Looking Backward   

MANKATO, Minn.—After watching President Bush speak for only a couple of hours on the 2004 stump, it's easy to see the main tenets of his re-election campaign: My opponent is un-American, or at least less American than me and you. My opponent, much like Al Gore, doesn't know who he is. My opponent is a tax-hiking, big-government liberal. Worse, he wants to ask other countries for permission for America to defend itself against its enemies. Last, and most important, my wife is better than his wife.

What you don't hear from President Bush's stump speech, or from his surrogates, is what he plans to do were he given another four years as president. The problem is particularly glaring on matters of foreign policy. There are glimmers of a domestic agenda in the president's two campaign events Wednesday: He wants to reform America's high schools, increase math and science education, and increase the use of the Internet in schools. He wants more ethanol subsidies. He wants to make health care more available and affordable. He wants less regulation. He likes community colleges. He wants workers to be able to acquire flex time and comp time in lieu of overtime pay.

Bush also gives his audiences a rehash of the greatest hits from his 2000 campaign mantras. He likes tort reform and dislikes "frivolous lawsuits." (A favorite line of Bush crowds: "You cannot be pro-patient and pro-doctor and pro-trial lawyer at the same time. You have to choose. My opponent made his choice, and he put him on the ticket.") He wants private Social Security accounts for younger workers. He likes marriage and the family, which always gets him a big cheer, because what it really means is he's against gay marriage. He's for a "culture of life," "judges who faithfully interpret the law instead of legislating from the bench," and a "culture of responsibility." Not to mention the responsibility society and the ownership society. He's still against the soft bigotry of low expectations. And of course, he wants everyone to love their neighbor just like you'd like to be loved yourself.

Bush doesn't talk much about the future. He talks about the past. The biggest portions of Bush's speech are spent mounting a vigorous defense of his presidency. When Bush's campaign foundered in New Hampshire four years ago, he retooled his strategy in response to John McCain and began billing himself as a "reformer with results." He's not using that slogan yet, but the rhetoric is similar. "It's not enough to advocate reform," he says. "You have to be able to get it done." The closing section of his speech ends with the mantra, "Results matter." On education, health care, the economy, farms, and security, Bush concludes by saying, "Results matter." Of his Medicare prescription drug benefit, Bush says, "Leaders in both political parties had promised prescription drug coverage for years. We got the job done."

Bush spends the longest amount of time defending his policies after Sept. 11. He takes credit for the creation of the Homeland Security Department (one of those things that Bush voted against before he voted for it), and he takes pride in the Patriot Act. Afghanistan has gone from being the "home base of al-Qaida" to being a "rising democracy." Pakistan, once a "safe transit point for terrorists," is now an ally. Saudi Arabia, he says, "is taking the fight to al-Qaida." Libya has given up its quest for weapons of mass destruction.

Most of all, Bush defends the war in Iraq. He repeats the litany of reasons for going to war: Saddam was defying the will of the United Nations, he harbored terrorists, he funded suicide bombers, he used weapons of mass destruction against his own people. "In other words, we saw a threat," Bush says. "Members of the United States Congress from both political parties, including my opponent, looked at the intelligence and came to the same conclusion."

What Bush doesn't acknowledge is what went wrong: The WMD were never found. We weren't welcomed as liberators. Oil revenues haven't paid for the war. It wasn't a cakewalk. What went wrong? Why? Given four more years, what does Bush plan to do about it? He hasn't told us yet, other than suggesting "more of the same."

"Every incumbent who asks for your vote has got to answer one central question, and that's 'Why?'" Bush says. "Why should the American people give me the high privilege of serving as your president for four more years?" The answer Bush gives to that question is his record. He says he deserves re-election because of what he has already done. At Wednesday's first event, in Davenport, Iowa, U.S. Rep. Jim Nussle embodies this attitude when he introduces Bush to the crowd. "There is no one I would have wanted to be at the helm of this country these last four years than you," Nussle says.

Bush and Nussle are asking the wrong question. The real question an incumbent faces is, what now? What's next? So far, Bush isn't telling. A president's record matters, but the reason it matters is because it has predictive value. Bush's defenders say he is a transformational figure, that he's willing to take on big problems and challenges. Wouldn't you like to know what Bush believes those big problems and challenges would be in foreign policy over the next four years? Are there gathering threats that, like Iraq, he thinks need to be tackled "before they materialize"? The president says that is the lesson of Sept. 11, that the nation must confront its security problems pre-emptively. Where else does he plan to apply that lesson? Does he plan to tell us?

After the 2002 midterm elections, when Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill objected to another round of tax cuts for the rich, Vice President Cheney told O'Neill to discard his worries. We won the midterm elections, Cheney said. "This is our due." As much as liberals dislike President Bush's record over the past four years, it's the prospect of another four years that terrifies them. What they want to know—what keeps them awake at night—is what President Bush hasn't answered yet: What are you going to do next? This time, what will be your due?


          The Composite Candidate   

BOSTON—The early portions of John Kerry's speech accepting the Democratic nomination for president of the United States resembled a typical Kerry for President campaign event. It was variety hour, with Kerry as emcee, introducing and thanking his special guests: his running mate, John Edwards; his wife, Teresa Heinz Kerry; his children and stepchildren, Alexandra and Vanessa Kerry and Andre, Chris, and John Heinz; and of course Max Cleland and Kerry's Vietnam "band of brothers." In a new twist, Kerry also took a moment to thank each of his primary opponents by name—Carol Moseley Braun, Wesley Clark, Howard Dean, Dick Gephardt, Bob Graham, Dennis Kucinich, Joe Lieberman, and Al Sharpton. He thanked them for "teaching me and testing me—but mostly, we say thank you for standing up for our country and for giving us the unity to move America forward." But Kerry forgot to thank them for one other thing: writing his acceptance speech.

When he began his run for the presidency, Kerry possessed the biography, the résumé, the presence, and even the height required for a successful campaign. But initially he struggled to provide a compelling rationale, beyond those assets, for why he should assume the highest office in the land. Sure, he kind of looked like a president, and yes, he seemed to think he deserved it, but that wasn't enough to convince voters in 2003. Later, the rise of Howard Dean and John Edwards sharpened Kerry as a candidate—perhaps because he becomes more focused on deadline, but also because he co-opted their messages, sometimes verbatim.

Kerry turned himself into the Democratic composite candidate, and with the addition of his biography, the one component no other candidate could borrow, he steamrolled the field. So, it was appropriate for him to thank the eight candidates who, in large or small part, provided the content that catapulted Kerry to the nomination and that now, he hopes, will carry him to the presidency.

To be fair, there were healthy chunks of Kerry's message from the primaries in the address. His line that, after Vietnam, "every day is extra" was used in an Iowa TV commercial that helped power him to his surprise victory in the caucuses there. Kerry didn't talk a lot about cutting middle-class taxes during the primaries, but his message that Howard Dean was going to raise taxes on the middle class helped spike Dean's candidacy. The attacks on outsourcing and corporate welfare were familiar to anyone who's watched Kerry campaign, and so was the sense of entitlement—or for those who want to view it charitably, destiny—that came across when he told Americans that as a child in a Colorado hospital, "I was born in the West Wing."

But Kerry also sounded a lot like his running mate, John Edwards. He talked to voters directly about their struggles to pay the bills: "You know what's happening. Your premiums, your co-payments, your deductibles have all gone through the roof." He mentioned the rise in the number of families living in poverty, a pet Edwards issue. His "we're the optimists" line was pure Edwards, and when he noted, "I don't want to claim that God is on our side. As Abraham Lincoln told us, I want to pray humbly that we are on God's side," he was pilfering the quote from the guy he chose for the ticket, who used it during their final primary debate.

Kerry sprinkled some of the best stuff from the rest of the field into the speech, too. Dean loved to attack Republicans for trying to appropriate the American flag for their own private use, when in fact it was the flag of all Americans, even—gasp—Democrats. Tonight, Kerry added a similar riff to his repertoire. He also adapted Dean's line about a president's most solemn duty being to tell the truth before taking a nation to war, when he promised to "be a commander in chief who will never mislead us into war." There was also a dash of Wesley Clark's "new patriotism," Clark's affirmation of dissent as patriotism's highest form, when Kerry said, "We are here to affirm that when Americans stand up and speak their minds and say America can do better, that is not a challenge to patriotism; it is the heart and soul of patriotism." Clark also had a riff about family values that Kerry adapted tonight, saying, "It is time for those who talk about family values to start valuing families."

And, could it be? Was that a tiny drop of Bob Graham I heard when Kerry criticized America's dependence on the Saudi royal family for oil? The speech even contained a hint of Carol Moseley Braun, who liked to say, "It doesn't matter if you came to this country on the Mayflower or a slave ship, through Ellis Island or across the Rio Grande, we're all in the same boat now." What kind of America did Kerry say he wanted to lead? "An America where we are all in the same boat." There were only the tiniest hints, if any at all, of the rhetoric of Gephardt, Kucinich, Lieberman, or Sharpton that I could discern (though I feared before the speech began that its delivery would be pure Joementum), but that was for the best. There's no use burglarizing the poorest houses in your neighborhood.

Kerry shouldn't be criticized for adopting his competitors' rhetoric, especially now that the race is long over. Good politicians borrow, after all, while great politicians steal. And the candidate of a unified party might was well be the sum of all its candidates.

There are two questions, though, about Kerry's use of this political strategy. For one, there's a limit to how much longer he can use it. The zeal of the Democrats to retake the White House grants Kerry a fair amount of leeway to co-opt Bush's message and appeal to the center for the next three months, but he can't exactly get up and declare himself the candidate of compassionate conservatism. (Or can he?)

Perhaps more important is the extent to which Kerry's remarkable ability to be all things to all Democrats has convinced nearly every faction of the party, from paleoliberals to New Democrats, that he is their candidate. Should Kerry actually take office in January, won't his grand coalition splinter once he starts disappointing certain elements within it? My guess is yes, and that Kerry doesn't particularly care at the moment. It's a problem he'd be happy to grapple with for four more years.


          Who's No. 1?   

DES MOINES, IOWA—To give you an idea of how crowded Iowa is with presidential candidates and those who follow them, here's what happened in the first hour and a half after I landed here Wednesday night: At baggage claim, I encountered two Kerry campaign workers in need of a lift, so I dropped them off at Kerry HQ, which is downtown in what used to be a car dealership. Moments later, when I pulled up in front of my hotel, the "Real Solutions Express"—the big, blue, star-spangled Edwards bus—was sitting outside. After I checked in, I rode up the elevator with Juan Williams. Ten minutes later, my next elevator ride was with Aaron Pickerel, the Iowa political director for the Edwards campaign. In 20 minutes of TV viewing, I saw ads for Dean, Kerry, Kucinich ("Did I approve this commercial? You bet"), Edwards, Dean again, and Kucinich again.

Two days ago, the Iowa storyline seemed pretty clear: Howard Dean and Dick Gephardt would duke it out for first place, and John Kerry and John Edwards would compete for third. But now, if the latest Zogby poll is to be believed, it's a four-way run for the finish. No one seems to have any idea how things are going to go down on Monday, but at the moment, the race feels so close that the results won't winnow a single candidate from the race.

Right now, the biggest mystery of the campaign to me is what's gotten into John Edwards? After his spectacular performance at the Des Moines Register debate earlier this month, I thought to myself, "Too little, too late." After the Register endorsed him, I yawned. But a campaign rally this afternoon at the Renaissance Savery Hotel is the first Edwards event I've witnessed where an enthusiastic crowd gave him the aura of a winner. Before today, I'd only seen Howard Dean and Wesley Clark perform this well. (I'll weigh in with a judgment on John Kerry after I see him tonight.)

North Carolina Gov. Michael Easley introduces Edwards with the best introduction speech I've heard for any candidate this campaign. He praises Edwards' opponents, saying: "They've all served our country well. I don't have anything negative to say about any of them, and neither does Sen. Edwards." Then he says something artfully negative about them anyway. "I'm running [for re-election] this time, and I want to run with someone I can run with, not from." Easley prepares the crowd for Edwards' theme: The North Carolina senator has dropped his aw-shucks, son of a mill worker, I've-done-this-my-whole-life campaign, and now presents himself as a fighter who has defeated powerful interests and powerful Republicans. "When he decided to run [for U.S. senator], he took on the toughest Republican establishment in the history of this country," Easley says.

Edwards has expanded one of the most effective portions of his stump speech, the part about "two school systems, one for the haves, and one for the have-nots," and turned it into the campaign theme. There are "two Americas," he says: two school systems, two tax systems, two economies, even "two governments in Washington, D.C." America also has "two images all around the world," the shining City on a Hill versus a new, less flattering image that's been created by President Bush.

Edwards has always gone after lobbyists, but now he's more strident about it. "We ought to cut these lobbyists off at the knees," he says. "We ought to ban them from making political contributions." He rails against the "revolving door" between lobbying and government, and he condemns "war profiteering." "We ought to ban these companies from making political contributions at the same time they're bidding on Iraq."

Of the corporate lawyers who underestimated him in the courtroom, Edwards yells: "I beat 'em. And I beat 'em again. And I beat 'em again." Ditto for "the Jesse Helms political machine," which underestimated him during his race for the U.S. Senate, he says. "And now I'm the senior senator from North Carolina, not Jesse Helms! And that is good for America!" (This fires up the crowd, but won't John Edwards not be the senior senator from North Carolina next year, because he decided to run for president instead of re-election? Is that bad for America?)

By the end of his speech, Edwards is sounding more and more like the man he's been chasing, Howard Dean. Up to now, most of the non-Deans have been trying to copy Dean's message by mimicking his anger, but Edwards zeroes in on another part of Dean's pitch, the part about empowering "you." Edwards promises to take away Washington from "that crowd of insiders in Washington, D.C.," and restore it to you. He can't do it alone, he says: "You and I are going to do it together." And the last line of his speech is no longer about himself, about an America in which the son of a mill worker can beat the son of a president. Instead, the son of a mill worker sounds like the son of a stockbroker: "I believe in you."

On the subject of speaking precisely: I've been inundated with complaints about my recent piece that listed six statements made by Wesley Clark in New Hampshire. Unfortunately, I lumped statements that are objectively inaccurate (there were no terrorists in Iraq before the war) with statements that are demagogic (we could find Osama Bin Laden "if we wanted to") with statements that are imprecise (the statement that Bush "never intended to put the resources in to get Osama Bin Laden" can be defended logically, but so can Howard Dean's statement about the "Saudi tip-off" conspiracy theory that a secretive administration breeds conspiracy theories; neither are smart politics) with statements that are merely provocative and controversial and could be used to tar Clark unfairly (for example, I think it's unwise for Clark to focus on whether 9/11 was preventable). And I didn't outline which statement I believe falls in which category.

The point of the piece, which was admittedly not clear, was to suggest that Clark may not be the "electable Dean" that his supporters believe he is. Both candidates have a propensity to make statements that range from impolitic to provocative to simply inaccurate. If you like Clark or Dean, you're predisposed to excuse these statements or to see them as courageous truth-telling. If you don't like them, you have a different reaction. I wanted to highlight this similarity between the two candidates, which belies the consensus that Clark is supported by careful centrists and Dean by angry liberals. I wish I had been more precise.


          Saudi-arabische Botschaft spricht Angehörigen Beileid aus   
Ein saudi-arabischer Diplomat hat in Berlin offenbar einen tödlichen Unfall verursacht. Die Botschaft des Landes spricht den Angehörigen des Verstorbenen „unser tief empfundenes Beileid“ aus.
          Porsche-Fahrer genießt diplomatische Immunität   
Ein Porsche-Fahrer aus Saudi-Arabien ist offenbar für den Tod eines Radfahrers in Berlin verantwortlich. Die Staatsanwaltschaft wird die Ermittlungen einstellen müssen - der Mann ist Diplomat.
          Ada Mayat di Kubah Masjid Nabi   
Selain Masjid Nabawi, tempat bersejarah dan penuh berkah lainnya di kota Madinah adalah kompleks pemakaman Baqi. Di tempat itulah dimakamkan para imam ahlulbait, keluarga nabi, dan juga para sahabat termasuk kalangan syuhada. Dahulu, tempat tersebut cukup rapi dengan bangunan dan kubah tempat orang berkumpul untuk berziarah. Sampai akhirnya, kelompok Wahabi menguasai Jazirah Arab.
Secara bertahap dan dengan alasan yang rapuh, pada hari Rabu 8 Syawal 1345 H bertepatan dengan 21 April 1925, pemakaman Baqi dihancurkan secara total oleh Raja Abdul Aziz dari Arab Saudi. Pada tahun yang sama, ia juga menghancurkan makam manusia suci di Jannatul Mualla (Mekkah) di mana ibunda Nabi Muhammad (Siti Aminah as.), istri Nabi, kakek dan leluhur Nabi dikuburkan. (Baca: Makam Keluarga dan Sahabat Nabi Dihancurkan).
Ada satu bangunan berkubah yang belum dihancurkan: Kubah Hijau Nabi. Ada sebuah kisah tentang usaha penghancuran kubah Masjid Nabawi yang layak diambil hikmahnya oleh kita. Inilah sebuah mukjizat yang telah terjadi sekitar 90 tahun yang lalu yang disampaikan oleh Syekh Az-Zubaidi.
Seseorang berusaha untuk menghancurkan Kubah Masjid Nabawi di mana di dalamnya terdapat makam Nabi Muhammad saw. Namun, ketika orang itu memanjat kubah dan memulai menghancurkannya, tiba-tiba sebuah kilat menyambarnya dan ia tewas seketika. Tidak ada seorangpun yang mampu memindahkan mayat tersebut dari atas kubah.
Dikisahkan pula, ada orang saleh dari Madinah yang dalam mimpinya mendengar sebuah suara yang mengatakan bahwa tidak ada seorangpun yang bisa mengangkat mayat tersebut dari kubah. Hal itu sebagai sebuah peringatan dan pelajaran bagi mereka yang berpikir dan berusaha untuk menghancurkannya di masa mendatang!
Akhirnya, mayat tersebut tetap berada di atas kubah dan ditutupi dengan kotak hijau agar tidak terlihat oleh orang-orang. Wallahualam.
Spoiler for pic:

Catatan
: Anda bisa mencari gambar Kubah Hijau yang lain dan menemukan semacam titik berwarna gelap karena kotak tersebut telah diikat dengan tali. Informasi ini pertama kali saya dapat dari Ust. Abbas Alhabsyi.
Spoiler for pic:


          Enquadrar o Catar   
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates cut off diplomatic ties with Qatar

Entre países onde muito da função governamental está ligada à ereção de arranha-céus e outros símbolos de poder usando a riqueza que brota do chão, o apêndice resolveu aparecer mais que o grande vizinho que se pensa seu patrão. Está sendo punido, e chamado à ordem, por isso, essencialmente.

O post Enquadrar o Catar apareceu primeiro em Brasileiros.


          La OPEP tiene pocas vías para escapar del mercado bajista del petróleo   
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El petróleo ha vuelto a entrar en territorio de mercado bajista y los inversores se mantienen impasibles con el acuerdo del mes pasado de prolongar los recortes de suministro, dejando a la OPEP y a sus aliados con pocas herramientas para impulsar los precios.
Mientras que Arabia Saudita, Rusia y sus aliados reducen la producción, la oferta que está más allá de su control sigue aumentando. Libia y Nigeria - miembros exentos de las restricciones - y los productores de esquisto estadounidense están resurgiendo, socavando los esfuerzos para domar un exceso mundial.
Los precios han vuelto caer por debajo de donde estaban cuando la Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo (OPEP) alcanzó su acuerdo histórico el año pasado.
Recortes de producción más profundos - una idea rechazada hace apenas un mes - parecen poco probables en estos momentos. Por ahora al menos, la promesa saudita de hacer "lo que sea necesario" para estabilizar los precios parece que no está haciendo demasiado.

capitalbolsa

          The mysterious fall in Saudi foreign reserves   
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          Wish Upon   
Sette desideri da esaudire

Regia di John R. Leonetti. Con Sherilyn Fenn, Joey King, Elisabeth Röhm, Ryan Phillippe, Shannon Purser, Ki Hong Lee, Sydney Park, Alice Lee, Raegan Revord, Michelle Alexander.
Genere Fantasy - USA, 2017. Durata minuti circa. Da giovedì 13 luglio al cinema.

Claire Shannon è una ragazza di diciassette anni timida e introversa e per questo vittima di bullismo da parte di alcuni coetanei. Segnata profondamente dalla perdita della madre, ha un padre ossessivo e il ragazzo di cui è innamorata non la degna di uno sguardo. La sua vita cambierà radicalmente quando riceverà in regalo un vecchio carillon sul quale è inciso un messaggio. La scatola magica è in grado di far avverare sette desideri a chi la possiede. Sedotta dai poteri del misterioso oggetto, Claire inizierà ad esprimere i desideri che le sono concessi incurante delle terribili conseguenze che ne deriveranno.

Scheda | Critica | Trailer | Locandina



          Qatar May be Turning Its Back on the US Dollar — and We All Know What That Means   
(ANTIMEDIA) — Late last week, Saudi Arabia and other members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) that are involved in attempting to isolate Qatar sent the tiny Gulf nation a list of 13 demands. They are insisting that Qatar meet these demands within ten days or face unspecified further action. The list of demands includes […]
           Experiences of International Medical Graduates Caring for Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Saudi Arabia: Perspectives of Physicians and Patients    
Abouammoh, Noura/NA (2015) Experiences of International Medical Graduates Caring for Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Saudi Arabia: Perspectives of Physicians and Patients. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
           Issues Concerning the Adoption and Usage of Electronic Medical Records in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Saudi Arabia    
Al aswad, Amal Mohammad (2015) Issues Concerning the Adoption and Usage of Electronic Medical Records in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Saudi Arabia. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
           Paediatric nurses’ perceptions of using non-pharmacological pain management methods to control hospitalised children’s procedural pain in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia    
Alharbi, Hanan (2016) Paediatric nurses’ perceptions of using non-pharmacological pain management methods to control hospitalised children’s procedural pain in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
           Decision making and dental implant treatments in Saudi Arabia    
Alzahrani, Abdullah Ali H (2016) Decision making and dental implant treatments in Saudi Arabia. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
          Demise Of The Saudi Kingdom Appears To Be Approaching   
enews.shafaqna.com/EN/AL/3067062
          Chiste del día (de la mujer trabajadora)   
- Pregunta: ¿Qué hacen un cristiano, un ateo y un fornicador en la misma habitación?...
- Respuesta: ...dar de hostias a un clérigo saudita.

Recordemos otro vídeo, de hace un tiempo, donde otro iluminado nos cuenta como el buen musulmán debe golpear a su mujer (a ser posible, sin dejar marcas).



PD: En el Día de la mujer trabajadora expresar mi solidaridad para con ese 50% de parados eespañoles que son mujeres ¿Paro paritario dirá Bibiana Aido? El socialismo tiene el particular efecto de igualarnos a todos... en la miseria. No, no es otro maldito chiste.

PPD: Hoy debería celebrase de forma paralela el Día de las gilipolleces: una asociación feminista que atiende al didáctico nombre de Óle mi Koño dice que las mujeres tiene que dejar de ser "meros culos". Supongo que a partir de ahora, para ser "meros koños" (permítanme el uso de la gramática de la que hace gala la citada asociación, y que seguro pronto será homologada por el Ministerio de Igual-da y la RAE). Ante esta manifestación de orgullo koñil creo que va siendo hora de la creación de una asociación que se haga eco de otro sentir popular y que bien podríamos llamar Hasta la Polla, (seguimos con tan ilustrativo lenguaje) que es como estamos algunos ante semejantes majaderías protagonizadas por el feminismo de subvención y cuota.

          American Innocence   
The origins of oil production in the United States can be traced back to Titusville, Pennsylvania 1859. John D. Rockefeller turned oil into a “Standard” household name.

The origins of oil production in the Middle East can be traced back to Persia in 1908. King Ibn Saud, founder of modern Saudi Arabia was somewhat understated in his quest for oil.

Early Saudi oil production was similar to hosting a dinner party... foreign dignitaries came hungry and the Middle East was quick to learn how to entertain.

One Ford assembly plant and industrial revolution later, America's appetite for oil increased dramatically. World War I and II would prove to be the "coming out" parties for oil as a strategic tool - however it would take a Baby Boom to define oil as a real means to enjoy life.

The term "oil crisis" was founded in 1973 - members of OPEC announced, as a result of the Yom Kippur War, they would no longer ship oil to nations who had supported Israel in its conflict with Syria and Egypt.

Gas lines formed – American’s demanded answers!

Then, like a passing thunderstorm, the lines stopped and oil shined upon us once again.

The 1979 (or second) oil crisis began in the wake of the Iranian Revolution and the Ayatollah Khomeini taking control. The Ayatollah's immediate interest wasn’t oil, so he shut it down and unwittingly started a widespread panic among Saudi Arabia and other OPEC nations. The immediate concern was Iran's stability and willingness as an oil partner. As Mid East oil production stalled - prices rose and shortages, either planned or accidential, were on the horizon.

Gas lines formed and once again American’s demanded answers!

Then, as before, the lines stopped and oil was everywhere.

Today, April fools day, Congress met with top executives of the country’s five biggest oil companies and pressed them to explain why they should continue to get billions of dollars in tax breaks when they made $123 billion last year and motorists are paying record gasoline prices at the pump.

Tomorrow we shall demand answers!

American innocence is applauded, the era of cheep oil is over.
          25 Raksasa Penghasil Minyak Terbesar Dunia   

Minyak dan gas (migas) sudah menjadi bagian kebutuhan energi bagi masyarakat di dunia sejak dahulu kala. Mulai dari kebutuhan rumah tangga, hingga pasokan energi bagi industri.

Komoditas alam ini ikut menjadi pusaran prioritas bisnis pencetak uang di dunia. Suka tidak suka, perusahaan-perusahaan penggali migas yang ada di seluruh dunia membuat bumi tetap berputar dan akan terus berjalan selama beberapa tahun ke depan. 

Di antara perusahaan-perusahaan tersebut bahkan ada yang mampu memproduksi minyak hingga jutaan barel setiap hari.

Ingin tahu perusahaan minyak mana saja yang menjadi penopang kebutuhan energi dunia. Berikut 25 perusahaan  minyak terbesar di dunia, mengacu pada kapasitas volume produksi per hari seperti melansir laman Forbes, Rabu, (12/6/2013):


1. Saudi Aramco 
Produksi: 12,5 juta barel per hari

Sejauh ini, Saudi Aramco merupakan perusahaan energi terbesar di dunia dengan pendapatan lebih dari US$ 1 miliar per hari. Lahan tambang terbesar Saudi Aramco bisa menghasilkan 5 juta barel per hari.

2. Gazprom

Produksi: 9,7 juta barel per hari

Gazpum, perusahaan asal Rusia merupakan produsen gas alam terbesar di dunia. Keuntungannya bisa mencapai lebih dari US$ 40 miliar per tahun.

3.  Iranian Oil Co

Produksi: 6,4 juta barel per hari

Iran dipaksa menghentikan produksi minyaknya menyusul sanksi internasional.  Meski begitu, Iran tetap menjadi produsen minyak dan gas terbesar di dunia.

4. ExxonMobil 

Produksi: 5,3 juta barel per hari

Keuntungan tahunan Exxon sebesar US$ 40 miliar terlihat sedikit dibandingkan transaksi penjualan yang melambung hingga US$ 400 miliar. 

Exxon saat ini tengah membahas kerjasamanya dengan produsen minyak raksasa Rusia, Rosneft.

5. PetroChina 

Produksi: 4,4 juta barel per hari

Perusahaan minyak milik negara ini merupakan yang ketiga terbesar di China. PetroChina juga memiliki catatan pasar tertinggi dibanding penjualan dari produsen lain. 

Saat ini China sudah memproduksi lebih banyak minyak daripada ExxonMobil.

6. BP

Produksi:  4,1 juta barel per hari

Saat ini BP tengah kewalahan mempertahankan jumlah produksi 4,1 juta barel per hari. Perusahaan tengah membahas penjualan 50% sahamnya di TNK-BP Rusia atau setara dengan sepertiga hasil produksi.

7.  Royal Dutch Shell 

Produksi : 3,9 juta barel per hari

Shell berharap musin panas ini bisa mulai mengebor minyak di pantai Chuckchi Alaska. Selama bertahun-tahun Shell terus menyempurnakan rencana pengeboran minyaknya di beberapa lokasi tambang.

8. Pemex

Produksi: 3,6 juta barel per hari

Hasil produksi lahan tambang terbesar di Mexico, Cantarell anjlok sebanyak 2 juta barel per hari. Sisanya saat ini hanya sekitar 600 ribu barel per hari. 

Pemex berperan menutupi kelangkaan akibat kurangnya pasokan minyak dari pertambangan lain.

9. Chevron

Produksi : 3,5 juta barel per hari

Chevron membeli Atlas Petroleum pada 2010 seharga US$ 4,3 miliar untuk menambah lahan di Marcellus dan shale Utica. Dengan harga gas yang rendah, sebagian mengharapkan kesepakatan yang lebih besar.

10. Kuwait Petroleum Corp

Produksi: 3,2 juta barel per hari

Perusahaan minyak Kuwait ini berdiri pada 1934 oleh perusahaan yang saat ini dikenal sebagai Chevron dan BP. Pada 1975, perusahaan kemudian dipatenkan menjadi milik negara. 

Saat ini, operasi tambang di Burgan yang merupakan lahan terbesar Kuwait dilanjutkan Chevron.

11. Abu Dhabi National Oil Co
Produksi: 2,9 juta barel per hari

Abu Dhabi merupakan pusat kekuatan Uni Emirat Arab. Posisinya yang strategis dimanfaatkan untuk membangun saluran pipa minyak ke Fujairah guna memudahkan ekspor ke luar.

12. Sonatrach

Produksi; 2,7 juta barel per hari

Gas alam mendominasi hasil produksi perusahaan energi nasional Algeria ini. Kebanyakan hasil produksinya di ekspor ke Eropa.

13. Total

Produksi:  2,7 juta barel per hari

Presiden Prancis Francois Hollande mengenakan jenis pajak baru pada inventasi minyak terhitung Juli 2012. 

Dalam tanggapannya, CEO Total Christophe de Margerie mengatakan, tindakan ini akan menguras US$ 200 juta pendapatan Total pada 2012 dan mengganggu sektor penyulingan minyak yang sedang tak baik.

14. Petrobras 

Produksi: 2,7 juta barel per hari

Mantan CEO Petrobas Sergio Gabrielli menyerahkan jabatan pada bos baru Maria das Gracas Silva Foster Februari lalu. 

Perusahaan sedang berupaya untuk mengembangkan lahan minyak raksasa dengan kedalaman tinggi di luar negeri.

15.  Rosneft 

Produksi: 2,6 juta barel per hari

Sama dengan Gazprom, Rosneft adalah perusahaan minyak milik Russia. Presiden Rusia Vladimir Putin terlihat menghadiri diskusi yang menandakan kerjasama Rosneft dan ExxonMobil untuk mengeksplorasi pantai-pantai di negaranya.

16. Iraqi Oil Ministry 

Produksi: 2,3 juta barel per hari

Peringkat Irak sebagai produsen minyak terbesar di dunia bisa terus meningkat karena lahan-lahan tambang raksasanya terus berproduksi.


Pengeboran tahap 2 di Qurna Barat, proyek yang dioperasikan Lukoil milik Rusia menghasilkan sekitar 13 miliar barel.

17. Qatar Petroleum
Produksi: 2,3 juta barel per hari

Mayoritas produksi Qatar adalah gas alam yang tersebar ke seluruh dunia sebagai gas alam cair (LNG).  Qatar menyediakan lahan gas alami terbesar di dunia yang di bawah tanah Persian Gulf dengan Iran.

18. Lukoil 

Produksi: 2,2 juta barel per hari

Lukoil didirikan tahun 1991 oleh Mantan Wakil Menteri Vagit Alekperov yang masih menjalankan perusahaan hingga saat ini. Dirinya memiliki 20% saham perusahaan seharga US$ 13 miliar.

19. Eni 

Produksi: 2,2 juta barel per hari

Eni adalah produsen minyak unggul di Italia. CEO Eni Paolo Scaroni dalam beberapa tahun menyusun landasan kerjasama dengan perusahaan-perusahaan seperti Pdvsa, Venezuela dan Rosneft, Rusia.

20. Statoil 

Produksi:  2,1 juta barel per hari

Pemerintah Norwegia memiliki 67% saham di Statoil. Investasi perusahaan di Amerika sudah mencapai lebih dari Us$ 20 miliar termasuk akuisisi Bakken-focused Brigham Exploration sebesar US$ 4,7 miliar pada 2011.

21. ConocoPhillips 

Produksi: 2 juta barel per hari

Tahun ini ConocoPhillips meluaskan bisnis kilang minyaknya menyusul keinginan Phillips 66 untuk fokus pada operasi-operasi di permukaan.

22. Petroleos de Venezuela

Produksi: 1,9 juta barel per hari

Perusahaan minyak Venezuela yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Pdvsa ini, lebih terlihat sebagai bank pribadi Presiden Hugo Chavez yang membuat perusahaan menderita karena harus membayar program-program sosialnya. Hasil produksi sendiri sudah menurun sejak 1998.

23. Sinopec 

Produksi: 1,6 juta barel per hari

Sinopec merupakan kilang minyak terbesar China. Tahun ini Sinopec menghentikan usaha shale-nya dengan Devon Energy.

24. Nigerian National Petroleum 

Produksi: 1,4 juta barel per hari

Di tengah-tengah kehancuran ekonomi akibat korupsi di industri minyak negara Nigeria, Presiden Goodluck Jonathan juga diketahui melakukan korupsi pada beberapa eksekutif.

25. Petronas 

Produksi: 1,4 juta barel per hari

Perusahaan minyak raksasa Malaysia membangun markasnya di menara kembar Petronas. Petronas belakangan melebarkan sayap bisnisnya ke luar negeri dan saat ini sedang dalam proses negosiasi dengan perusahaan gas Progress Energy Kanada untuk memperoleh dana sebesar Us$ 5,4 miliar. (Nur)



          Nations Must Repeal Blasphemy Laws   
What did the terrorist attacks against the Charlie Hebdo newspaper and the kosher supermarket in Paris share with the flogging of Saudi blogger Raif Badawi in Jeddah last month? Each was an assault on freedom of conscience, religion, or belief. Moreover,...
          Immigration officers keeping stowaway girls as sex slaves   
Some Immigration officers in the Central region are reportedly keeping ladies who were arrested attempting to leave Ghana to Saudi Arabia as sex slaves.
          RE(G)ALE ABBANDONO   
Venerdì Santo – In Passione Domini

Comincia in silenzio la liturgia del venerdì santo. Con i ministri sdraiati a terra, prostrati e adoranti. Polvere e silenzio sono necessari per poterci accostare al trono della croce e riconoscere in esso non solo un luogo di fatale sconfitta, ma il segno della misteriosa vittoria dell’amore di Dio. 

«Ecco, il mio servo avrà successo, sarà onorato, 
esaltato e innalzato grandemente» (Is 52,13)

Sembra impossibile guardare un patibolo e comprenderlo come un teatro di libero e infinito amore. Eppure la voce del profeta Isaia è raggiunta e rilanciata anche dalla riflessione dell’autore della lettera agli Ebrei. Le due letture cospirano mirabilmente fino a creare una sinfonia di rivelazione assordante e irresistibile. 

[Cristo] nei giorni della sua vita terrena, offrì preghiere e suppliche, 
con forti grida e lacrime, a Dio che poteva salvarlo da morte 
e, per il suo pieno abbandono a lui, venne esaudito (Eb 5,7)

Non si può non restare attoniti e sgomenti di fronte alle conseguenze di queste parole. Esaudito: ma come? In quale modo Dio ascolta e — soprattutto — esaudisce le preghiere che eleviamo a lui dalla nostra terra? Se il Padre non ha risparmiato la morte al suo Figlio, come si comporterà con noi quando gli offriremo il fiume delle nostre lacrime, quando grideremo a lui tutta la paura che resta?

Pur essendo Figlio, imparò l’obbedienza da ciò che patì
e, reso perfetto, divenne causa di salvezza eterna
per tutti coloro che gli obbediscono (5,8-9)

Mentre noi pensiamo di essere ascoltati ed esauditi a forza di parole, il destino del servo di Dio annuncia che siamo ascoltati meglio di quanto immaginiamo e, soprattutto, esauditi al di là di quello che temiamo e speriamo. Dobbiamo solo convertirci e accettare il fatto che la preghiera non serva per ottenere cose, ma per rimanere in relazione con quel Dio che ci ha mostrato il suo volto. Giungendo al fondo della sua preghiera, il Signore Gesù non ha svelato i motivi del male e della sofferenza, ma è diventato egli stessa “causa” di salvezza. A questo serve pregare: smettere di chiedere — a noi e a Dio — “perché?” e accettare di diventare noi la “causa” che manca, portando a compimento la nostra umanità. 

«Ecco l’uomo» (Gv 19,5)

Questo è l’uomo pensato da Dio. Non quello “terrestre”, sempre così incline a risparmiarsi e a salvarsi, ma quello “celeste” capace di dare vita agli altri. Così è davvero «compiuto» (19,30) l’uomo uscito dalle mani del Creatore. Non quando tutti i suoi bisogni sono soddisfatti e  le sue necessità risolte, ma quando egli diventa capace di accettare il limite così tanto da poterlo attraversare e celebrare, facendo della propria vita un dono d’amore, una libera offerta ai fratelli.

