed – I guess my new appointment at the IAS was thought adequate to yield the modest monthly payments – now of interest and principal amortization.

All personal and family obligations out of the way I took the rest of the summer off, having earned, I thought, a vacation.



[1] At the U of C no one was ever addressed as “Professor,” or even (except for medical people) as “Doctor.”
[2]This subject was no longer a standard curriculum item. But I had learned it during my early astronomy courses.

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 9-A   
E5: 1929-1935

Part A – Undergraduate College Period

Since I had hoped eventually to study engineering, my rough plan was to start work at the University of Chicago, despite the unavailability of engineering programs there, and transfer after two years to another school. Even if I were to stay for four years, majoring in mathematics or physics I still would not have to give up on engineering. Quite properly I was not concerned about my inability to fix on a particular goal and I recognized the value in keeping options open at this stage.

There were impending obstacles in my path. First, under our normal family economic conditions, I could not plan to live on the University of Chicago campus and would have to face a commuter’s life – nearly 4 hours of a round-trip travel each school day, via North Shore Line, Elevated, and about 1 ½ miles of walking [sic.]. What made matters worse, however, was the threat of Depression which might lessen even our very modest economic capabilities. It wasn’t very long before my father’s company folded, and he was out of work. With increasing deafness, his chances of securing employment were exceptionally low, especially because of his lack of any real skills and his prejudice against hearing aids. 
Lee Alfred Wilcox (before hearing aid), ca 1929, Wilmette, Illinois

(Actually, during the entire decade that followed, he was able to secure only occasional odd jobs; otherwise he did volunteer work for the Wilmette Recreation Department, for the duration of the Depression.)

Luckily, my mother’s ingenuity came into play: she secured a permanent [?] job at the Chicago Gospel Tabernacle office.
Pauline Miller Wilcox, ca 1930

Her income was low, but the cost of living was correspondingly so, and there were benefits in that she was able to take home foodstuffs. (The Tabernacle operated the cafeteria and was able to secure food at very low prices.) My Grandmother Gertrude’s pension ($30 monthly)[1]allowed my scrimping transportation costs (about $.46 per day thanks to North Shore Line student tickets at $.18 between Wilmette and Chicago Loop) and lunch money ($.13-$.15 per day). There were of course household expenses for heat and light, taxes, mortgage payments (luckily interest only, since amortization of principal had not yet come into style) and some food (especially now that my mother had found a young German woman who would take care of Gertrude 24 hours a day for room and board only). 
Gertrude Mueller Miller, ca 1930, Wilmette, Illinois

Somehow my mother managed, I don’t know how, especially since there were essentially no savings, and maintenance of the family’s religious lifestyle meant more expenditures, especially for tithing and transportation to Chicago. It was clear, though, since my scholarship paid for tuition only ($300 per year), that I would somehow have to meet other expenses, including those for clothing, books, writing materials, and incidentals. I would have to find a way to earn money, mostly during summers, when I would not be attending classes.

In high school I had done some tutoring; as it worked out, I was always able to find some work along this line during the summers and a bit during the academic years. My rate: $2 per hour. My high school mathematics teacher, Mr. Snyder, cooperated by referring students to me I also tutored some in German and later in French. And during my sophomore and junior years, Mr. Snyder called on me from time to time to do substitute teaching at New Trier and in the September before my senior year. The German teacher at NT (not Mrs. Walker who had left) missed her steamer to return to the United States from Europe, and so I was called to substitute for her for a two or three week period. My pay for these jobs was $8 per day at first then later $6 per day (the Depression was deep by this time). Except for the big NT German job which was over before my classes started, my assignments there never occupied more than one or two days; making up for those missed today’s was usually easy.
[At this point in the manuscript, there is a reference to include “Lane story on quiz.” This item was not included and it is supposed that it would have been added later, had circumstances not prevented it.]

My academic program for the first year was as follows:
               Fall Quarter:
                              Mathematics (Analytic geom.)
                              German (last of 5 courses, my high school background corresponding to the first 4)
                              English composition

               Winter Quarter:
                              Mathematics (Calculus)
                              French 101
                              English (the novel)

               Spring Quarter:
                              Mathematics (Calculus)
                              French 103
                              Beginning astronomy
Selection of courses for the first quarter was pretty automatic: the mathematics was a good idea since I liked the subject, and might selected as a major; German was a natural to follow up on my high school work and to provide entry into the advanced courses should [it] be a possibility that I might major or minor in German. As to English, it turned out that, although I apparently could write well in German, my writing in English was not adjudged (by the English instructors who expected something other than good, precise, accurate expression) adequate to excuse me from the two composition courses required of all klutzes like me.

At the end of the fall quarter I had decided that I would major in mathematics, on the basis of inspiration I received from my excellent instructor (L. M. Graves, who figured in my life for many years).* Furthermore, I learned that the advanced German offerings contained no linguistics – only literature with occasional courses in other Germanic languages so that more literature could be studied. This had no appeal to me, and so I dropped any intention of further German study, much to the disappointment of the German faculty who expected that a German scholar would naturally want to specialize in that subject. (I did agree to be president of the German club through the years, however.) The choice of French was naturally mine: if French served as a kind of universal language for mathematics (along with English, of course), my selection of calculus in the winter and spring was consonant with my majoring in mathematics.

In the spring, astronomy was offered also by a fine instructor (with whom I had many interactions later); this subject would be, natural minor for me. Having received an A in French 101 I was permitted to skip 102 and receive credit for it if I got an A in 103. This did indeed happen.

Now for some bad news. English (my high school semi-nemesis) turned out the same way here: B’s in both fall and winter. I erred in choosing English in the winter but saw nothing better. I had developed some interest in novels – especially those of Dickens – [illegible] and thought I could stretch myself. We read a novel week and wrote a commentary on it each week; the choices were good ones, but again my style of writing apparently stood in my way. So the year ended with seven A’s and two B’s. The result: my scholarship would be renewed but only to the extent of two-thirds of what it was the first year. My consternation is easy to understand: I had no more funds to provide the missing $100. But I was able to borrow that amount from the University at 3% interest, to be paid back within a reasonable time. Since the sophomore year marked the start of my substitute teaching I was able to meet the obligation.

A comment on foreign language instruction at the U of C is in order here. It was (properly) done (in my judgment) by primary emphasis on grammar, vocabulary, reading, and to an extent, writing, with little stress on oral communication. (However, beyond the 101 courses, all were conducted in the language being taught.) In each course, even the 101, there was required reading of 100 pages per week with a book report (in English if desired) to be handed in. The first week, one could read a simple book; thereafter, one should read books written for adults. This method, in contrast to the “commercial method” enables one to draw on one’s extensive knowledge of one’s native language to help in learning the new one – rather than to learn it, necessarily inefficiently, by trial and error.

All courses, in fact, were quite demanding. But of the U of C regarded its instruction as so competitive that a five hour per week course could be taught in four hours weekly. So after my first quarter (when gym and an “orientation” thing that were held on Monday), my Mondays were free and were always spent at home. Mondays (nice at first, but then necessities) plus my riding time on the “L” and North Shore gave me the time needed to keep on top of everything.

Not only did I get credit for the one French course but I learned during the year that two of my high school courses were regarded as [?] college preparatory work; and so I got credit for college algebra and fourth-year high school German. As might be inferred from my account so far, the normal course load was three per quarter, so that in four years one would have taken 36 courses. Each was regarded as worth 3 1/3 semester hours, for a total of 120 hours for graduation.
Roy, U of C student


I had arrived at the end of one year with one extra quarter’s credit which meant that I might graduate one quarter early (these courses carried no grades). Why not, I thought, try for a second quarter’s credit and graduate still earlier. Now the U of C offered correspondence courses, those applicable to one’s program, taken in this way, would then carry regular credit and the grades carried. Why not, I thought, take one such course each summer – 1930, 1931, 1932? These would lead to a graduation two quarters early, in December 1932. Moreover, these correspondence courses would require only $25 each for tuition – some extra tutoring or whatever on my part. As it worked out, I took in 1930 one in differential equations – a good one for home study, since this subject was taught mechanically with many problems, little theory. And I did take one course in each of 1931, 1932, both being in educational methods. I thought that I might have to end up teaching in high school, in which case I would need education courses for certification. I later took practice teaching and a psychology course to round out these requirements. Of course I never needed to draw on those qualifications.

My “B” days weren’t quite over. I took the second required English comp. course as a sophomore and so ended up with eight A’s and one B. But now, having completed two years, I was to enter my period of concentration in the major, so that my scholarship decision would be in the hands of the mathematics department members, several of whom, fortunately, were impressed with my work and potential. I was thus awarded the junior year mathematics (full) scholarship. I felt pretty good about beating out the winner of the competitive freshman scholarship in mathematics at the time that I got the one in German.

The balance of my undergraduate work involved each quarter two mathematics courses and one course in my minor, astronomy (physics). By this time some of these courses were at the graduate level, since I had had a good head start and had taken most of the undergraduate courses in both subjects. (Astronomy at the U of C was split: experimental astronomy was taught at the Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin; and the theoretical part (actually applied mechanics) was taught at the Chicago campus. The three faculty members involved being housed in the mathematics department. In my junior year I took the sequence of three mechanics courses given by astronomer William MacMillan (not my favorite). His grading system was to give everyone a B, except for A’s for those who spoke out a lot (making [?] or nonsense). In the first quarter the stupidest student got the only A. (It wasn’t Wilcox, who quietly did all the work correctly.) Later I learned that MacMillan received a terrible bawling out for giving a B to the one junior math scholar. Thereafter I scored A’s for Macmillan, as I did in the mathematics courses. I was awarded the senior math scholarship for the coming year.

By fall I had under my belt 33 of the 36 courses required for graduation. During the fall quarter I took a couple of math courses and a physics course (theory of heat), which I thought would be a great experience, since the instructor was Arthur Compton, Nobel Prize winner for discovery of cosmic rays. But he was an experimental, not theoretical physicist, and the course was a washout.

Apparently my grades there the junior year were adequate to qualify me for election to Phi Beta Kappa.

At the fall 1932 induction ceremony I got my first impression of the speaker Mortimer Adler. He said in his speech that science had reached its intellectual peak with the early Greeks and had been in decline ever since. He was so effective as a speaker that he made this sound plausible. But on my way home afterwards I gave the matter some thought and realized that all of what he had said was garbage in view of the tremendous explosion in science and mathematics beginning with the middle ages and still in high gear. My impression of Adler as a nut has stuck with me to this date. His “Great Books” program predicated on his ridiculous theme is garbage. What I’ve heard him say over the years hasn’t caused me to alter my opinion. Pres. Robert Hutchins, who started his presidency at the U of C when I entered, did a fair amount of good for the University, but he also made some serious mistakes, one of which was to appoint Adler. (He first tried to put him in the Law School, whereupon the Law faculty resigned as a body; so Adler ended up as a professor of Philosophy, perhaps because that department’s members weren’t as perceptive as the Law’s ones).

I graduated on schedule, in December 1932 (grade-point average was a 3.8). 

Having already taken some graduate work I decided to continue towards the Master’s degree in mathematics. On the basis of this and a special oral examination I received the S. B. With honors – no “. . . Cum laude” at the U of C. It is an odd fact that there only [are] three Bachelor’s degrees available: Bachelor of Science (S. B.), Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph. B.), and Bachelor of Arts (A. B.). The first was given only to science majors, the last only to (non-science) students who included a certain amount of Greek in their programs, the Ph. B. to all others. (The U of C was a stickler for European form.)

During my undergraduate years, my social activities (except for Sunday family/religious stuff) were pretty meager. While I had been rushed by two fraternities I couldn’t afford to join, of course. I participated in no extracurricular activities. (One exception: in 1929 before Pres. Hutchins abdicated football, I attended one game – at Urbana, with expenses covered by one of the frats. I stayed with my high school friend Duncan-Clark who was attending the U of I.) The few dates I had were “campus dates.” A man could visit a girl at her dormitory, but they had to stay in plain view in the first floor parlor. How times have changed!

My friends were even fewer here than at New Trier. Only two stand out: Ed Cooper[?], who was severely handicapped by a bone disorder [and] had to use crutches and needed help to get up even one step. I made a point of helping him whenever I could and in return he would drive me to the Belmont “L” stop in his specially outfitted car. This friendship lasted well beyond my undergraduate period.

A second friend was Ned Hohman, a pre-dental student. We met in the gym during my second quarter at the U of C. My earlier interest in gymnastics led me to use the gym voluntarily after my first (required) course. Ned and I had the same interests – work on the mats, parallel bars, and horse; our skills developed at about the same pace. On occasion I would be invited to his home on the far South Side and he visited my home on a few occasions. His father was a practicing dentist who gave me dental care and his two older brothers were already MDs. Ned ultimately became my dentist and his brother Ray my doctor; after my marriage, both briefly served our family.

My gymnastics had to be given up as a result of a shoulder injury which occurred during my junior year. One of my old Winnetka friends was attending the U of C, commuting as I did except that he had a car. On one occasion he took me home, but on the way he had car trouble and stopped at a service station. While waiting there I strolled around the station, stupidly overlooking that it was pitch dark. Suddenly I stepped into a greased pit. My left arm went out automatically and was caught on the concave side of the pit. My shoulder slipped out of its socket and I instantly grabbed the arm to push it back. Since I couldn’t afford medical care or the time out to get patched up (surgery being necessary to rejoin a “ruptured ligament,” as I learned much later), I decided to try to live with the situation. The shoulder misbehaved a few times thereafter until I learned how to favor it. In due time, I had no more trouble since regeneration evidently took place. Only very recently have I noticed a slight weakness in the shoulder, possibly due to that early mishap.

During my undergraduate period when I took non-mathematical courses I frequently had to write papers. My high school graduation present had been a (new) portable (mechanical) Underwood typewriter (which I still have – in excellent working order). That machine served me very well indeed. To do reference work in preparation for these papers, which were usually on scientific subjects by my choice, I often stopped downtown on the way home to use the Crerar Library. (At the U of C libraries the best books were often out; the Crerar books had to be used on the premises.) One of my long papers was on hypnosis in which I had become interested through the one psychology course I took. I recall reading books on the subject until I reached the point where any additional book provided nothing that I did not know already. (Crerar later moved to IIT and then to the U of C.)

As I look back over this. I marvel at my good fortune: never did I miss a day at school for health reasons – only for NT substituting; I was able to earn enough to handle all my expenses except for those covered by family help. The best clothing buy that I got occurred early: a big “alpaca pile” overcoat (artificial fur) with a stout lining and a large collar to raise for ear and face protection. The cost: $25. It made bearable my long walks on and to and from the campus with the cold and windy weather. It served me well, later during subzero spells in Wisconsin and Chicago. It’s still about as good as new – even the lining.

In general, I would rate the undergraduate education I received at the University of Chicago as excellent. I had sole freedom in choosing the courses I would take; graduation requirements were far from oppressive. There were no “general education” requirements such as are common today! The student was credited with good judgment; only once (early in the game) did the Dean say, “I’ll approve your program because I am required to, but I do so against my better judgment.” (He thought I should take history or some such “non-scientific – not yet in effect” course.) William Hutchins’s new program [?], on which I comment in section B, was based upon an entirely different educational philosophy!

But I cannot leave this part without a few remarks about the courses in Education. These were an eye-opener as to coming trends. The courses were generally known, even then, to be “snap courses,” designed to lead into elementary and secondary teaching the [to] weakest students. Of course there was a pretense to the contrary. I took education 101 as a regular (not correspondence) course. The first day the instructor passed out a bibliography listing some 30 books, all of which were “required reading.” I knew this was a fakery, also, that I couldn’t afford to buy the books or hope to find them in the library so I ignored the list completely, took copious notes on the trivia (or falsehoods) peddled in the lectures, and received an A grade (by that time I had learned how to get high grades out of weak instructors cold).

In “special methods – mathematics,” taken by correspondence, I learned how much meat has been removed from high school subjects. For example, it was recommended that, instead of providing that the volume of a cone is one third that of a corresponding cylinder, as we did in solid geometry at New Trier, one make a cone out of paper, fill it with sand, then pour the sand into an appropriate cylinder (same base, same height), and “find out” that it takes three conefuls to fill the cylinder. I couldn’t believe ­this when I read it.

About this time I learned with sadness that even New Trier was being negatively affected. A new superintendent that came in, Mr. Snyder (my mathematics mentor) told me, that (a) I would no longer be regarded as qualified to do substitute teaching and (b) his job of manning the department and indeed the jobs of the teachers had degenerated into the branding of the ad nauseum. I learned that my carefully adhered to education evidently to be already out of date – insufficient for certification. It was clear that there was a gigantic conspiracy effort on the part of such outfits as The Columbia Teachers College to water down primary and secondary education generally, and to emasculate teacher “training” and in order to provide backup, to turn out administrators and teachers of character in comparable mold[?] to run schools, pressure [the] legislations to keep teacher certification at a low level, and to ensure giving this damned movement the strength to persist long into the future.

The results of all this are clear as a bell today now that we are in the third and fourth generation of stagnation. The damage cannot be overcome without an attack on its root causes. As I write, much consternation exists in the public and political arenas about what has happened, and futile movements to “correct” the situation are underway with money regarded as somehow central. I am sure that no improvement will happen in my time, if ever.



[1]Her husband had a pension from Civil War army service available to his widow.
* Notes on the manuscript call for a story of some sort to be inserted here, but it does not appear to have been included anywhere.

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 8   
E4: 1925-1929 (The New Trier Years)

My year at Howard school was a real spoiler: now I would have a daily, and very long, trip (of nearly a mile each way) to New Trier. True, one can ride on the North Shore (student fares for trips less than 5 miles: 50 for one dollar); but many Wilmette kids walked, West-Siders at any rate, and I was no exception – rain, shine, snow, or whatever. (I tried the bike one time, but someone damaged it there, and I never used it again to N. T. Bicycle use seemed to be out of style anyway.)

My course programs over the years fell into place more or less naturally: four years of English (required), two years of history (required), four years of mathematics (two required) two years of a Latin, three years of German, and one year of physics. The English turned out to be a dud (except for the senior year; drama and a snap course in journalism). Grammar, having presumably been learned by all was given virtually no attention; the extent of almost all the works were literature – poetry, which I find boring, essays, also mostly boring, and insipid romantic stuff. Except for the A’s in the last term, I got B’s in English. But history was worse: both teachers were terrible, making the subject as stilted and boring as possible. My efforts were minimal, and the payoff was too– straight D’s. Latin had a great appeal, especially because of the emphasis on grammar and language structure. Grades here: straight A. I stopped Latin after two years so that I could get as much German in as possible. Had I been very ambitious, I would have taken French as something new to me, but I was lazy and German promised to be easier, even though Spanish was taken by most kids because it was touted as the easiest language. Despite the German teacher’s short comings (a real battle axe, she), I did very well (probably because of my prior knowledge and the ease with which I handled the grammar and sentence structure). All grades in German were A’s, of course. And, since mathematics proved easy for me I did A work in it throughout, also.

It must be noted that I did not enter high school with expectations of being an outstanding scholar. After the freshman year, when my D’s and B’s kept me off the honor roll, my inferiority complex was still very much alive. As a sophomore I did make the honor roll, since history was absent, but I backslid as a junior. But I got a big boost by making straight A’s (there being no history and English being more [interesting?], and better taught than before). I had had the mathematics head for geometry (as a sophomore), and took to the subject well, probably because of the concise reasoning involved that appealed to me. After I had had solid geometry from him as a senior, he probably realized that I was one of his best students at least over a period of some time. This connection paid off well during my next era.