«Ho sete» (19,28) 

Muore assetato il Figlio di Dio. Assetato di noi. L’aceto che gli viene offerto è vino incerto,  adulterato. Si estingue così la sete di Dio, con quello che noi — di fatto — siamo: uomini e donne incerti, ancora incapaci di amore vero e di fedeltà. Eppure sufficienti a un Dio che muore per dirci che senza di noi non può esistere nessun cielo e non può venire alcun Regno. Per questo noi oggi baciamo la croce. Per poter abbracciare come un trono e come un talamo tutto il limite dal quale ancora stiamo provando a fuggire. Dopo averci ricordato che possiamo realmente essere presenti nella nostra storia, oggi il triduo pasquale ci annuncia che possiamo re(g)almente abbandonarci all’avventura di essere umani fino in fondo. Come terra assetata, arida, deserta. Prossima a risorgere. 

          The “Muslim Brotherhood” has spent the last 50-60 years buying up businesses, including media properties (or buying significant positions in newspapers, studios, TV and radio stations, book publishers, magazines, websites, social media, etc.)   
https://jdlcanada.wordpress.com/2012/07/31/canadian-hotels-owned-by-saudi-arabias-kingdom-hotels-colony-capital-llc/ To get an idea of how many businesses have been taken over by the MB, check the holdings of just one man and one conglomerate – Prince Alwaleed’s Kingdom Holding Company (he’s a 95% owner) here.  Look carefully at the list. Please know that the Muslim Brotherhood has spent the last 50-60 years buying up businesses, including media properties (or buying significant […]
          "Paradise Discovered, At Last" PART 3 in Saudi Arabia   
This is my Gulf’s Part 3 re my first ever trip to saucy Saudi Arabia in December 1979.

(If you enjoy reading these stories then check out my autobiographic book via http://www.lulu.com and type in my pename of Jon Kwame Abbott, or use the book's title (PDAL) but in full kindly.)

(If any of you readers would like more of this plz check out the USA site http://www.lulu.com and type in Jon Kwame Abbott’s book named as per this item’s title, ie PDAL but in full)
YBA Kanoo put me into the local hotel (so good prospects there, eh?), and under the care of a very nice Brit guy called Bob. The first thing he did was to offer me half his monthly purchase of the locally produced ‘hooche’ from sugar, which was called ‘saddique’, or ‘friend’, in Arabic, I was told. One needed to dilute each pure half gallon with 100% distilled water and hey presto, one had a full gallon of damned good Vodka-like booze, which went very well with a Bitter Lemon soft drink and a slice of lemon.
A. It took me a short while to discover how the local gay scene operated there and very obvious it was too, once one had learnt the ropes. It transpired that the whole length of the seafront in Al Khobar (about 10/12 miles up from Damman) was the main hunting area. As an Expat, though about mid-40s then even, I needed to either walk up and down or even to just sit down and wait to be approached, in the best of styles of course. Being totally sold on BLACK GUYS ONLY for years already, I was a bit fussy but it would not be long before someone to my liking would appear. Sometimes we drove off in separate cars or I would jump into theirs. One memorable evening I followed two black locals to a house not too far away, followed also by a third Saudi guy in his car. At our destination the other driver was told to get lost by my new randy hosts and we first three went into that empty residence for some sex, one after the other with me as their main dish, and all on the ruddy staircase, would you believe? They then dropped me back at the seafront where I collected my car and I went home very happy.
B (a). One Friday morning (which was their Sunday no-work day, right?), I was driving towards the beach just past Al Khobar, but still in Damman, when I was waved down vigorously by a very black guy on the opposite side of the main road. I drove round to talk with him and it turned out he was a Kenyan aged about 25/26, and soon we were inside his compound where I saw three other Kenyans too. It was going to be good, I thought to myself, but not even I was prepared for what happened in the next 30 odd minutes. To set the ball rolling, the nice first guy led me into an empty but very dusty room off the main interior area, which had a dirty mattress on the floor and little other furniture. We both undressed ourselves and he then proceeded to fuck the hell out me in various positions. He must not have had any sex for ages because he was ravenous and crazy with desire for someone to satisfy himself with, and I was that lucky guy that Friday morning.
(b) As he was leaving he asked me if I wanted his friend to visit me there too (in English of course) and when I nodded a yes, one of his black colleague soon appeared at the door and came into the room. I had remained naked, but coyly hiding my hard-on, and this new guy soon got himself fully undressed too. His style and needs were quite different from the first guy’s because this guy wanted to stand behind me and rub his hard cock up and down my rear like that for a good 5 minutes, all the while simpering loudly and rubbing my cock and balls all the while. Later, he gently got me to bend over in a half standing position, when he changed his quietness a bit and he aggressively stuck his biggish, hard black cock right up my willing rear, soon downloading himself for all he was worth.
(c). As there were no further willing partners wanting a fuck, I dressed up and drove off towards the main road. But I had to turn right and then double back for the beach and just then I saw the first guy waving madly for me to come back. I did as asked and soon I was asked to go back to the room as a third friend had just arrived and he wanted a fuck with me also. How lucky was I to be, I thought? We went into the room for my third fuck on that memorable Friday morning, and it was as different in style and technique as my first two had been. But I was not about to complain, was I??
C. At the beach eventually I was minding my own business (dressed in my swimming pants etc) when, after say 25 minutes maximum, an American sports car rolled up in a cloud of dust and a short black guy, dressed in full local garb, jumped out near to my car. He introduced himself and soon his mates arrived in another car too. Within minutes I agreed to follow them so we could have some sex together and our three cars shot off towards a quiet desert area nearby that they seemed to know. You see, in the Gulf I was discovering there was no messing around being coy and/or beating about the bush; one just went for what one wanted, just as simply as that. I managed to tell the first black guy that I ONLY wanted to play with the two other black guys in the group, and he said ‘no problem’, and that those other two were actually full brothers in fact. (Plz see the attached ‘butch’ photo on my Profile where you can see the three of five wonderful guys I had great sex with that wonderful morning near Al Khobar.) At the chosen quiet area at last, with planes landing overhead at the main local Dharhan airport, a blanket was laid on the sand and the four other guys walked away over the sand dune. I had a quickie with the first short black one. After he’d got his rocks off he went to join the others still out of sight, calling the first of the two brothers to have his turn. Then, after he’d had a good fuck, I had the second brother. We then all jumped into our respective cars and returned in convoy back to the beach. There I took the details of the first black guy and he took my contact telephone number too, as I told him I may be returning to that area in the new year. And that happened too, but on that business trip I was in a YBA Kanoo villa in Damman, but all alone to boot, thank the good Lord.
          'Paradise Discovered, At Last' PART 2 in Bahrain   
This is my Part 2 stories in Bahrain, dated 26 August 08.

(If you enjoy reading these stories then check out my autobiographic book via http://www.lulu.com and type in my pename of Jon Kwame Abbott, or use the book's title (PDAL) but in full kindly.)

In October ’79 I was sent to Bahrain from Dubai to do a fresh sales campaign in there, also under the supposed care of YBA Kanoo, their Gulf HO in fact. There I was unhappily housed in their bloody singles’ Expat’s residence with three other (straight) Brit pricks and situated not far from The British Club.
A. Feeling my way around town on my first free weekend, I picked up a Saudi guy, aged about 22/24 perhaps, and who was close to becoming a fighter pilot, he said. He was dressed in full gulf Arab rig and very statuesque and handsome he looked too. He took me back to his hotel where I met a younger (say aged 17/18) cousin of his sitting in his room. Soon, the first guy had intimated to me that he’d like to fuck me there and then and so I dropped my trousers and bent over for him. He took out his already biggish, almost black member and started his assignment. While bending over I moved to grab the younger guy, sitting opposite and not 3 or 4 feet away, but he didn’t wish to share his already hard cock in his pants with me, unfortunately. Suddenly, there was a knock on the door, and in panic stations the pilot and I both quickly adjusted our clothing and he said in Arabic to come in, I guess. A new guy entered and they spoke for a few minutes. After that guy had left the room, the pilot officer guy got up and made for me to lower my pants again so he could finish what he’d started a while back. I obliged and he completed a not unpleasant fuck, with me still in a semi bent-over stance. After we’d dressed he asked me to follow him and we went into a room down the corridor. In that room there were about 4 or 5 other youngish Saudis who, I guess, all got a word-by-word story of our recent sexual endeavours just ended. They spoke excitedly together in Arabic and soon the pilot officer said to me that one of the guys present wanted a fuck me too. Always one for a new adventure I agreed and I was motioned to drop my pants and lean up across the side of the bed, my knees on the floor. The new eager guy dropped himself to a squatting position behind me, having already brought out his hard cock, I guess, and over the next 2 to 3 minutes he had a good fuck. All the other guys in the room became quite giggly and very excited at this bold, middle-aged whiteman (Oyibo in Yorouba and Blofonio in Ga languages) allowing himself to get fucked in semi-public. But outside the Gulf region one would be paying very good money for such services, so after him I had two other guys service me too and all went off very, very well all round, I felt. One of the polite guys came to the front door of the hotel to politely see me off, saying as I left that I should return tomorrow. But the next day was a full working day for me so it never happened, worst luck.
B. One of the very best pick-up joints I discovered in Bahrain was the lower bar in The Hotel Diplomat in Manama township. One needed only to buy oneself a couple of beers (all the locals used to by four each at a time) and sit down somewhere prominent. It would take less than 5 or max 10 minutes before a likely horny Arab would saunter up and ask if he could buy me another couple of beers. If I fancied the guy I’d say OK and that would be that, happily!! One evening I was up by the bar and started talking to a very negroid Arab (see his lovely photo in my Profile, if you like), dressed in European kit. He was called Hassan was to learn and son he said he needed to visit the bathroom. After at least 10 minutes he was still missing and I thought he’d left quietly but no, he reappeared and came back towards me. He suddenly tried to squat down onto his haunches as if exercising, but then I saw that he was trying to hide an enormous cock erection in his trousers. Geez, I said under my breath and we both shot out of the hotel, and at his suggestion, to his car. He drove me out of town towards the Saudi waterway area and soon we stopped and got out. I went round and he brought out his lovely big, black and well-shaped 8inch minimum hard, round cock for me to inspect and then play with, while he kissed me passionately up top. Soon he intimated, without saying a single word, he’d like to fuck me and I turned around with alacrity and very much hope and expectation, and he did not disappoint either. Although only 19 years old he knew how to use his glorious black member very expertly, and then he drove us back to Diplomat Hotel for my car, and all within say 30/40 mins maximum of having left it. I was due to depart for Damman, Saudi, soon afterwards and he even came to the airport to see me off. He came fully dressed in his long white Arabic garb and he looked even more beautiful and sexy than he had two days earlier, and that was where I took his photo I’ve attached in my Profile for all of you guys to drool over and, I hope, enjoy as much as I had all those years previously?? (Plz look out for my PART 3 in Saudi Arabia stories soon.)
          Von: Alexander Schnorfeil   
Die AFD ist also rechts . Wie rechts ist ist die SPCDU also ? die SPCDU unterstützt die Schurkenstaaten Türkei, Saudiarabien und den Oberschurken USA in jeder Faser ihrer Existenz. Millionen Menschen wurden von diesem Dreck ermordet, versümmelt und Ihrer Existenz beraubt. Was soll das ganze Gedöns gegen die AFD also ? Ablenken von der Tatsache, das die SPCDU samt dreckigem Anhang wie die " Linke " die TÄTER sind . Einfach nur Ekelhaft !
          Homosexuality and Religion   

Disclaimer: In this article, for the sake of simplicity and consistency, we will be using the term “homosexual” as a blanket term to represent all queer, bisexual, pansexual, questioning, and other non-heterosexual orientations. If you would like to learn more, you can read our Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity article. If you need resources or support, you can visit our Support Groups and Organizations page, as well as our Resources page.

Religion and sexual orientation have historically appeared to clash. For centuries, “the religious condemnation of homosexual acts, and even homosexual persons, was unquestioned.”1 In the United States, regular participation in organized worship has proven to be the strongest demographic predictor of whether a person disapproves of homosexuality or not.1 The relationship between religions and homosexuality is complex and has fluctuated immensely throughout time. Every faith holds a unique view on sexuality that has come to shape how we perceive sex. Oftentimes, these convictions are adjusted as we adapt to the diversity of sexual expressions in the world.

Religious Approaches to Homosexuality

There are three primary stances on homosexuality in regards to religion:

  1. Rejectionism
  2. “Love the sinner, hate the sin”
  3. Full acceptance1

Rejectionism

Rejectionism is a system of belief that entirely objects to the idea that homosexuals deserve equal rights. This belief is held by Judeo-Christian denominations that embrace a more fundamental, Biblical interpretation of sexuality, as well as many predominantly Islamic nations. Some countries and belief systems punish homosexuality by sentencing those caught engaging in homosexual practices to death or torture. These states of Yemen, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Somalia, Sudan, and the United Arab Emirates all have legislation that criminalizes homosexuality.2 Rejectionist philosophy widely varies among its proponents on its stance on sexual orientation being a choice. The religious sects and individuals that utilize prayer-based conversion to “cure” gay people of their affliction believe that homosexuality is a choice and that, with enough guidance, can be reversed.3 The rejectionist philosophy asserts that homosexuals can be forgiven by God only after sincere efforts to repent for the sin of their sexual orientation.

“Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin”

“Love the sinner, hate the sin” holds that LGBTQ people should be regarded an with equal amount of respect; however, homosexual behaviors are not tolerated. This modified rejectionism perspective accepts that sexuality cannot be changed but states that one can only be obedient to a higher power as long as they abstain from acting on their desires.

Full Acceptance

The full acceptance approach asserts that queer people are entitled to all of the same civil and social rights as their heterosexual counterparts. This ideology asserts that homosexuality is not a sin and that LGBTQ people are accepted by God just as their heterosexual counterparts are.

Churches have even been created under this egalitarian ideal of full acceptance. Reverend Troy Perry founded the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches in 1968 as a part of his coming out process in his book: The Lord is My Shepherd and He Knows I’m Gay.  The advent of this Church signaled to how inclusive spirituality can be. The Metropolitan Community Church identifies as a “global movement of spiritually and sexually diverse people who are fully awake to God’s enduring love.”4 The language used is clear: God accepts sexual diversity. Since its founding, the MCC has attempted to spread their full acceptance position to greater society, applying it not only to sexual diversity, but also racial and gender diversity as well.

Similar to the Universal Fellowship, most religions have subgroups of queer-identified members. People are able to straddle the boundary between faith and sexuality by building a community and participating in support groups within each faith that acknowledge gay identities and affirm the normalcy of religious queer people.

Discrimination Against Homosexuals

For centuries, legislation has tried to restrict sexual acts like sodomy and polygamy. The United States, for example, had laws against sodomy in most states up until the 20th century and still outlaws polygamy.2 Such harsh ordinances often stem from strict religious practices that advocate celibacy, monogamy, and heterosexuality. This emphasis on piousness has consequently created a hierarchy of purity where normal and healthy sex is defined as heterosexual, married, monogamous, and intended for reproduction. As a result, polyamorous and homosexual sex, as well as sex outside of marriage, have been labeled as abnormal, repulsive, and something that should be punished by law.  These notions of “normalcy” are based on documents written centuries and millennia ago when mankind lacked a complete understanding of the wide spectrum of sexuality. As our world progresses, more people now appreciate that all forms of sexual orientation, gender identity, and relationships are natural and healthy, and that they should be treated equally under the law. Unfortunately, many people and governments still fail to accept this, leading to the continued discrimination against LGBTQ people. Although many religious groups have negative attitudes toward homosexuality, some people use their religious beliefs as an excuse for their own homophobia. These people are intolerant of homosexuality regardless of their spiritual views, but their religion can provide justification for their hateful and discriminatory attitudes against LGBTQ people.

Some ministries offer prayer-based conversion, or “praying the gay away.” This strategy asserts that meditation, prayer, and repentance can change one’s sexual orientation. However, in 2009 the American Psychological Association concluded that there is zero evidence of success of any conversion treatment and that many may actually be harmful, causing increased signs of depression and thoughts of suicide).5

Individuals who fall outside of this traditional box —including unmarried, polyamourous, or queer-identified people—may feel anxious about the fact that their sexuality does not perfectly align with these spiritual mandates. Some individuals feel torn between the morals and rules they were raised with and who they are. When a great deal of one’s ethics are based on their faith, it may directly conflict with their identity as a nonvirgin, queer, or polyamorous individual. Mitigating tensions between religion and sexuality can be difficult, but knowing that gay and religious identities can coexist in harmony can be helpful. It is completely possible to be devout and sexually active, queer, or polyamorous. Though an individual may not follow their religious doctrines down to the last word in terms of sexuality, one can still structure their life around the premises of respect and love that are the foundation for many faiths around the world.

Major Religions’ Approaches to Homosexuality

Different religions have taken a wide range of perspectives on sexuality. Here, we explore some of the most well-known religions across the world.

Christianity

Christianity is one of the religions that has had the most prominent and outspoken views on homosexuality. A letter from the Corinthians taken from the New Testament of the Bible succinctly sums up how some Christian denominations choose to view sexuality: “Because of the temptation to sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband” (7:2).6 This conservative discourse has brought about a large part of the limitations and stigmas that revolve around sexuality in many Western societies today. Christianity has emphasized a need to be chaste and has labeled those who do not abide as sinners. Homosexual couples, therefore, are excluded from the sacrament of matrimony. In spite of this, Christianity encapsulates a wide variety of views. There are many diverse groups and individuals who belong to the Christian faith and they all have their own views. For example, the highest authority of the Catholic faith, the Pope, has opinions that are distinct from his predecessors. Pope Francis has publicly stated that he does not judge gay people if they maintain their faith, despite the Catholic Church’s history of disapproval of homosexuality.7

Judaism

Jewish views on homosexuality are found mainly in the Old Testament of the Bible. Sexuality is portrayed as “a gift to be used responsibly and in obedience to God’s will.”3 Pervasive themes include the importance of intimacy and procreation in a relationship between a male and a female. Infidelity and polygyny (when a man has more than one wife) are scorned. This is because the Canaanites, an early sect of Judaism and rival of the Israelites, openly practiced mating rituals and temple prostitution in their culture. Considering that the Canaanites and Israelites were enemies, Jewish law began to regulate any foreign sexual behavior like homosexuality. Sexual variation was seen as a threat to group harmony. Queer individuals still struggle with full acceptance in this faith.8

Islam

There is a great deal of variety in the Islamic faith regarding homosexuality, mainly due to the fact that Muslims do not have a single, central source of authority (like the Pope, for example). As a polylithic (consisting of many different facets) faith, it allows for a diverse range of beliefs. In general, Muslim texts take a much more sex-positive stance than most. Sexuality is first and foremost a mechanism for pleasure, and secondarily a means of reproduction (which is quite the opposite of Catholicism). Intercourse in marriage is considered the highest good of human life.3 Both polygyny (marriage between a man and multiple wives) and concubinage (the practice of having a woman who lives with a man but has lower status than his wife) are sanctioned by Islam; even the Prophet Muhammad had several wives. Muslims do not follow celibacy, or refraining from sexual activity until marriage.9

Unfortunately, this sex positivity does not extend to queer Islamic people. The central religious text of Islam, the Quran, alludes to homosexuality in the form of a biblical story of the “people of Lot.” The people of Lot engaged in homosexual behaviors and were punished by a natural disaster that destroyed the entire group.9 Beyond this biblical tale, the Prophet Muhammad was known for his disapproval of homosexuality, although he was never documented as punishing anyone for it.10  

Hinduism

Hinduism, on the other hand, does not treat homosexuality as a sin. It recognizes that each human has their own individual romantic and sexual attraction, and does not discriminate based on same-sex partnership. In Hindu society, homosexuality is regarded as one of many possible expressions of human desire.1 This refreshing take on sexuality has empowered many who believe in a higher power but have not felt that their religion adequately encompasses their orientation. There are four themes that permeate the religion. Kama, the pursuit of pleasure, is one of these. This is where the origins of the Kama Sutra lay, which is a piece of literature written on the achievement of sexual pleasure. The Kama Sutra demonstrates the sex-positive nature of this religion.2 Many Hindu temples display carvings of both men and women engaging in homosexual sex. Furthermore, Hindu philosophy recognizes the existence of a third gender, one in which people embody a mixture of masculinity and femininity. This third gender, or hijra, is granted semi-divine status and epitomizes the tolerance that permeates Hinduism.11

Buddhism

There is little discussion on the matter of sex in the teachings of Buddha; instead, most publications focus on enlightenment. There are several paths to enlightenment and sexual expression constitutes one of these. Tantric Buddhism, one of the three primary branches of the faith, says that “Sexual union epitomizes the essential unity of all things by the joining of energy.”1 It does not specify the gender of each partner and thus does not explicitly condemn homosexuality. Rather, it merely preaches against sexual misconduct such as adultery and nonconsensual acts.

Classic Greek Philosophy

In classic Greek philosophy, sex was not viewed as inherently evil. In fact, it was an activity celebrated amongst the gods in ancient texts. Pederasty—a sexual relationship between an older gentleman and a younger man—was celebrated in ancient Greece and well-represented in the culture. It was seen as a rite of passage to military life. A myth from classic Greek philosophy tells the story of how Zeus abducted Ganymede, a hero from Troy, and engaged in homosexual relations with him. Both Aristotle and Pindar recognized pederasty as a way of mentorship for young boys in becoming a man. Homosexual behaviors like pederasty are documented as early as the 5th and 4th century BCE, highlighting how natural and accepted these acts were in society.3

Increasing Acceptance of Homosexuality Within Major Religions

Despite many religious groups’ institutional disapproval of homosexuality, there has been major progress in increasing acceptance of homosexuals and homosexual behavior, particularly in the Christian and Catholic faiths. Current trends in Christianity point toward homosexuals becoming more accepted and included in the community. These trends are the result of behavioral science and society re-defining what is normal and natural (i.e. homosexuality is a perfectly normal and healthy sexual identity and form of expression).3 Although the Church still views sex as a means of procreation first and foremost, ideas of sex as a means to pleasure and intimacy have been surfacing, leading to Christianity accepting more diverse forms of sexuality.

The Catholic Church has also undergone some changes leading to an increased acceptance of homosexuality namely due to the influence of Pope Francis. In September of 2013, Pope Francis stated “If someone is gay and searches for the Lord and has good will, who am I to judge?”7 This statement stands in direct contradiction to the Church’s previous attitudes toward homosexuality. In fact, the previous year, Pope Benedict XVI publicly announced that gay marriage was a threat to global peace.7 Pope Francis’ relative lack of judgment of homosexuals is the largest stride toward full acceptance the Catholic Church has ever made, and hopefully will only lead to more accepting attitudes in the future.

The Episcopal Church has moved to allow its clergy to perform same-sex marriage ceremonies after modifying the church’s definition of marriage by changing the language from “man and woman” to “couple.”12 Additionally, the Presbyterian Church voted to formally sanction same-sex marriage in 2015.13

Concluding Remarks

Just as there are countless diverse religions and belief systems, there are also countless different religious outlooks on homosexuality. Although many of these outlooks may seem to be discriminatory or “anti-gay,” many religious institutions are re-examining and modifying their stance on homosexuality in order to be more inclusive and adaptable to modern sexuality in all its expressions.

Integrating gay identity with other intersectional identities like religion and culture may require some time, but it can be an extremely fulfilling and successful process. Slow but steady progress is being made as the relationship between sexuality and religion continues to evolve. A person does not need to choose between their faith and their religion. Religion and sexuality are two extremely important facets of an individual’s identity and the two can coexist peacefully and provide immense personal fulfillment and satisfaction.

References

1. Baldwin, Janice and Baldwin, John. Topics in Sexuality: Advanced Studies. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2012.

2. Bearak, Max and Cameron, Darla. Here are the 10 Countries Where Homosexuality May Be Punished By Death. The Washington Post, 2016.

3. Levay, Simon, Baldwin, Janice and Baldwin, John. Discovering Human Sexuality Second Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2012.

4. Metropolitan Community Churches: Vision Statement. MCCChurch.org, 2013.

5. American Psychological Association. Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts, 2009.

6. The Holy Bible: King James Version. Hendrickson Publishers, 2004.

7. Hale, J. Christopher. The Pope Francis Statement That Changed the Church on LGBT Issues. Time Magazine, 2015.

8. Rich, Tracey R. Jewish Attitudes Toward Sexuality. JewFAQ.org, 2011.

9. Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab. Sexuality in Islam. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.

10. Akyol, Mustafa. What Does Islam Say About Being Gay? The New York Times, 2015.

11. Khaleeli, Homa. Hijra: India’s Third Gender Claims Its Place in Law. The Guardian, 2014.

12. Conger, George. The Episcopal Church Approves Religious Weddings for Gay Couples After Controversial Debate. The Washington Post, 2015.

13. What Same-Sex Marriage Means to Presbyterians. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 2015.

Last Updated: 17 February 2017.

Category: 

          Presseschau zu Obamas Wiederwahl: "Kein Präsident, der in den Krieg zieht"   
Die Zeitungen im Nahen Osten zwischen Algerien und Iran reagieren überwiegend positiv auf die Wiederwahl von Barack Obama. Der Präsident habe in seiner ersten Amtszeit zwar viele Erwartungen enttäuscht, Mitt Romney wäre nach Überzeugung der Kommentatoren jedoch das noch größere Übel geworden. Israelische Blätter fürchten eine weitere Verschlechterung des Verhältnisses zwischen Obama und Benyamin Netanyahu. Auch in Bahrains Presse schwingt Skepsis gegenüber dem Demokraten mit. Dafür sind sich israelische Kommentatoren mit der syrischen Parteizeitung al-Baath in einem Punkt einig: Obama sei kein Präsident, der einen Krieg im Nahen Osten wolle.

Eine Presseschau von Christoph Dinkelaker, Lea Frehse, Amina Nolte, Dominik Peters, Friedrich Schulze, Bodo Straub und Christoph Sydow

 Youssef al-Kuweilit äußert in seinem Kommentar für al-Riyadh aus Saudi-Arabien zunächst einmal seine Verwunderung darüber, dass Obama für eine zweite Amtszeit gewählt wurde - „trotz der Aufregung und Zweifel an seinem Glauben, seiner Kindheit, seines Geburtsorts und darüber, ob er vom islamischen Glauben seines Vaters beeinflusst wurde“. Der Präsident habe sich aber seine Wiederwahl durch seine Erfolge in Irak, Afghanistan und Libyen verdient. Kuweilit hebt auch hervor, dass sich Obama in seiner ersten Amtszeit „den wiederholten Erpressungen Israels“ widersetzt habe. Gleichwohl habe er gegenüber dem israelischen Siedlungsbau zu nachlässig gehandelt. Dennoch ist der Kommentator überzeugt: „Für die Länder zwischen Maghreb und Mashreq bleibt Obama der beste Präsident, auch wenn er Versprechungen gebrochen hat. Aber er hat viele Erfahrungen gesammelt und bleibt moderat im Vergleich zum Extremismus der Republikaner“.

Ibrahim Eissa, Kommentator der oppositionellen ägyptischen Tageszeitung al-Tahrir, sieht durch Obamas Wiederwahl schwierige Zeiten auf Ägyptens Präsidenten Mohammed Mursi zukommen. Die USA hätten den Muslimbrüdern zwar den Weg zur Macht am Nil geebnet, nun aber werde Washington dafür einen Preis verlangen. Das informelle Abkommen zwischen Obama und Mursi sah demnach so aus: „Die Muslimbrüder garantieren Israels Sicherheit und bändigen die Hamas. Sie verpflichten sich, sich für Amerikas Interessen einzusetzen und unter dem Banner des sunnitischen Islams in die Phalanx gegen Iran und die Schiiten einzutreten.“ Gleichzeitig habe Obama zugesichert, das Machtmonopol der Muslimbrüder nicht zu brechen. Dafür werde er in seiner zweiten Amtszeit aber eine Gegenleistung verlangen: Die Wiederherstellung von Ordnung auf dem Sinai, ein Ende der dortigen Präsenz von al-Qaida und anderen extremistischen Gruppen. „Dies wird Mursi Ärger mit seinen Freunden in Gaza einhandeln und den Zorn der Jihadisten auf dem Sinai entfachen“, ist Eissa überzeugt. Mursi werde deshalb Bedenken äußern. Die wichtigste Frage sei daher: „Wie geduldig wird Obama sein?“

"Obama will politische Lösung der Syrien-Krise"

Der Leitartikel der syrischen Staatszeitung al-Baath wartet am Donnerstag mit einer Überraschung auf: Es sei zu erwarten, dass Obama in seiner zweiten Amtszeit eine politische Lösung der Krise in Syrien suche, so das Blatt. Das liege zum einen an der Standfestigkeit des syrischen Volkes und der Armee und zum zweiten am Unwillen des US-Präsidenten, sein Land in einen neuen Krieg zu führen. „Ein Präsident, der in seiner Siegesrede sagt: 'Ein Jahrzehnt des Krieges ist zu Ende gegangen', der nach dem Rückzug seiner Armee aus dem Irak erleichtert aufatmet und der jetzt hart daran arbeitet, die US-Armee aus dem Sumpf in Afghanistan herauszuziehen, der denkt nicht an ein militärisches Abenteuer in Syrien, das die ganze Region in Brand setzen kann.“ Die USA steckten in einer schweren Wirtschaftskrise und hätten begriffen, dass sie nicht länger die einzige Weltmacht seien. Daher strebe Washington eine internationale Einigung auf eine politische Lösung der syrischen Krise an. „Schließlich kann die US-Regierung nicht länger die große Rolle der Qaida-Gruppen in Syrien übersehen, besonders nach dem er den Geschmack des Terrors in Bengasi selbst schmecken musste.“

Einen ganz anderen Aspekt beleuchtet al-Khabar aus Algerien. „Die Amerikaner wissen seit Mittwoch, dass Obama bis Anfang 2017 regieren wird. Sie brauchen keine Politiker oder Experten, die mit den Geheimnissen des Weißen Hauses vertraut sind, und die ihnen sagen, ob Obama die Verfassung ändern oder sein Amt aufgeben und irgendeinem ausgesuchten Nachfolger übergeben will.“ Ganz anders sei das in Algerien, kritisiert die Zeitung in ihrem Leitartikel. Niemand wisse ob Präsident Abdelaziz Bouteflika möglicherweise noch einmal die Verfassung ändern, und sich damit eine weitere Amtszeit sichern werde. Es sei ja noch nicht einmal klar, wie es um die gesundheitliche Verfassung des Staatschefs bestellt ist. Niemand gebe Auskunft darüber, warum der Präsident lange verschwinde und dann plötzlich wieder auftauche. In diesem politischen Klima zeige auch keiner der möglichen Nachfolgekandidaten seine wahren Absichten, in diesem algerischen System komme der am weitesten, „der seine politischen Ambitionen am besten versteckt.“

"Obamas Wiederwahl spaltet den Nahen Osten in zwei Lager"

In der Jordan Times schaut man vor allem enttäuscht auf die erste Amtsperiode des Präsidenten zurück: „Obama hat hohe Erwartungen geschürt, als er in den ersten Monaten seines Antritts Kairo und Istanbul besucht hat, um der arabischen Welt seine guten Absichten hinsichtlich des Israel-Palästina Konflikts und die guten amerikanischen Beziehungen mit den Muslimen zu bekräftigen. Aber wie ein Sprichwort sagt: 'Der Weg zur Hölle ist mit guten Intentionen gepflastert', so hat Obama seine guten Absichten nach seiner Rückkehr in die USA fallen gelassen, angeblich weil die Pro-Israel-Lobby und ihre Unterstützer sich weigerten, seine Absichten zu unterstützen. Deswegen ist Obamas Popularität in der arabischen und muslimischen Welt drastisch abgesunken, vor allem nach dem er Israel als „Verbündeten“ bezeichnet hatte und Netanyahu in seinem Konflikt mit Iran Unterstützung zusagte."

Auch in Bahrain wird die Wiederwahl Obamas mit gemischten Gefühlen aufgenommen. Die arabischen Länder bewerteten die Wiederwahl sehr unterschiedlich, schreibt Kassim Hussain für al-Wasat: "Die Wiederwahl Barack Obamas spaltete den Nahen Osten in zwei Lager: Während ein Lager versucht mit Schwierigkeit seine Freude zu verbergen, versucht das andere Lager sein Leid zu verbergen."

Diese Unterscheidung, so Hussain, verlaufe entlang der amerikanischen Einteilung des Nahen Ostens in eine „Achse des Bösen“ und eine „Achse der Guten“. Paradoxerweise begrüßten die Länder der „Achse des Bösen“ die Wiederwahl Obamas, die Länder der „Achse der Guten“ seien darüber eher enttäuscht. Den Grund sieht er in der eher milden Haltung Obamas gegenüber jenen Länden, denen Bush Junior noch Krieg angedroht habe. In Anspielung auf die NATO-Intervention in Libyen schreibt er:„Die Region, die vom arabischen Frühling erschüttert wurde, ist noch immer in zwei Lager gespalten: Regierungen, die von der Wiederwahl Obamas enttäuscht sind und Menschen die an der Idee festhalten, das es sich bewahrheitet dass die Amerikaner ihre Einstellung gegenüber den Menschenrechten ändern, wenn auch nur ein einziges Mal, und nicht ein weiteres Mal Menschenleben gegen Öl eintauschen“.

"Die Apokalypse wird morgen nicht eintreten. Das Paradies auch nicht."

Unter der Überschrift „Ein amerikanischer Traum“ stellt der Leitartikler des libanesischen L'Orient le Jour fest: „2008 haben die Amerikaner einen Traumfabrikanten ins Weiße Haus geschickt – was man ihnen nicht unbedingt zum Vorwurf machen kann – der es vier Jahre später immer noch nicht geschafft hat, diesen Traum zu verwirklichen, was nicht auf eine strahlende Zukunft schließen lässt. Weise oder nicht, sie haben sich für den amtierenden Präsidenten entschieden, den sie wenigstens schon kennen, anstelle eines Gegners, der sein Können bisher lediglich bei olympischen Winterspielen unter Beweis gestellt hat.“

Dieses Mal hätten sie Obama eine neue Aufgabe mit auf den Weg gegeben: Die Reihen zu schließen, die nie zuvor so gespalten waren. Angesichts der Mehrheit der Grand Old Party im Repräsentantenhaus sei jedoch zu bezweifeln, dass Obama dafür in naher Zukunft eine Lösung finde, ebenso wie für die Wirtschaftsprobleme oder die Arbeitslosigkeit. Die Reform des Gesundheitssystems sei bereits enorm in einem Land, in dem jeder nur auf sich gestellt ist. Der Leitartikel endet mit der lapidaren Feststellung: „Die Vereinigten Staaten schrammen immer am Abgrund entlang, ohne jemals hineinzufallen. Die Apokalypse wird morgen nicht eintreten. Das Paradies auch nicht.“

Osama bin Laden, für den Bush noch sämtliche Berge von Tora Bora durchkämmte, habe Barack Obama die Wahl gerettet, meint der Kommentator der algerischen Tageszeitung El Watan. „‘Forward!‘ proklamiert Obama, selbst wenn seine internationale Bilanz alles andere als rosig aussieht. Seine Versprechen einer besseren Welt haben sich vier Jahre später nicht unbedingt als wahr erwiesen. Zwar hat seine Rede in Kairo die Herzen der Araber und der Muslime berührt. Aber letztendlich waren das nur schöne Worte, magische Formeln eines Mannes, der zu reden und zu respektieren versteht.“ Auch die Palästinenser sähen heute die Kluft zwischen Obamas Versprechen eines unabhängigen Staates und der Wirklichkeit. Er habe Gaza 2009 ebenso wenig verhindern können wie den israelischen Siedlungsbau, und als Friedensnobelpreisträger führe er weiterhin Krieg im Irak und in Afghanistan. „Trotz allem: Die Tatsache, dass er wiedergewählt wurde, ist mit Sicherheit eine gute Nachricht für die ganze Welt. Sie ist ein Zeichen dafür, dass die Mehrheit der Amerikaner seinen Willen teilt, die Dinge zu ändern und sein Land menschlicher zu machen. Nachdem er nun seine Landsleute überzeugt hat, dass er ihr Präsident in den vier kommenden Jahren sein darf, bleibt es seine Aufgabe, die Welt und vor allem die Araber und die Muslime zu überzeugen, dass sie nicht nur sein liebster Zeitvertreib sind.“

 "Wir gratulieren Ihnen zur Wahl"

Die Wiederwahl Barack Obamas wurde in den palästinensischen Medien mit Erleichterung, jedoch sehr nüchtern aufgenommen. Der Tenor der wenigen Meinungsartikel lautet, dass eine Regierung Romney sich "noch einseitiger" im Nahostkonflikt zugunsten Israels positioniert hätte. Der renommierte Politikwissenschaftler Oraib Rantawi befindet etwa in der Jerusalemer Zeitung al-Quds: "Mitt Romneys Wahl hätte einen Albtraum für Präsident Abbas und für das palästinensische Streben nach Selbstbestimmung bedeutet, obwohl auch Obama Abbas enttäuschte und im Stich ließ."

Zudem hätte Romney anders als Obama mit seinem konfrontativen Auftreten die globalen Machtverhältnisse destabilisiert: "Obamas Tür ist für Lösungen und politische Kompromisse - wenn auch unausgewogen - geöffnet, während Romneys Tür geschlossen bleibt, weil er Russland als militärische, China als wirtschaftliche und Iran als terroristische Bedrohung wahrnimmt"

In vielen Meinungsbeiträgen schwingt bittere Enttäuschung angesichts Obamas bisheriger Nahostpolitik mit, in die zahlreiche Palästinenserinnen und Palästinenser nach seiner Rede in Kairo große Hoffnungen gesetzt hatte. Ein anonymer Leserbrief fasst diese Gefühlslage zusammen: "Von Beginn seiner ersten Amtszeit richtete sich Präsident Obama an die internationale Öffentlichkeit und machte viele Versprechungen. Seine Rede an der Universität von Kairo war ein Durchbruch und verbreitete Optimismus unter vielen Palästinensern. Doch peu à peu wendete sich das Blatt und Obama gelang es nicht, auf der politischen Ebene etwas für die palästinensische Sache zu erreichen. Im Gegenteil nahm er fortan blind, einseitig israelische Positionen an. Er konnte den Siedlungsbau nicht stoppen und wandte sich stattdessen gehen die palästinensischen Bestrebungen im Sicherheitsrat."

Prominente Persönlichkeiten wie der Multi-Milliardär Munib al-Masri aus Nablus nutzen die palästinensischen Medien wiederum, um Obama zu beglückwünschen und gleichzeitig Erwartungen an die zwei Amtszeit zu formulieren. al-Masri, der sich auch politisch engagiert und mehrfach für das Amt des Ministerpräsidenten im Gespräch war, schreibt ebenfalls in der Zeitung al-Quds: "Wir gratulieren Ihnen zur Wahl (...) und hoffen, dass Sie diese Amtszeit mit innen- und außenpolitischen Erfolgen füllen, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Beendigung des arabisch-israelischen Konflikts. Dies ist die Grundlage für ein Ende der Besatzung der arabischen Gebiete, die Errichtung eines unabhängigen Staates in den Grenzen von 1967 mit Ostjerusalem als Hauptstadt und die Rückkehr der Flüchtlinge in Übereinstimmung mit der UN-Resolution 194."

Al-Masri appeliert in dem Schreiben an internationale und insbesondere amerikanische Werte. Die Besatzung und Annexion, verbunden mit der Inbesitznahme von Land durch die Sperranlage und den Ausbau von Siedlungen verletze "alle Normen, internationale Gesetze und die in der US-Verfassungen verankerten Prinzipien der Gerichtigkeit".

"Wir brauchen einen Führer, der Israel mit harter Hand führt"

Dass das US-Votum enorme Auswirkungen auf die israelische Parlamentswahl haben würde, war spätestens
dann klar, als Ehud Olmert und Tzipi Livni vor wenigen Tagen verkündet hatten, sie würden die Entscheidung über eine Rückkehr in den Jerusalemer Polit-Zirkus vom Ergebnis – und damit einem Sieg Obamas – zwischen New York und L.A. abhängig machen. Besonders dieses Verhalten stößt vielerorts in den israelischen Medien auf Unverständnis.

Da ist Ruthi Blum, für die die Wiederwahl Barack Obamas, in dem sie einen Sozialisten zu erkennen glaubt, ein Schock ist. Im Massenblatt Israel Hajom schreibt sie: „Mit einem weniger als freundlichen Commander-in-chief im Oval Office, ist es umso bedeutender, dass wir in Jerusalem einen Führer haben, der Israel mit eiserner Faust führt.“

Paroli bietet Blum Lynette Nusbacher. In der Times of Israel erklärt sie: „Wenn die weitere Existenz Israels davon abhängt, dass wir einen Likudnik im Weißen Haus sitzen haben, dann ist Israel kein richtiger Staat“ – und hält eben jenen Befürwortern dieser Strategie vor, sie würden aus Israel ein zweites Süd-Vietnam machen wollen, dass nicht mehr gewesen sei, als ein „Hubschrauberlandeplatz, eine Puppe oder Schoßhündchen“.

Eli Avidar kommentiert für das vor dem Bankrott stehende Traditionsblatt Maariv, dass Israel durch die Wiederwahl von Barack Obama vor vier sehr komplexen Jahren stehe. Nicht deshalb, weil der neue und alte US-Präsident und Benjamin Netanjahu offenkundig keine innige Beziehung zueinander haben, so Avidar, denn persönliche Befindlichkeiten spielten hierbei keine Rolle. Vielmehr gehe es darum, den Analytiker Obama mit Fakten zu beeindrucken. "Der Ministerpräsident wird noch härter arbeiten müssen", denn "Obama hat bereits gezeigt, dass er kein Präsident ist, der in den Krieg zieht, sondern seine Soldaten nach Hause bringt. Israel wird deshalb große diplomatische Anstrengungen unternehmen müssen, wenn es nicht eines Tages mit einer Atombombe in den Händen Irans aufwachen möchte."

"Der Nahe Osten wird ihn verfolgen"

In der liberalen israelischen Tageszeitung Ha’aretz reflektiert Akiva Eldar einen möglichen Wandel der amerikanischen Nahostpolitik in Obamas zweiter Amtszeit. Während Obama zu Beginn seiner ersten Präsidentschaft durch politische Impulse positive Erwartungen geweckt habe, sehe er sich nun einem “neuen Nahen Osten” gegenüber, der die USA vor “neue Herausforderungen und neue Spielregeln” stelle.

Noch 2009 habe sich Obama in Kairo für einen eigenständigen palästinensischen Staat ausgesprochen. Doch sei die US-Regierung danach nicht bereit gewesen den nötigen Druck auf Israel auszuüben und habe die Palästinenser damit sehr enttäuscht. Mit Spannung werde nun Obamas Position zum palästinensischen Antrag auf den Status eines staatlichen nicht-Mitglieds der Vereinten Nationen erwartet. „Angenommen Abbas kriegt keine kalten Füße, wird Obama gezwungen sein sich entweder hinter Abbas oder Netanjahu zu stellen. Beide Optionen haben ihren Preis.” Lasse man Abbas scheitern, bedeute das seinen Rücktritt und womöglich die Dritte Intifada. Unterstützten die USA Abbas, riskiere man israelische Sanktionen und in der Folge ebenfalls den erneuten gewaltsamen Aufstand.

Sollte Obama seine Kairoer Versprechen brechen und den Palästinensern die Unterstützung vor den Vereinten Nationen verweigern, sollte er also, so Eldar, “dem Nahen Osten den Rücken kehren wollen, wird der Nahe Osten ihn verfolgen”.

„Netanjahu hat riskant gespielt, wir werden dafür bezahlen“, kommentiert Sima Kadmon in den israelischen YnetNews die US-Präsidentschaftswahlen. Der israelische Premier hatte sich im Vorfeld der Wahlen klar auf die Seite von Obamas Rivalen Mitt Romney geschlagen und Obama mehrere Male offen brüskiert. „Netanjahus Verhalten wird für uns alle Folgen haben. Israels Außenpolitik und unsere Beziehungen mit den Vereinigten Staaten sind nicht Netanjahus Privatangelegenheit sondern existenzielles Kapital des Staates Israel. Netanjahu hätte dieses Kapital niemals aufs Spiel setzen dürfen.“ Kadmon befürchtet nun Amerikas Rache: „Ohne Zweifel werden die USA weiterhin Israels Sicherheit und Existenz verpflichtet bleiben. Die USA werden Israel nicht für Netanjahus Verhalten in Geiselhaft nehmen. Doch in allem, was über essentielle Sicherheitsbelange hinausgeht, erwartet uns die kalte Schulter.“

"Eine Wahl gegen Romney"

Die reformorientierte Zeitung Etemad aus Teheran lieferte eine breite Berichterstattung unter der Schlagzeile „Obamas iranische Herausforderung“ mit mehreren Meinungsbildern und einem zentralen Interview mit Hossein Daheshyar, einem langjährigen US-Kommentator, der allerdings seit den Wahlunruhen von 2009 keine weiteren Interviews gegeben hatte.

Zu Beginn des Interviews äußert Daheshyar seine Verwunderung darüber, dass Obama die Wahl gewann. „Noch nie hat ein amerikanischer Präsident unter solch schlechten Wirtschaftsbedingungen eine Wahl gewonnen. Die Wirtschaftslage war seit der letzten Großen Depression in den dreißiger noch nie so schlecht“. Obama habe die Schuld auch nicht auf seinen Vorgänger Mitt Romney abwälzen können „Die Amerikaner haben diese Ausrede auch nicht akzeptiert, sondern wollten einfach Romney nicht“. Daraus schlussfolgert er, dass die Wahl „eigentlich keine Wahl für Obama, sondern eine Wahl gegen Romney war“. "Die Außenpolitik hatte überhaupt keinen Einfluss", analysiert Daheshyar.

Die US-Bürger hätten Obama vor allem wegen des Glaubens gewählt, den er verbreite. „Obama präsentierte sich selbst als jemand, der Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt und Ronald Reagan folgt. Alles Politiker, die eine besondere Rolle in der amerikanischen Gesellschaft einnehmen und als ,Veränderer‘ gelten. Mit seiner Wiederwahl besitzt er nun auch die Chance als „Veränderer“ in die Geschichte einzugehen“. Allerdings habe Obama zu wenig unternommen, um die Polarisierung der amerikanischen Gesellschaft zu überwinden. „Daher halte ich es für unwahrscheinlich, dass man ihn nach den vier Jahren in der Reihe dieser Präsidenten sehen wird. Er versuchte im Wahlkampf ja auch nicht einmal, Personen in den republikanischen Reihen zu überzeugen“.

Dariush Soleymani, Experte für Internationale Beziehungen, merkt in seinem Kommentar für Etemad an, dass die geschichtliche Erfahrung zeige, dass Republikaner vor allem „nach einem Erstarken der Wirtschaft den Präsidenten stellten“. Trotz der enttäuschten Erwartungen an Obama gebe es einige „nennenswerte Veränderungen“ in der Politik gegenüber seinem Vorgänger. Dazu gehöre „der Rückzug vom Krieg in der Außenpolitik mit den dazu verbundenen Kürzungen im Militärbudget des Landes und die Konzentration Obamas auf die Lösung der eigenen Wirtschaftskrise“.

"Vier weitere Jahre ohne Veränderung"

Die Zeitung Keyhan, die den Sicherheitsorganen der IRI nahe stehen und mit ihrem Chefredakteur Hossein Shariatmadari einen direkten Draht zum Revolutionsführer Ali Khamenei haben soll, titelte: „Der ,Herr der Veränderung‘ schaffte es wieder - vier weitere Jahre ohne Veränderung“. Die Keyhan stellt heraus, dass Obama mit „etwa 50% der Stimmen die Wahlen gewinnen konnte“ und dabei „sechs bis acht Milliarden Dollar“ ausgegeben wurden. Anschließend wird das amerikanische Wahlsystem erklärt, und darauf hingewiesen, dass „Obama Sieger wurde, obwohl er im Vergleich etwa zehn Millionen Stimmen verloren hat“. Eine lange Liste an Gratulationswünsche folgt, bei denen unteren anderem Mahmud Abbas als „Präsident der Selbstständigen Palästinenser“ und Benyamin Netanyahu als „Präsident des zionistischem Regimes“ vorgestellt werden.

Ebenso würde George Soros, „zionistischer amerikanischer Milliardär“ und Präsident der Soros-Stiftung Obama zum Wahlsieg gratulieren. Keyhan greift dazu eine "Reuters"-Quelle auf und zitiert: „Der berühmte amerikanische Milliardär sagte, dass der Erfolg Obamas gegen Mitt Romney bedeute, dass eine vernünftigere und bessere Politik fortgesetzt wird. Er würde sich freuen“. Nachdem kurz einige Ziele Obamas genannt werden, wird auf die US-Wahlkritik von Jürgen Klimke, einem OSZE-Wahlbeobachter eingegangen. „Nach Berichten der deutschen Zeitung Die Welt war er sehr unzufrieden mit der Durchführung der US-Wahl. Herr Klimke sagte, dass er nicht frei arbeiten konnte und bezeichnete die Durchführung der Wahl als „unlogisch“ und dass die Wahlzählung in dem Sinne „merkwürdig“ war, dass die „Registrierung zur Wahl nicht mal nach den Standards wie in anderen Ländern verlief“ und ihm als Wahlbeobachter nicht einmal Kameras oder Handys erlaubt waren. So erging es allen etwa 80 Wahlbeobachtern“.

Die Keyhan hebt ebenso die „schwache Wahlbeteiligung hervor, die in der „Unfähigkeit Obamas Verantwortung zu übernehmen“ und „dem Taifun Sandy“ verschuldet war. Zudem hätten „die unabhängigen Kandidaten der Wahl, aufgrund der Anspannungen und großen Probleme unter denen das Land leidet, keine Chance gehabt, sich der amerikanischen Bevölkerung vorzustellen. So ist die Bevölkerung gezwungen entweder den republikanischen oder demokratischen Kandidaten zu wählen“.

Abschließend nennt die Keyhan „einen weiteren interessanten Aspekt der Präsidentschaftswahlen“, da „Romney aus Michigan stammt und trotz allem dort weniger Stimmen als Obama holen konnte“. Zweifellos eine Anspielung auf die oft als unglaubwürdig kritisierten Wahlergebnisse 2009, bei denen beispielsweise Ahmadinejad mehr Stimmen im Heimatort seines Konkurrenten Mousavi erlangen konnte.

          Schutzlos im Libanon? Die sunnitische Gemeinschaft nach dem Anschlag auf Wissam al-Hassan    

Libanons Sunniten sehen im Anschlag auf Geheimdienstchef Wissam al-Hassan am 19. Oktober einen weiteren Verlust an politischem Einfluss und an Sicherheit. Eine zweite »Zedernrevolution« ist dennoch nicht zu erwarten. 

Vor sieben Jahren sah die Zukunft für die Sunniten im Libanon noch vielversprechend aus. Die Ermordung des sunnitischen Ex-Ministerpräsidenten Rafiq Hariri im Februar 2005 hatte die Gemeinschaft vereint und politisiert. Auf dem Beiruter Märtyrerplatz forderten sie vehement einen von Syrien unabhängigen Libanon. Der spontane zivilgesellschaftliche Protest gegen Syrien war so groß, dass sich das Assad-Regime gezwungen sah, sein Militär aus dem Libanon vollständig abzuziehen. In Folge dessen waren freie Wahlen möglich, aus denen das Syrien-kritische Parteienbündnis des 14. März – bestehend aus sunnitischen, christlichen und drusischen Akteuren – als Sieger hervorging.

An allen Jahrestagen des Anschlags wiederholten sich die zeremoniellen Massenkundgebungen auf dem Märtyrerplatz, denn die Bewegung des 14. März sah die Revolution noch nicht als abgeschlossen an. Sie forderte die Aufklärung des Attentats durch ein internationales Tribunal und die Entwaffnung der pro-syrischen schiitischen Hizbullah. Jedoch verlor die Bewegung ihren anfänglich zivilgesellschaftlichen Charakter und wurde immer mehr zu einem Instrument Syrien-kritischer Parteien.
  
Keine Religionsgemeinschaft unterstütze so vereint das Bündnis des 14. März wie die sunnitische. Durch diese einflussreiche Allianz wurden die Sunniten wieder eine eigenständige politische Kraft im Libanon. Saad Hariri machte aus »Mustaqbal«, zu Deutsch »Zukunft« – einem vormals losen Netzwerk sunnitischer Eliten – eine gut organisierte Programmpartei. Ausdrücklich wollte Hariri keine konfessionalistische Klientelpartei nach libanesischem Muster aufbauen sondern eine liberal-nationale, säkular orientierte politische Kraft. Als Führer der Unabhängigkeitsbewegung des 14. März gelang Hariri 2005 der Sieg bei den Parlamentswahlen.

Bis auf die Radikalen und Gewaltbereiten trauen sich nur noch wenige Sunniten zu Protesten auf die Straße

Die Einheitsregierung von 2005 zerfiel jedoch früh an der Frage des Internationalen Gerichtshof zur Aufklärung des Attentats auf Rafiq Hariri. Das pro-syrische Lager ging fortan in Fundamentalopposition zum 14. März. Im Mai 2008 eskalierte dieser Konflikt, als die Hizbullah ins sunnitisch dominierte Westbeirut einmarschierte und das Gebiet mehrere Tage besetzt hielt. Hariri und die Regierung der »Zedernrevolutionäre« konnten der sunnitischen Gemeinschaft keinen Schutz bieten und schauten der Machtdemonstration der Hizbullah tatenlos zu. Die Enttäuschung der Sunniten über die politische Führung und die Angst vor erneuter Fremdbestimmung wuchsen seitdem, und es verwundert wenig, dass die Demonstrationszeremonien zu den Jahrestagen des Hariri-Anschlags immer weniger Menschen mobilisierten.

Dennoch gelang Hariri 2009 erneut der Wahlsieg. Nun hatte er Mustaqbal jedoch konsequent als sunnitische Interessenpartei neu organisiert. Aber auch diese ab 2009 von Hariri als Ministerpräsident geführte Regierung hielt nicht länger als zwei Jahre. Als die drusische Partei von Walid Jumblatt die Seiten wechselte, verlor der »14. März« die Regierungsmacht zugunsten eines vorwiegend pro-syrischen Lagers, dem unter anderem die Hizbullah angehört. Nach dem Ende des zivilgesellschaftlichen Elans der Sunniten hatte Mustaqbal nun auch noch die Regierungsmacht abgeben müssen.

Im Vorfeld der Beerdigungszeremonie für Wissam al-Hassan hat Al-Jazeera in seinem englischen Hauptprogramm noch über eine zweite »Zedernrevolution« spekuliert. Hunderttausende Demonstranten wurden auch von den Granden des 14. März erwartet. Mustaqbal hatte die Beerdigung extra auf den Sonntag verschoben, um seine Anhänger zu mobilisieren und die nötige Zeit für die Organisation einer Großveranstaltung zu gewinnen. Dem Aufruf von Oppositionspolitikern, sich am »Tags des Zorns« auf dem Märtyrerplatz zu versammeln, sind aber nur wenige Tausend Menschen gefolgt – darunter viele Anhänger der christlichen Lebanese Forces. Bis auf die Radikalen und Gewaltbereiten trauen sich nur noch wenige Sunniten zu Protesten auf die Straße. Eine neue Revolution gab es nicht. Und es wird sie auch nicht mehr geben.

Die Sunniten brauchen souveränen Staat und seine Schutzfunktion wie keine andere Releigionsgemeinschaft

Die Sunniten sind nach dem stetigen Machtverlust ihrer politischen Führer und dem Erstarken des pro-syrischen Lagers desillusioniert. Die Probleme sind aber auch hausgemacht, wofür vor allem Saad Hariri verantwortlich ist. Das Kernproblem der Opposition ist nicht allein das Scheitern der Regierung der »nationalen Einheit«, in der die widerstreitenden Lager des 8. und des 14. März keinen Konsens finden konnten, sondern die Passivität, mit der Hariri agiert, seitdem er Oppositionsführer ist. Hariri hat sich im März 2011 – und damit nur zwei Monate nach dem Regierungsbruch – nach Saudi-Arabien abgesetzt und ist seither nicht in den Libanon zurückgekehrt. Saudi-Arabien ist das Land, in dem er geboren ist und dessen Staatsangehörigkeit er trägt. Von dort (und manchmal auch von Paris aus) verbreitet er seine politischen Botschaften via Twitter. Seine Anhänger im Libanon zeigen immer weniger Verständnis für seine Abstinenz – und auch nicht für die Sicherheitsbedenken, die Hariri als Grund für seine Abwesenheit angibt. Nachdem sich aber noch nicht einmal der Geheimdienstchef der Polizei vor einem Anschlag schützen konnte, ist mit einer Rückkehr des einstigen Hoffnungsträgers überhaupt nicht mehr zu rechnen.

Die um sich greifende Anarchie im Libanon ist für die sunnitische Gemeinschaft ein besonders gravierendes Problem. Die anderen größeren Gemeinschaften, insbesondere Schiiten, Maroniten und Drusen, werden politisch von Parteien und Parteiführern vertreten, die bürgerkriegserfahren sind und im Falle eines Staatszerfalls die Hauptsiedlungsgebiete ihrer jeweiligen Gemeinschaft notfalls auch militärisch verteidigen könnten. Keine Gemeinschaft ist auf einen souveränen Staat und seine Schutzfunktion stärker angewiesen als die sunnitische. Es ist daher vor allem im ihrem Interesse, dass der Staat seine Souveränitätsrechte gegenüber inneren und äußeren Widersachern durchsetzen kann.

Der am 19. Oktober ermordete Wissam al-Hassan war ein Verfechter des staatlichen Gewaltmonopols. Er war kein politischer Führer, aber seit dem Sturz der Hariri-Regierung im Januar 2011 der bei weitem einflussreichste Hariri-Vertraute im libanesischen Staatsapparat. Seine Geheimdienstbehörde gehörte zu den wenigen effektiven Institutionen des Staates. Unter Hassans Führung hat der Geheimdienst terroristische Anschlagspläne vereitelt und ein israelisches Spionagenetzwerk enttarnt. Der größte Coup gelang der Behörde in diesem August, als sie eine von Syrien geplante Anschlagserie aufgedeckt und dabei die Verwicklung des ehemaligen libanesischen Ministers Michel Samaha nachweisen konnte. Einmalig in der libanesischen Nachbürgerkriegsgeschichte erhob ein libanesisches Gericht in dem Fall auch Anklage gegen den mutmaßlichen Drahtzieher Ali Mamlouk – einen engen Sicherheitsberater von Baschar al-Assad.

Der mächtige Polizeigeheimdienst stellte somit sicherheitspolitisch ein effektives sunnitisches Gegengewicht zu pro-syrischen Regierungskräften dar. Unangenehm wurde Wissam Hassan im Speziellen der Hizbullah, als er auch an der Aufklärung des Hariri-Attentats von 2005 maßgeblich mitwirkte. Seine Behörde war es, die durch die aufwendige Auswertung des Telekommunikationsverkehrs die Beweisgrundlage für die Anklage des Den Haager Tribunals gegen vier Hizbullah-Leute lieferte. Wissam al-Hassan ist bereits der zweite hochrangige sunnitische Sicherheitsbeamte, der einem Anschlag zum Opfer fiel. Im Januar 2008 wurde bereits Geheimdienstoffizier Wissam Eid durch eine Autobombe getötet. Auch Eid arbeitete bei der Inneren Sicherheit unter anderem an der Aufklärung des Hariri-Attentats.

Salafistische Konkurrenz aus Hariris Heimatstadt

Im kommenden Jahr stehen im Libanon Parlamentswahlen an, eigentlich eine Chance für die Opposition, wieder an die Macht zu kommen. Aber auch für den Fall, dass die Sicherheitslage die Abhaltung von Wahlen überhaupt zulässt, ist ein erneuter Wahlerfolg des 14. März nicht zu erwarten – und das, obwohl die gegenwärtige Regierung vor allem durch interne Streitigkeiten auffällt. Hariris Abwesenheit hat jedoch ein Machtvakuum in der sunnitischen Gemeinschaft geschaffen, das andere Akteure längst zu füllen begonnen haben.

Da ist zum einen Ministerpräsident Najib Mikati, der aus der größten sunnitischen Stadt des Libanon Tripoli stammt. Er hat seit Amtsantritt im Juni 2011 an Statur gewonnen. Dem gemäßigten Mikati kann außerdem zugute gehalten werden, dass er einen gewissen Einfluss auf die pro-syrischen Kräfte des Libanon hat, allen voran die Hizbullah. Mikati wird seine Anhänger nächstes Jahr mobilisieren können. Viele sunnitische Tripolitaner werden zwar nicht euphorisch aber pragmatisch für Mikati stimmen, nach dem Motto: besser einer von uns in der Regierung, als ein Oppositionsführer in Saudi-Arabien.

In Hariris Heimatstadt Saida, der zweitgrößten sunnitischen Stadt des Landes, konnten sich salafistische Anhänger des Predigers Ahmad al-Assir als politische Größe etablieren. In manchen Vierteln prägen heute die langbärtigen Salafisten in ihren weißen Gewändern das Straßenbild. Solange Hariri im Land war, beschränkten sich die Salafisten Saidas auf religiöse Aktivitäten in ihren Moscheen, ohne von der Öffentlichkeit wahrgenommen zu werden. In diesem Jahr haben Assir und seine Anhänger auf Saidas Hauptverkehrsstraße über Monate ein Protestlager aufgeschlagen, um nicht weniger als die Entwaffnung der Hizbullah zu fordern. Häufig kam es zu Auseinandersetzungen mit der »Populär-Nasseristischen Organisation«, deren Führer Osama Saad und Lokalnotabel das pro-syrische Lager unterstützt.

Assir, der durch seine medienwirksamen Aktionen zum schärften Kritiker der Hizbullah geworden ist, hat in diesem Jahr begonnen, auch außerhalb Saidas zu mobilisieren. Am 21. September organisierte Ahmad al-Assir nach dem Freitagsgebet auf dem Beiruter Märtyrerplatz Libanons größte sunnitische Protestveranstaltung gegen das amerikanische Muhammad-Video. Alle Hauptverkehrsstraßen von und nach Beirut wurden an diesem Tag sicherheitshalber gesperrt. Assir geht es um die religiös-politische Vorherrschaft in der sunnitischen Gemeinschaft. Am Tag des Attentats auf Wissam al-Hassan ließ er einmal mehr Straßensperren in Saida errichten und hielt zwei Tage später in Beirut zur Beerdigungszeremonie eine wütende Rede vor begeisterten Anhängern.

Assads Verbündete zeigen Flagge in Westbeirut

Saida ist auch die Heimat des ehemaligen Ministerpräsidenten und Hariri-treuen Fuad Siniora. Zwar konnte Siniora 2009 noch einen der beiden Parlamentssitze in Saida ergattern, grundsätzlich aber ist der Architekt der Pariser Geberkonferenzen für den Libanon ein Technokrat in Hariris Diensten ohne eigene Anhängerschaft. Mit Blick auf die Wahlen im kommenden Jahr stellt sich die Frage, warum sich Ahmad Assir dem Diktat der Mustaqbal-Partei unterwerfen soll, wo er sich in den letzten Jahren mit Beharrlichkeit eine eigene Machtbasis geschaffen hat.

In Westbeirut, der dritten sunnitischen Hochburg des Libanon, sind seit dem militärischen Eingriff der Hizbullah im Mai 2008 die Fahnen nur einer einzigen Partei allgegenwärtig: die der SSNP. Die pan-syrisch nationalistische Partei unterstützt das syrische Regime und steht in einer engen politischen Allianz mit der Hizbullah. Die SSNP stellt keine Massenbewegung dar, hat aber ihre Hochburg im Westbeiruter Stadtteil Hamra. In einzelnen Beiruter Geschäften haben die Ladenbesitzer zwar immer noch Bilder des verstorbenen Rafiq al-Hariri an den Fenstern aufgehangen. Aber Bilder Saad Hariris oder gar die himmelblauen Fahnen seiner Mustaqbal-Partei sucht man heute in ganz Beirut vergebens.

Es ist eine Mischung aus Angst vor der allmächtig erscheinenden Hizbullah, Frustration über Hariris Unscheinbarkeit und Enttäuschung über die politische Entwicklung seit der Zedernrevolution, die die politische Apathie der sunnitischen Mehrheit erklärt. Die gesamte Gemeinschaft fühlt sich schutzlos und als Opfer regionaler Interessenskonflikte. Und aufgrund Saad Hariris Abstinenz fehlt ihr auch der Heilsbringer, mit dem sie einst die Hoffnung auf Stabilität, Unabhängigkeit und Prosperität verband.
          Akteure und Hintergründe des Abyan-Konflikts im Südjemen   
Von Anne-Linda Amira Augustin

Der Jemenitische Frühling hat das Land an den ökonomischen und politischen Abgrund geführt. Dies verstand ich, als ich im August 2012 in den Südjemen reiste. Zuletzt besuchte ich die Region Ende 2010. In dieser Zeit bekam Aden einen neuen Anstrich, damit es repräsentativ für den Fußballcup Khaleeji 20 wurde, der in Aden und in der 50 km entfernten Hauptstadt des Gouvernorates Abyan Zinjibar ausgetragen wurde. 

Aden war damals sicher und obwohl in Abyan Al-Qaida vermutet wurde, konnte man sich frei ohne Angst bewegen und selbst in der Wüste wandern gehen. Damals glaubte keiner so recht daran, dass sich Al-Qaida wirklich in Abyan befinde. Es wurde ein Trick des Saleh-Regimes hinter dieser Behauptung vermutet, um damit die Bewegung des Südens zu torpedieren. Die Bevölkerung Abyans wusste weder wo Al-Qaida sei, noch wer zu ihnen gehörte.

Als ich nun im August 2012 erneut Aden und Abyan besuchte, sah ich Aden als eine gebeutelte Stadt, in der schon lange nicht mehr wegen Streiks der Stadtwirtschaft gereinigt wird und wo Einschüsse in den Häuserfassaden zu finden waren. Die Staatsmacht scheint sich gerade noch in der Hauptstadt Sanaa halten zu können. In Aden weht nur noch die Fahne der Sezessionsbewegung, die sinnbildlich für die Unabhängigkeit und Freiheit der Südjemeniten vom Norden steht. In Abyan und Shabwa treiben sich bis heute Kämpfer Ansar ash-Sharias – einem Zweig Al-Qaidas – herum und das Delta Abyan ist menschenleer, da die Bevölkerung vor den Kämpfen zwischen Ansar ash-Sharia und dem jemenitischen Militär sowie vor den US- und saudischen Luftangriffen floh. Der Südjemen scheint am politischen sowie ökonomischen Abseits angekommen zu sein.

Doch was geschah zwischen meinen beiden Aufenthalten? Dieser Beitrag versucht weniger die Erfolge und Misserfolge des jemenitischen Militärs und Ansar ash-Sharias aufzulisten, als mehr eine Analyse der derzeitigen Situation vor Ort zu geben und der Frage nachzugehen, warum Abyan Austragungsort der Konflikte wurde. Dabei sollen Gespräche mit Einheimischen, deren Namen nur als Pseudonyme wiedergegeben werden, Einblick in das Leben während 2011 bis August 2012 zeigen.

Was ist passiert?

Seit 2007/8 war Abyan ein sehr starkes Protestzentrum der Hirak gunubi – der Bewegung des Südens – die für ein unabhängiges Südarabien, Rechtsstaatlichkeit sowie Ende der Korruption und gegen das brutale Vorgehen von jemenitischen Sicherheitskräften während Protesten demonstrierte. Als sich im Zuge des Arabischen Frühlings die Auseinandersetzungen zwischen dem Pro- und Antiregimegruppen in der Hauptstadt Sanaa intensivierten, wurden Sicherheitskräfte in Abyan abgezogen. Der Verdacht, dass sich Al-Qaida Kämpfer in Abyan befinden, bestätigte sich mit der Übernahme Zinjibars im Mai 2011. Plötzlich wurde Zinjibar zum Wilayat Abyan erklärt. Die jemenitischen Sicherheitskräfte hätten ihre Waffen zurückgelassen, die sich die Kämpfer Ansar ash-Sharias aneigneten.1Die Bevölkerung flüchtete in das 50 km entfernte Aden, was ehemalige Hauptstadt der Volksdemokratischen Republik Jemen war. Zinjibar wurde Schauplatz von Kämpfen zwischen Ansar ash-Sharia und dem jemenitischen Militär (Artillerie), letztere wurden von US- und saudischen Flugzeug- und Drohnenangriffen unterstützt. Im September 2011 wurde die Nachbarstadt Jaar, das einstige Verwaltungszentrum Abyans, von den Kämpfern Ansar ash-Sharias eingenommen und zu ihrem Verwaltungssitz erklärt. Damit war auch das Emirat Waqar geschaffen, in dem die schwarze Fahne Al-Qaidas mit der weißen Aufschrift „Es gibt keinen Gott, außer Gott und Mohammad ist sein Gesandter“wehte. Diejenigen, die noch nicht im Mai aus Jaar flohen, packten nun endgültig ihr Hab und Gut zusammen und flüchteten ebenfalls nach Aden, wo mittlerweile mehr als 100.000 Binnenflüchtlinge leben.2Die sooft als präzise erklärten Drohnen der USA haben Schulen, das nahe Jaar gelegene Zentralkrankenhaus Abyans Razi zerstört und zahlreiche Zivilisten getötet, anstatt das wirkliche Ziel – die Kämpfer Ansar ash-Sharias – zu treffen. 
 
Ende 2011 bis Juni 2012 hatte es den Anschein, dass in Abyan eine Kriegsökonomie aufgebaut wird. Das jemenitische Militär habe zudem die Kämpfer mit Nahrungsmitteln und Waffen versorgt. Die Abschlachtung hunderter Soldaten bei Dofis durch die Kämpfer Al-Qaidas im Frühjahr 2012 zeigt allerdings das Gegenteil, zumindest auf dem Schlachtfeld.3

Am 12. Juni 2012 erhielt ich früh am Morgen eine SMS, in der stand: „Dringend – Armee ist in Jaar eingedrungen. Al-Qaida hat sich zurückgezogen.“ Es war verwunderlich, dass Al-Qaida so plötzlich Abyan verließ, wo ich mich doch gerade auf eine langjährige Kriegsökonomie und Etablierung des Emirats einstellte. Das jemenitische Militär feierte seinen Erfolg und offiziell wurde verkündet, dass eine großartige Offensive die Kämpfer zurückschlug.

Als ich nun im August 2012 die Region besuchte, wurde mir schnell bewusst, dass Ansar ash-Sharia immer noch sehr präsent ist. Gleich an meinem Ankunftstag am 18. August wurde ein Gebäude der Sicherheitskräfte in Tawahi / Aden von Al-Qaida hochgebombt. Am gleichen Tag fuhr ich noch nach Abyan, wo überall die legan shaabi – Milizen, die sich aus jungen Männern der Dörfer zusammensetzen – patrouillierten. Sie kontrollierten die Autos genauso wie die zentralen Sicherheitskräfte der aman markazi.

Die jungen Männer der Milizen würden vom Gouverneur selbst bezahlt werden, damit sie die Region gegen Al-Qaida schützen, gemäß einem Mann aus Abyan. Allerdings wird bereits jetzt schon ein Problem bei der Auflösung der bewaffneten Milizen gesehen.

Die darauffolgenden Tage in Abyan waren nicht sehr ruhig, wie man es zum Aid – dem Ende des Ramadans – erwarten sollte. In Batais und Mudiya starben Menschen, weil Autobomben explodierten. An den darauffolgenden Tagen wurden die Milizen von bewaffneten Männern angegriffen oder Menschen in Moscheen erschossen. Es schien, als würde bewusst Angst und Schrecken im Südjemen verbreitet werden. Am Tag des Fastenbrechens, den 19. August, flogen den ganzen Tag US-amerikanische Drohnen über Abyan. Man feierte, saß zusammen und hörte ständig das leichte Summen einer Todesdrohne.

Mir wurden Videos von Ansar ash-Sharia gezeigt, die zweimal in der Woche während ihrer Herrschaft die Dörfer rund um Jaar besuchten und den Menschen ihre Heldentaten in Filmvorführungen zeigten. Ich sah Videos, wie sie Soldaten die Kehlen durchschnitten und anschließend den ganzen Kopf abtrennten und wie sie einen Mann kreuzigten. Was wollten sie mit diesen Videos bezwecken, fragte ich einen Mann. Er antwortete mir:

Wir haben alle die Videos angeschaut und geschwiegen. Wir hatten Angst vor ihnen. Sie wollten damit neue Kämpfer rekrutieren oder Angst machen.“ (Anis, ehemaliger südjemenitischer Militär, 19. August 2012)

Ansar ash-Sharia versuchte einen parallelen Staat zum jemenitischen zu errichten. Frauen erzählten, dass ein Mann Ansar ash-Sharias aus Dhamar stammt und acht Jahre in den USA lebte und studierte. Er war der Verantwortliche für das Schulwesen im Emirat. 
 
Es wurden statt der zwei Schulzeiten [vormittags Jungen, nachmittags Mädchen], drei Schulzeiten eingerichtet, weil Frauen nicht mehr die Jungen ab einem bestimmten Alter unterrichten durften. Erst wurden die kleinen Jungen am Vormittag, dann die älteren Jungen und am Nachmittag die Mädchen unterrichtet. Auch Inhalte aus den Lehrbüchern wurden gestrichen. Es hat Geheimdienste für Ansar ash-Sharia gegeben, die die Umsetzung kontrollierten. Sie wurden von Ansar ash-Sharia finanziert, damit sie alles kontrollieren. Jetzt ist wieder alles umgestellt. Es gab nicht genügend männliche Lehrer im Dorf. Sie haben dann irgendwelche Männer genommen, die nicht die nötige Ausbildung hatten. Sie haben dann die älteren Jungen unterrichtet. Sie waren pädagogisch nicht ausgebildet, haben geschlagen und die Jungen haben nichts verstanden.“ (Samira, Lehrerin in einem Dorf, 21. August 2012)

Dies zeigt, dass Ansar ash-Sharia versuchte, in verschiedene Lebensbereiche einzudringen. Jedoch wurde das Gehalt der Lehrer weiterhin vom jemenitischen Staat gezahlt, welches die Beamten nun nicht mehr in Jaar, sondern in Aden abholen mussten. Unter Ansar ash-Sharia blieb auch der Donnerstag Wochenende im Gegensatz zum restlichen Jemen.