But the best of luck that I had occurred in my senior year, when a new German teacher, Mrs. Hilda Walker, took over. She was absolutely tops in every way and also highly perceptive, since she realized that I had an unmovedly good grasp of the language, with a “natural” affinity for it stemming from my early immersion in it, and of course a thorough mastery of the grammar, etc. This gave her some ideas about how I might put my German to good use, and these would figure in an essential way before the year was over.

Most students satisfied a science requirements by taking biology (easiest, it was said); most of the rest took chemistry. My program was too much along other lines for three years, and by then I realized that physics would probably be easy for me in view of my mathematical capabilities. And so it was. My teacher, Mr. Windoes, provided me a good view of the subject which I was able to use to good advantage later.

So much for academics. New Trier did have much more to offer of course. Although I had broken down some of my aversion to physical activities with the help of the baseball at Howard, my interest in athletics was still pretty low; there was no baseball, and I tended to shun new things. In the organized gym activities I went through the motions with little enthusiasm, until I discovered the mats. 


Here I could turn somersaults, and do them well, even with a running start and a springboard. My caddying had ended early in my freshman year, and so I played less golf (now on a public course for a fee). As a junior I developed a friendship with a boy who played tennis and offered to teach me. So I learned to play that game a bit. Of course, having learned to swim, I got a season ticket at Wilmette Beach each summer and made considerable use of it but [sic.] these activities were actually relatively sporty. Many boys got into varsity athletics (horribly time-consuming). Those who didn’t qualify and most other boys engaged in intramural programs, involving track, basketball, football, etc., etc.

But none of that appealed to me. There were activities much more attractive to me – in the (afterschool) clubs. In due course, I joined the Radio Club, the Chess Club, and the German Club, becoming quite active in each. These clubs provided a primary source of contact with other students having interests similar to mine. Here I developed some close friendships, not only with Wilmette kids, but with residents of the various villages. And, curiously, I tended to have less and less contact with my old classmates from Stolp and Howard. Never been much of a mixer, I always had a few friends, carefully selected, and with them I developed strong ties.

The strongest of these ties was with Morton Mergentheim of Winnetka, whom I met as a sophomore, and who taught me to play chess. I got reasonably good at this game though never as good as he was, and we played frequently. During the summers we often went swimming in Lake Michigan off Winnetka. Mort was one of the few N.T. classmates with whom I maintained contact for many years (actually until his death in 1979). More about that appears elsewhere. A strong tie through chess was developed also with Carlyle Duncan-Clark, son of a Chicago newspaper editor; he turned out (later) to be a public relations man – during WWII serving as General Eisenhower’s censor in Europe. In later years he often sought me out to discuss novel ideas which [he] had. The most interesting was a voting system he had invented in the early 1950s. It used cards and a punching machine for voters to specify their choices (instead of paper or machine balloting). He apparently initiated the system in California ultimately; later it became widely used all over. (He had offered me a piece of the proceeds, personally if I had promoted the system in the Chicago area, but that never materialized, and I did not hear from him again.)

Most of my other contacts came about through the radio club, for I had become a “ham” in my sophomore year, and I received much guidance from the club and fellow hams in it during the rest of my New Trier years. Although I was beginning to develop an interest in music of various kinds during my high school years, I did not get involved in any group, possibly because band, orchestra, and glee club clearly represented time-consuming activities, and I felt that I had no more time to spare.


It is noted elsewhere that I made a practice of listening to popular music on the radio. By far my favorite dance orchestra was Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians. During this period “hambands”*played at the Granada Café on the south side of Chicago and his music was broadcast each night from about 10 PM until the wee hours. I found a couple of Winnetka boys who were similarly entranced by the Lombardo style and I developed friendships with them which lasted most of my college years.

It should be mentioned that I did not date girls while at New Trier. The main reason for this was that I was still pretty shy and afraid of being embarrassed by a likely refusal had I asked a girl for a date. But there were other reasons. I was forbidden to go to movies or to dances; hence there wasn’t any place for me to take a girl on an evening date. Furthermore, I didn’t have access to a car and public transportation was very limited, serving only a small part of N. T. Township. Finally, money was scarce, as I’ve indicated, I had plenty of other ways to spend my time, and I didn’t miss dating too much. Sundays were pretty well taken up by family and religious activities, discussed elsewhere.

Unfortunately, there was no college counseling in these years. I knew that I should make an effort to go to college after graduation, soon to occur, although I got no encouragement at home. My father undoubtedly expected me to go to work to enhance the family income. He had broken up with Art after a fight (in which Art claims to have been punched in the ear and permanently injured) and was working for one of Art’s competitors. My mother was no longer working, since Gertrude’s health was on the decline and she needed to be cared for. Still, I felt that a good field for me would be electrical engineering, because of aptitude in mathematics and physics. Northwestern was nearby and appropriate, but I didn’t take any steps in the matter, mostly because I really didn’t know what to do.

But the lady luck smiled during my final semester. My German teacher, Mrs. Walker, made a proposal to me, having learned that I had no college plans. She said that I should try for a U. of Chicago freshman scholarship in German, based on a competitive examination to be held in the late spring (of 1929). I agreed to try and she coached me, on the basis of her earlier experience with the U of C exams. These could be technical, trick grammatical questions, translations both ways, and it required an essay to be written in German, on a topic assigned then (not earlier). Anything but a top performance on the early parts would disqualify the examinee; of the few not so eliminated, the essay was definitive. She knew that I would have no trouble with the first parts and so concentrated on the essay. I could assume, she said, that the topic would have to do with German history, customs, and literary people (i.e., those whose works were in the usual high school curriculum). So I should prepare with her help, subsections on these subtopics, assuming that I could work much of what I had written in somehow, modifying here and there if need be to produce continuity and, of course volume to the actual topic assigned. This was a pretty big job, and required that I memorize all the stuff that had been prepared. Hooray for my early Bible verse days!

I knew that my mother was prejudiced against the U of C, because Art had attended the Theological Seminary there briefly and had then lost whatever religious beliefs he had had. So when the time came to go to the U of C for the exam, I was so dubious about the whole thing, that any nervousness that I would normally have felt and that might have caused me to flub the exam was absent. How fortunate! A classmate, Connie (not too bright), went down with me, although Mrs. Walker had told him that he’d never have a chance, since I would be competing.

I breezed through the exam in the morning; luckily; was able to use a lot of the stuff I had prepared. We were given lunch, and then had to wait until late in the afternoon for the results. Connie and I discussed the exam, and he brought up questions on some of the tricky parts. It turned out that he had fallen into traps, and so clearly his chances were nil. The participants gathered in Mandel Hall on schedule and the presentation of results began. First, the runners-up were identified. (I wasn’t named!) Then there was a partial scholarship to go to the second place winner. (Not me!) Finally “a full scholarship will go to Roy Wilcox, from New Trier High School.” (Who dat?)

On the program at the commencement, my name was missing from the list of graduates who had received scholarships, it was also missing from the list of members of the “Honor Society.” (How come, since my average was 3.4 despite a couple of disastrous years?) But the kicker was this: a special announcement was made during the proceedings that Roy Wilcox had entered the competition at the U of C and had “brought home the bacon.” I was then asked to rise (for applause). Then, when attention was called to the list of the elite members of the Honor Society, an apology followed. Through a mix up the name Roy Wilcox, Society member, had been omitted; again I arose; again applause. (I was the only graduate who got any special mention!) Goodbye, now, to the inferiority complex.


The summer of 1929 was spent at Lake Harbor, Michigan newly acquired summer resort of the Chicago Gospel Tabernacle. My mother had an office job there and I was offered a job to repair or rebuild a telephone system which the property had had but apparently had been maintained badly. When we arrived, however, I learned that the management had wanted the telephone work done earlier; I had not been notified. No other suitable work was available, and so I was provided a room and board for the duration of the summer. This seemed a pretty good deal, and so I accepted. There were swimming, golf, a chance to develop some new friendships, some of which lasted a while, and, as noted elsewhere, a chance to learn to play the saxophone.

The summer break was good for me, since it wasn’t long before my scholarly experience was to begin; with little let up.





* Radio frequencies on a ham radio set that allowed one to listen to special broadcasts.

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 7   
E3: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADES 7, 8; AGES 11-13; 1923-1925

The Wilmette house was a bungalow of one story (plus attic and basement) with but two bedrooms, in contrast to the Chicago house of two stories (plus basement) with three bedrooms. Yard space, fortunately, was quite adequate. My parents picked the front bedroom, and of course Grandmother Gertrude got the rear one. I was assigned the (heated) rear “sun-porch.” And, wonder of wonders, I had a private entrance from the outside (in addition to the interior entrance from the kitchen).
Roy at his private entrance

The neighborhood was far more attractive than anything I had seen in Chicago; and there was a park only a couple of blocks away. However, we were about as close (within a block) to the railroads – Northwestern (North Branch) and North Shore (interurban) Line – as we were in Chicago – Northwestern (Northwest Branch), but [sic.] we were used to the noise.

One of the first things we learned about Wilmette is that, like Caesar’s Gallia, it was divided into parts – however, not three but two: “East Side” and “West Side,” between which there existed considerable rivalry approaching animosity. The East Side contained large, expensive houses and the “snooty” Wilmettites; it lay between the shore of Lake Michigan and the Northwestern Railroad tracks. The West Side, which lay in the four block-wide region between the tracks and Ridge Road, contained smaller, less expensive houses and the common people (including, of course, us). (Now the West Side extends variously 1 to 3 miles farther west, the extension encompassing land, west of Ridge Road, which was mostly farmland at the time of our move.)

The East Side had three public schools – Laurel, for grades K – 4, Central for grades 5 and 6, and Stolp for grades 7 and 8. The West Side had but one public school – Logan for grades K – 6. Hence seventh-and eighth-graders on the West Side had to cross the tracks to attend Stolp. These trips were made on foot, since there were no buses. (Nowadays, no Wilmette children are required to walk to school if tracks have to be crossed.) For me as a seventh grader from the West Side, the trip was about ¾ miles each way, noticeably greater than what I had been accustomed to in Chicago!

Stolp was not calleda junior high school; but it was in effect such. In fact, it was more of a junior high school than the Wilmette Junior High School of today. Each of grades seven and eight occupied one floor, with four rooms each. Every room served as a “homeroom,” the teacher in charge of which was also a special subject teacher. Mine taught arithmetic; the others taught respectively English, geography, and history. Each day had five periods, one for homeroom activities and one for each of the four academic subjects; in addition there was an hour for a round trip home for lunch, and a final period was devoted to such miscellany as gym, music, and “current events.” In general the four classes of a grade moved as a units, disjoint [sic.] from one another, from one location to another in each case. [1]

My penchant for getting lost on the first day of school came to the fore again. After school I had no idea how to get home and had to call my mother. Since she didn’t know how to steer me home, she called Mr. Abramson, our contractor, who then dashed to where I was and drove me home. No more trouble thereafter.

I soon became adjusted to the school program and in fact enjoyed it immensely. I was particularly impressed by the excellence of teaching (completely unmatched in Chicago, I thought). Curiously my best teacher was a Mrs. Vernon, who taught history – later the subject I came to dislike intensely. A close second was a Mrs. (?) Anderson, who taught English – later a subject that I didn’t care for. My homeroom teacher, a Mrs. Jones, taught arithmetic. She was quite good, but I didn’t care much for the subject, because as taught it was too routine and devoid of ideas; of course I did well because of the ease with which I had learned to handle rote processes.

It became clear almost immediately that English was the area most neglected at Belding School. In Wilmette the students had been taught grammar – parts of speech, sentence structure, proper usage, etc. – in sixth grade, and probably even earlier; in Chicago I had learned none of this. So I went to work, devoting extra time to grammar, if only to overcome my clear inferiority to my classmates. As a result, my big achievement in seventh grade was to learn, and learn well, what I had missed earlier, and indeed to come to enjoy this subject far more than any of the others. As it turned out, when I got to eighth grade, I had acquired the title “grammar expert”; even the English teacher, a rank beginner, often looked to me for help. (I recall setting her straight when she claimed that “the” was an article, not an adjective!)

In passing, it’s worth noting that in those days there was general acceptance of a vague authority on what is good grammar, usage, etc., and what is not. Dictionaries stated in no uncertain terms what is right and what is wrong; the big ones usually cited as authorities famous writers. (The 1889 addition of the Century Dictionarystates under prove: “. . . proved, sometimes incorrectly proven,” and follows with two examples, both with proved.) The present widespread attitude that there should be no rules, that “anything goes” is a product of the growth of anti-intellectualism during this century; it contributes to a lessening of effectiveness of language as an instrument of communication.

Being something of a shrinking violet, I didn’t gain many friends during the year of grade 7. By avoiding normal athletic participation to the extent possible, I locked myself out of some social contacts. And the prejudices of East Siders against West Siders didn’t help. But I did find a few friends with whom I had something in common. One was even an East Sider – George Glover. My interest in him was partly due to the fact that he had a bicycle – a conveyance I had not traveled on. As it happened, George had a paper route. Since papers had to be placed on front steps, the bicycle didn’t help much. I offered to help him: he could ride the bike, skipping every other house, to which I would deliver a paper; in that way time would be saved. In return he offered me a lesson or two and the privilege of riding from time to time on his bike. Once I had learned, I could talk my parents into buying me a bike for Christmas. I was leery about riding it to Stolp School, but the next year I rode all over. Wilmette was kind to us riders: we could ride on the sidewalks, at corners the curbs were joined to raised inner edges of the street gutters with steel plates, thus making for pretty bump free rides.

In the summer of 1924, my mother and I, and for a couple of weeks my father, spent most of the time in Henderson, Michigan with the family we had visited several times earlier. 
Gertrude on the Mueller Farm, Henderson, Michigan

(The mother – Mrs. Mueller – and mine had been friends in Chicago in earlier days before her marriage.) While I wasn’t capable physically of being involved in all types of the farm work, I did help with some chores, even to the point of carrying bags of grain after threshing. But I learned much about farming of the time.

The Mueller farm was essentially 100% primitive. No electricity, no running water, no bathroom (outhouse 50 feet from the home), no refrigeration, no radio, no mechanization (except for a model T Ford for transportation to town). The Muellers had had six children, four older than I, one my age, and one younger (children in those days were a source of cheap labor; the result was that most home as soon as possible and did not go into farming.) I learned a lot and got along well. I rode a horse bareback and fell off; I learned how to milk a cow, even squirting the product into my mouth, warm as it was. I engaged with my playmates in a stupid game – climbing a ladder and jumping into a pile of hay – and jumped far too great a height, missing the hay. The result was two broken (foot) arches [requiring arch] supports to be worn for decades.

Eighth grade was a distinct improvement over seven in many ways. I learned before school started that a new school called “Howard” (on the West Side) had been completed and was ready to take upper grade West Siders. Though it was closer than Stolp (about a half mile away), my tendency to avoid the new led me to go back to Stolp. But when I was discovered, I was promptly sent over to Howard. In a short time I had a pretty good circle of friends (no more East-West prejudices afoot), and I took an interest in baseball (soft, of course) to the extent that I normally bolted down my lunch to get back to school and into the new game.

Among my newly found friends were a few who caddied and had learned to play golf. They persuaded me to go with them to the Indian Hill Club (shortly west of Kenilworth) and to become a caddy. The pay was $.25 an hour ($.50 when caddying double), more on Sundays. (There I was ruled out for religious reasons.) No tips, unless one caddied for a guest (who didn’t know the rule). After a time I became an “honor caddy” with a 20% increase in pay! Since caddies could play (except weekends and Wednesdays), I bought four clubs and a bag and learned the game. I never quite made par but did make some holes in 2. In the summer of 1925 there was a caddy tournament of 9-hole matchings. I was adjudged right for the third flight (next to lowest) and proceeded to reach the final match. My opponent and I were even up after our nine holes and so we replayed hole 9, 160 yards, par three. My first shot was off the green, but fairly near and his was on the other side of the green. It was agreed that I shoot while he walked toward his ball. I did so, sinking the approach for a 2, he failed on his, but claimed I had cheated by placing the ball in the hole by hand behind his back. There were no witnesses and it was his word against mine. The caddy master accepted my story and gave me the prize – a club to round out my set (now of five).


Eighth grade and graduation went off without a hitch. During the summer of 1925 my father took me and two other boys – Roy and Bob – on a camping trip to Crystal Lake, Illinois. Roy was older than I by about two years and was able to drive a car. So my father bought (for something like $30) a 1917 model T Ford. Roads were awful and very hard on the tires. We must have stopped 15 or 20 times to remove and repair damage to them. (Wheels were not removable – the tire rims were part of them.) The trip of about 40 miles took a day.
rare photo of Roy with his father Lee, shortly before the camping trip


Since my father had been to Crystal Lake in connection with Scout camping when he was at Galewood, he knew the woman who owned the land along the lake suitable for a campsite. Perhaps he had written her earlier. In any case, we located near the beach, put up our tent, and prepared to spend a week or 10 days. My father was the cook and we boys the dishwashers. In all, this was a good experience all around. For one thing, I learned (all by myself) to swim and, of course, to get badly sunburned. I also learned that a father may well boss his own son around more than other boys. I had one important first experience. We boys one evening heard musical sounds which invited investigation: what we found was a dance pavilion complete with a dance orchestra and dancers. I might have heard orchestras on the radio, but I’d never heard or seen a dance orchestra live. A song that was played stuck in my mind long enough for me to recall it much later and find sheet music for it (which I still have). It was “Going Home.” A day trip (with more car repairs) got us home.

We delivered our boys to Chicago, where they lived, and it was then my job to drive to Wilmette. (I’d had no experience up to that time.) I didn’t know that the clutch pedal had three positions – down for low, up for high, and middle for neutral (no gear shift, of course). (Because I knew – clutch in neutral, middle pedal down.) So when my father cranked up (hand start), I’d forget to keep the clutch in neutral and would let it out. Of course this killed the engine. He cursed (words I’ve never heard him use before), and cranked again. Somehow I eventually got the hang of it and we proceeded home via Sheridan Road. The car was parked in the yard you’re the alley, used a few times, and soon sold to one of my classmates for $15!

I was now ready for New Trier.






[1]The departmentalized instruction used here was evidently copied verbatim from that in use in high schools; I shall return to this subject later.

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 6   
E2: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADES 1-6; AGES 6-11; 1918-1925


In September 1918 I entered the first grade at Hiram Belding School, located one block east and nearly a block north of our home. (Convenient!) In those days, children, even young ones, were expected to fend for themselves. Probably I was taken to school the first day, no doubt by my mother, since her certification of opposition to (smallpox) vaccination was needed before I could be enrolled. However, I cannot remember ever being taken to (or called for at) school after that. In fact, a neighbor boy, Billy, and I became friends and agreed to meet after school to go home together each day. The first time, instead of going south or west as was required, we went east for a long distance before we realized that something was wrong. So we backtracked to school and tried the opposite direction. This couldn’t fail to get us into familiar territory and hence home. I can’t recall that Gertrude, my grandmother, in whose charge I was during most of these years, was even worried or upset at the lateness of my return from school.