Jetzt ist nur noch am Freitag Wochenende. In Aden war auch nur am Freitag Wochenende. Unter Ansar ash-Sharia war auch Donnerstag weiterhin frei. Sie haben das schriftlich kundgetan in den Dörfern.“(Ghada, Lehrerin in einem Dorf, 20. August 2012)

In der Nähe eines Dorfes namens Derjaj wurde ein Auto Al-Qaidas von einer US-Drohne erfasst und in die Luft gesprengt. Ich schaute mir den Schauplatz an. Es war nur noch ein Loch im Sandboden zu finden, winzige Auto- und Bombenteile sind heute noch über Meter hinweg in der Umgebung verstreut. Diese Überreste gelten als radioaktiv verseucht. Wie viele Al-Qaida-Kämpfer wirklich durch diesen Angriff starben, ist allerdings nicht bekannt: „Ansar ash-Sharia würde nie wirklich sagen, wie viele Menschen in dem Auto starben. Manche sagen, dass nur eine Person starb, andere drei, wieder andere sagen, dass sogar acht Personen von Al-Qaida getötet wurden. Sie würden das nie zugeben, weil sie dann Schwäche zeigen.“ (Huda, eine junge Frau in einem Dorf, 23. August 2012)

Nach diesem Angriff wurde ein saudischer Kämpfer Ansar ash-Sharias von seinen Kumpanen gekreuzigt, da er wohl als amerikanischer Spion entlarvt und für die Bombardierung des Autos verantwortlich gemacht wurde.

Die Menschen berichteten, dass sie sich mehr vor den US-Drohnenangriffen als vor Al-Qaida selbst fürchteten. Al-Qaida ließ die Menschen in Abyan relativ unbehelligt, weil sie sie für ihre Interessen gewinnen wollten. Eine junge 20-jährige Studentin sagte: „Ich hatte so furchtbare Angst vor den Flugzeugen [Drohnen]und auch wenn man die Kämpfe zwischen Al-Qaida und dem Militär hörte.“
Das Al-Qaida so plötzlich Jaar verließ, überraschte alle: „Von einem Tag auf den anderen fuhren sie von Jaar Richtung Kathib [Sanddüne östlich von Jaar] und weiter nach Shoqra. Das ging die ganze Nacht. Viele Autos mit Waffen, aber auch mit Frauen und Kindern fuhren Richtung Osten. Wir fanden das alle sehr plötzlich nach einem Jahr.“(Luqman)

Die Menschen berichteten, dass sie an dem Tag des Abzugs Al-Qaidas keine Kämpfe hörten. Sie gehen davon aus, dass die Kämpfer freiwillig abzogen. Seitdem sie nicht mehr in Jaar sind, finden Übergriffe auf die Zivilbevölkerung in verschiedenen Orten Abyans und auf Anhänger der Sezessionsbewegung in Aden in Form von Autobomben oder bewaffneten Übergriffen maskierter Männer statt.

Unter Ansar ash-Sharia war es okay, niemand klaute mehr, weil sie bei Diebstahl gleich die Hand abhackten. Die Armee und die Drohnen waren aber schrecklich und haben alles zerstört, nicht Ansar ash-Sharia. Jetzt gibt es die Anschläge, die gab es vorher nicht.“ (Ghada, Lehrerin in einem Dorf, 20. August 2012)

Warum Abyan?

Die Frage, warum nun gerade Abyan zum Emirat Ansar ash-Sharias auserkoren wurde, lässt sich nur schwer beantworten. Was allerdings schnell ersichtlich wird, ist, dass die Situation vor Ort sehr diffus ist. Konstellationen und Allianzen sind wechselhaft. Im Folgenden wird versucht die Vielschichtigkeit des Konflikts darzustellen und verschiedene Erklärungsoptionen zu geben.

  1. Die Bewegung des Südens und das nordjemenitische Regime
Wie bereits anfangs erwähnt, war Abyan, besonders Zingibar, ein Zentrum der Sezessionsbewegung, die seit 2007 in den südjemenitischen Gouvernoraten für die Unabhängigkeit eines freien Südarabiens demonstriert, das in seinen Grenzen der ehemaligen Volksdemokratischen Republik Jemen entspricht. Die Volksdemokratische Republik wurde 1990 mit der Arabischen Republik Jemen (Nordjemen) zur heutigen Republik Jemen zusammengeschlossen. Durch die Einnahme Abyans durch Al-Qaida wurde die Sezessionsbewegung geschwächt. Die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung des Deltas hat die Region verlassen und lebt heute unter schlechten Bedingungen in Schulgebäuden Adens. Die zurückgebliebenen in Abyan trauen sich kaum Sezessionsbekundungen zu äußern. Viele wünschen sich nach mehr als einem Jahr der Unsicherheit und Kämpfe ihren Frieden und Ruhe. Der Ein oder Andere sehnt sich mittlerweile zum Status Quo des Saleh-Regimes zurück, wenn doch nur wieder Ruhe einkehre: „Die Hirak im Hadramaut und in Aden haben sich einen Scheiß um Abyan gekümmert und Abyan nie erwähnt bei ihren Protesten. In Aden wurden die Mieten sogar von 10-18 Tausend Riyal auf 30 Tausend erhöht, weil sie mit den Flüchtlingen Geld machen wollten und von ihnen profitieren. Mir ist es egal: Sezession, Einheit. Ich will nur noch meine Ruhe und in Ruhe leben.“(Ghada, Lehrerin in einem Dorf, 20. August 2012) Die Menschen sind schlicht und ergreifend desillusioniert im zerrütteten Südjemen.

Eine Abspaltung des Südens löst Ängste im Norden aus, da der Großteil der Ölvorkommen im Süden des Landes liegt. Die Anwesenheit Al-Qaidas im Südjemen spielt den nordjemenitischen Eliten in die Hände, die damit eine Lösung des Nord-Südkonflikts im Land aufschieben können, da Al-Qaida zurzeit ein größeres Problem als die friedliche Sezessionsbewegung darstellt, denken einige Südjemeniten. Als sich der ehemalige Afghanistankämpfer Tareq al-Fadhli zur Bewegung des Südens bekannte, wurde dies in Sanaa oftmals als Anlass genommen, die säkulare Südbewegung mit Al-Qaida in Verbindung zu bringen. Abyan liegt zudem nur 50 km von Aden, dem Herz der Sezessionsbewegung, entfernt. Eine Einnahme der Stadt durch die Kämpfer Al-Qaidas könnte der Gruppierung neue internationale Aufmerksamkeit verschaffen und die Bestrebungen der Sezessionsbewegung endgültig zu Nichte machen, woran das Regime in Sanaa Gefallen finden könnte.

  1. Das nordjemenitische Regime schafft sich Al-Qaida und die baltajiya in Abyan hilft dabei
In Aden und Abyan ist die Meinung weit verbreitet, dass sich die Eliten in Sanaa Al-Qaida geschaffen hätten. Dies ist sehr wahrscheinlich, wenn man bedenkt, dass die Bewegung des Südens eine Gefahr für die Souveränität des nordjemenitischen Regimes darstellt, wie zuvor erklärt. Jedoch muss dieser Frage näher nachgegangen werden. Einen Einstieg verhilft das folgende Zitat: „Die Leute in Jaar sind selbst verantwortlich dafür, dass Ansar ash-Sharia nach Jaar gekommen ist, schließlich haben sie sie dort hinziehen und nach Abyan kommen lassen. Teilweise sind sie dann Anhänger von Ansar ash-Sharia geworden.“(Ghada, Lehrerin in einem Dorf, 20. August 2012)
Gemäß einigen Meinungen, konnte Ansar ash-Sharia erst durch bestimmte Personen, die unter baltajiya, einer Art Schläger- Gangstertrupp, gefasst werden, in der Stadt Fuß fassen. Dazu wird auch Abdullatif al-Sayid gezählt, der heute Anführer der Milizen in Abyan ist, jedoch vorher als Anhänger Al-Qaidas zählte.

Über Jahre hinweg soll bereits bekannt gewesen sein, dass Al-Qaida in Abyan und Shabwa aktiv war. Daher stellt sich die Frage, warum im Zuge des Arabischen Frühlings gerade hier die Sicherheitskräfte abgezogen wurden und wieso hier ein so enormes Machtvakuum entstehen konnte. Ob das Regime in Sanaa vorsätzlich oder aus Notwehr handelte, da man der Proteste in Sanaa im Zuge des Arabischen Frühlings nicht mehr Herr wurde, bleibt spekulativ.

Islah ist nicht mehr präsent in Aden, seitdem Al-Qaida versucht, nach Aden einzudringen und Probleme macht. Das Regime in Sanaa, dazu gehören nicht nur die Salehs, sondern auch Ali Mohsin und die Ahmars, sowie die USA sind alle verstrickt in der Sache mit Abyan und Ansar ash-Sharia. Abyan ist wichtig, es verbindet den Hadramaut mit Aden und dem westlichen Teil des Südens.“ (Hussain, Anhänger der Bewegung des Südens in Aden)

  1. Die Jugend
Jugend – shabab– steht oftmals sinnbildlich für junge, arbeitslose, unverheiratete Männer zwischen 20 und 35 Jahren, die angesichts der desolaten wirtschaftlichen und politischen Lage im Jemen verzweifelt sind, da sie nur unter schwierigsten Bedingungen ihren sozialen Status als anerkannte Erwachsene heben können.

Auch in Zingibar sind junge Arbeitslose zu Ansar ash-Sharia übergegangen. Einer bekam keine Stelle im Staatsdienst und ging dann zu ihnen über [gemeint war Jalal Bilaidi, Emir von Zingibar].“ (Fatima, 28 Jahre alt, Flüchtling aus Zinjibar)

Wie das Zitat bereits beschreibt, sind junge Männer zu den Kämpfern Al-Qaidas übergegangen. Der Jemen hat mit einer Arbeitslosenquote von 50 Prozent zu kämpfen, die gerade bei jungen Menschen sehr hoch liegt. Jalal Bilaidi war ebenfalls Student an der Fakultät in Zinjibar. Er studierte Lehramt Chemie. Wie so viele andere erhielt er keine Anstellung als Lehrer nach seinem Studium und blieb arbeitslos. Unter Ansar ash-Sharia wurde er zum Emir von Zinjibar gekrönt, nachdem er wohl eine lange Ausbildung als Salafit und Kämpfer in Dammaj genoss. In seiner Studienzeit trug er noch Jeans und T-Shirts, heute lässt er sich nur noch mit Kalaschnikow und Vollbart sehen.

Die jungen Gemüse- und Obstverkäufer aus Zinjibar haben sich von Al-Qaida rekrutieren lassen. Ich kenne sie, weil ich früher bei ihnen eingekauft habe. Später sah ich sie als Al-Qaida-Kämpfer.“ (Junis, 30 Jahre, Flüchtling aus Zinjibar)

Als Gemüsehändler im Jemen zu arbeiten, ist nicht der bestbezahlte und angesehenste Job. Gemüse- und Obsthändler in Aden und Abyan stammen aus dem Nordjemen, vorwiegend aus der Region vom Taizz und Ibb. Vermutlich konnte Al-Qaida ihnen ein besseres Einkommen als das aus den Obstverkäufen sichern. Manche von ihnen hatten vielleicht auch Angst, wenn sie nicht in der Gruppe aktiv wurden.

Die Beweggründe, warum ein junger Mensch Kämpfer einer Terrorgruppe wird, sind sehr persönlich und unterscheiden sich von Person zu Person. Jedoch wird Geld eine sehr große Rolle bei den meist arbeitslosen jungen Menschen gespielt haben. Seit Jahren waren junge Menschen im Jemen bezüglich eines politischen Wandels und der Besserung der wirtschaftlichen Situation im Land desillusioniert. Die Regimeproteste zu Beginn 2011 sind nur ein Ventil, Unzufriedenheit gegen das vorherrschende Saleh-Regime zu äußern. Vielen jungen Menschen könnte mittlerweile das friedliche Protestieren, ob auf dem Tahrir-Platz in Sanaa oder innerhalb der Sezessionsbewegung in Aden, zu langwierig erscheinen. Ansar ash-Sharia stellt einen zweiten Weg dar, sich mit Waffen und Gewalt Gehör zu verschaffen. Auch Abdullatif al-Sayid ist nur 31 Jahre alt. Er sagte in einem Interview bezüglich seiner Unzufriedenheit über das Saleh-Regime: „Ich dachte Ansar ash-Sharia würde unser Leben verbessern.“4

Auf der Busfahrt von Abyan nach Aden hörten zwei junge Männer in der ersten Reihe den gewaltverherrlichenden Naschid von Ansar ash-Sharia. Die stolzen Kämpfer haben sicherlich eine starke Ausstrahlungskraft auf junge Menschen, die mit täglichem Erwachsenwerden und Ausschluss zu kämpfen haben.

  1. Es gibt keinen Platz mehr für uns in dieser Gesellschaft
Der ein oder andere Abyani ließ sich als Kämpfer rekrutieren, da er somit einer Blutrache entgehen konnte. Männer wurden aus dem Gefängnis von Jaar freigelassen und sind Teil der Gruppierung geworden. Viele von ihnen hatten wohl kaum eine andere Wahl, als Al-Qaida-Kämpfer zu werden. Von der Gesellschaft geächtet und mit der Angst Opfer einer Blutrache zu werden, ließ sich die Entscheidung für die Gruppe zu kämpfen, leicht fällen.

  1. Die Rache des Tareq al-Fadhlis
Tareq al-Fadhli ist der Sohn des ehemaligen Sultans von Abyan, der mit der Machtübernahme der Marxisten im Jahr 1967 den Südjemen verlassen musste. Der Sultan war nicht sehr beliebt bei seinen Untertanen im südlichen Abyan. Tareq al-Fadhli war in den 1980er Jahren Afghanistan-Mujaheddin. Er kehrte nach der jemenitischen Einheit von 1990 in den Jemen zurück. Für das Saleh-Regime waren die zurückgekommenen Afghanistan-Veteranen in den 1990er Jahren willkommen, da sie sich gegen bestimmte unliebsame Gruppen im Land wie die Houthis in Saada und die Marxisten im Süden, einsetzen ließen. Fadhli wurde Teil des Regimes, das wird daran ersichtlich, dass seine Schwester mit dem General Ali Mohsin verheiratet war. 2009 bekannte sich Tareq al-Fadhli zu der Bewegung des Südens, was jedoch der Mehrheit der Bewegung missfiel, da er eine gewalttätige Komponente in die friedliche Bewegung hineintrug. Nach der Machtübernahme Al-Qaidas 2011 bekannte sich Fadhli wieder zu seinen alten Kumpanen Al-Qaidas. Seine Söhne kämpften ebenfalls gegen das jemenitische Militär, wobei einer ums Leben kam. Für viele Abyanis war die Bekundung al-Fadhlis, Teil der Sezessionsbewegung zu sein, nur eine Farce: „Er wollte sich an der Bevölkerung Zinjibars dafür rächen, dass sein Vater vor mehr als vierzig Jahren aus dem Süden fliehen musste.“(Fatima, 28 Jahre alt, Flüchtling aus Zinjibar)

Tareq al-Fadhli war bereits in den 1990er Jahren terroristisch aktiv. Inwieweit er aber wirklich das Eindringen der Al-Qaida Kämpfer nach Abyan mitunterstützt hat, bleibt offen.

  1. Al-Qaida als eigenständige Gruppierung
Al-Qaida als eine islamistische Gruppe zu verstehen, die die arabisch-muslimische Welt vor dem westlichen Imperialismus retten will, ist eine Möglichkeit den Konflikt in Abyan zu erklären. Das Delta Abyan ist an der Küste des Indischen Ozeans gelegen. Tagtäglich erreichen somalische Flüchtlinge die südjemenitische Küste auf einfachen Booten. Zudem ist der Golf von Aden wegen somalischer Piraterie regelmäßig in den Schlagzeilen. Die Position Adens und Abyans – nicht weit vom Bab al-Mandab, der Meerenge zwischen dem Roten Meer und dem Indischen Ozean entfernt – könnte für Al-Qaida ausschlaggebend gewesen sein, sich diese strategisch wichtige Region auszusuchen. Das durch die Protestwelle 2011 entstandene Machtvakuum verhalf den Kämpfern, die sich u. a. aus Mördern, Verbrechern und Afghanistanveteranen zusammensetzen, schlussendlich zum Eindringen in den Südjemen und zum Machtübergriff.

Für die streng religiösen Kämpfer, die sich aus der ganzen Welt in Abyan einfanden, könnte zudem ein oft zitiertes Hadith relevant sein: „Ibn Abbas sagte, der Gesandte Gottes, Friede sei mit ihm, sagte: Aus Aden-Abyan werden 12.000 kommen, sie werden Gott und seinen Gesandten zum Sieg führen und sie sind die Besten zwischen mir und ihnen.“5Dieses Hadith soll darauf hinweisen, dass aus Aden und Abyan 12.000 Mujaheddin kommen werden, die die muslimische Gemeinschaft stärken und die Feinde des Islams bekämpfen werden. Bereits die Islamische Armee Aden-Abyan sah dieses Hadith als Daseinsberechtigung in Abyan während der 1990er Jahre.

Doch bleibt die Frage bestehen, woher Al-Qaida ihre Gelder erhält. Es ist kritisch zu bewerten, gutgläubige Muslime als Geldgeber für diese Organisation zu sehen. In Abyan selbst sieht man das nordjemenitische Regime, aber auch wohlhabende Bürger der Golfstaaten als Geldgeber hinter der Organisation.

  1. Wohin gehören eigentlich die jemenitischen Sicherheitskräfte?
Die Bevölkerung in Abyan hat teilweise große Angst vor den jemenitischen Sicherheitskräften und dem Geheimdienst. Ihnen wird nachgesagt, dass sie auch als Kämpfer Al-Qaidas agieren. Männer, die als Kämpfer identifiziert wurden, laufen heute wieder in der Berufskleidung der zentralen Sicherheitskräfte durch Abyan. Ihnen wird nicht vertraut. Als ich am 24. August nach Zinjibar fuhr, teilte mir mein Begleiter das Folgende mit: „Unter den Sicherheitskräften, die eigentlich zum Staat gehören, sind auch Leute von Ansar ash-Sharia. Wenn du die Burqa nicht trägst und auch noch fotografierst, dann denken sie gleich, dass du Ausländerin bist und dann tun sie dir etwas an.“

Zurück in Aden besuchte ich den Märtyrerplatz der Sezessionsbewegung in Mansoura. Dort fand ich einen großen Blutfleck auf dem Boden vor. Die Menschen erzählten mir, dass in der vorherigen Nacht vom 26. auf den 27. August ein Mann von einem bewaffneten Maskierten erschossen wurde. Sie vermuteten den Geheimdienst dahinter, der allerdings wie ein Mitglied Ansar ash-Sharias ausgesehen haben soll.

Welche Rolle die jemenitischen Sicherheitskräfte wirklich spielen, kann hier nur diskutiert werden, endgültig kann dies derzeitig nicht beantwortet werden. Jedoch muss man auch beachten, dass viele der Männer vom Staat im Stich gelassen wurden und kaum Schutz in Abyan erhielten. Vermutlich wurden auch deshalb Allianzen mit Al-Qaida eingegangen.

  1. Die Rolle der USA und Saudi Arabiens
Dass es sich in Abyan um einen Kampf gegen den Terrorismus handelt, ist kaum mehr zu glauben, wenn man vor Ort war. Wenn jedoch die allgemeine Annahme vieler Abyanis stimmt, dass das nordjemenitische Regime selbst hinter der Schaffung und Etablierung Ansar ash-Sharias steht, dann wären die USA und Saudi Arabien recht naiv, die Tricks des Regimes in Sanaa zu glauben.

Saudi Arabien hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten, als die beiden Jemen noch unabhängige Staaten waren, immer wieder einen Jemen gegen den anderen unterstützt. Das es zu einer Einheit 1990 kam, missfiel dem großen Nachbarstaat. Umso verwunderlicher ist es, dass Saudi Arabien sich heute nicht zu den Entwicklungen der Sezessionsbewegung äußert und diese nur am Rande wahrnimmt. Daher ließe sich vermuten, dass es nicht im Interesse Saudi Arabiens sei, wenn sich die Sezessionsbewegung im Süden durchsetzte und eine Abspaltung vom Nordjemen erreichte. Eine Sezession im Südjemen könnte Unabhängigkeitsbestrebungen in Saudi Arabien von benachteiligten Bevölkerungsgruppen, besonders im ölreichen Osten des Landes, herrufen. Dies zeigt einen Erklärungsansatz, weshalb Saudi Arabien aktiv am Konflikt in Abyan beteiligt ist. Die USA, die ihre Ölzufuhr gesichert sehen möchte, unterstützt den saudischen Partner vermutlich gern bei dieser Unternehmung.

Falls es sich jedoch wirklich um einen Kampf gegen den Terror handelt, ist es sehr fragwürdig, warum zahlreiche zivile Einrichtungen wie das Razi-Krankenhaus bei Jaar zerstört wurden. Innerhalb von drei Tagen wurden mehrere Angriffe auf das Krankenhaus geflogen. Den USA müsste eigentlich aus jahrelanger Erfahrung in Afghanistan und Pakistan sowie im Iraq bewusst sein, dass sie sich mit den Drohnenangriffen und der Zerstörung ziviler Einrichtungen mehr Feinde als Freunde schaffen. Die Bevölkerung Abyans hat, wie bereits erwähnt, mehr Angst vor den US-Drohnenangriffen als vor den Kämpfern Al-Qaidas. Damit spielen sie die zivile Bevölkerung in die Hände der Kämpfer.


  1. Die zivile Bevölkerung
Wer unter diesen diffusen Konstellationen und dem Konflikt in Abyan leidet, ist schließlich die Zivilbevölkerung, die weder direkt an dem Konflikt beteiligt ist, noch ihn hervorgerufen hat. Die Bevölkerung Abyans lebt größtenteils von der Landwirtschaft. Die Menschen sind einfache Bauern, die ihre Felder bestellen wollen und kein Interesse an Kriegen haben. Sie sind diejenigen, die der Konflikt am meisten trifft.

Ich habe keine Arbeit, unser Haus in Zinjibar ist zerstört. Alles ist weg, Zinjibar gibt es nicht mehr, wir haben einfach alles verloren“, berichtete Fatima, eine 28-jährige Frau, die in Zinjibar mit ihrem Ehemann und einjährigen Kind lebte. Sie flüchteten nach der Machtübernahme Ansar ash-Sharias aus der Stadt. Ihr Haus ist heute völlig zerstört.

Abyan hat im Vergleich zu vielen anderen jemenitischen Gouvernoraten eine relativ gute Infrastruktur aufweisen können. In Zinjibar gab es eine Außenstelle der Universität Aden. Die Fakultät ist heute völlig vermint und zerstört. Wo werden die Studenten, vor allem die jungen Frauen aus der Region, die zahlreich an der Fakultät in Zinjibar studierten, weiter lernen können? Was passiert mit den zerstörten Schulen? Zinjibar hat heute weder Strom noch fließendes Wasser. Die Stadt ist vollständig vermint. Weiterhin stellt sich die Frage, ob eine Rückkehr in die Stadt überhaupt jemals wieder möglich sein wird, denn wer wird den Aufbau der Stadt finanzieren? Auf lange Sicht wird Zinjibar wohl eine Geisterstadt bleiben. Dieselben Fragen lassen sich auf die umliegenden Dörfer wie al-Kod stellen. Auch nach Jaar trauen sich die Menschen noch nicht zurück. Immer noch sind die Kämpfer Ansar ash-Sharias in der Region präsent. Al-Qaida Kämpfer suchen zumal Unterschlupf in Dörfern. Die Bevölkerung fürchtet dann einerseits die US-Drohnenangriffen, die dann in dem jeweiligen Dorf einschlagen könnten, andererseits besteht die Angst vor den Kämpfern Al-Qaidas, die man schlecht zwingen kann, die Dörfer zu verlassen. Eine junge Frau meinte sarkastisch, nachdem sich die Dorfmiliz mit Kämpfern Ansar ash-Sharias eine Schießerei in der Nacht leistete: „Wenn wir Pech haben, dann wird ein jemenitisches Flugzeug kommen und das ganze Dorf vernichten, ein Saudisches wird das halbe Dorf zerstören und wenn wir Glück haben, dann kommt eine amerikanische Drohne, dann wird nur das Haus [in dem sich die Al-Qaida Kämpfer vermutet wurden] zerstört.“

Alle wissen, wo die Kämpfer Al-Qaidas sind, doch keiner macht etwas…

Wenn du nicht aufpasst, sitzt du bald in Mahfit oder Shoqra bei Al-Qaida.“, sagte ein Mann in Aden zu mir, der meine Besuche an verschiedenen Orten Abyans und Adens als gefährlich einstufte. Es scheint verwunderlich, dass alle zu wissen scheinen, wo sich Al-Qaida aufhält, jedoch von staatlicher Seite nichts gegen sie ausgerichtet wird. Dies zeigt, dass der jemenitische Staat nur noch indirekt auf dem südjemenitischen Territorium durch die Anwesenheit einzelner Sicherheitskräfte und des Geheimdienstes besteht, die die südjemenitische Bevölkerung jedoch nicht schützen.

Wenn man die zerstörte Kulisse Zinjibars und vieler Dörfer sieht, fühlt man sich wie in einem Computerkriegsspiel, in dem gerade eine Phase der Waffenruhe besteht. Der Konflikt in Abyan ist mittlerweile sehr komplex, wie anhand der Erörterung verschiedener Akteure gezeigt wurde, so dass keine endgültige Wahrheit präsentiert werden kann. Der Konflikt in Abyan ist ein internationaler globaler Konflikt mit verschiedenen Akteuren und diffusen Konstellationen, die jeder Zeit wechseln können. In Abyan wird dieser Konflikt ausgetragen, jedoch hätte es auch andere Regionen in der Welt treffen können. Abyan hat jedoch eine strategisch wichtige Position. Zudem ist das entstandene Machtvakuum durch die Proteste in Sanaa 2011 und die jahrzehntelange Unzufriedenheit mit dem Saleh-Regime und den nordjemenitischen Eliten im Süden ein Faktum, welches Abyan zu einem fruchtbaren Boden zur Austragung dieses Konfliktes machte.

1 Vgl. Ghaith Abdul-Ahad (30.4.2012): http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/apr/30/alqaida-yemen-jihadis-sharia-law

2 Vgl. ICRC (6.6.2012): http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/news-release/2012/yemen-news-06-06-2012.htm

3 Vgl. Abdurrahman Anees / Muaadh Al-Maqtari Yementimes (8.3.2012): http://www.yementimes.com/en/1553/news/535/Details-of-Abyan-attacks-emerge.htm

4 Vgl. Sudarsan Raghavan (11.9.2012): http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/in-yemen-tribal-militias-in-a-fierce-battle-with-al-qaeda-wing/2012/09/10/0cce6f1e-f2b2-11e1-b74c-84ed55e0300b_story_2.html

5 Überliefert von Ahmad in seinem Musnad (1/333) und Ibn Abi Haatim in Al-Jarh wa at-ta'dil (8/242) und at-Tabaraani in al-Kabir.


          Countries Listed On Trump's Refugee Ban Don't Include Those He Has Business With   
Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit MICHEL MARTIN, HOST: We are continuing our coverage of the Trump administration's executive orders implementing a permanent ban on those coming from Syria and a temporary ban of citizens coming from six additional Muslim-majority countries - Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Yemen and Sudan. Now, one aspect of the new policy that has drawn notice are countries that are not on the list, including Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates. And those are the countries of origin of a number of people who carried out terrorist attacks in the U.S. starting with September 11, 2001. Those countries also happen to be places where President Trump and his family have business interests. That's one reason ethics experts continue to raise questions about how President Trump is addressing potential conflicts or even the appearance of them. NPR senior business editor Marilyn Geewax is heading up our coverage of this issue, so she is with us now to talk us
          Comment on Oregon: Saudi who ran over, killed 15-year old girl skips bail week before trial by David Rasch   
If people like saudis believe their citizens have not violated shari'a they will and do go to great lengths to protect them from fuffar,
          OK, Here's What We Know About Rihanna's New Billionaire Boyfriend   

After Rihanna was photographed mugging down with a mystery man in a pool in Ibiza this week, eagle-eyed and excited fans on Twitter were buzzing about who the guy could be. Many assumed he was a Spanish athlete or maybe a model, but it turns out that the gentleman Rihanna was packing on the PDA with is actually a Saudi billionaire named Hassan Jameel.

Hassan is 29, just like Rihanna, and is the heir to a huge fortune. He's the deputy president and vice chairman of the family business Abdul Latif Jameel, and since 1955, the company has owned the rights to Toyota distribution in Saudi Arabia. His family is worth nearly $2 billion. On top of that, he's also said to own a soccer league in Saudi Arabia called the Jameel League. In 2016, he was linked to Naomi Campbell after the two were spotted at the British Summer Time music festival in London.

While it's not clear how long Hassan and Rihanna have been dating, it is clear that they have major chemistry. And with all the bullsh*t she's had to deal with lately, we're really glad Rihanna is getting some lovin' from a tall, dark, and handsome hottie. Just one question remains: has anybody checked on Drake?


          Primary Obesity Surgery Endoluminal (POSE)   

The results of the study, collected during two years follow-up of 82 patients have been published in the journal Obesity Surgery Journal.

The pioneering study worldwide on the POSE procedure, found that endoscopic therapy is a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity since it achieves a gradual weight loss and, in the medium and long term, easy maintenance. Withholding interventions, 82 patients lost an average of 50% of excess weight during the first 6 months and 60% during the first year. In all cases, patients experienced more filling and alimenticiosy changing patterns with regard to basal insulin levels, showed significant improvement in the levels of blood glucose.

Global benchmarks in the treatment of obesity in the POSE technique, endoscopy equipment teknon Medical Center organizes trainings to train specialists from around the world. In recent formations have been present specialists from England, Austria, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the U.S., among others.

In 2011, the Endoscopy Unit and Functional tests Digestive teknon performed for the first time in Spain, reducing stomach endoscopically without making any incisions. To date, the Unit has conducted more than 130 interventions with highly satisfactory results such as faster recovery and less painful for patients, the absence of visible scars and the average reduction of 50% of overweight patients during the first 6 months after surgery.

The natural orifice surgery without incisions or scars, is recommended for overweight or obese patients with body mass indexes (BMI) of between 30 and 40kg/m2 who have failed conventional dietary treatments and also for those patients that the intragastric balloon or bariatric surgery has not worked or unwilling to undergo major surgery. This type of surgery reduces the stomach capacity orally without opening any path. It is performed under sedation and 24h. after surgery the patient can do relatively normal life.

Endoscopy Unit and Functional tests Digestive teknon Medical Center, founded in 1994 by Drs. Jesus Turro and Jorge Carlos Espinós, provides a modern endoscopy supported by the most advanced technology and treatment techniques that avoid, in many cases, the need for conventional surgery. Backed by 19 years of practice, Endoscopy Unit is teknon international leader in the endoscopic technique and has performed more than 200,000 endoscopic procedures.


          El petróleo y la religión hacen muy difícil apostar por la estabilidad saudí   
Los artículos sobre el imparable camino hacia la modernización de Arabia Saudí son frecuentes en los medios y think tanks norteamericanos. No es una sorpresa porque, en el caso de los segundos, el dinero saudí es una fuente imprescindible de … Sigue leyendo
          The Futility of Force in Yemen   

An escalation in U.S. counterterrorism strikes is unlikely to degrade the country’s al-Qaeda affiliate and a two-year-long Saudi-led air campaign is no closer to defeating Houthi rebels, says Ambassador Barbara Bodine.


          PENYEBARAN AGAMA ISLAM DI BRAZIL   

Pokok permasalahan :
1.      Bagaimana sejarah masuknya agama islam di brazil?
2.      Bagaimana budaya islam di brazil?
3.      Bagaimana keadaan dakwa islam di brazil ?
4.      Masa depan islam di brazil?

5.       
Pendahuluan :
            Sejak ditemukannya Brasil oleh orang Spanyol pada abad ke-15 dan didatangkannya para budak dari barat dan utara Afrika, dunia Latin mulai dikenalkan pada Islam. Para budak dan orang Spanyol ini hidup tersebar di Brasil, Venezuela, Kolombia, dan Kepulauan Karibia.Sebagian besar Muslim saat itu adalah para budak. Tapi, dalam beberapa kasus mereka harus mengganti kepercayaannya secara terpaksa. Dan, seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, Islam pun menghilang dari negara-negara Amerika Latin, termasuk Brasil.
Pada akhir abad ke-16, setelah pembebasan para budak, muncul komunitas muslim. Para budak yang dibebaskan ini membentuk komunitas bersama dengan imigran dari India dan Pakistan. Berdasarkan beberapa dokumen, selama tahun 1850 dan 1860, terjadi imigrasi besar-besaran muslim Arab ke tanah Amerika.
Sebagian besar mereka datang dari Suriah dan Lebanon. Mereka menetap di Argentina, Brasil, Venezuela, dan Kolombia. Sebagian juga tinggal di Paraguay, bersama-sama dengan imigran dari Palestina, Bangladesh, dan Pakistan. Imigrasi ini berlangsung secara terus-menerus dan mulai berkurang pada tahun 50-an. Sementara di Kolombia, pengurangan imigran terjadi pada dekade 70-an. Hingga kini masih banyak yang menetap di Brasil dan Venezuela .