I guess the school was pretty well run; my dim memory of the teachers doesn’t suggest much that I would take serious issue with. (This may seem strange, but it must be remembered that educational standards were much higher in those days than they are today, even, surprisingly, in Chicago.) For some reason, perhaps because in those days it was not customary to compliment children upon their accomplishments, I lived through this period with an inferiority complex, despite the existence of small bits of evidence which should have worked against it. For example, I always won the “spelldowns” in school. Also, my early Sunday School experiences with learning and accurately reciting Bible verses, and my similar performances (in German) at the German Church Ladies Aid Society, to which I was dragged from time to time, should have made clear to me that I had some ability, at least in rote learning.

A small indicator that I might not be exactly dummy emerged in a curious way. My first or second grade teacher had the class doing an exercise: she would speak a word, wait briefly while we wrote on paper our respective versions of the word and then repeat the process with another word. Somehow it occurred to me that an easy way to handle this matter was to peek over the shoulder of the person in front of me, and then write what he had written. (So I was a bit stupid; I probably didn’t know whether I could rely on the correctness of that person’s work.) Soon the teacher noticed what was going on. I don’t remember what she did the time, but she did shortly afterward contact my mother, indicating her disappointment in me for “cheating” and emphasizing that I was quite capable of doing the exercise on my own.[1]

As time went on, there were other indicators that I might have some ability. For example, I had no trouble with arithmetic processes, but these, involving only mechanical skills, didn’t seem indicative of any special traits on my part, since, as I’ve indicated, rote learning was “old hat” to me. Since so much of my learning in these grades was of this type, I didn’t feel especially complimented when I was “double promoted.” (Chicago schools had a sensible “semester” system: children enter school in September or February, depending on birthdate. This made possible the skipping of one semester at a time (rather than an entire year, which today’s Educationists frown upon) if a child is deemed capable of doing the (slightly) more advanced work. Since this skipping happened to me twice, I ended up one year ahead of where I normally would have been. This condition was to last throughout all the years of my formal education. Never once did I feel myself to be a “social misfit” (as the Educationists would have claimed it to be necessary consequence); indeed, I always felt at home with my classmates, although most of them were a year older than I. As it turned out, the condition had many unforeseen positive consequences.

During my five years at Belding school I had only one failing grade. That was in “manual training” (now called something like “related arts” or “industrial arts”) – nothing more than a basic introduction to woodworking. The first project was to learn how to plane a piece of wood. instructions were given along with a hand-plane, a place at a bench with a vice and a piece of wood about 8” x 3” x ¾”. The long edge ran with the grain, and that was to be planed “square.” When one completed planing and thought the job done right, one was to check the edge with an L-square. If any light showed between wood and square as the square was moved along in any direction, one was to try again and continue trying as necessary until no light ever showed. Then one could get an OK from the teacher and start another project. It is of course clear that a condition of “no light” is unattainable, certainly with hand tools; yet I took the instructions literally and continued planing. When one piece of wood got too small, I started on another. I suppose most of my classmates got by with nearlyperfect jobs. As I think about the ineptness of my teacher I wonder why he never investigated my never asking for a check of my work. (Many years later I recounted this experience to my colleague and co-author Richard Kershner; by that time we had both acquired more knowledge of and experience with woodworking than my teacher very probably had possessed. To my amazement, Kershner replied that he had the identical experience in grade school!)

Several events worth noting occurred during this period. In about 1920 my father quit working at Sears Roebuck and became a kind of general manager in my Uncle Art Miller’s food materials distributing business, dealing in such items as sugars, flours, oils, flavorings, etc. 

Since alcohol was in common use in certain foods, e.g., vanilla, and since Prohibition was in effect, Art saw certain opportunities. Although he wasn’t exactly a “bootlegger” he did stock and sell more alcohol than would (probably) have normally been used by his customers. My father told about some narrow escapes. On one occasion he sat on cartons of alcohol while Government agents came to “check out” such establishments, and simply lied about the cartons’ contents.

Uncle Art, ca 1900


Art had earlier agreed to reimburse my mother for most of the cost of the Kildare house and of his college education, and to help support their mother. He had never done any of this; now his excuse could be that his hiring my father would cancel his obligations, especially since my mother managed finances so well that no contributions from him would be needed. My father’s employability was declining gradually because of his increasing deafness. (Hearing aids of any value had not yet been developed.)

Belding School covered grades K – 8. But my move there from grade 6 into grade 7 was not to be. By this time my parents had given much thought to moving to a suburb. Motivation was simple: the corner lot next to our house was to be occupied (probably completely covered) by an apartment building; the neighborhood was deteriorating; and schools were said to be much better in the suburbs. So they bought a lot in Winnetka with the intention of building on it. But a more practical deal presented itself in the spring of 1923: a house had been built at 1511 Elmwood Ave., Wilmette, by a contractor (Mr. Abramson) for his son; but for some reason the son wasn’t going to use it, and so the house went on the market. In short order, the Wilmette house was acquired, the Winnetka lot sold, and the Kildare house sold (to a Dr. Wheat, to whom the negatives seemed not to bother); the order of events is unknown to me. Also it is unclear how my parents, who were basically poor, could have handled the finances involved. I do know that the Wilmette house cost $12,500, and my parents ended up with a $5000 mortgage against the property. We moved in summer 1923.


Many children no doubt have sad feelings when facing a move. As I recall, anticipation of a new location was exciting. True, I had a few friends in the neighborhood, but none were close, and I felt no sorrow in contemplating leaving them. Being introverted as I was, I knew that my toys and books would accompany me and so fill any void. Even the two cats that Art had given us, because they didn’t serve well as mousers in his warehouse, would move with us to help provide continuity. (As it turned out, we didn’t keep them long after the move, because we really felt no great attachment to them. Indeed, pets other than those cats played no role in my life until I became a parent.) In summary, I can say that I looked forward with great excitement to a new life.




[1]The fact that I had seen nothing "wrong" with my system suggests that (at least in my case) the difference between "rights" and "wrong," or better, between "acceptable" and "unacceptable," has to be learned; moreover, it may have to be learned in a variety of contexts rather than as a single universal moral guide. This subject will receive attention later.

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 5   
E1:  EARLY CHILDHOOD; PRESCHOOL

This chapter is based largely on my own recollections. Only occasionally have I had to employ information provided by my parents. I have no reason to doubt its accuracy.

I was born June 8, 1912 at 4150 North Kildare Ave., Chicago, a Dr. Henn attending. (Births at home rather than in the hospital where the rule, not the exception, in those days.) It is important to note that medical practitioners and medicines were not highly regarded and were not used much by my parents, who believed that the Lord would take care of them and their offspring; perhaps they believed that He would think that they didn’t trust him should they turn elsewhere for help. But a birth was apparently thought to be outside God’s expertise. Also outside must have been a few other conditions. For example, when as a baby I ate a bar of Ivory soap during a bath period. Dr. Henn was summoned; he gave assurance that no harm would result. He might have been right; but since then I have found Ivory soap decidedly repulsive, not to my disadvantage, of course, but possibly to that of Procter & Gamble.

Gertrude with baby Lee Roy Wilcox, ca 1912, Chicago, Illinois

I was characterized as of “sickly” child, although I had rosy cheeks, then regarded as a sign of health (at least in the case of children). But I didn’t suffer any ills other than a few normal childhood diseases, such as measles, chickenpox, German measles, and diphtheria, all of which were “home diagnosed” (guessed at), and in each case prayer was the only treatment. I do remember having at age 4 a high fever and commenting during it that “darkness is going by in portions.” That could have been the start of my graphic perceptions. There were, of course, also a few childhood accidents; the most memorable one occurred at age 3 when I was rocking in a rocking chair at the top of the stairway and found myself on the landing below after series of backward somersaults. I cried, probably from fright rather than injuries. In all such cases no doctor was ever called. Frankly, I regard myself as extremely lucky.

Jenny Schultz (“Aunt” Jenny), the rumor at our house, died before I was 3, but I remember her well. She liked to play German versions of “patty-cake” with me; she also enjoyed singing German ribald songs, one of which I still remember. (I make no claim to have understood it at the time.)
               Da ich so spat bin ausgeblieben,
               Hab’ ich Katarrh aug meiner Brust;
               Und weil’s noch nicht sei ausgetrieben,
               Hab’ ich für Lieben keine Lust.
               ‘So trink’ ich aus Malankelei
               Ein volles Glas Krambambulei –
               Krambimbambambulei! Krambambulei!

Free translation follows. (The words Malankelei and Krambambulei are not in the German dictionary. They might be dialectic, or possibly coined for the song.)
               Since I was out too late last night,
               A cold has settled in my chest.
               I’m so completely tired out,
               At making love I’d fail the test.
               Thus I’m drinking from a giant stein
               A man-sized mix of schnapps and wine.
               Snifter, snifter – schnapps and wine,
               Schnapps and schnapps and wine!


Aunt Jenny’s death was sad, but in a way it was timely: I could move from my parents’ room to what had been hers. Still, Jenny’s sense of humor had been a real plus for our family; I believe that the vividness of my memory of her from so early a period in my life stems from that contribution.

During most of this era, both my parents were working, and so I was under the care of my grandmother, Gertrude. This was no fun for me, for I found her bossy and self-centered. (She remained that way throughout her life until shortly before her death when she suffered a stroke; only then did she become agreeable and pleasant, even to the point of laughing – something of a novelty for her.) Actually, her “in loco” parental role was to continue through most of my early school years. As will be seen, however, her influence had a distinctly positive effect on me. As noted earlier, her immigration to America was motivated by religious considerations. While willing to accept and enjoy religious freedom here, she found nothing else about America that she liked, so far as I know. She shunned all steps toward becoming “integrated,” including learning any more English than was absolutely necessary. It was natural, then, for her to make German the household language, over futile objections of my father. (Whether he refused to learn German out of spite or was actually incapable of learning it is not clear.) In those early years I saw a little of my father since I was put to bed before he came home from work on weekdays, and I arose after he had left in the morning. Only on weekends did I see him a bit; even then there was little opportunity since he worked on Saturday mornings and was tied up a lot at the Galewood church on Sundays. I recall that we took walks on occasion but we couldn’t converse since my language was German and his was not.

Roy with his parents, Lee and Pauline (Miller) Wilcox, ca 1915, Chicago


It is not inaccurate to say that German was (orally) my native language. Of course, after about age 4 I was bilingual, mostly because I had been playing with the hood children and I had been attending Sunday School locally where English was spoken. Since Gertrude was to remain part of our family for many years, continuation of my bilingual character was guaranteed.


Pauline, Gertrude, and Roy ("Buddy"), ca 1916, Chicago

Our neighborhood offered little by way of congenial playmates. In our block there were a few families with one to three children each, half of the boys being “roughnecks”; in addition, two houses were occupied by numerous Russian immigrant families with ultra-numerous children who couldn’t speak German or English and were thus unsatisfactory as playmates. So I developed no strong friendships and became something of an introvert. What was more, my father wanted me to become an expert at self-defense (as he had had to become in the Navy); but I shied away from fights, primarily because inevitable attending pain held no attraction for me, even if by some chance I would come out on top. So my avoidance of fights was a great disappointment to my father, who mistook my good sense for cowardice. Quite possibly our lack of consonants in this matter explains why our relations never became close or cordial. (Only later, when he began to realize that I had a few useful skills, and especially much later when he had to depend on me in many ways, did cordiality emerge.)

Since I needed some refuge from unpleasantness, related mostly to my grandmother and in part from my father, I naturally turned to my mother, who fortunately saw some potential in me; so our relationship became a positive one, probably more so than was good for either of us.
Roy with his Aunt Ottillie Mueller Dallman (left) and mother Pauline (middle), May 1917, Chicago

Roy with his Uncle Art Miller, March 1918, Chicago


Normally at age 5 I would be expected to go to Kindergarten. But my parents disdained the idea: in their view school should begin with grade 1.[1]Since each of them had begun with that grade, they probably “reasoned” that sauce for the goose and the gander would be sauce for the gosling. Moreover, it was thought necessary that I become acquainted with my father’s family in Dallas. So in the spring of 1918 my mother and I took a train to Dallas; of course we would be staying with Grandpa and Grandma Wilcox and meet a miscellany of relatives. (My father had to work and so couldn’t go along.) The train ride was uneventful. We rode in a coach, Pullman being too expensive, and had to change cars at St. Louis. I recall the Youngs (Pearl Young being a stepsister of Lee) meeting us there. The stopover was too short, for I found that I liked their son Pipkin, who, as it turned out, I never saw again. When we were again underway, I asked for a drink of pineapple juice (one of the few food items taken along on the trip); but my mother had left it on the other car, no longer on the train. I was furious, but crying did no good.

Our Dallas visit wasn’t all that great. I remember some people: Lee’s brother Roy and his sister Alma, along with assorted half-and step-sisters and their spouses. Almost all of these were not to cross paths with me again.  
Roy is the smallest child in the middle, front


There were no children in the family with whom I could play; so I set out to find a suitable neighbor boy. As it happened, he was black, but this didn’t bother me, though it was a new kind of experience. I enjoyed playing with him; I liked him, and we had fun. However when Grandma Wilcox learned that I had been with a “Nigger,” she ordered me never to do such a horrible thing again.* I had no choice but to obey.
Roy with his step-grandmother, Leonora Stickle Caskey Welch Wilcox

The rest of the time I played by myself, making mud-pies in the gutter, then taking them to the streetcar line a block away so that I could watch them getting smashed as the car passed over them. Some fun. 


The return trip to Chicago was uneventful.




[1] It is likely that Kindergarten wasn't even available to either of my parents. As late as 1960, Kindergarten, public or private, was unavailable to over half the 5-year-olds in the United States.
* It was told to the transcriptionist  (by the author) that Grandma Leonora Wilcox sniffed little Roy (Buddy) and told him he was already beginning to “smell like them.”

          L. Roy Wilcox, PhD - Autobiography, Part 4   
                                      EO: PRE-BIRTH, PRECURSORS

This chapter should, of course, have been written by my parents. But this project was conceived too late, and so I am required to depend on hearsay plus memory. My knowledge is necessarily spotty and irregular. I am truly sorry not to guarantee full accuracy throughout the chapter.

So far as I know, my ancestry on the paternal side (as to males at least) is heavily Scotch. Peter Wilcox emigrated from Scotland;*his son was Nathan, whose son Edward sired Lee, my father. On the paternal side I know less about my grandmother Gertrude’s[1]ancestry, except that it contained a mixture of German and French. She emigrated from Bonn, Germany for reasons that are not entirely clear. What I know is that she had been Catholic, had aspired to become a nun, and to that end had been in a convent. 
Gertrud, ca 1873, Germany

For some reason she had become disillusioned with Catholicism and had left the church and the convent. Probably her migration to America was an escape from expected unpleasantness related to her withdrawal from the convent.** Her accounts included little concerning her husband, from whom she became estranged early (but not before three children had been born to them***); he too was a German immigrant. 
Fritz and Gertrude Mueller, ca 1875

She was clearly negative concerning him (and indeed concerning most men, so far as I could tell); the only positive thing that I recall her saying was that he was musically inclined, perhaps proficient (and presumably not capable of supporting his family). Her daughter Pauline was my mother.


Lee’s childhood was an unhappy one. His father was an ultra-stern man, and his one brother, older than he, was something of a bully; his mother having died early, he was reared by a stepmother who had joined the family perhaps more for benefit for herself than for love. The family was thoroughly Southern in all respects;**** Edward had settled fairly early in Dallas, Texas and remained there until his death.
Edward Everett Wilcox, ca 1920, Dallas, Texas

Most of Lee’s relatives also lived in the South, as did Lee throughout most of his adolescence. (He completed eighth grade and went to work thereafter.) He was evidently fed up and chomping at the bit to leave, which he did, joining the Navy. Shortly after his discharge he moved to Chicago for reasons unknown to me.* 
There he attended and was graduated from, the Moody Bible Institute, a fundamentalist school (named after the evangelist Dwight L. Moody) designed to prepare graduates to become ministers of the Gospel in the informal world of evangelism. Indeed, Lee did secure the post of part-time pastor of a fledgling church in Galewood (a western suburb of Chicago, now incorporated therein) which church was labeled “Congregational” but was actually independent. Lee was highly successful in effecting the growth of the church and was well-liked by the people; he was especially effective in working with young people. (Unfortunately, much later he was forced to resign from the church when it moved toward becoming formally a Congregational Church, since he was unqualified for ordination.) To make a living, Lee worked as a stockman at Sears Roebuck & Co. in Chicago. For the rest of his life, Illinois was his adopted home.

While Lee benefited a bit from the Navy stint in that he became muscular and strong and was able to overcome some of the demeaning he suffered during early life, there were also some negative effects. 

He became a heavy drinker and smoker and seemed to get into fights frequently; one fight led to a permanent injury to one year. He said later that when mustered out he was seen by a doctor who refused to recognize the injury as Navy-related and whose only apparent function was to ensure that he was free of venereal diseases. Eventually he lost his hearing completely in that ear; and throughout his later life his hearing in the other ear deteriorated steadily for some reason, ultimately almost to zero.

My contacts with Lee’s relatives were too superficial to lead to any further recounting of events or ideas involving them here; occasional references will appear later.

Much more is known to me concerning the maternal side of my ancestry, limited mostly to relatives of one or two generations back; I also know or knew cousins and some of their children. 
Gertrude (left) with Pauline (top), Ottillie (right), and C. Arthur (bottom)

Gertrude was able to make a home in a German neighborhood in Chicago’s near Northwest side (about a mile north and 2 miles west of the Loop). She was now a Baptist, nurtured by the First German Baptist Church, of which she and most of her friends were members. In the course of events, she had two daughters, Ottilie and Pauline Elizabeth and one son (Chester) Arthur in that order;**all of them, along with Gertrude, or to figure heavily in my early, and to a degree in my adult, life. Because of an early as strange men between their parents, Gertrude’s children had to be provided for through Gertrud’s efforts alone; having few skills, Gertrude[2]was limited to menial jobs.***

Gertrude is front, left, sitting (photo, ca 1920)

Pauline, like Lee, had an unhappy childhood. Her mother was stern; her older sister Ottilie was a stuck- up snob who mistakenly regarded herself as superior to both her siblings. Also, Pauline had an early illness which threatened a possible malformation of her upper torso. To treat this condition a doctor put her in a cast, in which she remained much too long (because the doctor disappeared and Gertrude didn’t know enough to find another). When the cast was finally removed, a real malformation was evident, and she lived with it all her life. This handicap led to increased taunting by Ottilie;
Pauline and Ottillie


but the positive outcome was the creation in Pauline a strong determination to excel in at least some ways. As it turned out she succeeded magnificently.
Gertrude with Pauline (who is about 6 years old in this photo)


Accordingly, after completing the eighth grade, she went to business school to learn shorthand and typing, hoping to become an expert secretary. I later learned that she succeeded beautifully in her aim: she later worked as a private secretary to high executives in several corporations, including, for example, William Wrigley, Jr., founder of the gum company bearing his name. I am sure that, had she competed in a speed typing contest, she would have finished the winner. She proceeded to earn enough money to put her brother Art through college and to better living conditions for herself and her mother; she even managed to buy a house for Gertrude and herself in Irving Park (Northwest side of Chicago, then a choice neighborhood). By the time they moved, Ottilie had been married, divorced and remarried to a Carl Dallmann, by whom she had three children, Wilbur, Myra, and Edith. 
Wilbur, Edith, and Myra Dallman, ca. 1910


The Dallmanns lived a few miles northeast of Irving Park. Also, Art married Leora Price: they lived in Oak Park, a west suburb of Chicago. My recollection is that Art had prepared for the ministry, but had withdrawn from that almost immediately and started his own food-supply business, which he operated until the great depression. Carl Dallmann was a salesman, also in the food business.


During her adolescence and early childhood, Pauline became involved in evangelical religious activities; it was this interest that led her to meet Lee (ca. 1910). They were both involved independently in evangelizing institutionalized persons, and chanced both to be active briefly in the same place – “Dunning” – known then as an “insane asylum.” (Why the “insane” were targets for evangelism is unclear.) Lee and Pauline were married in August 1911 in the house of Pauline and Gertrude at 4150 N. Kildare Avenue, the location which ultimately became part of an exit from the Kennedy Expressway. 


It was natural that Lee moved to the Kildare house, at least temporarily (though it didn’t quite work out that way). By that time a woman, Jenny Schultz, whom Gertrude had befriended, was rooming there. (By odd chance, she had emigrated from Bonn, Germany.) Poor Lee: he was stuck in a house with three women, one (Gertrude) as strong-willed as he, leaving him no voice in household management.


The newlyweds planned to become missionaries to Central America. (Why Central America? Not clear. Where in Central America? Also not clear.) All that remains of these plans is a Spanish-American dictionary, never used by them, but now in use by me in my work with crossword puzzles. Almost immediately Pauline became pregnant (with me), and plans had been to be changed. Pauline could probably have learned Spanish, but I doubt that Lee could. Though he lived for many years in a German environment, he learned, so far as I know, only two words: Schluessel (key) and Spazieren (take a walk). I learned later that the missionary zeal lasted for quite a while – that they planned to enter the field after the baby was born. Fortunately, especially for me, this didn’t work out. (Fundamentalist missionaries never fared well in foreign countries, and their children, if any, fared worse.)

It’s not clear why I remained an only child. Pauline had said early in the game that she planned to have six children – all boys. I’ve often wondered whether the absence of any more children stemmed from her belief that the machinery of reproduction was sinful; she must certainly have realized the machinery to have been God’s invention. In any case, I have always felt satisfied with my “only child” status.





* There is no indication in any documentation that the family came from Scotland (this includes DNA testing via Robert H. Wilcox, direct line male). It is reported by earlier generations (notably, Nathan’s brother Luther) that the immigrant ancestor was Caleb Wilcox (Willcockson), father of Peter, and that he hailed from England, settling in Vermont prior to the 1800s.
[1]Originally in German form Gertrud, but later changed to the more anglicized form
** The reasoning for the immigration of Gertrude is explained in her mother’s biography: Elisabeth: The Story of a German Immigrant by Jean M. Wilcox Hibben, ©2012. Gertrude and her siblings were actually raised in an orphanage attached to the convent of the church the family attended in Bonn, Germany. Elisabeth had immigrated to the US, then sent for her children. Gertrude came to America in 1874, ten years after her mother had left Germany. Disillusionment with the Catholic Church appeared to have developed after she arrived on these shores.
*** There were actually four children; the fourth was Oscar Friederick. He died a few months after birth, likely during the blizzard of 1888.
**** Not really. Ed had been born in Michigan and raised till adolescence in Iowa. When Nathan and family moved to Tennessee, Ed came along reluctantly and was often in fights because of his Yankee position (the Civil War having just ended). Ed moved to Dallas in about 1880 with friends of his first wife’s family (the Lees). His first wife, Lee’s mother – Amanda Williford – was the Southerner (Georgia and Tennessee). She died after the first four children were born and Ed married her nurse, Leonora Stickle Caskey, another Yankee (she was from Pennsylvania).
* Lee had met a Christian man (a Negro) while in the Navy and was converted to Christianity (a belief not shared by his father). He went to Chicago to further that new belief and develop it into a potential career at Moody.
** Plus the fourth, Oscar, mentioned earlier
[2]Gertrude’s married name was initially Mueller; at Art’s insistence, it was changed later to Miller.
***Gertrude’s maiden name was also Mueller. The spelling change, according to Art, was for purposes of making the pronunciation easier. It is suspected that it was more to avoid the prejudice towards Germans that was prevalent throughout the US.

          Offer - Wie kann man mehrere Wörter in mehreren Word-Dateien finden und ersetzen? - GERMANY   
Das Advance Word Find &Replace Word Tool ist primär für die Such & und Ersatz-Wort-Option in tausenden von Word-Files konzipiert. Sie können mit Hilfe dieser Software spezifische Sonderzeichen wie z.B. den Paragraf, den Tab und Zeilen im MS-Word etc. sowie in anderen .doc, .docx, .rtf-Dateien suchen und ersetzen. http://www.technocomsolutions.com/advance-word-find-replace-de.html
             
 EL PAGO POR SERVICIOS COMPLEMENTARIOS EN EL AEROPUERTO SERÁ MÁS FÁCIL

Amadeus e Ingenico lanzan Amadeus Airport Pay, que podrá ser usado por múltiples aerolíneas, empresas de asistencia en tierra (handling) y distintos bancos adquirentes, en cualquier aeropuerto del mundo con independencia de su infraestructura de facturación 

Lufthansa Group empezará a desplegar en junio la solución en más de 170 aeropuertos

En un mundo hiperconectado como el de hoy, los aeropuertos pueden ser estresantes. ¿Se ha preguntado por qué, después de hacer cola para facturar su equipaje, hay que andar hasta la oficina de la aerolínea para pagar por exceso de equipaje o para conseguir una plaza de categoría superior en un vuelo? Esto se debe a que los mostradores de facturación están compartidos por distintas aerolíneas u operadores de servicios de tierra y no pueden adaptarse a las necesidades específicas de pago de cada una. Dada esta situación, el viajero podría pensárselo dos veces antes de pagar, por ejemplo, por un asiento de categoría superior en su vuelo.

A partir de ahora, el pago en los aeropuertos va a ser más ágil. Amadeus e Ingenico lanzan Amadeus Airport Pay, la primera solución inalámbrica que acepta pagos con tarjeta con chip EMV[1]y que puede utilizarse con múltiples aerolíneas, empresas de asistencia en tierra y distintos bancos.

Con Amadeus Airport Pay, las aerolíneas y operadores de servicios en tierra pueden llegar a cualquier pasajero que tenga una tarjeta con chip EMV o un monedero electrónico compatible con el estándar EMV en cualquier aeropuerto del mundo, sea cual sea la infraestructura de facturación. Este hecho supone que las aerolíneas a nivel mundial pueden adoptar la solución rápidamente.

Como resultado, las compañías aéreas pueden conseguir más ventas de servicios complementarios, ofreciendo a los viajeros un método rápido y seguro que supera los inconvenientes de pago que generalmente se encuentran, hoy en día, en muchos aeropuertos. Como Amadeus Airport Pay no está vinculado a ninguna infraestructura física, las aerolíneas y operadores de tierra pueden aceptar pagos en cualquier parte del aeropuerto.

A principio de junio, Lufthansa Group, como socio de este lanzamiento, comenzará a desplegar esta solución en los mostradores de facturación y oficinas en sus más de 170 aeropuertos en todo el mundo, lo que mejorará la experiencia de los viajeros en el aeropuerto, al poner a su disposición opciones de pago seguras y de conveniencia durante su viaje.

«Uno de los objetivos fundamentales de Lufthansa Group es proporcionar a nuestros pasajeros opciones de pago seguras y perfectamente integradas para facilitar su experiencia de viaje. Amadeus Airport Pay les permite comprar de forma segura servicios complementarios personalizados al vuelo mientras realizan la facturación o en la puerta de embarque mediante diferentes métodos de pago y sin tener que realizar múltiples pasos», declaró Kai Schilb, responsable de pagos para Lufthansa Group Hub Airlines.

«Además, como solución tecnológica, Amadeus Airport Pay confiere a Lufthansa Group el control total de su infraestructura de pagos al establecer conexiones con un gran número de proveedores de servicios de pagos. Esperamos implantar este servicio en nuestros mostradores de facturación y oficinas de venta en más de 170 aeropuertos muy pronto», añadió Philipp Vetten, del equipo de gestión de proyectos de pagos para Lufthansa Group.

Amadeus también hace posible que las líneas aéreas y los operadores puedan conectarse fácilmente con los bancos de su elección. Amadeus Airport Pay puede estar totalmente integrada en el flujo de ventas de la aerolínea, lo que permite pagos más rápidos, más precisos y referenciados a la venta automáticamente.

«Los pagos en el aeropuerto han dado un gran paso hacia la comodidad, seguridad y flexibilidad con Amadeus Airport Pay. Estamos muy orgullosos del acuerdo con Lufthansa Group para mejorar la experiencia de sus pasajeros en todo el mundo», comentó Celia Pereiro, responsable de Travel Payments en Amadeus. «Los viajeros tendrán la tranquilidad de que sus pagos son seguros gracias a la tecnología EMV. Aerolíneas y operadores de handling, por su parte, pueden hacer que el viaje sea mucho más agradable —por ejemplo, que el personal se acerque al viajero mientras hace cola para ofrecerle un servicio complementario—, lo que es una ventaja tanto para la línea aérea como para el viajero».

Miguel Ángel Hernández, Director General  de Ingenico Iberia, comentó: «Estamos orgullosos de este Acuerdo de Colaboración con Amadeus  que  proporciona una solución integrada y se beneficia de un alcance verdaderamente internacional. Así mismo, cumple con los estándares más altos de seguridad y está disponible con nuestro amplio catálogo de terminales de pago. Dada la conveniencia, ergonomía y facilidad de uso de esta solución, Amadeus Airport Pay proporcionará una solución real de pago en movilidad para el punto de venta mejorando la experiencia de los pasajeros».

Con más de 5.000 millones de tarjetas con chip en circulación a nivel mundial, EMV se ha convertido en la principal tecnología de pago presencial con tarjeta. EMV mejora considerablemente la forma en que se detecta y evita el fraude con las tarjetas de pago, ya que las tarjetas EMV tienen capacidades antifraude mejoradas en el punto de venta físico. En los aeropuertos, los terminales EMV están presentes en las tiendas duty free, pero sigue siendo poco frecuente encontrarlos en los mostradores de facturación de las aerolíneas.
Si desea obtener más información acerca de Amadeus Airport Pay, visite este enlace.

 




[1] El sistema EMV (acrónimo formado por las entidades que se asociaron para su creación, Europay, Mastercard y Visa) es un estándar tecnológico internacional para tarjetas inteligentes y terminales de pago.

          Handelsbetingelser.   

Hej 
Er der nogen der har lidt forstand på handelsbetingelser.
Hvad kan bruges?
Forslag modtages meget gerne til ændringer
Er der noget jeg mangler

Ved køb godkender du købs betingelser hos webshop ....................................

Webshop ................
....................
Adre4sse................................
E-mailadresse: .................................., svarer hurtigst muligt

Telefonnummer:  ............., ringer tilbage hurtigst muligt

OBS! VI TAGER FORBEHOLD FOR UDSOLGTE VARER, PORTOFORHØJELSER, PRISÆNDRINGER OG TRYKFEJL, OG FORSENDELSES FORSINKELSER


Betaling

Blandt andet forbeholder vi os ret til at afslå ethvert tilbud om køb i en af de følgende situationer, uden at være ansvarlige for erstatning eller andre omkostninger:

  • Dine betalingsoplysninger er ikke korrekte eller kan ikke verificeres
  • Din bestilling er afgivet med det formål at begå bedrageri eller anden ulovlig aktivitet f.eks. hacking.
  • Der opstår en utilsigtet fejl på Hjemmesiden, fx en betalingsfejl, en prisfejl el.lign.
  • Vi har grund til at tro, at du er under 18 år gammel


Vi tilbyder betaling med Pay Pal, som er en sikker betalings form.
Din ordre behandles først når din indbetaling er registeet


Levering

Fragtprisen er bla. afhængig af vægten. Vi sender kun varer i Danmark,  der kan bla. forekomme længere leveringstider ved ikke brofaste øer.
Vi levere ikke til Færøerne og Grønland.

Vi afsender altid dine varer hurtigst muligt. Leveringsttid op til 7  hverdage, med fragtfirma så din pakke kan spores.

Tjek at du har opgivet korrekt adresse

Hvis du har opgivet en ukorrekt adresse, så fragtfirmaet ikke kan finde frem til dig, og varen skal sendes igen, bliver du opkrævet beløbene for alle forsendelserne. 

Fortrydelsesret

Du har som forbruger 14 dages fortrydelsesret, når du handler hos Webshop Mellem himmel og jord
 
Fortrydelsesfristen udløber 14 dage efter den dag, du har modtaget din vare, eller får den sidste vare i fysisk besiddelse, når det drejer sig om en aftale om flere forskellige varer, som er bestilt i én ordre, og som leveres enkeltvis. 

 
I følge lovgivningen skal man give sælgeren besked om, at man ønsker at annullere købet. Det er ikke nok at man blot nægter at modtage varen eller ikke afhenter varen på posthuset. Det er derfor vigtigt at reagere, hvis man ikke ønsker varen. Sælgeren skal have tydelig besked om, at du fortryder, inden fortrydelsesfristen udløber. Det er tilstrækkeligt, at meddelelsen er afsendt, inden fristen udløber. Sælgeren har ret til at se dokumentation for, at varen er afsendt, så få en kvittering fra posthuset eller fragtmanden. 

Når du benytter fortrydelsesretten, kan du få dine penge retur ,når vi har set varen er i orden og set den opfylder returretten, og godkendt fra vores side, så kan købsprisen refunderes til din konto inden for få dage. Vi refundrer kun pengene til den konto, der er benyttet til købet Det eneste, du skal betale, når du benytter din fortrydelsesret, er transporten af varen tilbage til sælgeren. Det vil sige at omkostningerne for at returnere varen skal du selv afholde. VIGTIGT! Send dine returvarer som forsikret pakkepost, så pakken kan spores , hvis der skulle opstå problemer under forsendelsen. Sender du pr. brev, påtager du dig ansvaret for, at varen kommer retur. Forsvinder den under forsendelsen, kan vi ikke tilbagebetale dig beløbet for varen. Hvis du nægter at tage i mod varen, når den kommer, eller undlader at afhente din pakke på posthuset opkræves  et beløb, som dækker udgifter i forbindelse med returforsendelse.

Består varen af flere partier eller dele, udløber fortrydelsesfristen 14 dage efter den dag, du får det sidste parti, eller den sidste del i fysisk besiddelse.
 
Drejer det sig om en aftale om regelmæssig levering af varer over en bestemt periode, udløber fortrydelsesfristen 14 dage efter den dag, du får den første vare i fysisk besiddelse.)
 
Du skal inden 14 dage fra modtagelse give os meddelelse om, at du ønsker at fortryde dit køb. Meddelelsen skal gives via  standardfortrydelsesformularen (download, ret til og upload i PDF). I din meddelelse skal du gøre os tydeligt opmærksom på, at du ønsker at udnytte din fortrydelsesret. 
                                                                                                                        

Alle varer kontrolleres før de afsendes, men hvis du alligevel skulle opdage fejl, skal du kontakte os  inden for 24 timerr, eller først kommende hverdag på mail.  Husk også at angive dit ordrenr.  Vi vil godt bede om billeder af forsendelsen og produkterne, som dokumentation for reklamationen.Skulle det ske mod forventning at indpakningen er ødelagt, og varerne er ødelagte kontakt venligst fragtfirmaet med det samme.

Du bærer risikoen for varen fra tidspunktet for varens levering.



Varer undtaget fortrydelsesretten

Følgende varetyper er undtaget fortrydelsesretten:
Varen skal returneres i samme mængde og stand, ubrugt og i ubeskadiget stand i originalemballagen sammen med faktura

Levering af varer, som må antages at blive forringet eller hurtigt slidt.

Levering af forseglede varer, som af sundhedsbeskyttelses- eller hygiejnemæssige årsager ikke er egnet til at blive returneret, og hvor forseglingen er blevet brudt efter leveringen,

Levering af varer, som på grund af deres art bliver uløseligt blandet sammen med andre varer ved leveringen,

Aftaler om specifikke hastende reparations- eller vedligeholdelsesarbejder hos forbrugeren, som denne på forhånd udtrykkeligt har anmodet om,

Levering af plomberede lyd- eller billedoptagelser eller computersoftware, som forbrugeren har brudt plomberingen på

Levering af digitalt indhold, som ikke leveres på et fysisk medium, hvis udførelsen er påbegyndt med forbrugerens forudgående udtrykkelige samtykke og anerkendelse af, at vedkommende dermed mister sin fortrydelsesre

Vær særlig opmærksom ved forsejlede og plumberede varer.
Du mister din fortrydelsesret/returret hvis;

Du bryder plomberingen på CD;er

Du bryder forsejling på en vare som er forsejlet , da den efterfølgende ikke mere er egnet til salg

Du bryder plombering på en vare som er plomberet, da den efterfølgende ikke mere er egnet til salg


Varens stand, når du sender den retur
Varen skal returneres i samme stand, og mængde, ubrugt og i ubeskadiget stand i originalemballagen.

Tilbagebetaling af købsbeløbet

Hvis du fortryder dit køb, får du dit købsbeløb du har indbetalt til os tilbage,på samme betalingsmiddel som du brugte ved betalingen. I tilfælde af en værdiforringelse, som du hæfter for, fratrækkes denne købsbeløbet.

 
Vi kan tilbageholde tilbagebetalingen, indtil vi har modtaget varen retur.

Du er ansvarlig for varen indtil den når frem til sælgeren, også hvis der opstår skader. Så sørg for at pakke varen forsvarligt ind.


Hvis du fortryder købet, skal varen sendes til:

Webshop 

.......................................................................

 
Vi modtager hverken pakker uden omdeling eller pakker sendt pr. efterkrav.

Reklamationsret

Købelovens mangelsregler kan finde anvendelse på varekøb.
 
Webshop .............................. yder 2 års reklamationsret i henhold til Købeloven. Det betyder, at du enten kan få varen repareret, ombyttet, pengene tilbage eller afslag i prisen, afhængig af den konkrete situation. Det er et krav, at reklamationen er berettiget, og at manglen ikke er opstået som følge af fejlagtig brug af produktet eller anden skadeforvoldende adfærd.

Fabrikations- og materialefejl, der konstateres ved varens normale anvendelse og reklamation over fejl og mangler, som bør opdages ved sædvanlig undersøgelse af varen, skal meddeles til webshop mellem himmel og jord inden for 24 timer efter modtagelse eller ved førstkommende hverdag. Send en mail til webshopmellemhimmelogjord@gmail.com

Først når du har indgået en aftale med os, kan varen returneres.

Når du returnerer varen,bedes du beskrive problemet så detaljeret som muligt, samt med foto. 

Er reklamationen berettiget, refunderer vi dine (rimelige) fragtomkostninger. Varen skal altid sendes tilbage i forsvarlig emballage, og husk at få en kvittering for afsendelse, så vi kan tilbagebetale dine fragtomkostninger.


Varen sendes til:
Webshop ............................................

.................................................................


 
Vi modtager hverken pakker uden omdeling eller pakker sendt pr. efterkrav.