Sejarah Islam di Brasil dimulai dengan masuknya orang-orang Afrika dalam bentuk perbudakan
MENURUT data statistik resmi tahun 2000, terdapat 27.239 muslim yang bermukim di Brasil. Kebanyakan penduduk muslim berdiam di daerah Sao Paulo dan Parana. Sebagian besar dari mereka merupakan imigran Lebanon yang hijrah dari negara asal mereka, akibat perang saudara. Namun berdasarkan surat kabar terbitan setempat, jumlah penduduk muslim di Brasil sekitar 56.000 sampai 70.000 orang. Sedangkan menurut otoritas Islam yang ada, jumlah muslim di Brasil ada sekitar 1 juta hingga 1,5 juta orang. Sejarah Islam di Brasil dimulai dengan masuknya orang-orang Afrika dalam bentuk perbudakan. Brasil menerima 37% dari seluruh budak Afrika yang diperdagangkan, berjumlah sekitar 3 juta orang. Sejak tahun 1550, orang Portugis telah menggunakan budak bangsa Afrika untuk bekerja di kebun tebu yang sebelumnya dimusnahkan oleh penduduk setempat.
Sebagian sarjana menyatakan bahwa Brasil merupakan negara Amerika yang paling banyak menerima muslim bangsa Afrika. Tahun 1835 di Bahia, muslim berbagai bangsa pernah mengadakan suatu pemberontakan. Peristiwa itu menyebabkan banyak orang terbunuh. Sejak itu, Portugis berjaga-jaga terhadap Afro-Muslim, termasuk memaksa mereka menganut agama Katolik. Walaupun demikian, komunitas muslim di Brasil tidak dapat dienyahkan begitu saja. Hingga tahun 1900, tercatat masih terdapat 10.000 Afro-Muslim yang hidup di Brasil.
Setelah masa asimilasi paksa terhadap Afro-Muslim, perkembangan Islam di Brasil telah memasuki suatu era yang baru dengan adanya imigran Muslim Timur Tengah ke negara ini. Kebanyakan mereka berasal dari Suriah
Keberadaan Islam di Brasil sempat melahirkan kontroversi. Berdasarkan sejarah tradisional Brasil, penemuan negara ini tidak terlepas dari penjelajah Portugis bernama Pedro Alvarez Cabral. Belakangan, sumber sejarah terbaru menyodorkan satu fakta berbeda bahwa penemu Brasil adalah penjelajah asal Spanyol.
Semakin banyak ahli sejarah, baik muslim maupun non-muslim, yang kian menyadari kuatnya kehadiran muslim di periode awal penemuan Amerika. Bukti itu diperkuat dengan penemuan prasasti bertuliskan nama Allah.
Dalam bahasa asli orang Amerika, bisa ditemukan dengan mudah kata-kata asli Arab. Bahkan nama beberapa kota di Brasil yang sering dikaitkan dengan bahasa asli orang Amerika, sebenarnya lebih cocok dikatakan sebagai bahasa Arab asli.
Apabila seluruh informasi ini dikonfirmasikan dan dicatat sebagai bagian dari sejarah Brasil, bisa jadi Brasil ditemukan oleh seorang muslim 500 tahun lalu. Selain itu, melalui budak muslim yang dibawa dari Afrika, kita juga bisa mengidentifikasi pengaruh kebudayaan Islam, meski sebagian besar cenderung terdistorsi belakangan ini. Bukti ini bisa ditemui di bagian timur laut Brasil.
Sejak ditemukannya Brasil oleh orang Spanyol pada abad ke-15 dan didatangkannya para budak dari barat dan utara Afrika, dunia Latin mulai dikenalkan pada Islam. Para budak dan orang Spanyol ini hidup tersebar di Brasil, Venezuela, Kolombia, dan Kepulauan Karibia.Sebagian besar Muslim saat itu adalah para budak. Tapi, dalam beberapa kasus mereka harus mengganti kepercayaannya secara terpaksa. Dan, seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, Islam pun menghilang dari negara-negara Amerika Latin, termasuk Brasil.
Pada akhir abad ke-16, setelah pembebasan para budak, muncul komunitas muslim. Para budak yang dibebaskan ini membentuk komunitas bersama dengan imigran dari India dan Pakistan. Berdasarkan beberapa dokumen, selama tahun 1850 dan 1860, terjadi imigrasi besar-besaran muslim Arab ke tanah Amerika.
Sebagian besar mereka datang dari Suriah dan Lebanon. Mereka menetap di Argentina, Brasil, Venezuela, dan Kolombia. Sebagian juga tinggal di Paraguay, bersama-sama dengan imigran dari Palestina, Bangladesh, dan Pakistan. Imigrasi ini berlangsung secara terus-menerus dan mulai berkurang pada tahun 50-an. Sementara di Kolombia, pengurangan imigran terjadi pada dekade 70-an. Hingga kini masih banyak yang menetap di Brasil dan Venezuela .
Komunitas ini, seperti halnya di Amerika Serikat, membaurkan dirinya dengan kegiatan nasional, bekerja keras dan mencintai negara yang menaunginya. Banyak dari mereka yang menciptakan komunitas Islam, Pusat Dakwah Islam, dan masjid.
Bagaimana pun, semua itu membuktikan Islam bukanlah barang asing bagi kebudayaan Brasil, melainkan bagian penting dari kebudayaan Brasil. Setidaknya, itulah pandangan Maria Moreira. Ia adalah mualaf Brasil yang kini tinggal di Mesir dan pengajar di Universitas Rio de Janeiro . Karena itu, Maria optimistis, Islam bisa diperkenalkan kepada masyarakat Brasil secara lebih meluas. Memperkenalkan Islam kepada masyarakat Brasil melalui tingkah laku yang sopan tentunya akan sangat penting. Lebih penting dari sekadar melalui kata-kata atau khutbah.
Ini juga penting untuk mengembalikan kebudayaan asli Brasil dan secara berhati-hati menghapuskan kepentingan politik dan agama yang muncul di masa lalu. Sayangnya, kepentingan politik dan pribadi malah datang dari muslim itu sendiri. Banyak dari mereka yang menunda atau bahkan tidak melaksanakan kewajiban tersebut.
Saat ini di semua negara Amerika Latin, terdapat komunitas muslim, baik pendatang maupun penduduk asli yang memeluk Islam sebagai keyakinannya. Berdasarkan statistik, jumlah muslim di Amerika Latin melebihi empat juta jiwa.
Budaya islam di brazil
Budaya Bertentangan dengan Islam KEKHAWATIRAN berkembangnya konflik yang dipicu oleh pemuatan kartun yang menghina Nabi Muhammad SAW yang dilakukan surat kabar Denmark, Jylland Posten ternyata menjadi kenyataan. Bukan hanya sekadar konflik wacaca soal kebebasan bereskpresi, masalah ini terus meluas menjadi perselisihan antaragama, terutama Islam dan Kristen.
Perselisihan yang membahayakan kerukunan umat beragama ini juga menarik perhatian bukan hanya agamawan Islam, melainkan juga Kristen. Bertempat di Porto Alegre, Brasil, Lembaga Gereja Dunia atau (World Council of Churchs/WCC) menggelar pertemuan besar gereja yang dihadiri agamawan Kristen, ilmuwan dan tokoh agama.
Pertemuan ini bukan hanya membahas kepentingan umat Kristen dunia, melainkan juga membahas isu global yang terjadi saat ini, yaitu perselisihan antar Islam dan Kristen yang semakin meluas akibat pemuatan kartun nabi. Karenanya pihak gereja juga mengundang agamawan Islam untuk mencari titik temu perselisihan antar agama yang sangat mudah terbakar ini.Pertanyaannya, mengapa Brasil menjadi ajang perhelatan ini? Brasil merupakan negara terbesar di Amerika Latin dengan jumlah penduduk 170 juta jiwa dan mayoritas penduduknya adalah penganut Katolik taat. Saat polemik pemuatan karikatur Nabi SAW menyeruak, negara ini adem ayem saja.
Islam memang sudah hadir di negara ini sejak lebih dari 500 tahun. Namun jumlah muslim di negara ini merupakan minoritas. Mereka juga menempuh cara ‘sopan’ dalam memprotes karikatur itu. Bukan dengan turun ke jalan, tapi lebih pada seruan introspeksi. “Tunjukkan pribadi Rasulullah SAW melalui diri Anda,’’ begitu seruan para pemimpin muslim di negara itu.
Keadaan  dakwa islam di brazil
Dakwah Islam di Brasil lebih ditujukan bagi komunitas mereka sendiri. Populasi orang Brasil yang menjadi muslim hanyalah satu persen saja atau 10 ribu orang. Sebagian besar dari mereka tinggal di kawasan Sao Paulo dan Parana. Mereka merupakan komunitas muslim asal Libanon yang meninggalkan negaranya ketika terjadi perang sipil.
Mayoritas penduduk Brasil merupakan penganut Katolik yang sangat taat. Bahkan negara ini merupakan salah satu negara Katolik terbesar di dunia. Namun saat ini, Katolik telah banyak kehilangan pengikut di negara yang dikenal dengan sepakbolanya ini. Mengenai soal minimnya penganut Islam di negara ini dikaitkan dengan kebudayaan Latin yang bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam. Kebudayaan Brasil dipenuhi dengan aneka permainan, senang menari, dan sederet aktivitas budaya yang bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam.
Syekh Khalil Saifi, koordinator The Center of Divulgation of Islam to Latin America yang berpusat di Sao Bernardo do Campo, menyatakan, dakwah Islam di negeri ini baru sebatas ‘menghadirkan’ Islam dan membantu masyarakat Brasil mengenal Islam. Selain itu juga memelihara hubungan mereka dengan bahasa dan juga kebudayaan Islam. “Orang Brasil yang datang ke sini pastilah sebelumnya bersentuhan terlebih dahulu dengan komunitas muslim-Arab,’’
Minim Dai dan Guru Agama MUSLIM di Brasil kekurangan dai dan guru agama, meski masjid dan madrasah banyak berdiri di Brasil. Kondisi ini memang sangat disayangkan. Pada saat masjid dan madrasah sudah berdiri, juru dakwah dan mereka yang berpengalaman dalam bidang agama masih sangat minim sehingga pengelolaannya tidak maksimal.
Mingguan berbahasa Arab, Al ‘Alam Al Islamy edisi 29 Agustus lalu mengungkapkan, umat Islam di Brasil sejak lama berupaya untuk mendirikan sarana ibadah berupa masjid dan madrasah. Bagi mereka, upaya ini tentu bukan hal yang mudah. Islam merupakan minoritas.
Sayangnya, setelah sekian lama mereka bekerja keras dan kemudian terwujud bangunan masjid dan madrasah tersebut dalam jumlah yang memadai, kekurangan sumber daya manusia menghadang. “Kegiatan dakwah masih jalan di tempat,” tulis mingguan berbahasa Arab itu.
Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan itu terjadi. Minimnya juru dakwah dan orang-orang yang berpengalaman di bidang tersebut menjadi kendala. “Di sisi lain, generasi muda Islam Brasil terlalu sibuk di medan ekonomi dan politik, sehingga kegiatan dakwah dan keagamaan menjadi kosong,” tulis Al ‘Alam Al Islamy mengutip komentar seorang tokoh muslim negara itu.
Saat ini, jumlah masjid dan mushola di Brasil lebih dari 80 buah. Padahal, pada tahun 2001 jumlahnya tidak bergeser dari 50-an. Sayangnya, masjid, mushola, maupun madrasah tersebut banyak yang tutup atau kehilangan ghiroh-nya.
Brasil pernah mencatat sejarah dalam penyebaran Islam di Amerika Latin. Masjid pertama kali yang dibangun di wilayah itu adalah Masjid Raya Sao Paulo di Brasil yang mulai digagas tahun 30-an. Tahun 1939, tokoh-tokoh muslim Brasil ‘saweran’ membeli lahan. Peletakan batu pertamanya dilakukan pada tahun 1948 dan baru berakhir pembangunannya tahun 1960.
Lamanya pembangunan masjid, tak lepas dari sulitnya upaya dana yang dilakukan umat Islam di negeri sepakbola tersebut. Begitu pembangunan masjid rampung, umat Islam sudah tersebar ke seantero Brasil. Di daerah-daerah baru itu, mereka juga mendirikan masjid. Jumlah masjid pun kian berkembang dan tak hanya di Sao Paulo saja.
Sedangkan madrasah mulai berdiri di Brasil sejak tahun 60-an. Pertamakali madrasah berdiri di San Paulo, daerah yang paling banyak dihuni umat Islam. Setelah itu, berdiri pula madrasah di wilayah Cortiba dan beberapa tempat lainnya.
Madrasah digunakan sebagai semacam diniyah, yaitu untuk mengajarkan ilmu agama dan bahasa Arab. Sayangnya, seperti juga terjadi pada masjid yang tidak dikelola dengan baik, madrasah-madrasah belum berhasil memberikan bimbingan keagamaan yang baik.
Beruntung, beberapa minggu lalu pemerintah Kerajaan Arab Saudi serta sejumlah negara-negara Islam telah mengirimkan bantuan kepada umat Islam di Brasil berupa tenaga pengajar, dai, dan buku-buku bacaan. Bahkan tak hanya itu, pemerintah Kerajaan Arab Saudi serta negara-negara Islam lainnya juga telah memberikan bantuan materi serta beasiswa bagi pelajar muslim untuk meneruskan pendidikan ke jenjang lebih tinggi.
Persoalan pendidikan mungkin lebih pelik ketimbang pengelolaan masjid. Sampai saat ini, muslim Brasil belum menemukan metode yang pas bagi pengajaran agama dan bahasa Arab. ”Pendidikan masih diberikan dengan sistem yang konvensional,” tulis Al ‘Alam Al Islamy.
Madrasah-madrasah yang ada di sana, menurut media ini, belum sepenuhnya dikelola secara utuh untuk belajar agama Islam dan pelajaran bahasa Arab melainkan baru sekadar kelas-kelas dirasah terbatas yang disebut dengan Daurah Ta’limil ‘Arabiyyah (semacam kursus bahasa Arab, Red).
Rumitnya lagi, untuk menemui kelas-kelas terbatas ini juga tidak mudah bagi generasi muda muslim di Brasil. Masalah jarak menjadi kendala, karena muslim tidak mukim di satu tempat saja. Belum lagi, mereka sering melakukan perpindahan tempat tinggal, mengikuti kedua orangtuanya. “Walaupun jumlah anak-anak muslim di Sao Paulo bisa mencapai ribuan, tapi yang ikut belajar pada kelas-kelas pelajaran Islam dan bahasa Arab ini jumlahnya sangat sedikit sekali,” jelasnya.
Masalah pengadaan buku dan sarana audiovisual juga menjadi problem tersendiri. Informasi tentang dunia Islam yang bisa mereka serap setiap hari juga sangat minim. “Banyak umat Islam di Brasil yang tak tahu apa-apa tentang Islam,” tambahnya.
Setiap Hari 3 Masuk Islam
Masa depan islam di brazil
MASA depan Islam di Brasil cukup cerah. Setiap hari, 3 orang masuk Islam. Sejumlah lembaga Islam di Brasil menyatakan, jumlah orang yang memeluk Islam di satu kota seperti San Paolo setiap harinya mencapai 3 orang.
Sayangnya, tidak ada data statistik yang detail mengenai berapa jumlah umat Islam sesungguhnya di Brasil. Beberapa lembaga Islam menilai sekitar 3 juta orang. Jumlah ini terbagi antara kaum imigran dari negara-negara Arab dan Islam, dan warganegara Brasil sendiri yang memeluk Islam.
Hosam El Bostani, seorang imam di salah satu masjid di Sao Paolo menegaskan, kebanyakan yang masuk Islam itu adalah dari kalangan pemuda dan kaum wanita. Ini menguatkan bahwa agama Islam memiliki masa depan yang besar (baca: cerah) di Brasil.
Mengenai sebab kenapa secara khusus, kedua kelompok masyarakat begitu antusias masuk Islam. Seorang wartawati Brasil, Rita de Ceiba mengatakan, kaum wanita dan pemuda merupakan kelompok masyarakat yang paling menderita di Brasil akibat berantakannya rumah tangga (broken home) dan ketidakharmonisan dalam keluarga




Kesimpulam :
            Sejak ditemukannya Brasil oleh orang Spanyol pada abad ke-15 dan didatangkannya para budak dari barat dan utara Afrika, dunia Latin mulai dikenalkan pada Islam. Para budak dan orang Spanyol ini hidup tersebar di Brasil, Venezuela, Kolombia, dan Kepulauan Karibia.Sebagian besar Muslim saat itu adalah para budak. Tapi, dalam beberapa kasus mereka harus mengganti kepercayaannya secara terpaksa. Dan, seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, Islam pun menghilang dari negara-negara Amerika Latin, termasuk Brasil.
Pada akhir abad ke-16, setelah pembebasan para budak, muncul komunitas muslim. Para budak yang dibebaskan ini membentuk komunitas bersama dengan imigran dari India dan Pakistan. Berdasarkan beberapa dokumen, selama tahun 1850 dan 1860, terjadi imigrasi besar-besaran muslim Arab ke tanah Amerika.
Sebagian besar mereka datang dari Suriah dan Lebanon. Mereka menetap di Argentina, Brasil, Venezuela, dan Kolombia. Sebagian juga tinggal di Paraguay, bersama-sama dengan imigran dari Palestina, Bangladesh, dan Pakistan. Imigrasi ini berlangsung secara terus-menerus dan mulai berkurang pada tahun 50-an. Sementara di Kolombia, pengurangan imigran terjadi pada dekade 70-an. Hingga kini masih banyak yang menetap di Brasil dan Venezuela .


Daftar pustaka :
http://putramahkotaofscout.blogspot.com/



          PENYEBARAN AGAMA ISLAM DI AUSTRALIA   

Pokok permasalahan :

1.      Bagaimana perkebangan islam di australia?
2.      Bagaimana sejarah penyebaran islam oleh muslim indonesia?
3.      Bagaimana sejarah penyebaran islam oleh muslim afganistan?

Pendahuluan  :
            Islam di AustraliaAustralia adalah suatu benua yang terletak di Samudera Pasifik. Australia merupakan Negara anggotapesemakmuran Inggris yang berpenduduk 16.090.000 jiwa, dan 0,5% dari pendudukp tersebutmenganut agama islam. The Commonwealth of Australia merupakan federasi dari enam Negara bagian,yaitu New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Australia Selatan, Australia Barat, dan Tasmania.
Kepala negaranya adalah ratu inggris yang diwakili oleh gubernur jenderal, dan kepala pemerintahannya adalahperdana menteri, penduduk aslinya adalah suku Aborigin.Setidaknya ada dua pendapat tentang masukannya islam ke Australia, yaitu yang disebarkan olehmuslim Indonesia dan muslim Afganistan.


Penyebran islam di australia
 Islam di AustraliaAustralia adalah suatu benua yang terletak di Samudera Pasifik. Australia merupakan Negara anggotapesemakmuran Inggris yang berpenduduk 16.090.000 jiwa, dan 0,5% dari pendudukp tersebutmenganut agama islam. The Commonwealth of Australia merupakan federasi dari enam Negara bagian,yaitu New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Australia Selatan, Australia Barat, dan Tasmania.
Kepala negaranya adalah ratu inggris yang diwakili oleh gubernur jenderal, dan kepala pemerintahannya adalahperdana menteri, penduduk aslinya adalah suku Aborigin.Setidaknya ada dua pendapat tentang masukannya islam ke Australia, yaitu yang disebarkan olehmuslim Indonesia dan muslim Afganistan.
Penyebaran Islam oleh Muslim Indonesia
            Sejak abad XVI, nelayan muslim dari makassar secara rutin menangkap teripang di pesisir urataAustralia. Sebagian dari mereka menetap dan berketurunan di daerah Queensland.Petani tebu pun pernah didatangkan dari penduduk banten, Jawa Barat, pada tahun 1880-an M, setelahmeletusnya Gunung Krakatau. Sebenarnya, niat mereka pada mulanya adalah mencari emas. Ternyatainformasi tentang emas hanya suatu penipuan dalam rangka menjaring tenaga kerja.
Pada akhirnya,orang-orang yang berasal dari makassar dan banten tersebut sama-sama menetap, mempunyaiketurunan dan mengamalkan serta menyebarkan ajaran dan agama islam di sana.
Penyebaran Islam oleh Muslim Afganistan
Pada pertengahan abad XIX, pemerintah Australia mencanangkan pembangunan Lintas Australia dariselatan ke utara, antara Adelaide dan Darwin. Untuk itu, dibentuklah tim ekspedisi yang mendatangkan24 ekor unta Peshawar yang diawasi oleh Dost Muhammad, seorang pengembala dari afganistan yangmenetap di Khasmir. Dost Muhammad ini sampai di Victoria pada tahun 1860.
Pada tahun 1872 datang lagi 12 orang peternak muslim dari Afganistan, India, Balukhistan serta dariPakistan membawa 120 ekor unta. Lama kelamaan pengembala muslim ini beralih profesi menjadipetani, peternak, bahkan pedagang. Mereka tetap mengamalkan dan menyebarkan ajaran agama Islamdi Australia. Penduduk asli pun mengenal islam lewat amaliah dan perikehidupan umat islamini.
 Diantara mereka ada yang menikah dengan penduduk asli yang terlebih dahuludiislamkan calon pasanganhidupnya. Jumlah umat islam pun bertambah dari para mualafdan dari keturunan mereka. Namun, padagenerasi selanjutnya identitas islam semakin menipis karena memang para pengembalaini tidak adayang ahli agama islam. Selain itu, mereka sibuk menghadapi kehidupan sehingga semangat sedikitkesempatan mengakarkan agama kepada keturunannya.
            Sekitar tahun 1906 pemerintah Australia memberi peluang masuknya penduduk asing ke Australia.Kesempatan ini di manfaatkan warga Negara lain untuk hijrah ke dunia ini, tidak sedikit di antaranyaberasal dari Negara muslim. Bahkan, pada abad ke-20 ini perkembangan masjid Australia cukupmengembirakan, karena banyaknya masjid yang dibuat oleh arsitek yang berasal dari penduduk pribumiAustralia, diantaranya:
a. Pada tahun 1907 di Brisbane didirikan masjid yang indah dan besar oleh arsitek Syarif Abosi danIsmeth Abidin.
b. Pada tahun 1967 di Queensland didirikan masjid lengkap dengan Islamic Center di bawah pimpinanFethi Seit Mecea.
c. Pada tahun 1970 di Mareebe diresmikan sebuah masjid yang mampu menumpang jamaah sekitar300-an dengan imamnya H. Abdul Lathief.
d. Di kota Sarrey Hill dibangun masjid raya Faisal dengan bantuan pemerintah Arab Saudi.
e. Di Sidney dibangun masjid dengan biaya 900.000 dollar Amerika.
Pada saat sekarang ini diperkirakan umat islam di Australia mencapai 350.000 orang dari 18 jutapenduduk.Adapun pendidikan islam di Australia yang diselenggarakan agar dapat melestarikan pertumbuhan islamdisana, maka diBrisbane didirikan Queensland Islamic Society yang bertujuan menyadarkan anak-anakmuslim untuk melakukan salat dan hubungan baik sesama manusia. Pelajarannya terdiri atas anak  – Anak berasal dari Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Turki, Libanon, Alobania, dan Australia sendiri.
Mereka selama 5 sampai 15 tahun menerima pelajaran Alquran dan tata kehidupan secara islam.Perkembangan Islam di Australia tidak banyak mengalami hambatan. Dalam usaha meningkatkankemajuan islam, hamper di setiap kota di Australia didirikan organisasi Islam, diantaranya:
1. Australia Federayion of Islamic Councils(Federasi Dewan-dewan Australia)yang berfusat di Sidney.Federasi ini merupakan nbadan koordinasi seluruh organisasi umat islam, organisasi social, dakwah,mahasiswa, dan pengusaha yang ada di setiap Negara bagian Australia.
2. Federation of Islamic Societies (Federasi Masyarakat Islam), Organisasi itu bersifat nasional meliputi 35 organisasi masyarakat islam local ditambah dengan 9 dewan Islam Negara-negara bagian. Yaitu masai(pengembala), Kikuyu(petani),dan sullu (peternak dan petano).Sementara Rasullulah hidup, islam telah dikenal di daratan afrika. Nabi Muhammad saw. Teleh memberipemerintah kepada para sahabat untuk membawa surat yang isinya merupakan seruan untuk masukislam.Diantara utusan allah itu adalah:
a. Amir bin ummayah ad Dhamy yang diutus kepada rajasi, yaitu raja hasbyah (Etiopia).
b. Hathib yaitu raja abi batla’ah yang diutus kepada Muqaqis raja Mesir.
            Setelah Rasulullah saw. Wafat, uisaha mengislamkan masyarakat Afrika tidak berhenti , Para KhulafaurRasyidun tetap meneruskan cita-cita Rasulullah saw…
            Islam masuk ke mesir pada masa Umar bin kphattab mengirim tentara yang di pimpin oleh Amru bin Ashdengan menaklukan kota Al Arisy, Alfarma, billis, dan Ummu Dunnen. Lalu ditaklukan juga daerah AinuSyams, setelah itu, tentara islam menuju kota Iskandariah.Kota ini dipertahankan sekuat tenaga oleh Bangsa Romawi karena kota ini dianggap sangat penting dan jika kota iskandariah jatuh ke tangan umat islam, maka romawi akan kehilangan mesir sebagiankekuasannya.
Lalu kota iskandariah jatuh ke tangan umat islam setelah dikepung selama 14 bulan.Negeri tersebut dapat dikuasai oleh Amru bin Ash pada tahun ke-20 Hijriah. Setelah itu, Islam mulaiberkembang luas meliputi sebelah barat sungai Euphart dan timur sungai Juhun, Selatan Laut Hindia dansebelah utara Negara Armenia.Islam masuk ke sudan pada masa perluasan yang dilakukan oleh abdllah bin Said abi Sarah. Penyebaranislam di sudan, mdilakukan dengan cara mengajarkan ilmu tasawuf dan ajaran filsafat.
Oleh karena itu,banyak ahli tarekat dan tasawuf yang mansyur dan berpengaruh ndi kalangan muslim di sudan pada saatitu, antara lain Abdul Kadir Jaelani (1179-1186 M) dan Abdul Hasan Asyadzili(1196-1258)Islam masuk ke Uganda melalui Zanzibar oleh para dai pada masa pemerintah raja suna pada tahun1833-1860 M dan pada masa pemerintahan Raja Munawaja pada tahun 1884-1897 M.Kemudian agama islam dijadikan agama resmi Negara.
Pada masa raja Bajaudah yang terpikat lehNegara agamaNasrani terjadilah persaingan hebat antara penyiaran islam dan masrani. PersainganPenyiaran agama di Uganda ini adalah untuk memperebutkan golongan animisme agar dapat masukkepada agama masing-masing.Islam masuk ke Somalia satelah nasrani lebih dahulu masuk. Pada waktu islam masuk ke negeri tersebut,terjadilah perang agama. Akhirnya agama islam dapat berkembang pesat di Somalia. Di Zimbabwedibawa oleh orang-orang arab melalui Zanzibar, yaitu dengan mengislamkan suku-suku Aisiyu danAsyibita da suku-suku lainnya.
Islam masuk ke Kenya dibawa oleh orang-orang Oman melaluiMukodisyir, di Afrika Selatan islam masuk dibawa oleh orang-orang keturunan Melayu, keturunan Arab,Srilanka, Indonesia, Yaitu disebarkan oleh para dai buanganpolitik pada masa penjajahan belanda.Islam masuk ke Senegal pada abad ke-11, sebelumnya telah berkembang kerajaan Tukular kuno diTekrur, di lembah sungai Senegal pada abad ke-9 sebagai tempat berhentinya rute dagang lintas saharapara Khalifah suku moor. Sejak memeluk islam, penduduk suku Tukular kemudian menjadi mubalig dikawasan Afrika Barat.
Islam di rusia
1. Sudan
Perkembangan Islam di Suda sangat megembirakan. Salah satu tokoh yang berjasa masuknya Islam di Sudan adalah Abdullah bin Said bin Ali Sarah. Penyebaran Islam di negeri ini dilakukan dengan mengajarkan ilmu Tasyawuf dan Filsafat. Tokoh yang paling berpengaruh pada waktu itu adalah Syeh Abdul Qodir Al Jilani dan Abdul Hasan Asy Syazali.
2. Etiopia
Islam masuk di Eteopia ketika Rosulullah masih hidup. Pada saat itu ada 15 orang muslim yang hijrah ke Eteopia. Negeri ini pada masa Rosul dikenal dengan nama Habsyinia atau Habsyah. Sejak abad XIV M , orang muslim Hasbania mengadakan hubungan dengan Mesir (Al Azhar), sehigga memunculkan ulama-ulama terkenal pada masa itu.
Pada tahun 1934 M, Al Azhar mengirimkan beberapa utusan yang bertugas untuk mengajar agama Islam. Beberapa masjid didirikan sebagai pusat ibadah umat Islam, dan madarasah sebagai pusat pendidikan Agama Islam.
3. Uganda
Perkembangan Islam di Uganda cukup pesat. Masuknya Islam di negeri in diperkirakan sekitar tahun 1844 melalui perdagang yaitu Ahmad Ibrohim, Idi Amin. Idi Amin dianggap sebagai pendiri Uganda Muslim Supreme Cauncil (UMSC) pada tahun 1974. Ia juga berhasil mengundang Raja Faisal pada peletakan batu pertama pembangunan Masjid nasional di Old Kampala. Beliau juga membwa Uganda menjadi Organisasi konferensi Islam (OKI). Saat ini sekitar 15 % penduduk Uganda memeluk agama Islam.
4. Somalia
Sebelum Islam masuk di Somalia, agama kristen masuk lebih dahulu. Ketika Islam di negeri ini terjadilah perang agama. Pada akhirnya Islam dapat berkembang di negeri ini. Islam masuk di Somalia pada tahun 860 M. masyarakat muslim Somalia mengikuti mazhab sunni, syi’ah ada yang menganut ajaran tasyawuf. Kini Islam terus berkembang di negeri ini.
5. Liberia.
Jumlah umat muslim Liberia saat ini mencapai kurang lebih 25 % dari 3 juta penduduk. Keadaan masyarakat muslim di negeri ini sangat memprihatinkan, karena rendahnya tingkat pendidikan dan meluasnya tingkat kemiskinan.
Undang-undang di negeri ini menjamin kebebasan beragama, pemerintah menghormati setiap pendidik beribadah menurut agamanya masing-masing, meskipun demikian uamt Islam tetap menghadapi diskriminasi dalam beragama.
The Arabic Organization for Studies, merupakan salah satu organisasi Islam yang bertujuan meningkatkan dakwah Islam dan mengajarkan Islam dan Al Qur’an kepada para mualaf.
6. Mozambik
Nama Mozambil berasal Mu bin Baig, yaitu nama seorang tokoh Islam yang pernah berpengaruh dikawasan itu. Di Negeri in Islam dapat berkembang dengan baik. Umat Islam di negeri ini berhasil membangun lembaga Islam, antara lain ; Comunidodo Musulman Assocao (Persatuan Masyarakat Islam) , Islamic Center. Masyarakat muslim Mozambik bermazhab sunni.
7. Senegal
Islam masuk negeri ini pada abad XI M. dibawah oleh bangsa magribi. Kebanyakan umat Islam dinegeri ini bermazhab Syafi’I dan Maliki. Ribuan masjid telah didirikan dan masjid yang paling besar adalah masjid Tsiys dan Taubah, Pendidikan Islam telah dibangun dari tingkat Ibtidaiyah sampai dengan peerguruan tinggi.
8. Gambia
Islam masuk ke Gambia pada abda ke X M, dibawa para pedagang dari Arab (Maroko) dan Barbar dari Mauritania. Islam Gambia bermazhab sunni dan mayoritas beraliran sufi. Para pemuka sufi ini yang membawa Islam dapat berkembang dengan pesat.
9. Namibia
Sampai dengan akhir tahun 1980-an Islam belum banyak dikenal di negeri ini. Pada waktu itu penganur Islam mayoritas berasal dari Afrika. Pada tahun 1980 di negeri ini belum ada satupun bangunan masjid. Windhoek Islamic Center, yang di anggap bangunan mesjid, sebenarnya hanya bangunan kecil yang menempel pada bangunan gereja yang megah yang dibangun oleh pemerintah.
Saat ini telah terdapat tujuh masjid dan satu lagi baru di bangun di Katutura. Tokoh muslim yang paling berjasa dalam pegemmbangan Islam di Namibia adalah Jacobs Salmaan Dhancees. Dia adalah pejabat Komisi Pemilihan Umum Nmaibia. Perjalanannya ke Konferensi Islam membawa hidayah baginya masuk agama Islam. Untuk mekanjutka dakwah dan syiar Islam, kini banyak pemuda muslim yang dikirim ke Arab Saudi untuk belajar agama Islam.


Kesimpulan :
Pada pertengahan abad XIX, pemerintah Australia mencanangkan pembangunan Lintas Australia dariselatan ke utara, antara Adelaide dan Darwin. Untuk itu, dibentuklah tim ekspedisi yang mendatangkan24 ekor unta Peshawar yang diawasi oleh Dost Muhammad, seorang pengembala dari afganistan yangmenetap di Khasmir. Dost Muhammad ini sampai di Victoria pada tahun 1860.
Pada tahun 1872 datang lagi 12 orang peternak muslim dari Afganistan, India, Balukhistan serta dariPakistan membawa 120 ekor unta. Lama kelamaan pengembala muslim ini beralih profesi menjadipetani, peternak, bahkan pedagang. Mereka tetap mengamalkan dan menyebarkan ajaran agama Islamdi Australia. Penduduk asli pun mengenal islam lewat amaliah dan perikehidupan umat islamini.
 Diantara mereka ada yang menikah dengan penduduk asli yang terlebih dahuludiislamkan calon pasanganhidupnya. Jumlah umat islam pun bertambah dari para mualafdan dari keturunan mereka. Namun, padagenerasi selanjutnya identitas islam semakin menipis karena memang para pengembalaini tidak adayang ahli agama islam. Selain itu, mereka sibuk menghadapi kehidupan sehingga semangat sedikitkesempatan mengakarkan agama kepada keturunannya.



Daftar pustaka
http://jokosiswanto77.blogspot.com/2010/06/perkembangan-islam-di-dunia.html




          PENYEBARAN AGAMA ISLAM DI KOREA   

Pokok permasalahan
Bagaimana sejarah masuknya islam di korea ?
Bagaimana kronologi masuknya ajaran islam di korea ?
Bagaimana tahap – tahap pentebaran agama islam di korea ?

Pendahuluan
            Korea penuh kemiskinan, kesedihan dan penderitaan akibat dari Perang Korea yang meletus pada 25 Juni 1950. Dalam reruntuhan perang, Islam mulai menanam bijinya oleh Saudara Zubercoch dan Abdul Rahman yang berpartisipasi dalam Perang Korea sebagai anggota dinas militer Angkatan Darat Turki Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa ditempatkan di Korea. Selama pelayanan ia membangun sebuah gubuk Quonset digunakan sebagai Masjid, di mana ia berkhotbah doktrin Islam kepada Rakyat Korea.
            Tentara Turki mengajarkan rakyat Korea di Tenda Masjid dibangun di pengungsi desa ajaran monoteisme Islam selama Perang Korea, sementara rakyat Korea mengabdikan diri pada kehidupan keagamaan dalam kegelapan berharap untuk masa depan yang cerah dengan percaya kepada Allah.

SEJARAH SINGKAT MASUKNYA ISLAM DI KOREA
Korea adalah negara yang miskin dan menderita dan keadaan ini akibat dari
berkecamuknya perang Korea yang berlangsung sejak 25 Juni 1950, dan diantara reruntuhan perang inilah Islam hadir dan tumbuh dan berkembang melalui anggota pasukan perdamaian PBB dari Turki Mr. Zubercoch dan Mr. Abdul Rahman yang selama keberadaannya di Korea, membangun sebuah tempat sementara  yang di pergunakan sebagai Masjid, di mana kemudian beliau berdua memperkenalkan ajaran Islam kepada penduduk Korea.
Tentara Turki menjadi sangat dekat dengan penduduk Korea di Masjid tenda yang di bangun di tengah-tengah tenda pengungsian, dan ternyata ajaran Islam membuat mereka sedikit banyak mengurangi penderitaan akibat perang, di dalam agama ini di ajarkan bahwa ada kehidupan lagi setelah mati, kehidupan di dunia hanyalah sementara dan kehidupan abadi adalah di Akhirat kelak. Dengan demikian mereka timbul semangat untuk terus mendekatkan diri dengan Allah SWT.
Sebagai langkah awal agar Islam dapat berkembang efektif di Korea, di bentuklah wadah Muslim untuk penduduk Korea yang di beri nama Korean Moslem Society ( KMS ) yang di kemudian hari berubah menjadi Korean Moslem federation ( KMF ). Sebagai Imam masyarakat  Muslim Korea ini di pilih Mr. Muhammad Umar Kim Jin Kyu, dan selanjutnya Imam beserta beberapa Muslim Korea di berikan kesempatan untuk mengunjungi negara-negara Muslim dan beberapa diantaranya kemudian di kirim ke Universitas Muslim di Malaysia untuk belajar agama Islam. Mereka di latih menjadi da'i-da'i yang handal untuk berdakwah terhadap masyarakat Korea yang belum memeluk Islam. Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya KMS membuat proposal perencanaan Masjid, pemerintah Malaysia menyambut baik rencana ini dan melalui PM Tunku Abdul Razak memberikan dana sebesar US$ 33.000 pada tahun 1963, namun pembangunan belum dapat dilaksanakan karena negara Korea sedang inflasi.
Sungguh tidak mudah untuk mewujudkan rencana pembangunan Masjid yang pertama di Korea ini, banyak permasalahan yang timbul diantaranya adalah perihal ijin dari pemerintah . Tetapi meskipun demikian pengabdian para muallaf untuk mengembangkan agama Islam tidak luntur, dengan kepercayaan dan kesetiaan penuh kepada Allah SWT. Dan akhirnya
pemerintah Korea melalui Menteri Informasi dan Kebudayaan mengeluarkan ijin untuk KMS (registrasi No. 114 March, 1967, dengan Ketua Sulaeman Lee Hwa Shik dan Sekretaris Jenderal Abdul Aziz Kim Il Cho ). Berbekal surat ijin ini KMS menjadi lebih leluasa berdakwah dan membuka babak baru sejarah perkembangan Islam di Korea.
Mimpi panjang mendirikan Masjid baru terwujud 9 tahun kemudian, pada bulan Mei tahun 1976 Central Masjid Itaewon secara resmi di buka dengan di hadiri 55 tamu undangan dari 20 negara yang turut membantu mewujudkan mimpi masyarakat muslim Korea. PM Choi Gyu
Hwa turut hadir mewakili pemerintah Korea hal ini sekaligus, sebagai bukti bahwa Islam telah mendapatkan jalan yang terang untuk berkembang di Korea.
Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya pada tahun 1978 KMS mengirim 130 jamaah untuk ziarah dan menunaikan ibadah haji ke Tanah Suci Mekkah, dan selanjutnya pada tahun 1979 tercatat 104 jamaah , aktifitas ini kemudian di kenal dengan " Boom Of Middle East " yang mencerminkan bahwa syiar Islam telah menyala di Korea.





KRONOLOGI MASUKNYA ISLAM DI KOREA
memperkenalkan risalah Islam pertama kali di Korea :
1)      September 1955 : Mr. Zubercoch dan Mr. Abdul Rahman anggota pasukan perdamaian PBB dari Turki
2)      Oktober 1955 : Pendirian organisasi masyarakat Muslim Korea dengan nama Korean Moslem Society.
3)      September 1961 : Pemerintah Malaysia mengirimkan utusan yang beranggotakan 14 orang untuk memantau perkembangan Islam di Korea di pimpin oleh Senator Ubaidullah, yang tinggal di negara ini selama 2 pekan.
4)      Agustus 1962 : Pemerintah Malaysia menyetujui proposal pembangunan Masjid
di Korea.
5)      Oktober 1963 : Utusan pemerintah Malaysia H. Muhammad Noh berkunjung
ke Korea dan memberikan dana sebesar US$ 33.000
6)      Maret 1967 : Pemerintah Korea melalui Menteri Informasi dan Kebudayaan
mengeluarkan ijin dengan registrasi No. 114 March, 1967
7)      Mei 1976 : Pembangunan Central  Masjid Itaewon selesai dan di resmikan
penggunaannya.
8)      Desember 1976 : Masjid sementara Busan di buka dengan Imam Mr. Kim Myung
Hwan.
9)      Maret 1977 : Pusat kebudayaan Islam Korea di buka di Jeddah, Arab Saudi.
10)  April 1978 : Masjid sementara Kwangju di buka dengan Imam Mr. Abdullah Jun Deuk Lin.
11)  Oktober 1978 : 130 jamaah haji Korea berangkat ke Tanah Suci untuk yang pertama kali .
12)  Oktober 1978 : Masjid sementara Kwangju di buka.
13)  Juli 1980 : Pembangunan Masjid Rabita Anyang.
14)  September 1980 : Peresmian Masjid Al Fatah Busan.
15)  Juni 1981 : Peresmian Masjid Kwangju.
16)  Agustus 1982 : World Assembly Moslem Youth ( WAMY ) mengadakan kunjungan ke Korea untuk memberikan Pendidikan Islam, dan berturut-turut setiap bulan
Agustus hingga tahun 1988, kegiatan WAMY ini di kenal dengan " WAMY SUMMER CAMP "
17)  April 1986 : Peresmian Masjid Rabita Anyang.
18)  September 1986 : Persemian Masjid Abubakar Assidiq dengan Imam Dr. Abdulwahab Zahid dari Syria, beliau sekaligus menjabat sebagai General Mufthy Of Korea.