Persondatapolitik

For at du kan indgå aftale med os, har vi brug for følgende oplysninger:
Navn, adresse, tlf.nr. og e-mailadresse.
(Indsæt hvilke oplysninger, der eventuelt yderligere indsamles.)
 
Vi foretager registreringen af dine personoplysninger med det formål at kunne levere varen til dig.
 
Dine oplysninger videregives eller sælges ikke til tredjemand.)
 
 
Som registreret hos Webshop ..............................................,har du altid ret til at gøre indsigelse mod registreringen. Du har også ret til indsigt i hvilke oplysninger, der er registreret om dig. Disse rettigheder har du efter persondataloven og henvendelse i forbindelse hermed rettes til webshop mellem himmel og jord.


Klageadgang

Hvis du vil klage over dit køb, skal du rette henvendelse til Webshop ................................ Hvis det ikke lykkes os at finde en løsning, kan du indgive en klage til relevante nævn på området, såfremt betingelserne herfor er opfyldt. (.)http://www.forbrug.dk/Klagemuligheder/Klager-over-koeb-i-Danmark/~/link.aspx?_id=4DEB880902D047FFA4961DB92BEA80B6&_z=z


          IGREJA QUER OUVIR OS JOVENS: SAIBA COMO COLABORAR COM O SÍNODO DOS BISPOS DE 2018   


Igreja quer ouvir os jovens: saiba como colaborar com o Sínodo dos Bispos de 2018
Em 2018, será realizada a XV Assembleia Ordinária do Sínodo dos Bispos, com o tema “Os jovens, a fé e o discernimento vocacional”. No processo de preparação, ocorre a fase de consulta, quando o povo de Deus pode enviar contribuições e respostas ao questionário disponibilizado pela Santa Sé. O bispo de Imperatriz (MA) e presidente da Comissão Episcopal Pastoral para a Juventude da Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil (CNBB), dom Vilsom Basso, explica como os jovens brasileiros podem participar.
A fase de consulta foi aberta após a publicação do documento preparatório, em janeiro deste ano. Este processo levará à redação do instrumento de trabalho para a assembleia sinodal. Às conferências episcopais, coube a responsabilidade de receber as contribuições e respostas, compilar o material e enviar à Secretária do Sínodo. Aqui no Brasil, a CNBB disponibilizou desde janeiro o texto preparatório com o questionário.
Para dom Vilsom Basso, “é um tempo de graça, um kairós para toda a juventude, para toda a Igreja, um Sínodo dos Bispos sobre juventude”. Ele explica que estão à disposição dos jovens três maneiras de participar. Primeiro, respondendo ao questionário que já foi encaminhado a todas as dioceses do Brasil e enviando até o final de julho para a CNBB, para que seja feita uma síntese e enviada à Secretaria do Sínodo, no Vaticano – este material poderá ajudar na formulação de ações pastorais no âmbito brasileiro. Até 31 de julho, serão recebidas as respostas dos jovens pelo e-mailsynodos@cnbb.org.br
“A segunda maneira saiu na semana passada: os jovens poderão participar diretamente no site do Sínodo e ali darem as suas respostas”, indica dom Vilsom, lembrando do site que entrou no ar em 14 de junho. O secretário-geral do Sínodo, cardeal Lorenzo Baldisseri, explicou que a plataforma na internet deve promover “ampla participação”. Com o website, os jovens receberão informações e vão poder também interagir no caminho da preparação para o Sínodo.
terceira maneira de colaboração com o Sínodo, de acordo com dom Vilsom, é com a partilha de experiências da juventude e expectativas para o Sínodo. Isso poderá ser feito no Facebook, com publicações usando a hastag #popeasks.
Questionário
O Vaticano questiona a juventude e com a finalidade de acompanhar os jovens em seu caminho existencial rumo à maturidade, para que, por meio de um processo de discernimento, “possam descobrir seu projeto de vida e realizá-lo com alegria, abrindo-se ao encontro com Deus e com os homens, participando ativamente da edificação da Igreja e da sociedade”.
O documento preparatório propõe uma reflexão em três partes. A primeira sobre as dinâmicas sociais e culturais. Na sequência, uma abordagem do “discernimento” como instrumento que a Igreja oferece aos mais novos para a descoberta da sua vocação. Por fim, são colocados em relevo os elementos fundamentais da pastoral juvenil vocacional.

Envie para a CNBB
1. BAIXE AQUI o formulário em word;
2. RESPONDA o questionário seguindo as orientações;
3. ENCAMINHE o documento em word para o e-mail: synodus@cnbb.org.br
Prazo final de envio: 31 de Julho de 2017


          El pez en llamas o la inmolación del poeta   






Yván Silén:



                                               El pez en llamas
                     o la inmolación del poeta





            La poesía de Rafael Trelles lo enfrenta a sí mismo. Su oscuridad es clarividente. Pez en llamases como decir Cristo en llamas, porque el pez, desde la antigüedad cristiana, es el símbolo de Jesús y, posteriormente, el símbolo de la cristiandad. El primer poema, “Adentro” (pág. 5), nos mete inmediatamente en el poemario. “Adentro” es el no querer ser visto ni como “pez” ni como “poeta”. La orden del poema está dada desde la objetividad subjetivamente: “no mires”. Pero la orden oculta algo del pudor que late. O se está expresando de forma mucho más intimista: ¡No me mires como poeta! Y la “confesión” arrastra algo de Zen, la visión del pez mismo (la visión del poeta mismo).

            La otra llave que encontramos en El pez en llamas[1]es la del árbol. Lo que el lector no sabe hasta que no se mueva el poemario es que el “Árbol” (pág. 16) está relacionado con el poeta. El árbol “fue el primer espejo de Dios”. Los disfraces están funcionando oníricamente. La relación con Adán está dada, como veremos más adelante, pero no está dicha. Trelles se halla en el pozo de lo visto, pero no dice lo que ha visto. Lo visto a través de todo el poemario está insinuado. El texto alcanzará su propio tiempo. El “espacio-tiempo” está funcionando. La confesión oculta todo lo dicho. Hay secretos. Su propio “decir”, el “decir” mismo del hombre decapitado le permite expresar a Trelles-poeta otra confesión: “Estoy rodeado” (pág. 9). Lo que lo “corrompe” es la misma luz que lo obsesiona y que lo acosa como pintor-poeta. El poeta encierra al pintor entre las “palabras absurdas” y entre las contradicciones constantes:

                                   “los caídos . . .
                                    los artífices de la contradicción,
                                   los tecnócratas de la duda,
                                   los náufragos del análisis” (pág. 12)

Cantar no es pintar. En el sentir no hay ni siquiera figuras. Hay sólo conceptos y símbolos. Las metáforas están borradas. El pintor, debido a la “intromisión” del poeta, está lleno de fantasmas. Las fotos son las huellas de lo que son los fantasmas, son la presencia misma del ser y del Zen mismo. Son las huellas de “los caídos”. Los tecnócratas, los enemigos del poeta, son los que trastean en la duda. Los “tecnócratas de la duda”, dudan. Pero no pueden resolver las “palabras” de Dios. Porque éstas están a la deriva. Las palabras de Dios, el logos del principio (Juan 1: 1), son el discurso absurdo de Dios (pág. 12). Las “palabras de Dios” son la “cercanía” y son la “lejanía”.[2]

Los breves poemas, este estilo de Rafael Trelles, alargan al “poeta” hacia el pasado y a hacia la nada. Hay “huesos mojados” (pág. 45) en el anuncio de ser del texto. “Huesos mojados” que pesan como la muerte. ¿Algo ha traicionado a la espada: la luz, la oscuridad, lo probable? Hay algo que traiciona a la luz: el principio, la velocidad, el final. El tiempo que se expande espacio, y el espacio, todo peligro, que se expande Ícaro. (El Zen está anunciando el fin del universo). 

El poeta está olfateando a la muerte y la muerte quiásmicamente está olfateando al poeta. Todo es “hedor” (el decapitado, las cuchilladas) y “brevedad” (la casa –los sueños--) en la poesía de Trelles. Todo es antiguo. El vértigo es inevitable y Trelles lo siente y lo presiente: ¡el poeta cae! La soledad es total. ¿Cómo es posible que el poetamuera (Matos Paoli, Lima, Panero, Trakl, Martín Adán, Julia de Burgos, Pessoa, Ramos Otero, Safo, etc.)? Los suicidas se aglomeran: “sin que nadie escuche el grito de los silogismos suicidas” (pág. 55). Los poetas abandonan radicalmente la poesía. Derrumbados los sueños son como la caída de una puerta: el pez simbólico se torna poeta y el aëda simbólico se torna pez. En Trelles, en “La muerte del poeta”, todo cae: ¡el ser cae! El poema dedicado a Edwin Reyes se torna paradoja. El poeta cruza (a través de la voz del poeta que reminiscencia) a través del pez para ser él mismo. El pez cruza a través del poeta para hacerse llamas: “Las ruinas circulares”.[3]

Trelles, como el filósofo Adorno, sueña (pág. 58) para escapar a las paradojas. El poeta sueña por aquellos que son soñados por el Aquél(por el aquéllo”) [4][5][6]que lo sueña a él mismo. Después del sueño “hay nada”, o hay “lo mismo”. Los soñadores, los personajes, están siendo soñados desde el insomnio. El inconsciente se ha puesto ha soñar desde los poemas o desde el sueño. El inconsciente es constante. El inconsciente es “instantáneo”, independientemente de donde se encuentre el poeta: las guaguas, los taxis, los cafés, los ascensores, los orgasmos, los hospitales, los retretes, las lápidas, las esquelas, la muerte. Los soñados sueñan desde el insomnio por el Dios de lo constante (Zeus, Apolo, Orfeo, Baco) que se sueña a sí mismo en los extraños. El fuego se devora a sí mismo: los peces arden (los laberintos arden [el universo arde]).

El viandante que sueña “la casa / es el camino” (pág. 57) no puede escapar a la “cárcel”. Todo ha caído en los espejos: el poeta está delante de sí mismo. El vagabundo de la “visión”, del “pozo”, del “dédalo” no sabe a dónde va y no sabe qué hacer con la caída.[7]Según Heidegger el hombre ha sido arrojado. Según Cortázar “la casa de los incestuosos” ha sido tomada. Según Borges, Asterión ha sido asesinado por el héroe.[8]El sueño se ha detenido para siempre. La casa de la calle de Morfeo ha sido cerrada bruscamente. Al final, sólo queda el incendio de los peces. Al final, sólo queda el incendio del poeta.

*****

30 de diciembre de 2015
Puerto Rico

    




[1]  Véase el “Basurero” en Los narcisos negros (1997) de Iván Silén.
[2] Véase  Los hermanos de Jesús o el fin del universo (inédito).
[3]  Véase a Jorge Luis Borges.
[4]  Véase a Federico Nietzsche.
[5]  Véase a Francisco Matos Paoli.
[6]   Véase a Yván Silén.
[7]  Véase el Génesis.
[8]  Aquiles arrastra a Héctor alrededor de Troya. Platón, ante este hecho histórico, protesta por la bajeza y lo indigno de Aquiles. 

          Members Day & AGM   

Exploring the World of Publishing

Join CILIP NW at our annual Member's Day and AGM on 7th March 2017 in Manchester.

Programme details can be found below. Check back for further details nearer the time.

9.30 Registration and refreshments

10.00 Welcome: Michael Cook, Chair CILIP North West Member Network                            

10.10 Keynote speaker: Kate Arnold CILIP President

CILIP Update/Contributing to the Future of Publishing

Kate has over 25 years’ experience of providing and managing the delivery of specialist information and research services (both virtual and library based) to a wide variety of users. She is currently Information Services Development Manager at The Crick Institute, where she is developing an information strategy for this biomedical research institute. Kate started off in media libraries (BBC and a national newspaper), moved to NHS Direct to run public facing health information services both on the phone and online. She continued to work in the health information sector when she managed Cancer Research UK’s information services (telephone helpline, website and forum) to people affected by cancer. Following redundancy Kate has worked for a number of organisations managing information services in the voluntary sector (National Children’s Bureau and Macmillan Cancer Support) and academic sector (Royal Holloway, University of London). Having worked across a variety of sectors Kate is keen to    highlight the importance and value of library and information services and the skills that librarians bring to their communities and workplaces.

11.00 Maria Grant, Editor of Health Information and Libraries Journal

Maria is Editor-in-Chief of the ISI listed Health Information and Libraries Journal and peer review for a variety of medical, nursing and library and information science journals. She is passionate about writing for publication and has been a member of a cross-disciplinary writers group since 2006. In 2011 Maria established a successful peer support writers group within the University of Salford’s School for Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work. She has published project reports, books, book sections and peer reviewed articles and is currently studying for a PhD exploring strategies employed to learn the skills to write and publish peer reviewed academic papers.

11.40 Short refreshment break

11.50 Catherine Jones

500 Words and 1 Librarian Judge

Every year Chris Evans’s breakfast show on Radio 2 runs a writing competition for children called 500 Words. The only limit is the number of words, the topic is chosen by the author. The first round of judging is done by volunteer librarians and teachers. Catherine is one of those first round judges and will talk about the process, what she has learned and what this tells us about what children are writing about. To be a first round judge you need to be a teacher or librarian. Catherine is a chartered librarian with a computing degree and currently leads a Software Engineering Group at the Science and Technology Facilities Council.

12.30 AGM (please note: non-members can observe, but not vote)

12.50 Lunch

13.40 Ra Page, Comma Press

Independent Publishing: A Space for New Narratives

The founder of Manchester-based Comma Press talks about the role of small presses in a wider publishing climate that is often dominated by commercial, low risk 'safe-bets', as well as the way editors at indie houses work differently to their counterparts at mainstream publishers. As a specialist in short fiction, he will also be exploring the much underrated power of the short story to draw in new readers, and to encourage existing readers to sample new genres, or read their way into new cultures or previously hidden histories.

14.20 Jackie Ould, Co-Director at Ahmed Uqbal Ullah Education Trust

Children Become Authors

Jackie became Director of the Ahmed Iqbal Ullah Race Relations Resource Centre & Education Trust in May 2013. The Centre is the major collection of books and resources on Black History, migration and diversity in the North West. It is owned by the University of Manchester and located at Manchester Central Library.  An experienced teacher, Jackie has worked at the AIUET since 1999 focusing on anti-racist education initiatives, including a programme through which Manchester schools publish new books on Black Heroes and diverse cultures. Jackie has     pioneered oral history projects with BME communities in Manchester and Salford leading the projects: ‘Exploring Our Roots’; ‘The Distance We Have Travelled’; ‘Yemeni Roots Salford Lives’ and ‘The Legacy of Ahmed Iqbal Ullah’. Jackie also provides advice and support to community organisations developing their own oral history projects and works in partnership with National Black Arts Alliance to deliver Manchester’s Black History Month programme.

15.00 Closing comments

15:30 Finish

Please note priority will be given to CILIP NW members and attend free of charge.

Non CILIP members attending will be charged £20 per person.

Book here

Tue, 7th Mar 2017 -
9:30am to 3:00pm
+44 (0)1925 603397
Amy Roberts

International Anthony Burgess Foundation

Engine House, Chorlton Mill, 3 Cambridge Street Manchester
M15BY Manchester

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)1925 603397

Free Event: 

          OpenXml and openxmllib – looking for volunteers   
Abstract openxmllib is a pure Python package built on lxml that parses an ECMA373 office file (read *.docx, *.pptx, *.xlsx ...
Continue reading
          The Crayon Box That Talked   

     Since I started teaching, we have celebrated Martin Luther King's birthday on January 15th with a presentation of  The Crayon Box That Talked.    I introduce Martin Luther King by reading Martin's Big Words by Bryan Collier. This is a wonderful book for kindergarteners and pre-kers.

The next day we read The Crayon Box That Talked by Shane DeRolf.  The story is actually a simple poem about a box of crayons that doesn't get along.  After a little girl buys the crayons and colors a drawing, the crayons decide that they do like each other and that while "each one (is) unique, when (they) get together the picture is complete." We talk about how at the beginning of the book, the crayons didn't like the other colors.  At the end of the story, they realize that it is much better to have lots of different colors in a picture and that they do like and need each other.  The kids right away make the connection to people not liking each other because of the color of their skin.
This was the 7th year I have used the same costumes.  I simply took pieces of bulletin board  paper and folded them in thirds into large rectangles.  I then used another narrow piece of the bulletin board paper folded in half to make the piece that goes around the child's neck and holds the "crayon."  The hats are laminated pieces of construction paper made into a cone with a piece of elastic stapled on to it to hold the hat on.  Very simple, but very effective.  For the last few years, I have thought about making new costumes by simply cutting a piece of poster board in half (a few of my originals do have an awful lot of staple holes:).  Maybe next year…

      I start by making a list of all of the colored costumes I have.  I let each child pick the color they want. (I usually end up making one or two new ones each year so that everyone is happy:).  After everyone has a color, I put their names (and color if necessary) into the Crayon Box That Talked poem that I have typed up.
This is a page of the script.
 I uploaded a copy of the poem to dropbox here. I then line up the kids in the order they will speak in the poem.  Each child has one short line (depending on numbers, sometimes 2 kids speak together).  The kids can get in line correctly and remember their line after one or two practices.  It really is a perfect little play for young children.
The poem ends "We are a box of crayons  each one of us unique  but when we get together the picture is complete." The kids pick up this long picture they painted on the back of bulletin board paper when they say "complete."
       After the play, we recite the poem we learned about Martin Luther King:
I have a dream said Martin Luther King
We're going to make that dream come true.
Let freedom ring said Martin Luther King.
It's up to me and you!

It's not the color of your hair,
It's not the color of your skin,
It doesn't matter what you wear.
It's the character within.
I'm not sure where I first found this poem but I use it as another opportunity to talk about character.  I loved that this year, one of my kiddos said that the poem reminded him of Katalina Matalina.  Katalina Matalina is a Dr Jean song about a funny looking person with a heart of gold. Makes a teacher's heart happy to see the kids making these text to text connections. :)
        One last thing we always do is talk about the fact that Martin Luther King followed in his father's footsteps to become a leader and a preacher.  We talk about what kind of people we want to be like and each child draws a picture of someone they want to be like when they grow up.  These are always very sweet (and cute because I add the child's footprint to their drawing). 



          Výučbové programy absolventov druhého ročníka inovačného vzdelávania   

V prílohe vám prinášame nové environmentálne výučbové progamy, ktoré vytvorili účastníci akreditovaného inovačného kontinuálneho vzdelávania s názvom „Prierezová téma Environmentálna výchova a vzdelávanie v materskej škole, základnej škole a strednej škole s využitím metódy participatívneho environmentálneho manažmentu" v školskom roku 2013/2014.