TAHAP – TAHAP PERNYBARAN AJARAN AGAMA ISLAM DI KORAE.
Persiapan Negara Sebagai langkah pertama menuju Islam yang efektif bekerja di Korea, saudara-saudara Islam awal Korea mengorganisir sebuah masyarakat Muslim. Masyarakat Islam ini terpilih Almarhum Muhammad Umar Kim Jin Kyu sebagai presiden.
Kemudian, para pemimpin Korea muslim diundang untuk mengunjungi Negara-Negara Islam dan beberapa Muslim Korea dikirim ke Muslim College di Malaysia untuk dilatih sebagai calon pekerja dan para pemimpin Islam.
Delegasi Malaysia dipimpin oleh Wakil Menteri Tunku Abdul Razak dan istrinya, mengunjungi situs masjid yang diusulkan. Kemudian Haji Mohammad Nuh, seorang pejabat pemerintah Malaysia, melihat bahwa basis permanen harus didirikan untuk melaksanakan kegiatan dakwah. Jadi, dengan pemerintah Malaysia donasi $ 33.000, ia menyerahkan uang ke Komunitas Muslim Korea untuk membangun sebuah masjid pada tahun 1963. Sayangnya, pembangunan masjid tidak dapat diselesaikan karena berbagai alasan di antaranya adalah inflasi.
Tahap Menetap Itu bukan tugas yang mudah untuk membuat basis bagi kegiatan-kegiatan dakwah. Banyak kesulitan yang harus dialami dan dipecahkan.
Tetapi meskipun semua ini, yang berdedikasi Muslim awal berusaha keras untuk mempromosikan Islam, dengan penuh kepercayaan pada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Mereka berhasil dalam mengubah Islam ke Yayasan Islam yang disetujui oleh Pemerintah Korea dan terdaftar secara resmi di Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Informasi. (Pendaftaran no. 114, 13 Maret 1967)
Dengan demikian, Korea Muslim mulai membuat cara untuk dakwah aktif bekerja dan berhasil membuka era baru bagi muslims di Korea dengan kehendak Allah.

Take Off Negara
Mimpi panjang Muslim Korea, yakni pembangunan Masjid Sentral itu terwujud pada tahun 1976. Pembukaan Masjid Tengah dan Islam Pusat adalah titik balik paling penting bagi sejarah umat Islam Korea. Pada upacara pembukaan, 55 utusan dari sekitar 20 negara dimuliakan impian Muslim Korea, dan upacara pembukaan yang spektakuler adalah indikator ledakan peningkatan mendadak dalam jumlah Muslim Korea.
Pembukaan Masjid pertama Korea memberikan kontribusi terhadap perkembangan Islam yang cepat di Korea. Pejabat asing (VIP) yang berpartisipasi dalam upacara mengunjungi Perdana Menteri Choi Gyu Hwa untuk melakukan peran meningkatkan minat dalam Islam.
Sementara itu, Muslim Korea telah menunaikan haji ke Mekah untuk menginspirasi orang-orang dengan keyakinan Islam dan setia melakukan tugas pada tahun 1979, dan Muslim Korea memacu kegiatan dakwah di Korea mengambil kesempatan apa yang disebut “Boom Timur Tengah”(1974-1980) dengan menaikkan bunga di Timur Tengah dan Islam.

Ziarah ke Tanah Suci
Korea Muslim tidak malas dalam melakukan ziarah ke tanah suci, salah satu dari 5 Kewajiban Islam. Setiap tahun umat Islam Korea melakukan tugas suci dengan menyelenggarakan kelompok piligrims. Ziarah pertama dipimpin oleh Haji Subri Seo Jung Gil di tahun 1960. Salah satu kelompok terbesar yang pernah dilakukan Haji adalah pada tahun 1978 dengan 130 orang pada tahun 1979, 104 orang berhasil menunaikan ibadah haji.





Kesimpulan :
Korea adalah negara yang miskin dan menderita dan keadaan ini akibat dari
berkecamuknya perang Korea yang berlangsung sejak 25 Juni 1950, dan diantara reruntuhan perang inilah Islam hadir dan tumbuh dan berkembang melalui anggota pasukan perdamaian PBB dari Turki Mr. Zubercoch dan Mr. Abdul Rahman yang selama keberadaannya di Korea, membangun sebuah tempat sementara  yang di pergunakan sebagai Masjid, di mana kemudian beliau berdua memperkenalkan ajaran Islam kepada penduduk Korea.
Tentara Turki menjadi sangat dekat dengan penduduk Korea di Masjid tenda yang di bangun di tengah-tengah tenda pengungsian, dan ternyata ajaran Islam membuat mereka sedikit banyak mengurangi penderitaan akibat perang, di dalam agama ini di ajarkan bahwa ada kehidupan lagi setelah mati, kehidupan di dunia hanyalah sementara dan kehidupan abadi adalah di Akhirat kelak. Dengan demikian mereka timbul semangat untuk terus mendekatkan diri dengan Allah SWT.
Sebagai langkah awal agar Islam dapat berkembang efektif di Korea, di bentuklah wadah Muslim untuk penduduk Korea yang di beri nama Korean Moslem Society ( KMS ) yang di kemudian hari berubah menjadi Korean Moslem federation ( KMF ). Sebagai Imam masyarakat  Muslim Korea ini di pilih Mr. Muhammad Umar Kim Jin Kyu, dan selanjutnya Imam beserta beberapa Muslim Korea di berikan kesempatan untuk mengunjungi negara-negara Muslim dan beberapa diantaranya kemudian di kirim ke Universitas Muslim di Malaysia untuk belajar agama Islam. Mereka di latih menjadi da'i-da'i yang handal untuk berdakwah terhadap masyarakat Korea yang belum memeluk Islam.




Daftar pustaka :


          PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM Di DUNIA   
PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM Di DUNIA

Setelah mempelajaari modul ini siswa dapat :
1. Menjelaskan perkembangan Islam di dunia
2. Menjelaskan manfaat yang dapat diambil dari sejarah perkembangan Islam di dunia
3. Menyebutkan contoh perkembangan Islam di dunia
4. Menjelaskan hikmah perkembangan Islam di dunia

A. Perkembangan Ajaran Islam di Eropa
1. Austria
Di Austria terdapat Islamic Center, masjid , perpustakaan, dan madrasah sebagai tempat untuk memepelajari Al Qur’an. Lembaga ini menjadi penghubung dengan dunia Islam pada umumnya.
Di Austria terdapat perpustakaan Islam yang dikenal dengan nama Social Service. Semua biaya kegiatan keagamaan ditanggung oleh umat Islam sendiri. Untuk menyiapkan generasi penerus pendidikan agama Islam diberikan pada hari sabtu dan minggu.
2. Belgia
Keberadaan agama Islam di Belgia diakui oleh pemerintah sebagai salah satu agama dari yang sah. Untuk menampung kegiatan umat Islam dibangun masjid dan Islamic center. Di negara ini pernah dipakai tempat muktamar Islam Eropa tepatnya di kota Brussel.
Sejak tahun 1975 Pendidikan agama Islam di masukkan ke dalam kurukulum sekolah di tingkat SD, SMP dan SMA. Materi yang diajarkan adalah; Al Qur’an, Bahasa Arab, Ilmu Agama Islam.
3. Spanyol
Di negara ini umat Islam pernah mengalami kejayaan, yaitu pada masa kekuasaan Bani Umayyah. Pada masa-masa berikutnya Isam tidak lagi mampu mengembangkan sayapnya dinegara ini, karena mendapatkan himpitan dari kristen. Pada masa pemerintah Spanyol mengeluarkan undang-undang yang mengakui bahwa semua agama mempunyai derajat yang sama, kegiatan Islam muai tampak lagi. Bangunan masjid Kordaba menjadi kebanggaan umat Islam pada waktu itu. Pada tahun 1981 dibangunlah Islamic center sebagaipusat pendidikan Islam.
4. Bulgaria
Umat Islam di Bulgaria pernah berjaya, yaitu pada masa Dinasti Usmaniyah berkuasa. Umat Islam di Bulgariaya berjumlah 12,2 %, dan sudah masuk menjadi bagian dari sistem politik.
Pemerintah Bulgaria pernah melarang segala kegiatan organisasa muslim serta menetapkan sejumlah larangan bagi umat Islam. Kegiatan keagamaan dibatasi dan umat Islam diharuskan mengganti nama Arab mereka. Manun demikian umat Islam tetap bertahan dan teus mengmbangkan dakwah Islam. Umat muslim Bulgaria terdapat dua komunitas besar yaitu; Pomak atau etnis Bulgaria yang tigngal di wilayah pegunungan selatan dan etnis Turki yang tinggal di kawasan tenggara. Problem yang dihadapai umat muslim adalah rendahnya tingkat pendidikan dan minimnya lapangan pekerjaan.
5. Inggris
Di inggris agama Islam berkembang dengan pesat, faktor yang menjadi pendorong perkembangan Islam antara lain mengalirnya ilmu pengetahuan Islam dari Spanyo, Pemindahan Universitas Toledo ke Inggsris, sehingga Inggris memiliki Universitas Cambraibge dan Oxford. Untuk mengengbangkan agama Islam dibangunlah masjid agung (Central mosque) di pusat kota London. Mozarobes adalah salah satu tokoh yang sangat gigih dalam mendakwahkan Islam di Inggris.
Pada saat ini umat muslim Inggris menjalin hubungan kerja sama dengan umat muslin Indonesia. Programnya adalah penukaran imam dan khotib yang disepakati dalam forum Kelompok Penasehat Keulamaan Indonesia- Inggris atau RI UK Islamic Advisory Group ( UK – IAG ) yang dibentuk atas kesepakatan Perdana Menteri Inggris Tony Blair dengan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudoyono, pada bulan Maret 2006. Selain itu adalah penterjemahan karya-karya Indonesia ke dalam bahasa Inggris, dialog antara agama dan aneka kegiatan mengisi waktu luang pelajar.
6. Perancis
Sebenarnya di negara ini terkenal sebgai negara Katolik. Akan tetapi, dalam hal agama liberal, orang yang tidak beragama pun diakui hak-haknya. Agama Islam dapat berkembang dengan baik di negara ini. Sekarang sudah ada Al Qur’an diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Perancis. Salah satu tokoh yang sangat gigih dalam hal ini adalah Jackues Beroue.
7. Italia
Italia adalah pusak agama Katolik di seluruh dunia. Namun demilkian Agama Islam dapat tumbuh dan berkembang di negara ini. Pada tahun 1984 kaum muslimin berhasil mendirikan masjid sebagai pusat kegiatan agama.
8. Jerman
Islam masuk di Jerman pada abad ke 8 M. Pada masa pemerintahan Frederich Wilhelm, Islam berkembang karena umat islam berjasa dalam perjuangan militer di jerman. Pada tahun 1908 dalam resimen “Towarczy”, ada 1.220 tentanra muslim dari 1.320, sedangkan sisanya beragama kristen. Peran militer muslim tidak hanya berperang melawan Napolion, tetapi berlanjut melawan Rusia dan Polandia.
Islam berkembang dengan pesat pada masa pasca Nazi puncaknya pada tahun 60-an. Sekarang populasi muslim di Jerman mencapai 3,7 juta, dari 82,5 juta penduduk jerman 33% beragama Protestan, 33 % beragama Katolik dan 4,5 % beragama Islam. Mayoritas muslim Jerman dari keturunan Turki, sisanya keturunan Maroko, Pakistan, Iran, Afganistan, Balkan dan sebagainya.
Pendidikan agama Islam telah disetujui pemerintah masuk pada kurikulum sekolah negeri, namun demikian masih ada kendala yaitu tidak adanya organisasi Islam yang diakui pemerintah, sedangkan pemerintah mensyaratkan hal itu ada untuk menjadi mitra bicara untuk membahas materi pelajaran agama Islam. Di Jerman terdapat masjid dan mushola sekitar 2.200 . Di Berlin sendiri terdapat sekitar 70 masjid /mushola. Selain digunakan sebagi tempat ibadah, juga difungsikan sebagai tempat kegiatan Islami terutama pengajian atau pendidiakan Islam.
9. Kanada
Islam masud di Kanda kurang lebih 150 tahun yang lampau. Sikap toleransi antar agama cukup tinggi, sehingga kekerasan yang ditimbulkan dari agama ras dapat diminimalisasi.
Pada saat ini ada sekitar 600 ribu umat Islam di Kanada. Umat Islam di Kanada dapat bekerja diberbagai bidang. Saat ini pendidikan agama telah diajarkan di sekolah, karena para guru dan pengelola pendidikan merasa perlu untuk memberikan pengetahuan tentang Islam kepada para siswanya.
Usaha-usaha umat muslim di kanada untuk memperkenalkan kepada publik, bahwa Islam adalah agama yang cinta damai terutama di negara-negara barat antara lain ; diselenggarakan diskusi-diskusi, dialog listas agama, penerbitan buletin, serta aneka produk budaya. Selain itu umat Islam di kanada juga membuat acara khusus tentang Islam dan kehidupan sehari-hari. Mereka memproduksi film dokumenter yang diberi judul A New Life in a new Land.
10. Kawasan Eropa Timur dan Semenanjung Balkan
Pada masa Kekholifahan Turki Usmani, Islam merebak di negeri ini. Jumlah umat Islam terbanyak berada di Albania, dibandingkan di Bulgaria, Macedonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Azerbaijan dan sebagainya.

B. Australia
Islam masuk di Australia melalui orang-orang Afganistan yang bekerja sebagai pengendara unta. Pada tahun 1924 Islam lebih berkembang lagi yang dibawa oleh orang-orang dari Albania, yang bekerja sebagai petani tembakau di Australia Utara.
Quesland Islamic Society, didirikan bertujuan untuk menyadarkan anak-anak muslim agar melaksanakan sholat. Al Qur’an menjadi ajaran pokok di sisni. Diantara organisasi yang dibeentuk untuk memajukan Islam yaitu :
1. Australia Federation of Islamic Councils (Federasi Dewan-dewan Islam Australia)
2. Federasi of Islamic Societies (Federasi Masyarakat Muslim) yang bertaraf nasional, melipouti 35 ormas muslim lokal dan 9 Dewan Islam Negara Bagian.
3. Moslem Student Association (Himpunan Mahasiswa Muslim)
4. Moslem Women’s Centre (Pusat Wanita-wanita Islam) bertujuan memberikan pelajaran keislaman bagi kaum yang datang dari luar negeri diberi tambahan pekajaran bahasa inggris.
King Khalid Islamic College (KKIC) adalah sekolah Islam yang pertamakali didirikan di Australia tepatnya di negara bagian Victoria. KKIC didirkan tahun 1982, siswanya terdiri dari berbagai bangsa dan negara. Sekolah ini setara dengan SD, hingga SMA. Sekarang telah berdiri 30 sekolah yang serupa di seluruh Australia. Sekolah tersebut menggunakan kurikulum nasional dan internasional. Agama Islam dan Al Qur’an mejadi mata pelajaran wajib.

C. Afrika
1. Sudan
Perkembangan Islam di Suda sangat megembirakan. Salah satu tokoh yang berjasa masuknya Islam di Sudan adalah Abdullah bin Said bin Ali Sarah. Penyebaran Islam di negeri ini dilakukan dengan mengajarkan ilmu Tasyawuf dan Filsafat. Tokoh yang paling berpengaruh pada waktu itu adalah Syeh Abdul Qodir Al Jilani dan Abdul Hasan Asy Syazali.
2. Etiopia
Islam masuk di Eteopia ketika Rosulullah masih hidup. Pada saat itu ada 15 orang muslim yang hijrah ke Eteopia. Negeri ini pada masa Rosul dikenal dengan nama Habsyinia atau Habsyah. Sejak abad XIV M , orang muslim Hasbania mengadakan hubungan dengan Mesir (Al Azhar), sehigga memunculkan ulama-ulama terkenal pada masa itu.
Pada tahun 1934 M, Al Azhar mengirimkan beberapa utusan yang bertugas untuk mengajar agama Islam. Beberapa masjid didirikan sebagai pusat ibadah umat Islam, dan madarasah sebagai pusat pendidikan Agama Islam.
3. Uganda
Perkembangan Islam di Uganda cukup pesat. Masuknya Islam di negeri in diperkirakan sekitar tahun 1844 melalui perdagang yaitu Ahmad Ibrohim, Idi Amin. Idi Amin dianggap sebagai pendiri Uganda Muslim Supreme Cauncil (UMSC) pada tahun 1974. Ia juga berhasil mengundang Raja Faisal pada peletakan batu pertama pembangunan Masjid nasional di Old Kampala. Beliau juga membwa Uganda menjadi Organisasi konferensi Islam (OKI). Saat ini sekitar 15 % penduduk Uganda memeluk agama Islam.
4. Somalia
Sebelum Islam masuk di Somalia, agama kristen masuk lebih dahulu. Ketika Islam di negeri ini terjadilah perang agama. Pada akhirnya Islam dapat berkembang di negeri ini. Islam masuk di Somalia pada tahun 860 M. masyarakat muslim Somalia mengikuti mazhab sunni, syi’ah ada yang menganut ajaran tasyawuf. Kini Islam terus berkembang di negeri ini.
5. Liberia.
Jumlah umat muslim Liberia saat ini mencapai kurang lebih 25 % dari 3 juta penduduk. Keadaan masyarakat muslim di negeri ini sangat memprihatinkan, karena rendahnya tingkat pendidikan dan meluasnya tingkat kemiskinan.
Undang-undang di negeri ini menjamin kebebasan beragama, pemerintah menghormati setiap pendidik beribadah menurut agamanya masing-masing, meskipun demikian uamt Islam tetap menghadapi diskriminasi dalam beragama.
The Arabic Organization for Studies, merupakan salah satu organisasi Islam yang bertujuan meningkatkan dakwah Islam dan mengajarkan Islam dan Al Qur’an kepada para mualaf.
6. Mozambik
Nama Mozambil berasal Mu bin Baig, yaitu nama seorang tokoh Islam yang pernah berpengaruh dikawasan itu. Di Negeri in Islam dapat berkembang dengan baik. Umat Islam di negeri ini berhasil membangun lembaga Islam, antara lain ; Comunidodo Musulman Assocao (Persatuan Masyarakat Islam) , Islamic Center. Masyarakat muslim Mozambik bermazhab sunni.
7. Senegal
Islam masuk negeri ini pada abad XI M. dibawah oleh bangsa magribi. Kebanyakan umat Islam dinegeri ini bermazhab Syafi’I dan Maliki. Ribuan masjid telah didirikan dan masjid yang paling besar adalah masjid Tsiys dan Taubah, Pendidikan Islam telah dibangun dari tingkat Ibtidaiyah sampai dengan peerguruan tinggi.
8. Gambia
Islam masuk ke Gambia pada abda ke X M, dibawa para pedagang dari Arab (Maroko) dan Barbar dari Mauritania. Islam Gambia bermazhab sunni dan mayoritas beraliran sufi. Para pemuka sufi ini yang membawa Islam dapat berkembang dengan pesat.
9. Namibia
Sampai dengan akhir tahun 1980-an Islam belum banyak dikenal di negeri ini. Pada waktu itu penganur Islam mayoritas berasal dari Afrika. Pada tahun 1980 di negeri ini belum ada satupun bangunan masjid. Windhoek Islamic Center, yang di anggap bangunan mesjid, sebenarnya hanya bangunan kecil yang menempel pada bangunan gereja yang megah yang dibangun oleh pemerintah.
Saat ini telah terdapat tujuh masjid dan satu lagi baru di bangun di Katutura. Tokoh muslim yang paling berjasa dalam pegemmbangan Islam di Namibia adalah Jacobs Salmaan Dhancees. Dia adalah pejabat Komisi Pemilihan Umum Nmaibia. Perjalanannya ke Konferensi Islam membawa hidayah baginya masuk agama Islam. Untuk mekanjutka dakwah dan syiar Islam, kini banyak pemuda muslim yang dikirim ke Arab Saudi untuk belajar agama Islam.

D. Asia
1. Pakistan
Islam masuk ke India-Pakistan pada masa Bani Umayyah. Dengan melalui perjalanan yang panjang pada tahun 1862 M menjadi negara Islam.
Pada awal abad XX, Sayid Ahmad Khan ( seorang kominis ), mencetuskan gagasan bahwa Muslim dan Hindu membentuk bangsa yang berbeda dan terpisah di India, atas dasar agama dan budaya. Tulisan Ahmad Khan ini mengilhami Muhammad Ali Jinnah memimpin Liga Musliam pada pembentukan Pakistan.
Pakistan mejadi negara Republik Islam. Negeri ini termasuk negara produktif ilmuwan dan budayawan muslim yang terkenal seperti Muhammad Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman dan lain sebagainya.
2. India
Islam masuk ke India pada masa Khulafaur Rosyidin, ketia Kholifah Umar bin Khottob memerintah, Ia telah mengirimkan pasukan ke Persia dan berhasil menaklukkan Persia babian selatan.
Pada masa pemerintahan Bani Umayyah Islam di India berkembangn pesat. Para da’i yang berhasil menyebarkan Islam di India antara lain :
a. Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan. Pada masa pemerintahannya Beliau mengirimkan pasukan ke India yang dipimpin oleh Maglab bin Abi Sufiah.
b. Hajja bin Yusuf as Saqofi, orang yang dipercaya Abdul Malik bin Marwan.
c. Subaktakir dari Ghozna’
d. Muhammad Ghori, raja muslim di Ghori yang moderat.
Puncak kejayaan Islam di India pada masa Kerajaan Islam Mughal yang dipimpin Babur Akbar kemudian dilanjutkan oleh putranya Humayun. Pada masa kejayaan Islam di India datanglah Inggris menjajah India, Kerajaan Mughal runtuh dan India menjadi jajahan Inggris.
3. Rusia
Islam masuk di Rusia pada masa Bai Umayyah. Di kota Bukhora pernah lahir seorang ulama besar ahli hadis yaitu Imam Bukhori yang menulis kitab hadis Shoheh Bukhori. Islam di Rusia mengalami kejayaan ketika Dinasti Samanid berkuasa. Akan tetapi ketika Jengis Khan menggempur Asia Tengah banyak penduduk muslim yang dibunuh, masjid dan sekolah-sekolah dibakar.
Di Rusia saat ini telah memiliki Direktorat Utusan Islam di Departemen Luar Negeri Urusan Asia. Dengan adanya lembaga ini hak-hak dan kewajiban-kewajiban umat muslim dilindungi negara. Di negeri ini terdapat hampir 400 masjid dan 190 madrasah sebagai pusat syiar dan pendalaman Islam. Studi Isalam dan bahasa arab kini menjadi bagian kurikulum Islam di Rusia.
4 Afganistan
Islam masuk ke Afganistan pada masa Kholifah Umar bin Khottab. Pada masa Kholifah Usman bin Affan Islam telah memasuki Kabul, setelah melalui perjalanan pajang umat Islam berhasil memprokamirkan Afganistan.
Di Negeri ini umat Islam selalu berjuang menegakkan kebenaran dan keadilan, akan tetapi perjuangan umat Islam selalau mendapat tekanan dari Uni Soviet. Pada masa pengaruh Uni Soviet dapat dilenyapkan, para pemimpin gerakanm mujahidin dapat berkuasa di Afganistan. Pada masa kejayaan umat Islam, Afganistan teerkenal sebagai gudang ilmu dan berhasil melahirkan Sejumlah ilmuwan muslim.
5. Republik Rakyat Cina
Islam masuk ke Cina pada masa daulah Bani Abasiyah, kedatanag Islam di semenanjung Cina disambut gembira oleh masyarakat. Pada masa Dinasti Ming lahirlah seorang muslim terkenal yaitu Laksamana Zheng Ho atau Sham Poo Kong (1371).
Pada masa dinasti Manchu yang diprakarsai oleh Kaisar Kong His, Islam berkembang dengan pesat baik dikalangn terpelajar maupun masyarakat biasa. Kehidupan umat Islam terasa aman dan damai, bahkan banyak tokoh muslim yang menduduki jabatan penting dalam pemerintahan.
Perkembangan dan kamajuan Islam semakin tampak nyata Setelah RRC merdeka tanggal , 10 Nopember 1911 M , terutama ketika hamcurnya faham komunis di berbagai belahan dunia. Di Cian terdapat dua masjid khusus wanita yang berada di Peking (Beijing). General Moslem Associatin of China, adalah salah satu organisasi Islam di Cina, yang bergerak dalam pengembangan dakwah penembangan Islam.
1. Singapura
Islam masuk Singpura kurang lebih abad ke XVI M. Pada masa Kerajaan Malak dipimpin oleh Sultan Mansyur Syah, wilayahnya melebar sampai ke Palembang dan Jambi. Dari Jambi melalui Tanjung Pinang Islam menyebar ke Singapura.
Di Singpura Islam dapat berkembang dengan baik, khuisusnya di bidang pendidikan, seperti penerbitanbuku-buku agama berbahasa Arab, Madrsah-madrsah banyak didirikan. Islam di Singapura mendapatkan pengkuan dari pemerintah. Majelis Ulama Singapura (MUIS), mempunyai otoritas bagi pembangunan kehidupan masyarakat Islam Singapura. MUIS berada di bawah Kementerian Pembangunan Masyarakat dan ditangani oleh Menteri Lingkungan atau Menteri Sekitaran. Pada tahun 1990 MUIS bernama Maintenance Religous Harmony Act.
7. Thailand
Islam masuk ke Thailan ( Muangtai ) pada abad ke XV M, melalui kerajaan Acaeh (Pasai), setelah ditaklikan kerajaan Siam (Thailan). Selain itu Islam masuk melalui Malaka.
Kini banyak umat Islam Tailan yang merantau keluar negeri, seperti Timur Tengah dan Indonesia untuk mencari ilmu.
8. Bunai Darussalam
Islam masuk ke negeri ini sekitar tahun 977 M melalui jalur Timur Asia Tenggara oleh para pedagang dari Cina.
Pada waktu pusat penyebaran dan kebudayaan Islam di Malaka jatuh ketangan Portugis, Islam di Brunai maju pesat. Kemajuan Islam semakin bertambah cepat pada masa dipimpin oleh Sultan Bolkiah ( Sultan ke 5). Pada tahun 199885 Brunai membentuk Majlis Agama Islam berdasarkan Undang-undang Agama dan Mahkamah Kadi. Pada waktu itu Islam telah menjadi idiologi negara. Didirikannya pusat dakwah untuk kepntingan penelitian Agama Islam. Anak cacat dan yatim mejadi tanggungjawab pemerintah. Saat ini Islam telah menjadi bagian dari negara.

E. Hikmah Belajar Sejarah
Ada beberapa hal yang dapat kita ambil hikmahnya setelah kita belajar sejarah perkembangan Islam, yaitu antara lain :
1. Hanya dengan kerja keras dan usaha yang maksimal, apa yang diinginkan akan berhasil. Hal in dapat dilihat bahwa Islam berkembang dengan baik di berbagai belahan dunia adalah atas usaha yang maksimal umat muslim.
2. Tidak menjadikan warna kulit, beda bahasa dan sebagainya menjadi jurang pemisah. Karena Allah hanya membedakan hambanya dari segi ketaqwaannya.
3. Sesama muslim adalah saudara, meskipun dari berbagai benua dan negara yang berbeda. Persaduaraanitu diikat adanya aqidah atau ketuhanan yang satu Allah dan kitab suci yang satu yaitu Al Qur’an.
4. Menjadikan perbedaan dalam hal warna kulit, beda bahasa, suku jenis rabut dan lain sebagainya sebagi rahmat, bukan sebagai jurang pemisah.





A. Pilihlah Jawaban yang Paling Tepat
1. Sejak tahun 1975, di Belgia ilmu agama Islam telah masuk di dalam kurikulum sekolah. Materi agama ini di ajarkan pada sisiwa mulai tingkat …
a. SD d. Pperguruan Tinggi
b. SMP e. TK
c. SMA
2. Lembaga Islamic Center yang berada di Austria berfungsi sebagai ….
a. pusat dakwah Islam
b. pusat pendidikan Islam dan hubungan dengan dunia Islam
c. kegiatan ekonomi Islam
d. kegiatan polik
e. menampung anak cacat dan yatim
3. Agama Islam masuk di India-Pakiskan pada masa pemerintahan Islam ……
a. Dinasti Fatimiyah d. Khulafaur Rosyidin
b. Bani Umayyah e. Turki Usmani
c. Bani Abasiyah
4. Tokoh muslim yang terkenal dari Tionghoa (Cina) yang lahior pada masa Dinasti Ming adalah ……….
a. Muhammada Ali Jinnah d. Sayyid Ahmad Khan
b. Zheng Ho e. Ali Bin Abi Tholib
c. Abu Bakar
5. Salah satu peninggalan Kerajaan Isalam di India yang sampai saat ini masih dapat kita saksikan adalah ……
a. Masjid Kordafa d. Piramida

c. Tajmahal
6. Salah satu Universitas di Inggris yang turut serta mendorong perkembangan Islam di Inggris adalah ………
a. London d. Toledo
b. Al Ashar e. Kanada
c. Oxford
7. Saat ini umat Islam di Inggris telah menjalin kerjasama dengan umat Islam Indonesia. Salah satu program yang disepakati adalah …….
a. pertukaran kebudayaan d. pertukaran Imam dan Khotib
b. pertukaran pelajar e. penyediaan lapangan kerja
c. pertukaran mahasiawa
8. Di Perancis Agama Islam dapat berkembang dengan baik. Jackues Beroue telah bejuang keras mengembangkan Islam dalam hal …..
a. menterjemahkan Al Qur’an dalam bahasa Perancis
b. menterjemahkan buku-buku agama Islam
c. menerbitkan buku-buku keagamaan
d. memasukkan kurikulum agama Islam ke sekolah formal
e. tukar menukar pelajar Islam dengan Arab Saudi
9. Islam dapat berkembang dengan baik. Jumlah penduduk sekiitar 3,7 juta jiwa. Dari jumlah tersebut yang memeluk agama Islam sekitar ……
a. 90 % d. 4,5 %
b. 50 % e. 2.5 %
c. 3,4 %
10. Penyampaian pelajaran agama Islam di Jerman menggunakan model percontohan atau pilot proyek. Daerah yang dibuat percontohan adalah …
a. Berlin d. Frankfurt
b. Muceen e. Bayern
c. Bom
11. Rusia salah satu negara Asia Tenggara yang pernah memiliki pusat pengembangan Islam yaitu Bukhoro. Di kota tersebut lahir seorang ulama’ ahli Hadits yang bernama ……
a. Imam Syafi’I d. Imam Muslim
b. Imam Hambali e. Imam Ibnu Majah
c. Imama Bukhori
12. The Arabic Organization for Studies merupakan organisasi Islam di Liberia. Organisasi ini memiliki tujuan ….
a. menyebarkan Islam ke penjuru dunia
b. mengajarkan Islam dengan murni dan konsekwen
c. mengajarkan Al Qur’an dan Hadis
d. meningkatkan dakwah dan megakjarkan Al Qur’an kepada para mualaf
e. memurnikan aqidah umat Islam
13. Salah satu hikmah yang dapat kita ambil dari mempelajari sejarah perkembangan Islam di seluruh dunia adalah …..
a. menjadikan perbedaan pendapat sebagai jurang pemisah
b. tidak perlu usaha mendakwahkan Islam
c. tidak menjadikan perbedaan warna kulit, bahasa, sebagai jurang pemissah
d. saudara mulim hanya yang sedaerah saja
e. perbedaaan madzhab dijadikan sebagai pegangan
14. Quensland Islamic Society adalah sebuah organisasi Islam yang didirikan di Brisbane Australia, yang bertujuan ……….
a. mengajarkan pedidikan Islam dari tingkat SD sampai perguruan tinggi
b. mengjarkan agar anak-anak muslim mengerjakan sholat
c. menterjemahkan buku-buku Islam kedalam bahasa Inggris
d. menerbitkan buku-buku Islam
e. menhembangkan dakwah Islam
15. Di Brunai Darussalam, Islam menjadi Idiologi Negara khususnya pada masa pemerintahan Hasanah Bolkiah pada tahun ………
a. 1985 M d. 1928 M
b. 1945 M e. 2008 M
c. 2004 M

B. Jawablah pertanyaan di bawah ini dengan singkat dan benar !
1. Jelaskan beberapa bentuk kerja sama umat muslim Indonesi dengan muslim Inggris yang telah disepakati yaitu ? ………
2. Jelaskan perkembangna Islam di Australia ? …..
3. Jelaskan perkembangan Islam di Spanyol ?.........
4. Bagaimana cara yang ditempuh umat Islam di Kanada dalam usaha mengenalkan Islam ke seluruh masyarakat , jelaskan ? ….
5. Jelaskan hikmah yang dapat diambil dalam mempelajari sejarah perkembangan Islam di seluruh dunia ? ……
6. Jelaskan perkembangan Islam di Brunai Darussalam ? …….
7. Jelaskan bagaimana perkembangan Islam di Singpura ?........
8. Bagaimana perkembangan Islam yang anda ketahui di Afganistan, jelaskan ?..
9. Jelaskan perkembangan Islam di India ? …
10. Pakistan adalah merupakan negara Islam yang produktif dalam pengembangan ilmu pengeahuan dan kebudayaan Islam. Sebutkan dua tokoh ilmuwan dan budayawan yang terkenal di pakistan?.

           Super 2 BR Apartment / Janabiyah near to saudi causeway    
السعر: 370 د. ب, الكماليات: أجهزة المطبخ, مجهزة بخزائن الملابس, تدفئة وتكييف مركزي, موقف سيارات مغطى, أمن, غرف نوم: 2, الحمامات: 2, المساحة (م٢): 115,
Very modern apartment
closed to saudi causeway
quite & safe
Covered parking
24/7 security

Mobile 33180618

Rent is inclusive https://olx.com.bh/ad/super-2-br-apartment-janabiyah-near-to-saudi-causeway-ID6LX7f.html
           Semi furnished 3 bed room flat/ very spacious    
السعر: 400 د. ب, الكماليات: موقف سيارات مغطى, أمن, غرف نوم: 3, الحمامات: 2, المساحة (م٢): 167,
Covered parking
Security
Ac split system/ new unites
Brand new building
Closed to saudi causway

rent is inclusive

Mob 33180618 https://olx.com.bh/ad/semi-furnished-3-bed-room-flat-very-spacious-ID6LVhK.html
           Brand new 2 Bdroom flt in Janabiyah/ Semi Furnishe    
السعر: 270 د. ب, الكماليات: شرفة, أجهزة المطبخ, مجهزة بخزائن الملابس, تدفئة وتكييف مركزي, موقف سيارات مغطى, أمن, غرف نوم: 2, الحمامات: 2, المساحة (م٢): 121,
Brand new aprt
Nice Balcony
Near to saudi highway
Kitchen appliances/ cooker
Central Ac
New Curtains
Covered parking
24/7 Security

Rent is exclusive

Mob 33180618 https://olx.com.bh/ad/brand-new-2-bdroom-flt-in-janabiyah-semi-furnishe-ID6LZ4Z.html
          Sa Disyerto   

“Franco, daan ka naman sa bahay ko mamaya”. Si Dex, isang kapwa OFW na meet ko sa Diamond Gym noong Ramadan nangarap kasi akong gumanda ang katawan ko. Kaya hayon, nag enroll ako sa gym. Siya naman eh nag maintain lang ng katawan kasi medyo may edad na rin kasi sya eh.
Kami yong mga tinuturing na mga DOWN LOWS. Down Lows ayon sa napanood kong episode ng All New Ophrah ay ang mga “Men who are maintaining a healthy heterosexual relationships but are secretly engaged into sexual encounters with Men”. Stressed talaga dito ang sexual encounters lang at walang commitment. Sa case ko naman eh may ka live in at anak ako sa Pinas at walang nakaka alam sa family ko na may tinatago akong secreto. In short, kami yong mga Pa-Men ang mga Pamintahan or mga Pamintuan. Advantageous din kasi kung nag iingat lalo na dito sa Saudi na mainit sa mga bading. Swerte kaming dito ako sa Eastern Province. Kahit papano eh hindi masyadong mahigpit di tulad ng sa Riyadh.
“Bakit?”. Sagot ko naman “Actually Dex andito ako sa Al Khobar ngayon, sige daanan kita mamaya. Give me 15 minutes kasi nandito lang naman ako sa 2nd street corner Prince Mohammed eh”. Ang apartment naman ni Dex ay sa 7th street corner Prince Mohammed.

Dumaan kasi ako kay Marvin nanghihiram lang ng mga CD’s ng Queer As Folks na collection nya. Meron sya ng QAFs US at UK editions. Ika-copy ko kasi may DVD/CD writer ako sa office at may mga DVDR/CDR’s din doon para libre na di ba?

Ganyan ang buhay naming mga OFW dito sa Saudi. Pag weekend, which falls on Thursdays and Fridays eh free talaga kami. Wala kami masyadong ginagawa at for fun lang talaga exclusively ang mga araw na yon. Sa mga araw din na yon ang mga shopping, visit sa mga coffee shops, inuman (na bawal pag nahuli), panahon din para magpa cute sa mga batang arabo sa malls ano?.
Mga 15 minutes ride or 20 Kilometers din ang layo ng binibeyahe ko pag namamasyal akong Al Khobar. Taxi or bus ang mode of transport to or from Al Khobar. Ang Villa kasi ng company namin ay sa Dammam pa. Halos lahat din ng mga nakilala kong mga kaibigan ay sa Al Khobar din naka tira. Mas maganda kasi talaga ang Al Khobar kasi kahit papano eh hindi na gaano ka higpit. Actually, ang lakas ng loob ko ngang mag shorts dito. Sa Riyadh, kalabuso na pag nahuli kang naka shorts.
Noong matapos ko ang sadya ko kay Marvin eh dumiritso na lang din ako sa bahay ni Dex. Buti na lang eh medyo malamig lamig pa ang panahon. Hindi ko talaga tatangkaing maglakad from 2nd street to 7th street kung tag init.
“Andito na ako, buksan mo ang pintuan mo”. tawag ako sa mobile ni Dex.
“Hay naku, ang tagal mo naman. Bagot na bagot na dito yong ipapakilala kong Aso sa iyo”. Maya maya lang binuksan na rin ang pintuan at pinapasok na ako.
Aso. Yon ang tawag namin dito sa mga Katutubong Arabo. Kasi pag type ka kasi eh susundan at susundan ka talaga sa kalye ng mga yon. Kahit naman hindi ka mukhang bading basta makinis ang balat mo eh susundan ka talaga. In fact, dito ko lang nga naranasan sa Saudi na masundan ng limang BMW na kotse. Puro panalo pa ang nagmamaneho na mga aso. Kaya tinawag ng mga “Down Lows” dito ang katutubong mga Aso.
“Anong Aso?” wala ka namang binangit na Aso sa akin kanina di ba?
“Hay naku, eh kung magbabangit pa ako eh baka hindi ka na pumunta dito. Eh takot ka pa naman sa mga Aso. Halika nga dito at nandoon sya sa sala”.
Dinala ako ni Dex sa sala at pinakilala ako sa Aso. “Franco this is Jassim. And Jassim this is Franco”.
Si Jassim. Sya yong taga kabilang door na crush ko. Everytime na dumadalaw ako kay Dex eh palagi ko syang nahuhuling nakatingin sa akin. type ko sya pero deadma lang ako sa kanya kasi hindi ako at ease makipag kwentuhan or mag initiate ng conversation sa mga katutubo. Eyebrow raising kasi dito pag ang isang pinoy ay nakakikipag tsikahan sa ibang lahi lalo’t lalo na sa mga katutubo.
“Hello Franco”. Sabi bati ni Jassim sa akin sabay pisil ng kanan kong kamay. Nagsabi na rin ito na hindi sya masyadong marunong mag english.
“Hello Jassim, how are you?”. Bati ko naman.
“Jassim, you take care of my friend OK? I am finishing my laundry so call me if you need something”. “Franco, kung may kailangan ka or nasaktan ka sigaw ka lang OK?”. Bumalik na rin ito sa banyo at
naglaba na.

“Anong nasaktan? Sandali Dex, ano booking na ba ito?” Kinakabahan ako sa mga pinagsasabi ni Dex.“Gaga! Ano pa nga ba. eh matagal ka ng type nyan ano? Dini-deadma mo kasi eh kaya ako ang nilapitan. At maghugas ka na rin.”
Maghugas! Good thing dito sa Saudi kasi ang mga toilet dito ay may mga hose. Convenient masyado lalong lalo na pag may booking. Kunting hugas hugas lang eh may instant enema ka na. Mabilis lang ang maglinis at sinagot ko na rin si Dex na nakapag hugas na ako.
“Actually hindi ko sya dine-deadma. Nagaalinlangan lang akong mag initiate ng move pero type ko sya noon pa. At siempre natatakot lang din ako baka kasi okray yan at saktan ako”
“Hindi ka sasaktan nyan. Booking ko rin yan noon pa eh. Mabait yan hoy at masasaktan ka nyan hindi dahil sa kung ano pa man kundi dahil sa sarap”.
Hindi naman nagpapa virgin effect ako pero pag nagkakataon eh ito ang first time ko na makatikim ng Arabo. Okay lang sana kung Pinoy kasi manageable ang size at hindi gaanong kalakihan. Ibang usapan na pag Arabo kasi extraordinary ang laki nila.
Nasa Sala lang kaming dalawa ni Jassim at nanonood ng Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Iniwan na kami ni Dex kasi pinagpatuloy ang paglalaba nito ng damit nya. Tinignan ko si Jassim ng maayos at ang pogi nya naman talaga. Maganda ang katawan, matangkat, maputi at matangos ang ilong, perfect ang ngipin, pula ang bibig at napakaganda ng mga mata nito. Parang Hollywood actor ang dating nito. Hindi nga
sya mukhang katutubo kung tingnan eh kasi mas mukha syang Lebanese or Syrian kasi maputi nga sya.

Mga 15 minutes din ang pag mumuni muni naming dalawa na walang salitaan. Nag iinit na rin ang katawan ko sa lagkit ng mga tingin ni Jassim sa akin. Dama ko sya rin ay tinitigasan na. Ang pasulyap sulyap namin ay naging malagkit ng titigan at nagsimula ng paghahari ng pagnanasa sa isa’t isa.
Hindi naman ako ka gwapohan. Maputi nga lang ako kasi Tsinoy ako at hindi rin naman katangkadan kasi nasa 5′7 lang ako. Medyo pansinin nga lang ako lalo na ng mga Arabo kasi wala akong body hairs at makinis ang aking kutis.
Bigla na lang lumapit sa akin si Jassim at pinahawakan ang kanyang ari sa kanan kong kamay. Tama nga ako at napakalaki nga nito. Hinimas himas ko ito at napapansin kong mas lalo pang lumaki ito. Hindi paitaas ang paghinod ko sa kanyang ari kundi pailalim. Dahil sa laki at haba eh naka stretch na ito sa bandang bulsa ng pantalon. Nakatayo lang si Jassim sa harapan ko habang ako naman ay kinakapa ang kanyang ari. Init na init na ako ng biglang sumenyas itong pumasok daw kami sa kwarto ni Dex.
Sumigaw na lang rin ako “Dex, gagamitin namin ang kwarto mo ha?” Sabay hila kay Jassim patungong kwarto ni Dex.
“Sige, basta pag nasaktan ka, tawagin mo ako, OK” Sagot ni Dex. “Ang Astroglide andyan lang sa side table”. Astroglide yong lubricant na napaka dulas.
Wala ng paligoy ligoy pa. Hindi ko na rin mapigil ang kanina ko pang nanginginig na mga laman. Sinumulan na namin ni Jassim ang laplapan at susuhan ng dila. Malagkit ang aming halikan at nawawalan ako ng hininga sa halikan naming dalawa. Hindi ko na namalayan ang oras dahil sa sarap ng aming laplapan. Bigla na lang tumigil si Jassim sa aming halikan. Naghubad na ito ng t-shirt at pantaloon at nalaman ko na wala pala itong sinusuot na brief. Sumunod na rin ako sa kanya at naghubad na rin ako ng aking mga damit.
Humiga ito sa kama at inutusan akong susuhin ang nagpupumigting ari nya. Sa laki at taba ng kanyang alaga ay hindi ko kayang isubo ang lahat lahat. Ngayon lang ako naka kita at nakatikim ng ganitong kalaking ari na kasing laki na yata ng binti ng sanggol. Ulo na lang ang kaya kong isubo. Habang sinusubo ko ang ari ni Jassim ay nilalaro ko rin ang dalawa nyang mga bayag. Ngunit hindi nasisiyahan si Jassim sa ginagawa ko. Gusto nitong isubo ko ng buong buo ang kanyang kaselan na naduduwal ako sa laki. Habang
sinususo ko sya ay nilipat ko ang aking hintuturo sa bukana ng kanyang puwetan. Inaantay ko kung pumalag sya pero hindi naman pumalag kaya naglakas loob akong ipasok ang hintuturo ko sa kanyang bukana. Minamasahe ko ang entrada nya habang sinususo ko ang ari nya. Dahil sa sarap hindi mapigil ni Jassim na humiyaw. Ramdam ko na malapit na syang labasan at alam nya rin yon kaya pinigilan nya akong susuhin sya.

Pumwesto si Jassim at ako naman ang pinahiga nya. Sinakyan nya ako at naglapat ang aming dalawang maiinit na katawan. Muling nagtagpo ang aming mga bibig at naghalikan kami ng dila sa dila. Ang sarap nyang lumaplap palibhasa’y napakalambot ng kanyang mga bibig. Nababaliw na ako sa apoy ng kamunduhan ng bigla nitong ibaling ang kanyang mga halik sa aking mga tenga. Pababa ng pababa at gumapang ang kanyang mga dila hanggang sa aking leeg pababa sa aking utong at dito na tuluyang nilaro ito na may halong pahapyaw na kagat na nagbigay ng matinding kuryente na dumaloy sa buo kong katawan habang taas baba ang kanyang kamay sa nagpupumiglas kong ari. Gumapang ng gumapang ang kanyang dila hanggang humantong ito sa aking puson. Nagulat ako ng biglang ibaling ni Jassim ang kanyang bibig sa aking nagkukumahog na kaselanan. Sinubo nito ang aking ari ng buong buo. Paminsan – minsan ay sinusubo nito ang dalawa kong bola at dinidilaan ang aking mga singit. Napaiktad ako sa kiliti at sarap na dulot nito.
Dahil sa sarap kong nararamdaman ay nawala na ako sa aking sarili. Hindi ko na namamalayan na nilagyan na ng Astroglide ni Jassim ang aking lagusan. Minasahe ito at nag finger fuck. Bigla na lang nitong iniba ang posisyon at sabay hinawakan ang dalawa kong paa pataas. Walang hawakan pero kusang natunton ng alaga ni Jassim ang bukana ng mamasa masa ko ng pwerta. Napa buntong hininga ako ng binigla niya itong naipasok ng buong buo. Hindi sumayad dahil sa dulas ng Astroglide at bigla itong tumigil. Habang naka stationary ang kanyang posisyon, kinakagat kagat nito ang aking dalawang nakataas na paa. Ilang saglit pa ay sinimulan na nitong kantutin ang aking lagusan. Hindi ko malaman kung ano ang aking nararamdaman sa mga oras na iyon dahil sa napakasarap na sensasyon. Dahan dahan ang pagkadyot nito at ang bawat kadyot at nagdudulot ng hindi maintindihang ligaya sa akin. Dahil dito napasigaw ako.
“Jassim, I’m going to cum! Aaaaahhhhhhhhh tang-inaaa………….. ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh…..”
Sumabog ang aking katas sa dibdib ni Jassim habang ito ay aliw na aliw sa pagkakantot sa akin. Mga ilang saglit pa ay binilisan pa nito ang pagkadyot sa aking pwerta at hindi na rin napigil ang sarili.
“I’m cumming……….. ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh…….”
Sumabog ang kanyang katas sa sa loob ng aking lagusan at dahil na rin sa sarap hindi ko naramdaman ang kung ano mang sakit na dinulot ng napakalaki ngang pag aari.
Gusto nya pa sanang umulit pero hindi na ako pumayag. Mahapdi pa kasi at parang hindi ko pa kayang umulit. Isa pa, uuwi pa akong Dammam at malayo layo pa ang lalakbayin ko. Buti na lang nag volunteer syang ihatid ako. Ang lakas na naman ng loob kong sumakay sa kotse ng katutubo. Nagpalitan na rin kami ng mobile numbers.

          Today's Headlines and Commentary    

The ongoing ransomware attack across Europe, the United States, and Asia has raised concerns over the growing frequency of large-scale cyberattacks, The New York Times writes. The NotPetya attack is the second worldwide ransomware hacking since May, when the WannaCry virus disrupted the United Kingdom’s National Health Service. The Times runs through what we know and don’t yet know about the malware.

The Journal reports on Secretary of Defense James Mattis’s comments that the lack of a chemical weapons attack showed that the Trump administration’s warning to the Assad regime in Syria worked. Late on Monday, the U.S. threatened to use force against Syria in the case of another chemical attack after the Pentagon saw indications that an attempt may have been looming. Politico describes the process behind the drafting and release of the administration’s abrupt warning: while Mattis, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, and National Security Advisor H.R. McMaster were all involved, the statement left numerous top officials across the State and Defense Departments blindsided.

The White House may shift the State Department’s bureaus of Consular Affairs and Population, Refugees, and Migration to the Department of Homeland Security, CNN tells us. A White House official indicated that the proposal resulted from a “brainstorming session” dedicated to “improving efficiencies across government,” and is not yet a formal plan.

The Trump administration is considering taking a harsher stance on its relations with Pakistan in an effort to cut back Pakistani support for militant groups that have used the country as a base from which to conduct attacks in neighboring Afghanistan, Reuters reports. Options on the table include increased drone strikes, withholding of aid, and weakening Pakistan’s status as a U.S. ally. In a separate report released Tuesday, the Pentagon indicated that Pakistan was the most significant external factor affecting Afghan stability through governmental support of the Taliban and Haqqani Network. The Pakistani embassy in the United States warned the U.S. against using it as a “scapegoat” to explain challenges in Afghanistan.

Yesterday, the Qatari Foreign Minister met with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson in a closed-door meeting in Foggy Bottom, the Post reports. The two discussed the ongoing diplomatic crisis in the Gulf, which has shown no signs of resolution following Qatar’s rejection of the list of demands presented to it by the Gulf Cooperation Council States that recently cut their ties with Qatar. The Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister told the press yesterday that the demands were non-negotiable and were a prerequisite to re-engagement with Qatar. Later in the day, Tillerson also met with the Kuwaiti Minister of State, whose government has attempted to mediate the weeks-long dispute.

Oil companies have expressed concern over the Senate’s new package of Russian sanctions, which would prevent American participation in any oil production projects in which a Russian firm is involved anywhere in the globe, the Washington Post reports. But Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Bob Corker (R-TN), who is shepherding the bill through the approval process, has said the issues can be “easily addressed.” The bill has stalled in the House over procedural concerns, and House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Ed Royce (R-CA) has called on the Senate to complete a fix prior to the July 4th recess.

Donald Trump’s former campaign manager Paul Manafort, who has been under scrutiny amidst the various probes into Russian election interference, registered retroactively as an agent of a foreign government yesterday, reports The Wall Street Journal. The disclosure to the Justice Department’s Foreign Agent Registration Act (FARA) unit marked an acknowledgement that a portion of Manafort’s lobbying work on behalf of former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych aimed to influence U.S. government officials and journalists. Manafort’s spokesman said Manafort began working with the FARA unit to navigate the registration process in September of 2016, prior to the election results and the investigation into Russian election interference.

The Canadian Supreme Court ruled that a Canadian court can grant an injunction anywhere in the world, if such a move is required to secure the injunction’s effectiveness, The Guardian reports. In the case, the Court forced Google to remove links to one company’s content from all versions of its search engine across the globe—not only the Canadian version—following an intellectual property dispute with a competitor. Critics fear that the decision could lead to corporations and governments increasing censorship requests that then eliminate permissible content from the entire internet, no matter the location. 

The trial of accused NSA leaker Reality Winner has been set for October, according to The Hill. Winner is charged with providing a top-secret NSA report on a 2016 Russian cyberattack on a voting software company to the news outlet The Intercept.

President Trump accepted French President Emmanuel Macron’s invitation to meet in Paris on July 14th in celebration of Bastille Day as well as the 100th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War I, CNN reports. The two are expected to discuss a wide range of issues, including coordination on counterterrorism efforts.

A helicopter attacked Venezuela’s Supreme Court yesterday, CNN reports. Prior to the attack, an ex-policeman posted a video online announcing that his group planned to launch an air and land assault to restore democracy to Venezuela. From the helicopter, attackers threw grenades and shot at the building, though no one was injured. Venezuelan president Nicolas Maduro activated the government security forces in response. The nation has been in the depths of a political and economic crisis which has seen many calls for a change in leadership. Some have claimed that the entire incident may have been staged by the government to generate legitimacy for a harsher crackdown on dissent.

 

 ICYMI: Yesterday, on Lawfare

Charlie Savage described the changes in the new, paperback edition of his book Power Wars, which provides a history of national-security legal policymaking in the Obama era.

Paul Rosenzweig asked if the cyberattack in Ukraine yesterday was a precursor to war, but updated the post after news broke that the cause was an outbreak of the Petya ransomware.

Shane R. Reeves examined previous attempts at creating “safe zones” in Syria and argued that without serious commitment, newly proposed zones will be just as ineffective or dangerous.

J. Dana Stuster posted the Middle East Ticker, covering the recent Saudi succession shakeup, the Gulf States’ demands to Qatar, and U.S. policy in Eastern Syria.

William I. Hitchcock reviewed Melissa Feinberg’s Curtain of Lies: The Battle over Truth in Stalinist Eastern Europe (Oxford Univ. Press, 2017).

Matthew Kahn posted the video of yesterday’s Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on Section 702 reauthorization.

Andrew Kent examined the Supreme Court’s decision in Hernandez v. Mesa.

Jack Goldsmith announced the supplement to the new edition of Foreign Relations Law: Cases and Materials (6th Ed. 2017), the casebook he co-authored with Curtis Bradley.

Daniel Byman analyzed whether Al Qaeda is in decline.

Josh Blackman looked at the scope of the Supreme Court’s decision in IRAP v. Trump.

Benjamin Wittes posted a copy of his FOIA request for internal FBI communications surrounding the firing of James Comey. 

Email the Roundup Team noteworthy law and security-related articles to include, and follow us on Twitter and Facebook for additional commentary on these issues. Sign up to receive Lawfare in your inbox. Visit our Events Calendar to learn about upcoming national security events, and check out relevant job openings on our Job Board.


          Secret Saudi-Israel Arms Deals   

The “landmark” $110-billion arms deal Donald Trump announced on his visit to Saudi Arabia is like the president himself – a lot of hype but little substance. Bruce Riedel, a former CIA counter-terrorism expert and National Security Council advisor in four administrations, said there’s no deal, just “a bunch of letters of interest or intent, […]

The post Secret Saudi-Israel Arms Deals appeared first on The Blogs | The Times of Israel.


          Mecca pilgrimage: Can it be made safe?   
At least 244 people have been trampled to death at the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia. How can the pilgrimage be made safer?
          A never-ending night, and longer day   

A rolling post, updating the tortuous path towards a Bali agreement. Update 1: a tentative agreement that will be debated further, 8am tomorrow morning. Update 2 (the next morning): the agreement begins to unwind. Update 3: misprint in the text! Update 4: farce. Update 5: Shameful scenes - Yvo de Boer in tears. Update 6: Just when it seemed impossible, Bali roadmap agreed. Update 7: De Boer returns.

The story so far

According to the UN's Yvo de Boer, a small group of ministers have agreed text on adaptation, technology transfer and finance. That's the good news, though their work could be unpicked later on in plenary.

Another group, meanwhile, has agreed text that covers developed country commitments to cut emissions. It's now arguing about arrangements for developing countries, an acrimonious discussion that we believe pits the US, Canada and possibly Japan against the 155 members of the G77.

Then, the group will move onto the question of the charmingly named ‘preambular text'. The EU is desperate to see this reflect IPCC findings and to specify a ‘range' of emission cuts by developed countries. The US is said to ‘agnostic' about IPCC science on these issues.

The next stage is to agree an end date for the negotiations. Most countries want 2009, though arguments over another date are still possible.

Finally, the question of the status of the negotiations needs to be agreed. Will it be a formal process? Or just an informal dialogue?

Once all this is settled, the small groups will report back to the conference President. And then, the proposed text will be presented to a plenary at which all countries have a chance to say their bit.

(First of course, it will need to be translated into six languages and photocopied a few billion times.)

Hopefully, countries will endorse whatever is given to them, but there will be plenty of scope for delegates to get picky about the details. That could add hours onto the schedule of a conference that was supposed to end hours ago.

Ban Ki-Moon, we have just heard, is flying in to assist the process. And he'll give a press conference at eleven tomorrow. I desperately hope everything will be done by then...

Update: A tentative agreement

It all ended suddenly - and inconclusively. The small island states had thrown a party in the corridors, while ministers struggled to iron out disagreements on the Bali text. The islands were drowning their sorrows while waiting to drown, a handwritten sign said.

Then, at around, 2 am, the ministerial meeting broke up. An agreement had been reached, ready for approval at a final session of all countries tomorrow morning. Bali was on its final straight - or was it?

As ministers attempted to break through a scrum of reporters, activists and other onlookers, rumours began to swirl round the convention centre.

The Japanese and Indonesian ministers briefed their domestic media, while German Environment Minister, Sigmar Gabriel drew the biggest crowd as he stopped repeatedly to put the European side of the story.

It had not been a good night for the EU, it seemed. A key battle had been over whether to include reference to IPCC science in an agreement that merely sets the stage for two years of negotiation that should lead to a new global deal on climate.

It seems that all numbers have been excluded, a key American demand. Instead, IPCC findings are referenced in a footnote, a somewhat undignified relegation in the week it picked up its Nobel Peace Prize.

For developed countries, negotiators appear to have adopted for a simple expedient. Throw as many words at the problem as possible. The rich world must take on "measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions, including quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives," the text we have seen says.

Importantly, all countries are asked to make comparable efforts to reduce emissions. This is a pointed reference to US, which will be expected to do as much as countries that are already attempting to implement the Kyoto protocol.

But it's the provisions for developing countries that have prompted the most acrimonious conflict. Gradually it became clear that at least two options had been left undecided in the proposed text.

I got caught in an eddy as the German minister swept by, bouncing off a Japanese cameraman, and ending up pressed against Herr Gabriel's well-fed flank. Rewarded by a benign smile, I asked why ministers had given up for the night when key issues were unresolved.

"Ask the United States and the G77," he said, "it's got nothing at all to do with Europe."

So the two foes have decided to sleep on their differences and the EU, it appears, has grown sick of acting as referee. But taking a still incomplete agreement to plenary is a risky strategy. According to the minister, it is now up to Rachmat Witoelar, the Indonesian environment minister and conference President, to save the day.

Even if we get an agreement tomorrow, it may well be an ambiguous one. And that was the result the UN's Yvo de Boer most wanted to avoid. Angus Friday, who represents the small island states, agrees

"By not being ambitious here, we are going to end up having to use a huge amount of time to reach agreement, and we do not have that time," he said.

Update 2: A great unravelling?

After minimal sleep, we're all back in the convention centre for the overrunning UN climate conference. We were due to start at 8, but the session doesn't open until 9, kicking off with some mind numbingly boring procedural stuff.

But suddenly, we're onto the main course - the text that will launch two years' negotiation that should culminate in a new global deal for climate.

In the chair, the Indonesian environment minister explains the tortuous path that the negotiations have taken and tells delegates that he has been forced to decide an issue left unresolved by last night's ministerial discussions.

He begs countries not to start unpicking the proposals that are in front of them. "Even minor changes will compromise our ability to reach an agreement here in Bali," he warns.

Then he opens discussion up to the floor. Portugal is first to speak, on behalf of the rest of the European Union. No text can be perfect, the delegate says. But the EU welcomes the compromises that have been reached and urges others to support it.

There is a pause and we all hold our breath...Then a smattering of applause - the core of the Bali roadmap appears to have passed without objection.

But wait, India has an intervention to make.

The text on developing country commitments is not the one proposed by the G77, India says, reading out a preferred alternative.

Here's the President's proposal:

Measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties in the context of sustainable development, supported by technology and enabled by financing and capacity building.

And here's India's preference:

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties in the context of sustainable development, supported by technology and enabled by financing and capacity building in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner,

Huh? Yes it took me a while to see the difference. But look at what is being measured and verified in the two options. In the first, it's developing country efforts to cut emissions. In the second, developed country efforts to transfer technology, provide finance etc.

The President begs India to accept the original, but now the other 800 pound gorilla wants to speak - in Chinese, which sends delegates scrambling for translation units.

Eventually, the President tells everyone the gist of what has been said. According to China, consultations are taking place outside the hall and no decision can be taken until they're completed.

And with that, the session is suspended. The President's attempt to force through a decision may have backfired. We'll soon know if this is a minor hiccup or the beginning of a great unravelling...

Update 3: Misprint in the text

My friend Ron Bailey, the libertarian science correspondent, has just spotted...a misprint in the text. And it's a real howler.

"Mobilization of public- and private-sector funding and investment, including facilitation of carbon-friendly choices."

Carbon-friendly? Shouldn't that be climate-friendly, guys?

 

Update 4: Another false start

We're off again with the President asking the Indian delegation to repeat its statement from earlier, but it turns out the Indian minister is not in the room.

Then the Chinese ask to speak. And it turns out they are furious. Various G77 delegates are in a meeting with the Indonesian minister of foreign affairs, they claim. They sense a conspiracy to push through decisions while representatives are out of the room.

The complaint is uncompromising: "The secretariat did this intentionally. I would like to ask if this secretariat is our secretariat. I want an apology from the secretariat."

It is an embarrassing - even humiliating - moment for the Indonesian chair and, when the Pakistan delegate chips in to complain as well, he bows to the inevitable. After a farcical few minutes, the session is suspended again.

But we close with a plea for as short a break as possible. "We are running out of time," the President warns.

 

Update 5: Yvo de Boer in tears.

Astounding events as we reconvene. First, the Indonesian prime minister and UN Secretary General arrive to read the riot act to delegations.

Their message is carefully co-ordinated. The world's leaders demanded progress when they met in September. The science says the world needs to act immediately if it is to have any chance of stopping dangerous climate change.

The conference President, meanwhile, increasingly resembles a rabbit stuck in the headlights. He apologies profusely for allowing parallel meetings to take place before the first two suspensions. But China will not let the matter drop. The issue demands further explanation, its delegate says. China wants the UNFCCC secretariat to tell them what went wrong and why.

Then the bombshell. The floor is given to Yvo de Boer, UNFCCC head, a man who is normally unflappable, urbane and good humoured.

But now he looks devastated and sits head in hands, unable to speak. Eventually, he squeezes out a few words. He did not know that another meeting was taking place, he says, now openly in tears.

There is warm applause but de Boer has had enough and rushes from the room. I wonder whether that's the end of the line for him...

 

Update 6: Dawn follows the darkest hour

Back to the substance.

India repeats its proposal and the debate begins. The European Union, represented by Portugal, follows quickly to support the proposal. It just wants an agreement, it says.

But there is a split emerging in the G77. Bangladesh brings it out. Less developing countries feel the proposal is too hard on them, and by implication too soft on larger developing countries.

They want a caveat applied, similar to that used for the industrialized countries. All actions must take into account differences in the "national circumstances" of countries in the developing world.

This is, it seems, a widely held position among the less developed countries and small island states. Many come in to support the Bangladesh proposal, though some suggest a slightly different textual amendment and others say they like the idea in principle, but will respond to pleas not to unpick the text.

However, some of the richer developing countries are not so keen. Saudi Arabia, in particular, is adamant that no changes should be made to the text, apart from the one suggested by India. (Pakistan also chips in favour and adds another minor change.)

And then a new front is opened up when the US speaks. Developing countries have talked the talk, but failed to walk the walk, Paula Dobriansky tells a hushed floor. Their amendment completely changes the type of commitment they must take on.

The United States is not prepared to adopt the Indian proposal to change the text, she says. Her words are met with a chorus of boos.

Japan speaks next, giving the United States some kind of fuzzy support. But South Africa issues a ferocious and articulate denunciation of the American position. Developing countries have gone much further than they needed to. It's the United States that has failed to take on strong commitments.

The mood is now bleak, as countries speak to argue for more favourable treatment for the world's poorest, or to denounce the US position. It becomes hard to see where agreement will come from.

But then suddenly, the US flags its wish to speak again. Dobriansky argues that the US has shifted its position considerably, agreeing to the principle of taking on a "quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives."

And then we get to the turning point. The US wants a shared vision, Dobrianky says, and to agree a Bali roadmap. In a spirit of co-operation and responding directly to the words of South Africa, she is prepared to withdraw her objections and go with the consensus position.

Surprised applause follows and builds, as delegates realise the talks have been pulled back from the brink. It all moves rather fast after that. South Africa welcomes the new United States position.

But South Africa is not done yet. The delegate ‘interprets' the text that applies to developing countries and shows that it can be interpreted as meeting the needs of the poorest people.

This has been teed up with Costa Rica, it seems, which now withdraws its proposal. It will accept South Africa's mediation.

With that a final denouement is only a few minutes away. The Indian proposal is read out and the President asks whether there are any objections.

The applause starts slowly, but turns into cheers. Agreement has been finally been reached, but only after it seemed almost to have slipped out of reach.

 

Update 7: De Boer returns

Yvo de Boer, last seen rushing from the stage in tears, slipped back onto the platform fifteen minutes or so later.

Costa Rica speaks of its confidence in him and its huge appreciation of his work. Enormous applause. More tears on the stage. The Bali deal is done and Yvo de Boer is back in his seat.

          Bali bubble   

The problem with being in the Bali bubble is that it's far too easy to lose all sense of proportion. You get hooked on the minutiae of the negotiations and, like any addict, forget about the things that really matter.

Rumours flash from delegations through NGOs to the media (and then bounce right back again). What's true now, may not be in twenty minutes' time. And the problem gets worse the longer the talks go on. Too many people cooped up together, staying up too late (either working or drinking, or sometimes both), going stir crazy, far from home...

This afternoon saw the first signs of this characteristic madness here in Nusa Dua. Today was the day the basic elements of the Bali war were drawn and so we had a phoney battle to see how it would all work out.

Remember that we're here to agree a process. These are talks about talks. We're trying to agree a roadmap for more negotiations that will take us to a deal in Copenhagen at the end of 2009.

But there's always room for drama and we've found it. So week one was about drawing out the protagonists. On one side, those who want a roadmap with a destination built-in (25-40% cuts for rich countries by 2020, global emissions cut in half or more by 2050). The EU leads this camp. The UN and NGOs are supporters too.

On the other, those who want talks ‘without prejudice'. This is Team America, with the Canadians as loyal foot soldiers, and the Japanese, and possibly Australians, prepared to lend a hand as well.

That leaves a lot of other countries of course, who could combine to cut either side down. Developing countries are ambivalent and suspicious. South Africa is catalyst of an ambitious deal and may be joined by China. India's A-list negotiators only arrived today. It may take a hard line.

The Saudis, meanwhile, deserve a category of their own. They don't seem to be for anything, apart from the idea that they should be compensated for a climate regime's impact on their oil revenues.

So, it's mid afternoon in the bubble and everyone's beginning to think game on. Then out of nowhere - by the force of our collective will - we summon up a spat between our two sides.

Vital ‘text' is said to have been cut from the talks between members of the Kyoto club (rich countries bar the US). Rich countries, the story goes, are reneging on their commitments.

Civil society representatives are up in arms and fan out in the media centre. These guys are superb communicators, making every government here look like rank amateurs - and soon journalists are hitting the panic button.

The next thing you know, the crisis has escalated. Targets are now out of the main Bali roadmap as well. Now that really would be big news. The US would be triumphant. The Euroweenies left to slink back to Brussels.

I hear about the news through Australia's The Age:

[quote]The latest draft of an accord for the 190-nation December 3-14 meeting, which is seeking to launch two years of negotiations on a new pact to slow global warming, dropped a goal of cuts in emissions of 25-40 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020.

"The numbers are out of the latest text", one delegate said, adding that the United States had led opposition along with countries including Japan and Canada.[/quote]

Now something didn't add up. I can imagine that happening, but I just hadn't heard about it happening yet. Equally strangely, Yvo de Boer, the head UN guy at these talks, was reported by the BBC as saying there was ‘little chance' of ambitious targets making it into the final agreement.

That was completely at odds with what he'd told us at his lunchtime press conference:

[quote]The scientific community has indicated that industrialized countries need to reduce their emissions in the order of 25-40% by 2020 if we're to get to grips with this issue. That's going to a critical part of the discussion on the future. It's in the interest of everyone that we walk away from here with a clear sense of where this process is intended to take us.[/quote]

Now that may well be going to happen. But according to what people are saying in my little corner of the bubble, it hasn't yet. Sure enough Reuters returned with a correction (though the BBC quote stands and may well be accurate). That unnamed delegate again:

[quote]"The numbers are still in the text. There has been a lot of pressure to take them out," one delegate with intimate knowledge of the draft negotiations said, correcting his own earlier statement that the numbers had been removed.[/quote]

So that's the Bali roadmap back in play.

Then (and I hope you're keeping up), we hear that the Kyoto club has put stringent targets back on the table. If they were ever of it. Which I am not sure they have been since they were first signed up to in Vienna.

Now I'm a lightweight and am off to bed. The true hardcore, meanwhile, last the whole fortnight without any sleep. Probably everything will have changed again by the time I arrive back at the convention centre whenever I can drag myself out of bed tomorrow.

So... some guidance for readers:

  • It ain't over until it's over. Nothing is final until we finish on Friday (or Saturday if it all runs late).
  • Even when it's over, it's only just begun. The talks we're hoping to start now actually finish in 2009 (or 2010 or 2011 if it all runs late).

And, finally, I am not even going to pretend to you that I'll be maintaining a sense of proportion. Just remember that everything I say is true only at the instant it's posted. Bubble reality is flexible, fungible, and friable.

There's some sort of weird quantum shit going down. And where weird quantum shit is concerned, it's always the reader's fault. Isn't that what Heisenberg taught us?
          A solid start   
As I suggested yesterday, NGOs have reacted positively to the draft agreement on future commitments. But there's a good chance that their mood will darken as the week goes on.

They'd have preferred mention of 2 degrees in the text and stronger language on legally binding targets. They are also keen to see a clear plan for how the negotiations will be conducted.

But my guess is that, as the week goes on, the text is more likely to be diluted than strengthened.

The Saudis have already made it clear that they're opposed to key elements of the text. Malaysia is also against starting formal negotiations.

The US and Canada seem likely to join this group, while there are question marks about the positions of Japan and Australia (though it's worth noting that the latter's chief negotiator worked with his South African counterpart to draft the proposed text).

Meanwhile, there's always the chance developing countries will balk at the commitments they're being asked to make.

So the mood was pretty chipper at this morning's press conference, but expect the fireworks to start if these countries manage to water down the proposed text.
          An emerging deal?   

Half way through the UN climate talks here in Bali and we can now see the shape of the deal that will cause next week's most fevered discussion.

Swingeing cuts to greenhouse gases are very much on the table, with rich countries expected to act first and fastest. The proposed deal would aim to stop the relentless rise of emissions in just ten to fifteen years, and drive them down to ‘very low levels' by 2050.

But before we get to the detail, keep in mind three things. Nothing has yet been finalised here in Bali. This is simply ‘proposed text' - in UN jargon a ‘non-paper' - with no official status. It can be amended, replaced, or simply not agreed.

Read the current draft and you'll see its far from a complete document. It contains a number of options for further discussion and plenty of either/or text in the dreaded [square brackets] which reflect opposing views about what should be agreed.

Also, Bali is only the start of a process towards a post-2012 climate framework - one that picks up where the current phase of the Kyoto protocol leaves off. We're just setting up negotiations that will probably aim to conclude in 2009.

That means that governments haven't even begun to talk about the really difficult stuff. Exactly what cuts will be made. Which countries will make them. Who will pay and how much. All this needs to be decided over the next couple of years.

If all goes according to plan (does it ever?), countries will finally commit to a new deal at the next climate conference but one, in Copenhagen two years from now. And even then, it will be far from over, as the treaty will need to be ratified by national parliaments, a process than it's hoped will be done within three years (Kyoto took five).

Finally, the negotiation on the ‘future' is only one of many happening here in Bali. You're not reading a comprehensive state of play, just a review of one part of the talks, though the most important as most believe.

So what's in the proposed agreement?

First, the IPCCC's assessment of the seriousness of climate change is taken as a given. Thus the need for ambitious action. Emissions need to stop rising soon and be ‘well below half' of levels seen in 2000 by 2050.

That means industrialised countries should make emissions cuts of 25-40% by 2020. That's on a 1990 baseline, so includes any moves they've made to reduce carbon under Kyoto. But again, remember this is an aspirational target for the group as a whole. It says nothing about which country should do what.

Developed countries will have ‘quantified national emission objectives'. Crucially, this stops short of calling for targets that are legally binding under international law. Targets are not off the table, but the decision on whether the world needs them has been postponed.

Why? Because this is a fight that centres on the US, which is adamantly opposed to enforceable obligations. Why take it on now, when it's easier to see if there's a change of direction from the next adminstration?

What about developing countries? They'll be expected to contribute to slowing and then cutting emissions, but their right to economic growth is explicitly recognised. Binding targets for them are thus not on the table.

Instead, they are likely to be offered incentives if they grow along a lower-carbon trajectory and will get technologies to help them do this. They'll also be able to make money by protecting forests and other carbon sinks, in compensation for foregone economic exploitation.

So what's left to agree?

Quite a lot, actually. There's an annex that sets out an ‘indicative list' of areas that need to be discussed in the next two years. It's currently blank.

Then, crucially, there are still three options on the table for the status of the post-Bali process.

Option 1 is for an informal dialogue whose findings would be reported in Copenhagen, but "without prejudice" to the Copenhagen talks. If that sounds vague, it is, and deliberately so. There is next to no chance of a conclusion in 2009 under this option.

Options 2 and 3 are stronger. Both would set up a ‘working group' that would have much greater authority. The group would be told to agree a deal and then present is as a package to Copenhagen for approval.

The difference between the Options 2 and 3 is that the former would leave intact a similar working group that is already considering commitments for the Kyoto countries (all rich countries apart from the US).

That group has been willing to push for deep emissions cuts. So countries that want a strong deal tend to favour a two-track process.

So what reaction have we had to the proposal as a whole?

Well, I hear the EU delegation is pleased with progress. Also, the Saudis are reported to be furious, complaining that its ideas have not been listened to. As always, they remain key allies of the Americans at these talks.

But expect much more reaction next week, when the press and campaigners really get their teeth into the proposals. Today is a day of rest at the UN climate talks, with the conference hall closed. There is thus no central point for anyone to congregate.

But work hasn't stopped. Far from it. It's safe to say that most delegates will be hard at it, even that means (like me!) taking their laptops out to the pool. Phone lines back to capital cities are certain to be humming.

The NGOs are also working hard, meeting this afternoon to hash out strategy for next week.

I suspect that many of them will be secretly pleased by the non-paper's contents. They can hammer away at the bits they don't like and, if any of the text is weakened, take to the barricades with claims of treachery and betrayal.

Expect fireworks next week. Probably not on Monday though. The flashpoint might be the next day when Ministers start to arrive...