Vzdelávanie organizuje CEEV Živica v spolupráci s CEA Trenčín, Inštitútom aplikovanej ekológie Daphne,a Technickou univerzitou vo Zvolene 

Environmentálne výučbové programy sú zamerané na rôzne témy programu Zelená škola. Trvanie výučbového programu bolo minimálne 2 vyučovacie hodiny a pri jeho tvorbe či realizácii sa aktívne podielali žiaci alebo rodičia. Účastníci vzdelávania EVP v spolupráci so žiakmi, kolegami alebo rodičmi vytvorili, odučili a na základe výsledkov ich  a aj odprezentovali pred trojčlennou komisiou.


          série trigonométrie 2 éme sc mars 2017   
série trigo 2 éme sc.docx
          prob 4 éme   
Probabilité Términale4 éme Année P2.docx
          Bac math Examen JUIN 2014(math)   
devoir bac math 2014.docx
          DEvoir de synthése n1(2éme sc 2012/2013°   
DEVOIR SY 2éme sc 2012.docx

maths.jpg


          17Jobs Afterschool,FT,PT, Daejeon Busan Sejong Changwon Suwon Incheon Osan Ilsan   

 

★★★ 17 GOOD JOBS, ~3mil, Afterschool, Biz Eng, Eng CAMP,Adult, Full, Part, Daejeon, Changwon, Suwon, Incheon, Osan, Seoul, Busan, Sejong, Bungang, Ilsan, Chungnam, Pyeongtak station, Seoul, Gyeonggido, Big cities!

We make a difference for an Excellent Service!

We provide you with Structured and Progressive Recruiting Service!

 

We have more than 100 English school clients.

We would be of much help to find good schools that suit you the best.

If qualified & interested in any of these positions, please email at cooljenny77@gmail.com with the following:

 

 1. Recent Resume (.doc) No PDF

 2. Recent Photo (.jpg) Recent photo

 3. VISA Status in Korea

 4. Nationality

 5. Current Location /area of preference

 To speed up the application process please note the position you are applying for in the subject of your email or the areas you would like to apply for! (Title PLZ!)

 

 

* Required documents & Qualification to apply for this position

 1. Native English speakers from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, UK, Ireland,and South Africa

 2. Hold 3 or 4 year university degree in any major (BA/BS/ BEd degree or higher)

 3. Resume with a recent photo / Copy of diploma / degree

 4. Alien registration card (front and back)

 (A recent photo should be attached in your resume.)

 

Due to the high number of applicants for our positions, only applicants with the following attachments will be considered for our positions.

 

1. Recent Resume

 2. Recent Photo

 3. Visa status

 4. Copy of diploma

 5. Nationality

 6. Copy of Passport

 7. Apostilled Federal Criminal Background Check (issued within last 6 months)

 8. Original or copy of Apostilled Diploma & Transcript

 

 

1. Incheon Songdo, 9am to 6pm, Nice good, All Benefits

1. Working Hours: 9am ~ 6pm

 

2. Students: Elementary, Kindy

3. Salary: 2.1-2.5 mil

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing- Furnished Studio

8. Air fare- One way ticket

9. Start: ASAP

 

2. Busan, Jeongkwan, 10am to 7pm, 2 Jobs, Aug

1. Working Hours: 10am ~ 7pm

 

2. Students: Elementary, Kindy

3. Salary: 2.1-2.4 mil

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing- Furnished Studio

8. Air fare- One way ticket

9. Start: Aug

 

 

3. Urgent, Daejeon, 2.5mil, F4,6 weeks paid vacations, Nice good, All Benefits

1. Working Hours: 8am ~ 5pm , M-F

 

2. Students: Elementary, middle

3. Salary: 2.1-2.5 mil

4. Vacation: 6weeks paid vacation days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing- Furnished Studio

8. Airfare- One way ticket

9. Start: Urgent

 

4. ASAP, F visa, E2, ASAP, Osan station line 1, near Seoul, Gyeonggido

1. Working Hours:  1pm-9pm

2. Salary: 2.2-2.5mil (Depends on experience)

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and Pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing- Furnished Studio or housing allowance

8. Air fare- One way

9. Start: ASAP

 

Copy of Passport, Apostilled Federal Criminal Background Check (issued within last 6 months) Original or copy of Apostilled Diploma & Transcript are needed

 

 

5. Incheon Songdo, 9.40am to 12pm, D2, D2, F VISA, E2

1. Working Hours: 9.40am ~ 12pm

 

2. Students: Kindy

3. Salary: 1.1-1.3 mil

 

6. Sejong city, F4, E2,F6,F5,1 hour from Seoul st, Nice good, all benefits

http://www.sejong.go.kr/eng.do

1. Working Hours: PM 1:30 ~ PM 9:00

2. Students: Elementary

3. Salary: 2.1-2.5 mil

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing- Furnished Studio

8. Air fare- One way ticket

9. Start: July - Aug

 

7. F Visa, E2, Pyengtaek st, Part time, ASAP, 2million won

1. Working Hours: 3pm to 6.20pm or 8pm

2. Students: Elementary

3. Salary: 3pm to 6.20pm -1.6mil to 1.7mil

3pm to 8pm - 1.8 mil to 2mil

4. Start: Urgent

 

 

8. ASAP, PT, Fvisa, 1.2mil, 2days, Incheon,Nonhyun station, Afterschool, M, W

1. Working Hours: 1pm-5pm

2. Students: Elementary

3. Salary: 130,000 won to 150,000 won

4. Start: ASAP

 

 

9. ASAP, Fvisa, 1.2mil Near Buchen, Bupyeong, Magok station, Afterschool, Tue, Thurs

1. Working Hours: 2pm-6pm

2. Students: Elementary

3. Salary: 130,000 won to 150,000 won

4. Start: ASAP

 

 

10. ASAP, Afterschool, near Bungdang line, Dongbaek st,3Mil, 2.30pm-8.30pm, F visa only!

English village class

1.Working Hours: 2.30pm-8.30pm

 

2. Students: Elementary

3. Salary: 2.7-3 mil (Housing allowance is included)

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing- Furnished Studio OR Allowance ( 400, 000 won)

8. Airfare- One way ticket

9. Start: Urgent

 

Sorry No F4

 

 

11. ASAP, 3mil, Suwon st, adult, 2pm to 9.50pm, Adult, all benefits

 

1.Working Hours: 2pm-9.50pm

 

2. Students: Adult

3.Salary: 2.6-3 mil ( housing allowance is included)

4.Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5.Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6.Medical insurance and pension: 50% paid by the school

7.Housing- Furnished Studio OR Allowance

8.Airfare- One way ticket

9.Start: Urgent

 

 

 

12. ASAP, Changwon, 2.4mil, all benefits, nice big school

1. Working Hours: 9am to 6.15pm M W F (Tue, Thurs 5.30pm)

2. Salary: 2.3-2.4 million (Depends on time and experience)

3. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

4. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

5. Medical insurance and Pension: 50% paid by the school

6. Housing- Furnished Studio or housing allowance

7. Air fare- One way

8. Start: ASAP

 

 

 

13. ASAP or Aug,Bungdang, Sanghyun st, 8am to 4.30pm, Kindy

1. Working Hours: 8am to 4.30pm

2. Salary: 2.3-2.4 million (Depends on time and experience)

3. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

4. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

5. Medical insurance and Pension: 50% paid by the school

6. Housing- Furnished Studio or housing allowance

7. Air fare- One way

8. Start: ASAP

 

 

 

14. F4,E2, D2, D4, F6, Kangnam, Sinchon,Seoul, Biz Eng, 50,000 won per hour

1. Working Hours: 8am to 9am / 7am to 9pm/ 6pm to 7pm

 2 times or 3 times per week or M to F

 

 

2. Students: Biz English

3. Salary: 40,000 won- 50,000 won

4. Start: ASAP

 

Native English speakers from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, UK, Ireland,and South Africa

 

 

15. ASAP, 2.7mil, Chungnam City, 2hours from Seoul, 9am to 6pm

Female only

http://www.chungnam.go.kr/englishMain.do

 

1. Working Hours: 9am-6pm  M to F or

2. Students: Elementary, Kindy

3. Salary: 2.5-2.7mil (M to F)

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and Pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing allowance – 400,000 won

8. Start: ASAP

 

 

 

16. F visa,Filipino ok.ASAP, Paju City, 2.4mil, 6 weeks paid vacations, all benefits
 

Should have an F visa!
1. Working Hours: 9am to 7pm (M to Thurs) 9am to 1pm (Fri)
Private lesson fee will be offered to students
2. Students: Middle to high school 
3. Salary: 2-2.4 million (Depends on time and experience)
4. Vacation: 6 weeks paid vacations including National Holidays 
5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract
6. Medical insurance and Pension: 50% paid by the school
7. Housing- Furnished Studio or housing allowance or dorm


8. Start: ASAP

 

17. Sadang station, Seoul, Nice big school, All benefits

1. Working Hours: 9am-7pm  M to F

2. Students: Elementary, Kindy

3. Salary: 2.2-2.5mil (M to F)

4. Vacation: 10 days + National holidays

5. Severance: the same as one month payment upon completion of 1yr contract

6. Medical insurance and Pension: 50% paid by the school

7. Housing:Furnished Studio or housing allowance or dorm

8. Start: ASAP





 

 

Does the school pay monthly contributions into a Pension Plan? : 
Yes
Are you a licensed recruiter? : 
Yes
AttachmentSize
2017. July 1th.docx33.69 KB

          Moodle 3.3 upgrade   

by Mike Sollitt.  

Hi .. first time, please be gentle!

Just upgraded from 3.1 to 3.3 and now some (not all) static content such as .docx and .pdf will not open correctly after download.  I can't find any other posts about this so .....

The .docx error says "the file cannot be opened because there are problems with the contents" although they are then subsequently recoverable by clicking through.  The more random .pdf error message varies seemingly dependent upon the browser being used, but they will not open.  There are 'workarounds' that I've found however:

1. Download the folder containing the pdf in its entirety, and then it opens fine.

2. Choose to ' Edit' the containing folder, right click the .pdf and then choose 'download' in the pop up. Select 'open with adobe reader' and all is fine.

I can't see an obvious pattern as to why some open and some don't, it doesn't seem to matter how big or small the file is nor whether it's an odler or newer inclusion on the site

This is across all my courses and on all browsers tried (Chrome, Edge, Firefox).  Server OS is linux, php v.5.6.24

Any help gratefully received..

Mike


          Armour vs Infantry   

Col Scipio wrote:

What proportion of IG regiments are completely mechanised do you think? A lot of fluff seems to totally discount all-foot regiments, but I suspect that the 'famous' regts with loads of Chimeras would be in the minority.

This erudite query was brought on by this post here, which is about the reinforcements sent to Devos IV in the form of Army Group 3422 (3422AG).  So whilst Col Scipio’s question is about the Imperial Guard generally, it also provokes the question of what is going on with 3422AG (?) So this is the question I’m going to address first.

Comptroller Bellormus is the Departmento Munitorium’s senior official in charge of the Devos IV campaign.  Obviously the Military Officer in charge believes that he is total command.  But without DM support, he’s going to be out of food, ammunition and Battle Casualty Replacements in short order. 

Infantry without vehicles.

Fortunately for the Devos IV campaign, Comptroller Bellormus and his team are competent, conscientious and above all, lucky.  Ordo Heretics involvement early on encouraged participation from the ecclesiasty, Legio Astorum and Black Templars.  This in turn has ensured that the DM itself has continued to resource the campaign, responding favourably to demands issued by Comptroller Bellormus’ team.

At some point, an armoured formation of two Corps became available at just the right the point and was assigned to the Devos IV campaign.  Additional armour was at the top of the demand list for 72Ag as it chased the PLA eastwards across the prairie.  The arrival of another Army Group, even one lacking in Infantry, could in no way be described as unwelcome; however it does pose the Imperial Guard a number of issues as described in the other post. 

Where did the two Tank Corps come from and are they typical ?  They would have been spearhead formations for larger armies assigned to other campaigns and then not deployed for some reason.  Possibilities include either we won, we lost, the commander fell out of favour, Devos IV being bumped up the priority list or the campaign they were raised for slumped down the priority list for some reason.

Steering this back to Col Scipio’s original question; it is pretty clear from my piles of iggy codices[1]that as a part of the settlement following the dissolution of the Imperial Army and the formation of the Imperial Guard, attempts were made to specialise larger units to discourage formation or unit commanders from unilateral action.  However, as has been seen elsewhere, all arms task forces are what is needed. 

What these smaller all arms task forces are drawn from is one of the Imperial Guard’s regiments.  Let’s deal with infantry regiments first.  The IA books give us the Cadian 266th[2]and Tallarn 17th[3], both of which tell us that iggy infantry regiments will have their own organic armour.  And the Kreig 19th and Tallarn 12th, which illustrate armoured regiments having organic infantry assets.  The composition of the 4621 AG formed for the Taros campaign is reasonably balanced all arms force.  A lot of the early fluff makes a great deal of vast infantry formations with a relative paucity of supporting armour and artillery and certainly very little in the way of specialisation.  A cynic might offer that this is because in the 1980s there were relatively few vehicle models and back then, when I and my ilk were in short trousers, didn’t have the money to build ourselves tank companies.

A whole load of AFVs with out foot soldiers (a WiP picture from years ago)

And of course, with the Krieg regiments in the 88thArmy, IA shows us a number of regiments who do conform to the single arms blurb of the main GW fluff.  In this instance it works as the DKK are being deployed as descrete Corps in the 88thArmy, so infantry regiments in which the only people with transport are Grenadiers and Death Riders, armoured regiments with nowt but tanks and artillery regiments with nothing but, well artillery.   But again, it seems that even the inscrutable DKK are capable of adapting to circumstance and changing their MO to suit the situation, hence the all arms natures of 19 Armd Regt[4]and the formations described in the Fall of Orpheus[5].

So do I have direct answer to Col Scipio’s not unreasonable question ?  One could stall with an “It’s a huge universe/ army, so anything could be found in there somewhere.” But the question was about the normal, the usual, the mundane.   So harking back to the description of the Cadian 8th in my first Iggy Codex, I might suggest that where a Napoleonic era British Infantry Battalion would have a Grenadier Company and a Light Company, perhaps a ‘typical’ Iggy Infantry regiment might have a Light Role Battalion, a Grenadier Battalion and a Mechanised Battalion alongside however many Line Battalions it might have. 

Of course we should accept that the real answer about the level of resourcing is directly related to the economic state of the place where the unit was raised or the resources on hand when the unit is reconstituted at a DM hub. 



[1] We should remember, especially now with the event of “The Fall of Cadia” that the Cadian Shock Troops first appeared in the Codex Eye of Terror. The Catachans appeared in their own codex shortly afterwards.  And then the Armoured Battle Group list and then FW got in on the act with the Airborne list.  Iggy players have always had choices that the fluff would seem indicate were not the norm.
[2] And the Cadian 144th from IA show a fully equipped Mechanised Infantry Regiment.
[3] A Regiment on a scale for interplanetary war: 10507 Officers and Men.
[4] I understand that the reprint of IA1 does not have the DKK 19 Armd Regt in it.  The single most useful page in the whole book.
[5]And the Assault Brigade list.  Bwaa  haa haa haa !


          The Eastern Edge of the City.    
VI Corps (half of 3422 Army Group[1]) has the SE quarter of Xyphonica as its TAOR.  The three Divisions of VI Corps are tank heavy armoured formations.  All three are notably light on infantry[2]and one, 65 Division has no dismounted infantry.  All of VI Corps fighting power is ideally suited to the rolling prairie, but not ideal for urban assault.   Such are the vagaries of trying to adequately or properly resource wars via the warp.



The newly promoted Chief of Land Warfare (Plenipotantiate in charge of the execution of the war), 3* General Mantufor[3], fully understands the risks and just plain awkwardness and difficulty that VI Corps will face when trying to adequately contribute[4]to the attack on Xyphonica.  However, in order to continue the campaign to a successful conclusion, he cannot allow VI Corps to sit on the edge of the city and wait for the fat lady to clear her throat[5].  VI Corps does have to work its way into the city.

However, in order to preserve the fighting power of VI Corps, as it is likely to be needed again and squandering its armoured might on a swift advance in to the city makes no sense on a strategic level and as long as pressure is maintained, would serve no practical purpose[6].  The Corps of 72AG[7]have been in place on the western edges of the city have been in place for six weeks longer[8]and have a much larger infantry[9]to armour ratio.  XXXXIV Corps (the other half of 3422 AG) also has a larger infantry to armour ratio, but still less than the component elements of  72AG[10][11][12][13].


What 3422 AG will do is to systematically, district by district, street by street, building by building, reduce the city to ground level in order to minimise risk to the armour.  Effectively, 3422 AG is not expected to make progress into the city at the same speed as 72AG will[14][15]from their start positions on the other side of the city.

The Macharian Thunder Guard[16]have been withdrawn from XVIII Corps to patrol the prairie to the north of the city, it is suspected that any breakout may well be made in that direction.  Sub units of the Thunder Guard, reinforced by the entire Death Rider contingents from DKK 143rd and 262ndRegts[17], are to cover as much ground as possible looking for individuals and small groups who may be indicators of an increasing exodus of beaten heretics trying to escape their final doom.

Following their regular War Councils[18], the other Plenipotentiates, sensing that the endgame may be near, see an opportunity to gain prestige from being involved by making an offer which is unlikely to be refused.  The footsoldiers of sworn bands of the Frateris Militia and the Sororitas Militia[19], encouraged by the small but very influential Eclesisatical and Adeptus Sororitas delegations[20]whose respective heads are members of the War Council, volunteer  to go to war[21].

Gen Mantufor, mindful of the risk posed to VI Corps by their paucity of infantry assets, agrees to their inclusion on the condition that the bands agree to place themselves formally into the proper military chain of command.  The officers of the Imperial Guard are under no illusions; they realise that the militias are likely to break ranks once they have enough provocation.  However, all the while they are there, they will provide an additional level of protection.  

As soon as VI Corps assets reach their start line, they are joined by the militias[22].  As soon as they are not being actively supervised by a part of the Imperial Guard, the militias revert to lounging around and not behaving in a particularly soldierly manner.  They tend to travel around as a mob or pack, not taking piquet duties seriously (to the military mind), indulging in un planned and unsanctioned soirees beyond the FLOT and sometimes not holding what their assigned Division had told them was their front line. 

The militias on the rebel side[23][24]have been under bombardment for four years and more recently faced ground assault.  Factoring in the hiatus for organising 72AG and 3422 AG and allowing them to get into place, the forces of freedom[25]have had adequate time to prepare for the coming assault[26].  The militias now assigned to VI Corps have also been at war for four years, but only actually been allowed to do more than guard rear areas now that the situation finally demands it.



[5]The Commander in Chief, of the Imperial Guard on Devos IV, Lord General Zukhov has a track record of intervening in the campaign. Everyone finds it hard to telling him that he’s doing more harm than good. http://devos4.blogspot.co.uk/2016/07/snakes-in-paradise.html
[10]Before knowing that they would be reinforced by a sister Army Group, 72 AG had managed to secure reinforcements suitable for an attack on the city. http://devos4.blogspot.co.uk/2016/07/send-three-and-fourpence-we-are-going.html
[18]The war councils now include the CinC of 3422AG as well as CinC 72AG and the four Plenipotentiates.  The Lord General would often find his time taken up by more important things before the Battle of Chobli.  Afterwards, there is often a representative of the Inquisition as well.   The Lord General, with two Armies on the planet, is now so busy that he never attends anymore.
[19]This would include bands drawn from pilgrims on Devos IV when the war started, as well as Frateris and Sorortias Militia brought to Devos IV by the Ecclesiasty as well as De laque, Cawdor and Orangedemptionists.
[20] Cannoness Maria Pandoro (Order of the Ebon Challice) is the Plenipotentiate for Security and Confessor Tule (Eccesiasty), chief of staff for the Plenipotentiate of Morale and Propaganda.
[21]To be fair, for the previous three years, a lot of effort has been put into preventing them from going to the front.

          SITREP - Drawing together the threads of the campaign as the Imperial Invader lays siege to Xyphonica   
Imperial SF infiltrate Xyphonica

The purpose of this post is largely to signpost you to documents (blog posts) illustrating the campaign whilst describing the prevalent situation.  If you enjoy this sort of thing and have a few hours to trawl through the links, pull up a chair. I am, of course, more than happy to entertain any questions which might occur to you as you soak it all up for your Rogue Trader Campaign.... 

The defenders of Xphonica were not numerous enough to engage in open or set piece battles in order to defeat the invaders from Outer Space.  Their tools were based on classic guerrilla tactics – mines and booby traps could be constructed, manufactured and laid in the path of the invader.  Where the blasted and ruined cityscape allowed suitable locations and escape routes, more conventional ambushes could be laid on.  Here the remains of the PDF contributed an organisational model and military professionalism whilst the militia contributed local knowledge and manpower to such enterprises[1].

In the three years since Operation Tranquillity[2], Xyphonica has been subject to a widespread, intensive and effective bombing campaign[3].  Initially, this was more to do with the punishment of the errant government and population of Devos IV but ultimately the rebellion was always going to make a ‘final stand’ in Xyphonica and therefore the bombing did shift to objectively having a military purpose as the defenders slowly fell back.

After the Battle of Chobli[4]the PDF ceased to exist as a formal command structure.  In all of the exercises and war planning, the PDF had always worked on the basis that if the struggle against the invader came down to a city fight in the capital, that they would have fought themselves into the ground; exhausting their fighting power and hopefully exhausting the invader as well[5].  The planning (and extensive preparation) for this endgame had always been to arm the remains of the population and organise them on a local community basis – the remnants of the PDF who had made it back into the city would provide leadership and the militia would provide a bridge between the hard bitten veterans of four years of war and the shell shocked civilians who had spent four years hiding in bomb shelters.

The way the city militia has been organised has always been as a multiple connection network, their drill exercises had always involved using their own organic vox and data networks, whatever public communications networks were available as well as using runners and tunnels to share information and resources.   So this would enable a certain amount of elasticity in the response to any attacks or incursions[6]

The PDF’s plan had always been to disperse and fight delaying actions[7]at strong point after strong point, luring invaders in all directions and positioning them for guerrilla attacks from ‘stay behind’ units[8].  Of course this strategy included a lot of things designed to preserve the trained PDF personnel, such as the pre-prepared bunkers of tanks, munitions and fuel and hardened hangers with replacement airframes, munitions and fuel[9].   But the main facet was the well practice command arrangements where, following the first few set piece battles[10], the formations dispersed and the PDF High Command was, in line with its own plan, redundant. 

This had always been a strategy to delay an invader[11].  For thousands of years this basic plan has evolved and been rehearsed and resourced.  It just happens that now is period where the resourcing has provided a fully equipped plan for the current, well drilled, PDF to execute.   The departure from the script is that instead of their saviours coming from Agripinna, that’s where the invasion is coming from.  The hope of relief for those thousands of years has turned out to be the aggressor they were defending against.

Following the interrogation of prisoners by the Commissariat early on the campaign, 72AG knew that the PDF High Command hoped for a negotiated settlement before events spiralled out of control.  However, following the landings on mainland Benq in Operation Lockheart[12], the outlook changed for the worse.  But their plan did give more time, besides, once it was in action, it ended in death or emancipation.  Or both.

Now in this new reality, the plan hasn’t really changed.  What has changed is the addition of a Blood Pact formation in reinforced Brigade strength[13].  The emergence of the Ulatri from the ruins of San Cantor Hive[14], the arrival of Zhufor’s World Eaters, drawn by the promise of Belligera Rex and the emergence of Lord Eidolon’s Emperor’s Children from the shadows[15], possibly the driving force behind the rebellion. 

Of the mortal leaders of the rebellion[16], there is every chance that having carried out Eidolon’s wishes, she has been favoured by Slannesh, certainly the government buildings were overrun by Deamonettes the night after the Battle of Chobli.  There have been no been sightings of Chaux Na M’rsee since.   The Commander in Chief of the PDF, General “Danny Bloodcoat” Horpan[17]has not been seen for over a year.  There is high likelihood that he fell in one of the running battles which characterised the period between the Battles at the Cudlip Lines[18]and the Battle of Chobli.  

When he arrived on Devos IV, Zhufor found the PDF Command Bunker swiftly made sure that the PDF was answerable to him alone.  It is understood that the post invasion cell structure and the preordained sequence of pocket battles and delaying actions, over which the PDF High Command no longer had any influence, might have made him angry.





          Новая глобальная атака шифровальщика: подробности от «Доктор Веб»   

28 июня 2017 года

Специалисты компании "Доктор Веб" изучают новый троянец-шифровальщик Trojan.Encoder.12544, упоминаемый в СМИ как Petya, Petya.A, ExPetya и WannaCry-2. На основании предварительного анализа вредоносной программы компания "Доктор Веб" представляет рекомендации, как избежать заражения, рассказывает, что делать, если заражение уже произошло, и раскрывает технические подробности атаки.

Наделавший много шума червь-шифровальщик Trojan.Encoder.12544 представляет серьезную опасность для персональных компьютеров, работающих под управлением Microsoft Windows. Различные источники называют его модификацией троянца, известного под именем Petya (Trojan.Ransom.369), но Trojan.Encoder.12544 имеет с ним лишь некоторое сходство. Эта вредоносная программа проникла в информационные системы целого ряда госструктур, банков и коммерческих организаций, а также заразила ПК пользователей в нескольких странах.

На текущий момент известно, что троянец заражает компьютеры при помощи того же набора уязвимостей, которые ранее использовались злоумышленниками для внедрения на компьютеры жертв троянца WannaCry. Массовое распространение Trojan.Encoder.12544 началось в первой половине дня 27.06.2017. При запуске на атакуемом компьютере троянец несколькими способами ищет доступные в локальной сети ПК, после чего по списку полученных IP-адресов начинает сканировать порты 445 и 139. Обнаружив в сети машины, на которых открыты эти порты, Trojan.Encoder.12544 пытается инфицировать их с использованием широко известной уязвимости в протоколе SMB (MS17-10).

В своем теле троянец содержит 4 сжатых ресурса, 2 из которых являются 32- и 64-разрядной версиями утилиты Mimikatz, предназначенной для перехвата паролей открытых сессий в Windows. В зависимости от разрядности ОС он распаковывает соответствующую версию утилиты, сохраняет ее во временную папку, после чего запускает. При помощи утилиты Mimikatz, а также двумя другими способами Trojan.Encoder.12544 получает список локальных и доменных пользователей, авторизованных на зараженном компьютере. Затем он ищет доступные на запись сетевые папки, пытается открыть их с использованием полученных учетных данных и сохранить там свою копию. Чтобы инфицировать компьютеры, к которым ему удалось получить доступ, Trojan.Encoder.12544 использует утилиту для управления удаленным компьютером PsExec (она также хранится в ресурсах троянца) или стандартную консольную утилиту для вызова объектов Wmic.exe.

Контроль своего повторного запуска энкодер осуществляет с помощью файла, сохраняемого им в папке C:\Windows\. Этот файл имеет имя, соответствующее имени троянца без расширения. Поскольку распространяемый злоумышленниками в настоящий момент образец червя имеет имя perfc.dat, то файл, предотвращающий его повторный запуск, будет иметь имя C:\Windows\perfc. Однако стоит злоумышленникам изменить исходное имя троянца, и создание в папке C:\Windows\ файла с именем perfc без расширения (как советуют некоторые антивирусные компании), уже не спасет компьютер от заражения. Кроме того, троянец осуществляет проверку наличия файла, только если у него достаточно для этого привилегий в операционной системе.

После старта троянец настраивает для себя привилегии, загружает собственную копию в память и передает ей управление. Затем энкодер перезаписывает собственный файл на диске мусорными данными и удаляет его. В первую очередь Trojan.Encoder.12544 портит VBR (Volume Boot Record, загрузочная запись раздела) диска C:, первый сектор диска заполняется мусорными данными. Затем шифровальщик копирует оригинальную загрузочную запись Windows в другой участок диска, предварительно зашифровав ее с использованием алгоритма XOR, а вместо нее записывает свою. Далее он создает задание на перезагрузку компьютера, и начинает шифровать все обнаруженные на локальных физических дисках файлы с расширениями .3ds, .7z, .accdb, .ai, .asp, .aspx, .avhd, .back, .bak, .c, .cfg, .conf, .cpp, .cs, .ctl, .dbf, .disk, .djvu, .doc, .docx, .dwg, .eml, .fdb, .gz, .h, .hdd, .kdbx, .mail, .mdb, .msg, .nrg, .ora, .ost, .ova, .ovf, .pdf, .php, .pmf, .ppt, .pptx, .pst, .pvi, .py, .pyc, .rar, .rtf, .sln, .sql, .tar, .vbox, .vbs, .vcb, .vdi, .vfd, .vmc, .vmdk, .vmsd, .vmx, .vsdx, .vsv, .work, .xls, .xlsx, .xvd, .zip.

Троянец шифрует файлы только на фиксированных дисках компьютера, данные на каждом диске шифруются в отдельном потоке. Шифрование осуществляется с использованием алгоритмов AES-128-CBC, для каждого диска создается собственный ключ (это — отличительная особенность троянца, не отмеченная другими исследователями). Этот ключ шифруется с использованием алгоритма RSA-2048 (другие исследователи сообщали, что используется 800-битный ключ) и сохраняется в корневую папку зашифрованного диска в файл с именем README.TXT. Зашифрованные файлы не получают дополнительного расширения.

После выполнения созданного ранее задания компьютер перезагружается, и управление передается троянской загрузочной записи. Она демонстрирует на экране зараженного компьютера текст, напоминающий сообщение стандартной утилиты для проверки дисков CHDISK.

screenshot Trojan.Encoder.12544 #drweb

В это время Trojan.Encoder.12544 шифрует MFT (Master File Table). Завершив шифрование, Trojan.Encoder.12544 демонстрирует на экране требование злоумышленников об уплате выкупа.

screenshot Trojan.Encoder.12544 #drweb

Если в момент запуска на экране появилось сообщение о запуске утилиты CHDISK, незамедлительно выключите питание ПК. Загрузочная запись в этом случае будет повреждена, но ее можно исправить при помощи утилиты восстановления Windows или Консоли восстановления, загрузившись с дистрибутивного диска. Восстановление загрузочной записи обычно возможно в ОС Windows версии 7 и более поздних, если на диске имеется используемый системой скрытый раздел с резервной копией критичных для работы Windows данных. В Windows XP такой способ восстановления загрузки не сработает. Также для этого можно использовать Dr.Web LiveDisk — создайте загрузочный диск или флешку, выполните загрузку с этого съемного устройства, запустите сканер Dr.Web, выполните проверку пострадавшего диска, выберите функцию «Обезвредить» для найденных угроз.

По сообщениям из различных источников единственный используемый распространителями Trojan.Encoder.12544 ящик электронной почты в настоящее время заблокирован, поэтому они в принципе не могут связаться со своими жертвами (чтобы, например, предложить расшифровку файлов).

С целью профилактики заражения троянцем Trojan.Encoder.12544 компания «Доктор Веб» рекомендует своевременно создавать резервные копии всех критичных данных на независимых носителях, а также использовать функцию «Защита от потери данных» Dr.Web Security Space. Кроме того, необходимо устанавливать все обновления безопасности операционной системы. Специалисты компании «Доктор Веб» продолжают исследование шифровальщика Trojan.Encoder.12544.

Инструкция пострадавшим от Trojan.Encoder.12544


          Roland roland xr 10 ROLAND XP 10 pdf Diagramas de instrumentos musicales   
Diagramas ROLAND XP-10.PDF instrumentos musicales Detalles sobre ROLAND XP-10.PDF Archivo: Análisis de fallas de TV.docx Tipo: Televisores (TV) Modelo: TV (todas) Formato: Diagrama que se abre con Microsoft Words Tamaño 20.14 Kb
          Всіх святих Українського народу (Мт 5:1-16).   
Побачивши ж народ, зійшов на гору. І коли він сів, підійшли до нього його учні; 2. а він, відкривши уста, почав навчати їх: 3. «Блаженні вбогі духом, бо їхнє Царство Небесне. 4. Блаженні тихі, бо вони успадкують землю. 5. Блаженні засмучені, бо будуть утішені. 6. Блаженні голодні та спраглі справедливости, бо вони наситяться. 7. Блаженні милосердні, бо вони зазнають милосердя. 8. Блаженні чисті серцем, бо вони побачать Бога. 9. Блаженні миротворці, бо вони синами Божими назвуться. 10. Блаженні переслідувані за правду, бо їхнє Царство Небесне. 11. Блаженні ви, коли вас будуть зневажати, гонити та виговорювати всяке лихо на вас, обмовляючи мене ради. 12. Радійте й веселіться, бо нагорода ваша велика на небі; так бо переслідували пророків, які були перед вами. 13. Ви - сіль землі. Коли ж сіль звітріє, чим її солоною зробити? Ні на що не придатна більше, хіба - викинути її геть, щоб топтали люди. 14. Ви - світло світу. Не може сховатись місто, що лежить на верху гори. 15. І не запалюють світла та й не ставлять його під посудиною, лише на свічник, і воно світить усім у хаті. 16. Так нехай світить перед людьми ваше світло, щоб вони, бачивши ваші добрі вчинки, прославляли вашого Отця, що на небі.
Саме цими словами Ісус почав Свою т. зв. Нагірну проповідь (Мт 5-7), яку часто називають Конституцією Божого Царства. Мені дуже подобається, як пояснює цей уривок Н. Т. Райт у своїй книзі «Ісус і перемога Бога». Тому, нижче пропоную його думки, для того, щоб подивитися на цей відомий текст, в трохи ширшій перспективі покликання Ізраїля, як Божого народу, а також нашого власного покликання, як учнів Христа, які увійшли у спадщину Старозавітного Ізраїля, щоб стати новим творінням у Христі (пор. 2 Кор 5:17).
На думку Н. Т. Райта, Ізраїль слухаючи слова Ісуса мусів зіштовхнутися з шокуючим фактом, який вказував наскільки неправильно він розумів природу Царства. Ситуація вимагала абсолютно інакшого підходу. Підходу, основаного на Дусі, а не букві закону. Підходу, який уможливлював би Ізраїлеві бути справді народом Божим за духом а не тільки за назвою. Райт вважає, що саме Нагірна проповідь і є закликом до Ізраїлю бути істинним Ізраїлем. Заповіді Блаженства якими Євангелист Матей починає цю проповідь,  є не просто таким собі духовним заохоченням, але радикальним викликом для народу, який покладену на нього відповідальність замінив замилуванням власною винятковістю. Ось як Райт коментує Блаженства.
«Ізраїль прагне приходу Божого Царства (5:3). Він навіть готовий боротися та працювати для цього. Однак Царство належить тим хто є вбогі духом.  Ізраїль прагне потіхи (5:4). І Господь хоче її дати, але аж ніяк не у вигляді націоналістичного тріумфу, коли рани Ізраїлю будуть загоєні нанесенням ран іншим народам. Потіха чекає тих хто справді сумує. Ізраїль прагне успадкувати землю (5:5). Він може отримати її, - але тільки так як навчає Ісус – шляхом смирення. Ізраїль прагне справедливості (5:6). Він може отримати її, - але не через перемогу в битві над фізичним ворогом і не шляхом відплати, а тільки через смирення та лагідність. Ізраїль прагне милості (5:7), наприклад, есхатологічного визволення від ворогів. Однак милість приготована не мстивим але милостивим. Ізраїль прагне побачити Бога (5:8). Однак це приготовлене не тим хто зберігає тільки зовнішню чистоту, але тим хто є чистий серцем. Ізраїль прагне бути названий сином Творця (5:9) оправданим у великій перемозі своєї нації. Але синами Бог Ізраїлю назве тільки тих хто наслідує Отця, - миротворців. Тих які йдуть за Ісусом цим шляхом, - чекають переслідування (5:10). Однак попереду в них велике оправдання.
Інакше кажучи, обітниці, які раніше відносилися до людей, які виконували Тору, сьогодні відносяться до тих хто вірний Ісусові». На думку Райта, блаженства є закликом Ісуса до слухачів віднайти своє справжнє покликання як есхатологічного Господнього народу (це стосується і нас, які живемо в часі між Воскресінням Ісуса та Його Другим славним Поверненням, яке Новий Завіт називає Парусією) і в своїй поведінці  наслідувати Його, а не йти за рекомендаціями тодішніх вождів.
Ці заповіді дуже легко звести до абстрактного значення й тим самим впасти в анахронізм. Однак беручи під увагу слова про сіль та світло історичного контексту уникнути важче, оскільки перед Ізраїлем було завдання щоб бути сіллю землі, та світлом світу, бути народом священників, рабом Господа, щоб слава Господня досягнула всіх кінців землі. Проте сіль забула своє призначення, а світло почало світити саме для себе. Місто на горі повинно було стати місцем куди збираються всі народи, але ізраїльтяни зробили все, щоб і  вони і їх Бог виглядали настільки не привабливими, наскільки це взагалі можливо. Ізраїль який був покликаний стати маяком оточив себе дзеркалами, які втримували світло. Він плекав почуття власної чистоти та винятковості і не розсіював темряву серед народів. Однак з приходом Ісуса Ізраїль має нагоду стати справжнім Ізраїлем і тим самим виконати своє призначення».[1] 
Сьогодні, ми, християни, називаємо себе Новим Ізраїлем. Звідси виникає кілька логічних запитань.
Наскільки ми глибоко усвідомлюємо свою ідентичніть, - тобто, що через Ісуса ми є доньками і синами небесного Отця й тим самим є дітьми Божого Царства?
Чи усвідомлюємо покликання та відповідальність, які випливають з нашої ідентичності?
 Як (або чи) свідчимо іншим про свою ідентичність, або просто кажучи, про те, що для нас є дуже цінне та дороге?
 P.S. Ікона авторства мисткині Іванки Димид

[1] N. T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God  London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 1996, p.287-292

          للاستئناس: الأطر المرجعية لامتحانات الكفاءة المهنية الخاصة بهيئة التدريس 2016   





الأطر المرجعية المحينة لامتحانات الكفاءة المهنية الخاصة بهيئة التدريس
تنهي وزارة التربية الوطنية والتكوين المهني، أنه في إطار حرصها على توفير شروط الإعداد الجيد لاجتياز امتحانات الكفاءة المهنية للمترشحات والمترشحين من فئات هيئة التدريس فإنها عملت على تحيين الأطر المرجعية الخاصة بهذه الامتحانات. ويمكن الاطلاع على الأطر المرجعية المحينة الخاصة بهيئة التدريس بتاريخ 2 غشت 2016 وسحبها من الموقع الالكتروني للوزارة www.men.gov.ma.

​​اختبار حول قضايا التربية والتكوين​الإدارة المدرسية : مواصفات اختبارات امتحانات الكفاءة المهنية المتعلقة بالأطر المكلفـة بمهـام الإدارة التربويـة –2016
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          Cosa accade nei Paesi dove esistono le zone a luci rosse?    

Mentre a Roma  il presidente del IX Municipio Andrea Santoro vorrebbe introdurre zone a luci rosse, la cui istituzione configurerebbe il reato di favoreggiamento della prostituzione e promuoverebbe la ghettizzazione delle donne che la praticano, confinate, come fossero sozza e indecorosa immondizia,  in quartieri distanti dallo sguardo dei cittadini "per bene", vorrei proporvi la lettura di una mia ricerca di due anni fa  su quel che accade nei Paesi Bassi, lo Stato europeo che per primo ha implementato queste politiche.

La legalizzazione della prostituzione nei Paesi Bassi: un flop

 

Il 1 ottobre 2000 i Paesi Bassi hanno abrogato il divieto di esercizio della prostituzione nei locali: sex club, case chiuse, agenzie di escort, vetrine, ove le ragazze espongono il proprio corpo ridotto a merce. Ai Comuni è attribuito il potere di influire sulla dislocazione di questi locali, affinché risulti conforme ai piani urbanistici, l'autorità di promulgare le norme e i regolamenti cui debbono attenersi, il controllo della loro applicazione e la facoltà di rilasciare, se lo ritengono opportuno, licenze di esercizio[1].

Nel 2008 è stata presentata in Parlamento una proposta di legge che impone a tutti i locali ove si praticano rapporti mercenari di conseguire una licenza comunale, sancisce l'obbligo delle prostitute di iscriversi ad un registro nazionale e infligge una pena chi si sottrae a questo dovere, sanziona penalmente i clienti delle donne non registrate, probabili vittime di tratta e, infine, innalza l'età minima di esercizio della prostituzione dai 18 ai 21 anni. Questo progetto, finalizzato al rafforzamento del controllo dello Stato da conseguire attraverso l'introduzione di un sistema nazionale uniforme di licenze, è stato respinto in prima lettura dal Senato nel 2012. La questione che suscita maggiori controversie è la registrazione delle prostitute,  nella quale molti intravvedono un attentato alla privacy. Poco apprezzata è anche la punizione dei clienti che si rivolgono a prostitute non iscritte al registro nazionale.

Il 1 ottobre 2011 le autorità comunali di Utrecht hanno proceduto autonomamente alla registrazione delle prostitute residenti in città, incluse quelle che si sospettava fossero vittime di tratta. In un rapporto è contenuta questa annotazione: <<Il Servizio municipale della Salute di Utrecht ritiene che il rifiuto di concedere il permesso di prostituirsi in base al sospetto di tratta potrebbe nuocere gravemente alla donna. Il solo effetto di tale misura sarebbe quello di farla scomparire dalla vista delle autorità>>. In altri termini, il Comune lascia scientemente persistere lo sfruttamento sessuale delle vittime di tratta.

Amsterdam ha iniziato a registrare le persone prostituite nel 2013[2]e nel frattempo ha innalzato l'età minima di esercizio alla prostituzione dai 18 ai 21 anni.

La cancellazione del divieto di gestire bordelli mirava al conseguimento  di una serie di obiettivi esplicitati nelle faq redatte dal Ministero degli Esteri:

. controllare e disciplinare l'occupazione delle sex workers mediante l'adozione di un sistema di licenze all'apertura e alla gestione dei locali ove si esercita la prostituzione;

. garantire tutela sociale e giuridica alle sex workers;

. rafforzare la lotta contro la tratta e la prostituzione coatta;

. eliminare la prostituzione minorile;

. ridurre il numero delle sex workers straniere sprovviste di permesso di soggiorno;

. recidere i legami   che collegano la prostituzione alla criminalità.[3]

Nessuno di questi obiettivi è stato conseguito.

Analizziamoli  uno per uno.

Nei Paesi Bassi mancano stime certe ed aggiornate sul numero delle persone che si prostituiscono. La cifra di 25.000 risale al 1999[4]. Questa incertezza è, fra l'altro, strettamente connessa al fatto che la maggior parte delle prostitute non  si registra, né si iscrive alla Camera di Commercio, atto  necessario all'adempimento degli obblighi fiscali che sono evasi dal 60% delle ragazze esposte in vetrina e dai tre quarti delle escort[5]. Ad Amsterdam delle 2000 ragazze esposte in vetrina solo 658 sono registrate alla Camera di Commercio. Riporto questi dati, non perché ritenga giusto che lo Stato eserciti la funzione di prosseneta, traendo lucro dalla mercificazione del corpo  di chi si prostituisce, ma perché considero molto pregnanti le motivazioni addotte da chi si sottrae all'imposizione fiscale sulla pratica dei rapporti mercenari. Molte indicano come causa la percezione di un reddito troppo tenue, ciò che induce  a interrogarsi, oltre che sul costo elevato degli affitti delle stanze ove  si praticano rapporti mercenari, sulla diffusione, che, come vedremo in seguito, risulta molto ampia,  del fenomeno  del lenocinio che implica  l'estorsione, attuata dai magnaccia, della maggior parte dei guadagni delle donne che si prostituiscono; altre affermano che non si tratta di un lavoro stabile soggetto, quindi, alle norme fiscali generali, altre ancora sostengono che la prostituzione coinvolge il loro corpo e che tassarlo è inconcepibile. Questa osservazione ci fa comprendere come le stesse donne che la praticano  non percepiscono la prostituzione come una professione qualsiasi, come mera prestazione di servizi sessuali, che sia possibile disgiungere dalla propria individualità, ma la concepiscano come  un' intrusione nella propria sfera intima, come un'attività che  segna profondamente la propria identità. Se accettano di   mercificare il corpo per ragioni di sopravvivenza, non tollerano però che esso venga trasformato in merce tassabile. Infine, molte prostitute non si iscrivono alla Camera di Commercio e, dunque, sfuggono all'imposizione fiscale  per il desiderio di conservare l'anonimato[6]. A differenza di quel che affermano i suoi sostenitori, la legalizzazione, infatti, non cancella lo stigma che avvolge un'attività come la prostituzione[7]. Paradossalmente il maggior numero di prostitute  registrate e note alle autorità fiscali  è originaria dell'Europa dell'Est   e   costituisce il gruppo sottomesso al più intenso e brutale sfruttamento  da parte dei magnaccia. L'iscrizione è, in questo caso, spesso imposta dai prosseneti al fine di evitare controlli da parte della polizia.[8]Dunque: l'evasione fiscale è elevatissima e versare  le imposte, anziché configurarsi come un indizio di regolarità  delle condizioni di lavoro,  può rivelarsi un segno di  assoggettamento alla coercizione e alla violenza!

Un altro motivo che spiega l'assenza di stime sicure e recenti è rappresentato dall'ampia diffusione della prostituzione illegale. La regolamentazione,  in contrasto con quanto comunemente si ritiene, non comporta, infatti, la riduzione dell'irregolarità. Tutt'altro! Negli ultimi anni si è verificato un incremento del numero di prostitute che offrono prestazioni sessuali attraverso Internet. La rete offre opportunità alle donne che non possono o non vogliono praticare rapporti mercenari nel circuito dei locali muniti di regolare licenza. L'offerta su Internet è costituita principalmente da escort e da prostitute che esercitano nella propria casa o in una stanza di hotel[9]. Inoltre, soltanto il 17% degli annunci di prestazioni sessuali pubblicati sui quotidiani e in rete si riferisce con sicurezza al settore legale della prostituzione[10]. L'annotazione è importante, in quanto le  sostenitrici della legalizzazione ritengono, invece, che siano le politiche di contrasto a produrre un incremento della prostituzione esercitata al chiuso e un'intensificazione dell'impiego della rete come strumento di pubblicizzazione di rapporti mercenari  praticati negli spazi privati e quindi sottratti alla vista dei cittadini. Mentre,  in realtà,  nessuna ricerca o evidenza empirica dimostra che in un Paese abolizionista come la Svezia si sia verificato un massiccio passaggio dalla prostituzione all'aperto a quella al chiuso e, al contrario, esistono  dati che attestano la riduzione del numero di persone che praticano rapporti mercenari[11], gli studiosi olandesi confermano invece l'esistenza  e l'estensione della prostituzione sommersa nello Stato che per primo in Europa ha promosso la legalizzazione. Secondo dati del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale riferiti al periodo 2002-2004 ad Amsterdam, città sulla quale possediamo un maggior numero di informazioni, vi sarebbero 8000 prostitute, il 25% delle quali esporrebbero il proprio corpo nelle vetrine, l'1% eserciterebbe in strada, il 25% nei sex club e nelle case chiuse e il 49% in altri luoghi illegali (alberghi, bar, sale massaggio, la propria casa) o in altre forme (escort)[12]. Dunque: quasi la  metà della prostituzione ad Amsterdam sarebbe sommersa, non regolamentata! Un risultato tutt'altro che esaltante per i sostenitori della legalizzazione!

Anton van Wijk e i suoi collaboratori hanno redatto un rapporto nel 2010 che conferma questo preoccupante quadro con riferimento alla città di Amsterdam.   Gli autori  osservano che, secondo dati del 2009, il numero delle escort operanti ad Amsterdam si aggira tra le 536 e le 580, tra le 200 e le 350, ossia tra un terzo e la metà delle quali non dipendenti da un'agenzia e, pertanto, illegali[13]. Gli escort uomini al servizio di una clientela maschile sono 478. Solo 78 sono impiegati dalle agenzie. Gli altri 400  sono indipendenti ( più del quadruplo del numero di escort legalmente impiegati)[14]. Tra le altre forme di prostituzione non autorizzate vi è la pratica dei rapporti mercenari a casa propria che coinvolgerebbe un numero massimo di 1680 donne[15].

Nelle sale massaggio cinesi e thailandesi possono essere offerte illegalmente prestazioni sessuali.

Nel 2005  vi erano 150 locali di questo tipo  nei Paesi Bassi. Vi erano impiegate circa 400 donne,  assoggettate ad un intenso sfruttamento,  costrette a massacranti orari di lavoro, prive di contratto e scarsamente retribuite  (3-5 euro lordi all'ora). Ad Amsterdam esistono 22 sale massaggio, in 18 delle quali è probabile vengano praticati rapporti mercenari[16]. Poiché è illegale offrire prestazioni sessuali nelle sale non provviste di apposita licenza, in esse mancano i preservativi e, dunque, presumibilmente, i rapporti sessuali sono praticati senza l'uso dei condom. In un forum di clienti è ripetutamente segnalata la pratica di rapporti sessuali non sicuri[17].

Diversi informatori indicano  l'esistenza di una tendenza sempre più diffusa ad impiegare gli hotel per esercitare la prostituzione. Ciò è illegale. E' probabile che nei Paesi Bassi vi siano 68 hotel in cui  si praticano rapporti mercenari su un totale di 254 (dunque, quasi un quarto del totale)[18].

Altra forma di prostituzione illegale è quella praticata nei bar, nei coffee shops e nei ristoranti che non dispongono di apposita autorizzazione, così come quella esercitata nei parchi dai gay.

Essere inserite nel settore legale non costituisce, per altro, garanzia di fruizione dei diritti teoricamente previsti dalla legislazione olandese. La concezione della prostituzione come lavoro non ha comportato i miglioramenti auspicati e la posizione sociale e giuridica di chi la pratica resta molto precaria[19] e assai più debole della media dei dipendenti olandesi. Queste condizioni generano un elevato rischio di sfruttamento da parte dei datori di lavoro che si accresce nei confronti delle migranti, poiché il rapporto di impiego può essere caratterizzato da un elevato grado di individualizzazione. Ciò significa che il lavoro viene effettuato in condizioni di isolamento, creando maggiori possibilità che si verifichino abusi di potere. Il rapporto si configura spesso come dipendente, ma poiché i proprietari  di case chiuse, sex club, vetrine non vogliono corrispondere alle prostitute il salario, né erogare loro i contributi previdenziali ed assicurativi contro le malattie, non le assumono e le considerano lavoratrici autonome sulle quali ricadono tutti i rischi del mestiere[20]. Così, circa il 95% delle prostitute che praticano rapporti mercenari nel settore legale vengono trattate come lavoratrici autonome, che affittano le stanze ove si prostituiscono[21]. Eppure, la maggioranza di loro ha un rapporto di lavoro che si configura come dipendente. Teniamo presente che nei Paesi Bassi le lavoratrici e i lavoratori autonomi non possono ottenere un prestito o un mutuo  per l'acquisto  della casa, a causa della mancanza di un reddito fisso e non  possono fruire di servizi come la pensione, l'assicurazione malattia, quella contro l'invalidità[22]. Dunque: la quasi totalità delle prostitute è esclusa dal godimento dei diritti sociali e dall'applicazione  delle norme di tutela del lavoro.

Per evitare che le prostitute contraggano malattie sessualmente trasmissibili, i proprietari dei sex club dovrebbero rifornirle di preservativi, come prescritto da una serie di regolamenti comunali.  Non sempre, però, questa norma viene rispettata.  Vi sono gestori che accollano alle prostitute l'onere di provvedere alla tutela della propria salute. Alcuni  di loro sono perfettamente consapevoli che alcune ragazze non impiegano il preservativo e sono convinti che  questo comportamento sia positivo perché genera introiti supplementari al locale[23]. Per attirare clienti, molte prostitute dell'Europa dell'Est che espongono il proprio corpo nelle vetrine riducono il prezzo della prestazione e praticano rapporti senza profilattico, con il rischio di  contrarre malattie, di rimanere incinte, di abortire[24]. Dalle recensioni pubblicate su un forum di clienti si apprende che circa un sesto e anche più di escort ad Amsterdam  pratica rapporti orali senza condom (il contatto tra sperma infetto e mucose è una delle vie di contagio del virus HIV). Dal 17% al 22% degli accompagnatori della città che servono una clientela maschile ha contratto una malattia sessualmente trasmissibile[25]. Come ammettono i clienti, anche le prostitute che esercitano in casa offrono abbastanza frequentemente prestazioni sessuali non protette, soprattutto ai frequentatori abituali[26]. Lo stesso accade nelle sale massaggio cinesi e thailandesi[27]. Delle 405 ragazze che si sono rivolte al Centro Prostituzione e Salute di Amsterdam nel 2008 54 sono risultate affette da malattie sessualmente trasmissibili (in particolare dall'infezione della clamidia = 63%, dalla sifilide = 26% e dalla gonorrea  = 11%) . Il 15% delle donne  dell'Europa dell'Est sottopostesi volontariamente  ai test è risultato affetto da una malattia sessualmente trasmissibile. Lo stesso è accaduto al 9% delle olandesi[28]. Le visite mediche non sono obbligatorie, ma le prostitute sono sollecitate ad eseguire quattro controlli medici all'anno[29].

A. Daalder osserva, inoltre, nella sua ricerca, come il grado di benessere psicologico delle  donne che si prostituiscono si sia ridotto tra il 2001 e il 2006. Corrispondentemente, si è accresciuta l'entità del disagio, così come l'impiego dei sedativi[30]. Questa informazione trova conferma nel rapporto stilato nel 2010 da Anton van Wijk e  da altri autori, che segnalano anche il consumo di sostanze stupefacenti come "farmaci" che consentono di tollerare il malessere connesso alla pratica dei rapporti mercenari[31]. Le organizzazioni di aiuto sono particolarmente preoccupate per le condizioni di salute delle prostitute dell'Europa dell'Est ed in particolare delle ragazze rom. Queste ultime vengono frequentate da uomini che pretendono rapporti sessuali estremi,  adottano un comportamento violento  e non vogliono pagare il prezzo pattuito[32].

I Comuni possono promulgare regolamenti che disciplinano, fra l'altro, le condizioni di sicurezza nei locali ove si pratica la prostituzione, ma tali norme non vengono sempre rispettate.  Ogni stanza, ad esempio, dovrebbe essere dotata di un pulsante di emergenza che consenta alla prostituta di chiedere aiuto e di   sollecitare l'immediato intervento delle forze dell'ordine  contro i clienti violenti. Tuttavia, i soggetti intervistati da Anton van Wijk  individuano, accanto a proprietari scrupolosi e rispettosi delle norme di sicurezza, altri gestori, soprattutto quelli che affittano vetrine alle prostitute dell'Europa orientale, che non hanno predisposto alcun sistema di allarme, né si peritano di effettuare controlli regolari delle condizioni di sicurezza  dei locali. Non sempre, poi, gli interventi della polizia sono tempestivi.[33]Secondo il racconto di alcune ragazze, anzi, le forze dell'ordine non le proteggerebbero affatto dalla violenza dei clienti[34]. Il 70% delle prostitute ha confessato infatti di aver subito stupri[35].

Soltanto il 6% dei Comuni olandesi ha predisposto servizi di sostegno all'abbandono della prostituzione da parte di chi lo desidera[36].

Le organizzazioni umanitarie sostengono che ogni anno circa 1500 minorenni siano   adescate dai cosiddetti "lover boys"   dinanzi alle scuole, nei bar, nei luoghi di divertimento, sui social network e costrette a prostituirsi[37]. Secondo l'associazione 'Stoploverboys.NU' fondata da Anita De Witt sarebbero oltre 5000 le ragazze vittime di questa forma di prostituzione[38]. I lover boys irretiscono ragazze vulnerabili, sole ed insicure, fragili, spesso vittime di abusi sessuali infantili, promettono loro amore ed emozioni, prestigio e status, regalano oggetti ed abiti costosi. Quando hanno conquistato la loro fiducia,  le inducono a prostituirsi o a diventare spacciatrici, estorcono loro denaro, le isolano dalla famiglia e dagli amici.

Le ragazze, emotivamente e finanziariamente dipendenti dai loro lover boys, si ritrovano catturate in una spirale di abusi che comprendono  atti di violenza psicologica e fisica, stupri anche di gruppo, la costrizione a prostituirsi anche con 20 uomini al giorno all'età di 12-13-15 anni o anche meno.[39] Questi prosseneti attivano un sofisticato sistema di controllo delle loro vittime, fondato sull' esercizio di un potere dispotico e  sull' elargizione di ricompense, che induce le ragazze   a percepirsi prive di identità senza di loro. Trascorrono anni prima che esse riacquistino indipendenza e capacità di autodeterminazione. I lover boys esercitano infatti un controllo   autoritario ed assoluto sulle loro vittime e impartiscono ordini che investono tutta la loro esistenza ( dettano le regole di comportamento, suggeriscono le parole da pronunciare, stabiliscono quali abiti indossare, decidono  con quali clienti avere rapporti e di che tipo), privandole  completamente del diritto e della capacità di assumere decisioni autonome[40].

Le autorità olandesi ignorano o sottovalutano drammaticamente il problema[41]. Nel 2009 Il movimento giovanile del Partito socialista olandese  (ROOD) ha intervistato 21 ragazze tra i 12 e i 24 anni costrette a prostituirsi dal loro lover boy e ha scoperto che le vittime che denunciano il protettore alla polizia non vengono credute e vengono invitate ad andarsene. <<Ho segnalato il mio caso sei volte in  differenti questure. Sono stata mandata via ogni volta >>, afferma una delle intervistate[42]. 

La legalizzazione non ha pertanto eliminato la prostituzione minorile.

Uno degli obiettivi politici che la regolamentazione  intendeva conseguire era quello di sopprimere o, quanto meno, di ridurre drasticamente il fenomeno della tratta e della prostituzione coatta. Gli estensori del rapporto di polizia redatto nel 2008 col titolo di Schone Schijn (Salvare le apparenze)  affermano che questo obiettivo non è stato conseguito