          Top Stories: Latest On Senate Health Care Bill; Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince   
Good morning, here are our early stories: -- Saudi King Deposes Crown Prince And Names A New Heir, Age 31. -- Here's What We Know About The Senate GOP Health Care Bill. -- Uber Founder Resigns Under Pressure As CEO, Published Report Says. -- Mattel Introduces New Diverse Ken Dolls; Hopes To Reverse Sales Slump. -- Carla Fendi, Former President Of Luxury Fashion Brand, Dies. And here are more early headlines: Tropical Storm Cindy Advances On Louisiana Coast. ( NHC ) Extreme Heat Felt In Various Parts Of The Northern Hemisphere. ( Reuters ) Former DHS Secretary To Testify On Russian Meddling Today. ( PBS ) Trump Son-In-Law, Kushner, Visits Israel On Mideast Peace Effort. ( Time ) Latest On Foiled Brussels Train Station Attack. ( AFP ) Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
          Top Stories: Navalny Detained In Russia; Latest On Tehran Attacks   
Good morning, here are our early stories: -- Russian Opposition Leader Alexei Navalny Is Detained On Day Of Protests. -- Iran Says It Killed Mastermind Of Deadly Attacks On Parliament And Mausoleum. -- Penguins Beat Predators 2-0 For Second Consecutive Stanley Cup. And here are more early headlines: Mildred Loving Interview On Decision Legalizing Interracial Marriage. ( AP ) D.C., Maryland Attorneys General To Sue Trump Over Businesses. ( Washington Post ) Uncertainty Over Whether Sessions Testimony Will Be Open. ( Reuters ) Missouri Lawmakers Begin Special Session On Abortion Issues. ( St. Louis Post-Dispatch ) First Lady Melania, Son Barron Trump Move To The White House. ( NBC ) Migrants Feared Missing Off Spanish Coast. ( AP ) Saudi Arabia Says Officer Killed In Eastern Province Explosion. ( Al-Arabiya ) South Korea's Yekwon Sunwoo Wins Cliburn Piano Competition. ( VOA ) Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
          Top Stories: Comey To Testify; Trump Discusses Infrastructure   
Good morning, here are our early stories: -- Ex-FBI Boss Comey Heads To The Senate: Can It Live Up To The Hype? -- Trump Talks Up Infrastructure Plan In Cincinnati. -- U.K. Election Arrives After May Sees Lead Over Corbyn Shrink. -- Victory In Cleveland Puts Warriors 1 Win From 16-0 Streak To NBA Title. And here are more early headlines: North Korea Fires 4 Missiles In Apparent New Test. ( CNN ) Iran Blames Saudi Arabia In Tehran Terror Attacks. ( Reuters ) House To Debate Limiting Dodd-Frank Financial Law. ( USA Today ) British Police Arrest 3 On Terror Suspicions. ( Financial Times ) Deadly Fires Kill 8 As They Move On Cape Town, South Africa. ( AP ) Underwood, Urban Winners At CMT Country Awards. ( CMT.com ) NHL's Pittsburgh Hosts Nashville In Stanley Cup Final Game 5. ( NHL.com ) Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
          Top Stories: Arab Nations Cut Ties With Qatar; Trump On London Attack   
Good morning, here are our early stories: -- Saudi Arabia, Egypt And Other Arab Nations Cut Diplomatic Ties With Qatar. -- Trump Vows Protection From 'Vile Enemy'. -- 'Sunday Night With Megyn Kelly' Makes A Tepid Debut. And here are more early headlines: Trump To Focus On Infrastructure This Week, Starting With Air Traffic Control. ( Washington Post ) As Cosby Sexual Assault Case Opens, Here's A Timeline. ( Philly.com ) FARC Rebels Claim Colombia Breaking Treaty, May Halt Demobilization. ( VOA ) PHOTOS: Deadly Sri Lankan Flooding That Killed 200. ( Guardian ) Putin Again Rejects Charge Of Russian Meddling In U.S. Election. ( NBC ) International Space Station Gets Latest SpaceX Supply Capsule. ( NASA ) PHOTO: Man Calmly Mows Lawn As Tornado Swirls. ( CBC ) Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
          Sequel; Priyo Part II   
Well, Ms JennyD resurfaced after some years of personal torment, which I sincerely hope is at an end for her, and her comment on my last post served to remind me that I hadn’t really said anything about how It All Turned Out.  Giving a nod to the public’s demand for sequels, (although in my case, the public demand has been just a tad on the minuscule side), I shall post a sequel of my own.

I left India on New Year’s day, having in one short trip managed to avoid Thanksgiving, Christmas AND New Year’s Eve - three pluses easily worth the $2000+ that the whole thing cost (a cost I more than recouped by living three months at Indian prices instead of those here at home).  I was looking forward to getting home, partly because I like my place here and partly because I really wanted to have a spate of time alone, just to evaluate my feelings about Priyo and my future.  

For the first month after my return, I had some ambivalent feelings about my home here and living with Priyo over there.  I really like my house for all the reasons I mentioned in my last post.  Priyo and I talked - usually twice a day - which I occasionally felt was just a bit more than I wanted to come to the phone.  It wasn’t that I didn’t care as much as I had before for Priyo nor second thoughts, so much as a kind of desire to be alone with my thoughts - or more exactly, not wanting to set aside blocs of time each morning and evening without fail for telephoning.  But then, after about a month, I became aware more and more of how empty my life here is.  There really isn’t any person or group here upon whom I can rely for chat beyond the mundane.  “How about them Yanks?” is not my idea of a fun conversation.  I do have people I can talk with - and even more so when I include those available by phone - but that certain feeling of coming first with someone, of them really wanting to hear what’s up with me, including trivia and moods is just not there (or here, I should say).  My Mom said, when my Dad died, that she had lost the person she came first with.  more and more I understand exactly what she meant.  It is a special loneliness that crowds cannot take away.

I amused myself by doing some home clean-up and getting rid of accumulations (but, oh, how much is left!)  I bought a new dishwasher which really made me feel good.  I scheduled some care for my spruce trees which are badly infected with a fungal disease and am also having someone restore my gutters which are no longer doing their job.  But I am intensely aware of being here alone and of wasting hours on TV shows and reading things that just barely manage to hold my attention for a short while.  But every day I miss Priyo more.  Incredible as it seems, he centers everything he does around me being in his life.  I am beginning to return the favor.  I can’t wait to see him again, which, alas, will not happen until roughly October as current plans stand.  

As I said before, Priyo was scheduled to enter the police academy in January.  So, within a week of my leaving, he shipped his goods, including his motorcycle, to his home in Manipur.  He had had a tailor make most of the clothes he was required to bring to the academy, and had purchased the rest.  He was anxious to begin his training for which he would be receiving a salary much greater than his prior earnings.  Alas, the best laid plans…

I have often thought that the USA was as corrupt as any country, its lawmakers and public officials for sale to the highest bidder and so forth.  While I still think the corruption here is rampant, I now have a new appreciation for what corruption in other lands can be like.  Here corruption touches us indirectly - sweetheart deals enrich some and drive up taxes or costs and so on.  But in India, corruption has an immediate and visible and direct impact on everyone.  One pays for anything one needs to accomplish.  Sometimes one has to bribe police to merely proceed beyond a traffic blockade out in the boonies.  Priyo’s Dad had already paid a couple of hundred thousand to get Priyo to the point of being considered for the police program.  But the greedy politicians had done two things that threw a monkey wrench into the plans to begin this particular academy class.  The first was that several candidates were appointed who did not even bother with the pretense of qualifying physically and mentally.  Blind and handicapped candidates were accepted and allowed to forego interviews and physical tests - these were people who could not in any way fulfill the duties of policemen.  So egregious was this practice that even the Indian media felt it worthy of publishing, resulting in a halt being called to the actual beginning of the class.  Many candidates were married and many had left jobs on the strength of getting their letters detailing what to bring to the academy (as had Priyo) and these were left without means to support themselves and their families.  And, since bribery is illegal, they had no recourse for getting back what they had been forced to pay.  Secondly, even without the corrupt qualifying candidates, the greedy powers that be had over-enrolled the class.  There is a district of India called the Northeast States which consist of eight small states which in some areas, including police training, work together as a single unit.  There is one academy for all the states and this class had enrolled so many Manipuris that there was insufficient space left for the other states’ candidates.  So even if the unqualified candidates were removed, the rest - all of whom paid big bribes to be enrolled, but who at least met the requirements to be policemen - could not be accommodated by the academy.  

Priyo, being a person who is intensely practical, soon saw that the police job was nothing to bet his future on, and set about finding alternative means to support himself.  He first found a job doing what he had before done in Panchkula - medical transcription.  He is good at this, after six years of doing it, so his former employer kept offering him inducements to return to Panchkula.  Eventually they offered quite a raise and agreed he could work remotely from Manipur.  Priyo got a sufficient internet connection and began doing this remote work.  Additionally he found another employer for whom he could work mornings before he received his daily files from the Panchkula.  He is also looking into an opportunity where he can purchase unfinished brooms formed from shrubs found in Manipur and resell them to a merchant in another state at 100% profit.  But even without this he now makes more than he did in Panchkula, which is a much higher-paying area for employment.  

I plan to return to India - this time to Manipur - in the autumn, and to stay for four to five months.  The six-month wait before me seems to loom before me longer and emptier by the day.  I have come to the realization that the possessions I have accumulated over a lifetime are merely a heap of things unwanted by others, which will be dispersed or discarded when my time comes.  The one thing I can’t give up yet is my house and land which is just as I want it and is where I want it.  Since his police disappointment, Priyo is much more amenable to emigration, but even so, the amount of difficulty in doing so will cause this to be years away even if it can be done at all.  I am ever more aware that life is short.  When I think how close I am to 80, I feel almost panicky.  Should I waste a minute hemming and hawing before I decide to move to where Priyo is?  Apart from my reluctance so far to give up my house, there is one other issue.  Medical care is free to citizens in India, but I would be a non-citizen.  Although medical care is vastly cheaper there, I would be required to pay the full amount for any doctor visit or medicine.  With Medicare, my out-of-pocket annual cost still runs to about $5,000 a year - with my pharmacy costs I gallop through the so-called ‘doughnut hole’ in two months time.  My most expensive medicine (of three), without which I would be headed for Pine Hill in no time, costs about $3000 per month here in the USA.  Even at half, or a quarter of the price, I would be pretty skint if I had to pay the whole cost.  

I am hoping that after my next visit to Priyo, I will feel connected enough to him and loosened enough from my situation here to make it clear what course to pursue.  Meanwhile the calls, which I found in January to be a bit excessive, have become the best parts of my day.  We really can talk about anything.  I badly miss Priyo, who in every way exceeds my hopes for someone to love, and who cares for me more than I can understand.  I always thought a perfect relationship was one where each thinks he or she was the lucky one who got way more than he deserved.  I seem to have this.  Now I just have to grab it.

When I was that young man who was standing by the roadside and suddenly decided to hitchhike to Californian or even when I was that middle-aged man who saw a notice for a job in Saudi and walked straight to HR and said, “Take me!” there seemed to be so much time to resolve any negative consequences.  But I know if I give up this house, there will never be another, and there is something so satisfying to me about saying, “This is mine; I can do as I please here.”  I don’t want to end up cussing myself for giving it up.  That Priyo and I might not last forms no part of my concern; all relationships of this nature require a trust and a leap of faith which I have already made.  I want one more bit of prodding to give up this house and all that is in it; or I want to be sure that I want to remain here and to work to bring Priyo here, despite the years of effort that might take.  I also have some concern about following my Mom’s path into Alzheimer’s - she is the sixth of her sisters to develop it, so it is clearly in the genes.  It might be nightmarish to be in a land I didn’t recognize with nowhere to return to.  But mostly it is a feeling thing that I can’t quantify in a list of pros and cons.  I want to have an irresistible desire to choose one course which makes me lose all concern for the negatives.  I am almost there, I think.  


What a lucky, lucky choice to have.  I have a genius for complaining about everything, but really this is a dilemma well worth having.

          What a gas!   
Never having been a Shi'ite (I'm not even a Baptist!), I had never hitherto enjoyed the experience of being tear-gassed - until last night, that is.  

It seems there are certain social niceties one learns when traveling - the small local customs which make life go smoothly in distant parts.  For instance when one travels to Hawaii, one might be greeted by having a lei placed around one's neck while being welcomed with a hearty "aloha".  The proper response for the tourist is to smile much more brightly than any sane creature would do, raise one's voice that quarter octave so necessary when communicating with toddlers, the elderly, the terminally ill or any native anywhere whose skin is any shade of brown and to babble incoherent phrases amongst which the word 'aloha' should appear no less than three times, while asking the lei donor if he or she will pose for a group photo with said tourst.  It is particularly kind not to force upon the native person any of the many witticisms invoking this being the being the best lei one has ever had which will have crowded one's mind.  

In Nepal, I am told, one may be welcomed with a nice dish of yak tea, a beverage my cousin Warren informs me, although one wonders exactly how he researched this particular datum, which tastes exactly like licking a yak's ass.  The proper response involves the same bright smile and the quarter octave vocal rise, but instead of witticisms about getting lei'd, the preferred thing to suppress is the overwhelming urge to vomit.  

In Bahrain and various other areas in the Middle East, a Shi'ite native may greet one with a firm "Death to America" or ditto to the government or to Obama or, indeed, to any of the many persons or entities which have caught his or her attention during the previous few days.  It is unnecessary to respond in this case at all, since normally the local government forces will make the obligatory response which is to douse the man or woman or the mob which has spoken thus in generous quantities of tear gas.  

It is an unfortunate characteristic of tear gas that it tends not to remain in the locale in which it has been released, nor does it seem to be able to distinguish between local Shi'a and the odd foreigner who might be in the vicinity.  

Khalid and I had enjoyed a leisurely meal last night at a restaurant called Nando's which is a member of a chain which I believe is based in Southern Africa and which features some mighty fine Portuguese-influenced methods of preparing chicken.   Nando's is situated on a very westernized street in a very westernized area which is lined with western chain restaurants.  Khalid tells me this is called Restaurant Street, although I personally incline to calling it "Where are we - a mall in Tampa? Street".   I am influenced here by its very non-unique charm, reminscent of any place one has ever thrown up one's hands and said, "We might as well eat here."  Khalid, being a Saudi, had eschewed any lit or legal parking spot near this restaurant in favor of parking illegally amongst a series of similar looking concrete buildings on a dimly lit side street that ran perpendicular to Restaurant (or Tampa) Street.  As we were returning to the car, a stray breeze wafted a soupçon of something that seemed, when it hit the eyes to be some kind of smoke.  It felt like that stinging sensation one get when one sits too close to the campfire and the wind shifts in one's direction.  At least that is how it felt at first.  With every step we took, it seemed to grow in force, and at the same time my throat and lungs began to feel suspiciously like someone had poured a tablespoon or so of sulfuric acid into them.  

Apparently the local Shi'ite majority had been in the process of its weekly celebration of the coming of the Muslim version of a Sabbath, by gathering and informing the interested as to what this week's quiet reflection had led them to wish death upon.  In response to this kerfuffle, the government lavished upon them tear gas in quantities greater than one could wish.  It was into billows of this that Khalid and I were venturing.  It is remarkable how difficult it is to find a car one has carelessly parked any old place amongst a clutch of similar-looking buildings on a dark back street when one's eyes are rapidly swelling shut and one has broken into the fastest run one can manage while semi-blind and somewhat touched in the wind.  When we finally got ourselves inside the car, it was the work of but a second for Khalid to light up a Marlboro Red.  This would not have been my first move, but who am I to cavil?

Upon our return to our hotel, we were merrily chaffed by the Syrian desk man and several others who were gathered there, all of whom found much to amuse them in our tear-streaked faces.  This morning, the man on desk duty suggested I stay close to home for the day.  

So I have crossed off another item on my bucket list.  I don't think anyone who was out and about during the Sixties would want to leave this Vale of Tears without having experienced tear gas, although I can  think of one such who is more than willing to forego experiencing it twice.  

And now, on to that yak…

          Travel Advisory   
Last week held probably the last day we will see above 50 degrees for quite a while, but then who knows these days?  We are likely to be having a green Christmas hereabouts, which will be very disappointing to my niece Graciela (George's daughter) and her 4-year-old, the latter of whom is hoping to experience snow for the very first time this year; they are flying up from Houston.  Going from Houston to anywhere else on Earth, including Darfur or Helmand province, is a step up.  In fact, young Miranda's father Hector does work in Afghanistan and, if he doesn't exactly love the place, he sure does love the enormous loads of cash deposited in his account monthly.  

Speaking of parts foreign, a funny thing happened to me in Bahrain when George and I were staying there, waiting for Papa's vacation to begin so that we could all fly together to India.  On my last day (of five) in Manama, the capital of Bahrain, I was sitting at an outside table with George at a Starbucks.  I tended to go to this particular place for coffee each day, because I had really hit it off with the guys who work there: Omar and Amal from Bangladesh, Zoros from Nepal, Othman from India and Marco from the Philippines.  I would drop in each day at times they didn't seem to be busy and joke around with them.  The Starbucks in Manama - the only one I know of, anyway -is on a very westernized street in Bahrain (although most of the streets are pretty westernized) - lined with all the usual suspects: DQ, Seattle's Best, Chili's, McDonald's, Burger King and slew of others.  There are also some chains from other places such as Nando's from South Africa.  Sitting in any of the outdoors areas, one sees as many Americans passing as Arabs, because the U.S. Navy has a large base nearby and this street is one of the popular venues during their off hours.   Of the Arabs one does see, both men and women are doing their best to look American, men riding motorcycles and women in tight jeans and so forth.

Normally, I avoid areas frequented by Americans and Europeans in Third World countries, because these areas are so westernized I might as well stay home and go to a mall.  In addition, in countries with a Muslim population or a population hostile to the U.S. government, places like this street and these restaurants are the most likely to attract the attention of suicide bombers.  No one appreciates excitement on a vacation more than I do, but one must draw the line somewhere.  I actually felt a tiny bit of discomfort when I would sit at Starbucks for any length of time, wondering if I would attract just such attention.  Bahrain is one of the countries experiencing the current Arab spring-cleaning and there had been a bit of a dust-up the week before George and I arrived.  The insurrection in Bahrain failed largely because King Hamid called in his Saudi allies, who rumbled across the causeway that joins the two countries in full force.  The area where the action centered, the historic Pearl Square, was demolished and that area, when I was there, was blocked at all points of entry by the Saudi - not Bahraini - military, and was fully occupied by Saudi forces.  

Like many of the Middle Eastern countries - pre-war iraq or Syria,  for instance - Bahrain has a large majority of one Muslim sect (in this case Shi'a), but is ruled by a government entirely composed of people from a different, small minority sect (Sunni).  I am not sure why this occurs so often in the Middle East - whether the disadvantaged are drawn to different religious practices from the advantaged and thus become different from the rulers, or whether a minority somehow imposes its government on the existing majority.  In any case, the Bahraini majority, besides being Shi'a, looks to Iran as it natural ally, which is a fact of even more import to the Sunni majority in Saudi Arabia, than the heretical beliefs are.  

So to continue, I was relaxing at an outdoor table with Ted at Starbucks, when a youngish Arab man and I struck up a conversation.  He spoke fair English, but was impressed by my Arabic - and it is odd, but as soon as my feet hit the ground in Bahrain, a great deal of Arabic which I thought I had forgotten came flooding back - and soon he joined us at our table.  He was a Saudi and very much a Bedouin by nature; he lacked some of the modern overlay that one often finds among younger Saudis.  He brushed his leg against mine a few times, but Arabs, like most Asians, are far less jumpy about touching between men so I thought little of it.  But when we went inside for refills, he suddenly threw his arms around me and said a couple of things, addressing me as 'habibi'.  Habibi means literally, 'my love', but Saudi friends sometimes use it in a kind of ironic way - something like an American man calling his friend 'buddy'.  But the hug was too tight and too long to be entirely innocent.  Here was sad, saggy old me being hit on by a 34-year-old!  I can tell you that bucked up the sadly eroded ego something fierce.  

I have often said that "if a gay man can't get laid in Saudi, he can't get laid anywhere".  Because Saudi had, in the days when i was there at least, virtually no way for men to date women, and in addition the cost for a young man to marry was so high, a huge number of Saudis are single and desperately horny.  The result is much like the result of a similar deprivation in American jails, men turn to men for relief.  Since there is an enormous population of foreign workers (I have heard that one out of two people in the Kingdom is foreign) and since word of this state of affairs has gotten around, as such things will do, causing foreigners who prefer men to take jobs there, it is common for amorous Saudis to turn to willing foreigners - less risk to the Saudi of shame or legal trouble, and something to do for fun for the foreigner. (This is an answer, of sorts, to Laoch's query about what there is to do for fun in Saudi).  The odd thing (to my mind) is that these men seem to find anyone from eight to eighty worth their attention, unlike the more enlightened westerners who rarely want to date anyone over 25.  However, as is the case with American prisoners, most Saudi men prefer women and once the opportunity arises, they will return to the straight and narrow, or straight and female, at least.  So my assumption is that when in Bahrain, a relatively open country where one can find female companionship safely and fairly openly, a Saudi man would be looking for girls, if he was looking at all, and if he were truly interested in men, he'd be looking for the young good-looking ones.  

George left us soon after this hug (which he did not witness, having remained outside at our table) to grab a nap before our flight later that day and Khalid, for such was his name, invited me to see his room, which was "in walking distance".  In fact, he actually had to rent a room after we arrived at the hotel, but I do not strain at gnats, as the saying is.  We spent a lovely day together, and by the time I actually returned to the Desert Pearl, Papa had arrived and he and George were entirely panicked, thinking I had been abducted and would not make the flight for which we were due to leave at that very instant.   Khalid insisted on driving me to the airport, and he was eager to help all of us with our luggage and so forth.  Any time he and I were alone, he vowed his undying love, and his hope to be together at some future point.  I took this all with a grain of salt, but he has been in constant contact with me ever since by Facebook, Skype and telephone.  In fact, his messages in the public ares of Facebook have been so indiscreet as to pretty much blow open any remnants of my comfortable closet.  The thing is, his Facebook page (which is under a pseudonym) has entries, including pictures of men, from prior to our meeting which indicate that his preferences are for men who exactly match me.  

Naturally, I condered that he could be some young guy hoping for worldly gain from a besotted old man or a would-be immigrant looking for help in coming to the U.S.  But he has actually offered to pay for me to fly back to Bahrain soon, and he cannot come to the U.S. at least for two years, because his elder brother took his passport and told him that he will not get it back until he finishes school.  Khalid had been out of the Kingdom a number of times to New Zealand before this happened, and has even been married, so the school he is to finish is actually high school.  He is taking physics and chemistry (among other things) so it seems he is really buckling down; even more indicative of some degree of seriousness is that he has told me that he can't call on certain nights because he is studying.  Since he is open about other amorous adventures since my return, I don't think it is an excuse to cover a boy's night out.  He also holds a job, though nothing lofty, so he does seem to have some sense that the future really will happen, an understanding I often found lacking in young Saudi men.  

Khalid and I are not soul mates; above and beyond the language and cultural differences, we have different interests.  i have met people who hardly spoke a word of my language or me theirs with whom I had a certain mental connection, people of whom I could say we got  each other.  This is not fully true of Khalid, but I like him and he likes me.  Better, he likes the way I look, and the way I look pretty much has ME eyeing the arsenic in the morning.  I cannot tell you how much this has bucked me up.  I'll see how it goes, but I wouldn't be the least bit surprised to find a vacation in Bahrain (the ticket for which I will pay) in my not-too-distant future.  Khalid has all the virtues and faults of the Bedouin - he is generous, impulsive, bigoted, demanding, fails to see obstacles and is quick to judge.  I am mostly the same (omitting 'generous' and hopefully less blatantly bigoted - honestly I think I am way less bigoted).  By bigoted, I don't refer to racial bias so much as culturally, nationality-based and religiously biased.  It is bias, in itself, to assume that other people's biases are based on the same factors (i. e. skin-color) as our own.  I am making no big plans, but I must say that life is just a tad more full of possibility than I thought a couple of months ago.  You can't ask more of a vacation than that.  Travel is, indeed, broadening.  

          It's a Good Sign!   
The Bahrain hotel suite in which my brother George and I stayed for a few days en route to India contained two appliances which even here in America remain largely unknown quantities to me, given my slipshod lifestyle: a clothes washer and a dryer.  George, however, is a far more tidy and orderly soul than I am, so he decided we must make use of this largesse on the part of the Desert Pearl hotel.  And, in truth, even I could tell that, after a series of interminable flights, my clothing could do with a bit of cleaning.  We set forth for the Megamart, a large supermarket nearby, which also sold clothing and various other useful items, to buy some laundry soap.  There we found Tide which, when I lived in Saudi, was the brand everyone used, and next to it was a laundry soap called Omo.  I vaguely recall seeing products from this brand when I lived in Saudi where I assumed it was some brand used in European countries, like Fa or Fairy.  I do know that Tide was so popular that I literally never saw any other product used by Saudis or Westerners or anyone else from the highest paid to the lowest paid groups in Saudi.  I commented at the time, more than once, that I wished I got a penny for each box of Tide sold in the Kingdom.  

George and i were feeling bohemian and adventurous and we decided to try Omo laundry soap, and I think we may have discovered a source of Omo's difficulty in competing with Tide.  Right under every display, on each box, of the brandname 'Omo' was the company's slogan: "Dirt is Good".  I do not kid; that is the slogan, printed proudly and repeatedly on every box.  I have a box here with me to prove it.  

One of the joys of travel in third world countries is the English signage.  It is easy to make fun of these, although who among us can be at all certain that he could correctly advertise any product in a foreign language.  When in Saudi, I saw "Big Sails" advertised and a shop that sold "grosseries".  What is even more enjoyable for me is where signs are correct, but the usage is a little different that that which we might find here in the US of A.  Whose heart would not be warmed seeing the Sincere Saloon, which is located right next to the Nice Bakery in one Indian village?  And does amputation have to be a dreary affair; why not shop at the breezy Prosthetics 'n' Splints shop which we saw in one Indian village?  

Our purpose in visiting India was, of course, to attend the wedding of Gopu and Sreeja.  Gopu is the brother-in-law of Papa, my former room mate from the Saudi days, and my long-time friend.  In order to dress properly for the big event, Papa, his wife, George and I went to Kochi (formerly  called Cochin) to one of the finest clothing stores where Mrs Papa purchased a number of glorious saris while the three of us men bought kurtas, which are long overshirts with the old Nehru style collars, and lunggis, white sarongs with a decorative gold band along the hemlines.  The hem band need not be gold - it can be another color - but ours were gold-banded, though the lunggi George chose had a second narrow band of silver thread inside the gold band.  The remarkable feature for George and me in this elegant multi-floored establishment called Jayalakshmi was to be found on the third floor where we waited drinking excellent coffee supplied gratis  by the staff while Mrs Papa was selecting her saris.  We sat on chairs near the elevator doors and on the wall above us was a huge decorative ad poster which looked very much like an ad from GQ or one of the upscale fashion magazines.  Depicted in it was a sultry-eyed man in a white suit staring in that smoky fashion found only among fashion models, who was leaning against a white piano.  The whole picture was printed primarily in a pale blue-green color and in white; the man looked like an Indian version of Johnny Depp with long dark locks fashionably rumpled.  Clearly this was no locally produced poster; no clerk had been asked to run up a sign for the wall in his or her spare time; the whole presentation reeked of the highest degree of professionalism.  What drew our gaze most was the title of the sheet music displayed clearly on the piano: Prelude to Fornication.  (The piece was, if you are interested, in the key of D flat.)  

We all know that that title is probably the best possible description of a wedding in such a traditional culture as that of India, but couldn't Jayalakshmi be just a little more reticent here?    Or couldn't they, instead, focus on the true purpose of weddings everywhere, which is to display a family's wealth and (lack of) good taste?  

          Around the world (or halfway at least)   
I suppose it would behoove me to mention that next week I will be in Bahrain.  Alas, I will probably not be mingling with the activists there - I haven't even been mingling with the activists here - but I'll be staying in a temporally rented apartment for a few days and then on to India.  

I have mentioned, I am sure, my former room mate Papa, with whom I shared an apartment for about six years when I worked in Saudi.  The company I worked for, a Saudi manufacturer, provided deluxe family housing for Western employees who were married, and modern, though Spartan, housing in a separate area for singles.   Asian and African employees were paid much less and were given allowances with which they were expected to rent locally.  The last thing I wanted to do was to hang about with a bunch of western ex-pats bitching about Saudi life and planning their next vacation.  So when I met Papa at a company department  goat-grab, which is the term westerners used for the type of Saudi celebratory meal which involves sitting on the ground or in a tent  around a huge platter containing an enormous bed of rice flavored with oil, tomato, cardamom and the like atop which rests a whole roasted sheep or goat from which one pulls chunks to eat with one's hands, I soon wound up agreeing to share lodgings with him in the older part of town.  I kept my company-provided apartment, which was a single room with a kitchen along one side and a private modern bathroom, but I shared half of the rather low rent on an apartment spang in the middle of old Jubail.  As the company hired more Indians to work with Papa as computer operators, they joined us in the apartment, which had two bedrooms.  Papa and Matthew (a Christian Indian) shared one bedroom and Martie (a Catholic Goan) and I had bunks in the other.  The four of us remained roomies and good friends for all of my six years at the company.

I lost touch with Martie who married and emigrated to Australia, and in the last few years I have also lost track of Matthew.  Matthew married and then, to his shock , his wife divorced him.  He had brief stints in the USA but so far as I know he now lives in Mumbai.  However, I have remained in contact with Papa who still lives and works in Jubail, though now he is a programmer at a private company with greatly increased wages.  Papa married not long after I left Saudi in 1996 and he has visited me almost annually, twice with his wife and son.  Papa wanted to return my hospitality and that of my brother George, who was also his host the last time Papa's family came with him, so when his brother-in-law arranged a marriage for himself, Papa invited George and me to attend.  In india, weddings are not the exclusive sorts of events that we have here, although there is a similar desire to spend too much.  Indeed, the last time I was in India I attended the weddings of four perfect strangers; as the first Western man ever to visit the small village I was staying in, I believe I served as cheap entertainment for the guests.  I was only able to speak with one of the four grooms at all because although none spoke any English, this one man had worked in the Gulf and we were able to stumble through a few sentences in Arabic, which he spoke far better than me.  

Anyway, now Papa is reasonably rich by Indian standards and George and I are to be his guests at a home he has built in Palakkad in the state of Kerala for a couple of weeks.  We had hoped to get a visa for Saudi for a couple of days en route; Papa says Jubail - and Saudi in general - have changed beyond recognition and I'd have liked to see the new Saudi Arabia, although i kind of loved the old version.  But visas are hard to come by, so instead we will spend a few days in Bahrain and then fly together with Papa and his wife and 12-year-old Bubba (we call the boy Bubba and have done so since before he was born although of course that is not his name) to Kerala.  I had assumed that the plan was to hang out in Palakkad for a while, but no, Papa has booked us on a tour of all kinds of sights.  He sent us an itinerary and when George went on line to see what these various places were all about, he was stunned to see we are in a 5-star sort of situation everywhere, staying where kings and film stars (which is the same thing, really) have stayed.  This was slightly alarming because although it seemed like Papa had said he was hosting (i. e. paying), it had never been specifically stated.  Up until we got the itinerary, I had assumed that  the beaches and temples and forts were day trips Papa planned, but now, I find we are on some kind of grand tour.   I delicately brought up the financial situation that George and I find ourselves in, and Papa said to worry not - everything was on the house.  Oh my!  

Is it churlish of me to mention that I loathe sightseeing?  And I would never, on my own, book any kind of packaged tour, although it is not exactly 'packaged' in that we won't have a guide, but we will have a driver.  My idea of travel is to go, stay in a cheap local hotel patronized by locals and to get to know a place by walking around and making a fool of myself.  I always say if one is going to a five-star hotel one might as well save the airfare and stay at the one in the closest town because they are all the same.  Although there is a smiling friendliness amidst all the staff, it is a bought and paid for experience and is as close to really having a friendly conversation with a local as the Disney Jungle ride is to a trip down the Amazon.  But it looks like this is what I am going to have.  

The right way to look at this trip is a visit to a friend, rather than as travel.  A friend who, whether he is visiting me or I him believes that the hour not spent in strenuously doing something or seeing something or, preferably, buying something is an hour wasted.   I already have 9 packages from Amazon sitting on my kitchen table, which Papa has had sent here for me to tuck into my luggage for him.  Oy!  And a week to go; what new surprise will be delivered to my door?  So I foresee a high level of activity doing things I would not consider doing if I were on my own.

It should be fun, though.  The scientific principle that best applies to me is Newton's law that a body at rest tends to stay at rest.  I don't go to a great number of events because all I can think of is the parking problem or the cost of admission or the crowds or being out too late.  I am a sad wreck of the adventurer I used to be.  One thing that does appeal to the adventurer in me is another idea that Papa has proposed.  He will be working in Saudi for the forseeable future - he is quite a young man compared to me.  He is 47, but looks like a man in his twenties.  He has built a house in Kerala, as I said, and at present his mother and one of his brothers live there.  But the brother has bought his own place and the two will be moving to this, therefore Papa's home will lie vacant much of the year.  He has proposed that I  - or George and I, or whoever I want and I - live in it for a couple of months in the winter of next year.  I see no downside to that.  Because I am an eternal pessimist in some things - again, anything that requires me to move my butt - I am sure I will manufacturer a number of objections in the coming year, but , hey, right now it sounds cool.

I guess I might mention that my Cambodian cousin Warren, (well, half-Cambodian cousin - if he was all-Cambodian he wouldn't be a cousin, would he?), offered me a job teaching English in Phnom Penh a few months ago.  Unfortunately it would mean teaching the sons of privilege, not just some village kids, and the sons of privilege everywhere are the same nightmare for a teacher.  I used to hear a few horror stories from teachers in Saudi.  Being a teacher when you are outranked socially by your students is not a picnic.  People talk about the tribulations of teaching in rough poor districts, but there is a whole different hell with rich kids.  They say it is hard to engage the parents in some poor districts; it is harder to disengage the parents in the wealthy sectors, parents who think that an A+ is hardly enough reward for little Bree or Buckleigh.  And that A+ should arise from the beloved one's essence, not his or her work; and certainly that the child's playful nature should not be curbed just because there are others trying to learn.  Nonetheless, I should have taken the job, because my life sucks big-time and anything would be better than drooling in front of a screen - which I am doing as we speak, yes, but usually I am drooling more passively than this (and usually there's more drool).   

So anyway, if I don't write for a while, I will have a different excuse at least.  

By the way, Marge, if you are reading this - I can't get to your site anymore because my computer informs me you've gone all high hat and are not letting in hoi poloi.   And even when I could get through in the last month or two, none of my comments would post.  Weird things happened.  But now I get this message to ask for permission even to read, but how the hell do I do that when I can't get there to ask?  So I am asking.

I wonder if I can get kidnapped in Bahrain?  Now that would be different!

          It's Only Words   
I find that anything I say, do or write during or immediately after any experience is never representative of my final conclusions about the events or issues to which I am reacting.  Often, while the the heat from the moment still lingers, I blind myself to any lessons, conclusions or accurate evaluation of an event.  I think, if one looks back at one's college career, or high school, or a job one left more than five years ago, one will sum up various personalities encountered or one's own behavior, very differently from how one might do at the time.  It is much easier to evaluate a relationship long after it is over, and specifically to evaluate one's own errors therein, when the passions have cooled.  I suspect many people who have an angry parting will acknowledge years later (if they are not totally narcissistic and if they are not still fighting over children or possessions - in which case the relationship isn't over, only the partnership is) that there were plenty of faults on their own part which were not simply because "he (or she) drove me to it".  Just because one got the other party to actually ask for the divorce that both saw coming does not mean that one tried harder to save the marriage; it simply means that one was the more passive-aggressive partner or that one was better at gamesmanship.  No one in a relationship is playing Solitaire.  

My last entry was a fine example of exactly what I don't want to do, which is write a running commentary on my current life.  And, since I brought it up, I probably owe some kind of resolution: my time with Diem did not go well.  But my opening remarks here are an explanation, I hope, of why I am not going to explain what went wrong.  I think I learned something, but it is not something I can articulate - at least not accurately - at the present time.  

William Wordsworth described poetry (I can't recall his exact words) as being emotions recollected in tranquillity.   I suspect wisdom could be described much the same way.  There is no truth possible, no real understanding possible, until emotions have played themselves out.  Wordsworth is entirely right, not only about poetry but about any writing.  One can write well re-living a peak moment or a past affair, but one cannot write with much insight or wisdom during that moment or affair.  Think how tedious it is to listen to someone first in love when he or she is talking about the many virtues of the beloved; once is fine, but by the next day we really prefer to hear about something different.  Or out of pure boredom with the topic we begin storing up parts of the catalog to mention back to the impassioned one when the same degree of emotion is spent listing the deep black flaws in the now-discarded partner.  We are at our least interesting and certainly we express ourselves least uniquely when we speak of someone we have just fallen for, or of the baby that has just been born.

The only useful way to look at any broken relationship, any lost job, any past disappointment is with the assumption that we ourselves are partly at fault - and not just by reiterating one of those 'horoscope' faults ("I am too trusting",  "I am too generous", etc.).  It is useful instead to think of those times one kept silent when one should have spoken, when one should have been helpful instead of letting someone flounder, when one tried to force changes to make a person 'better', when one should have done the difficult thing.  It is self-defeating to catalog the faults of the friend or partner or boss after a separation; it is far better to examine that catalog of flaws before one plunges in.  Anyone can love or trust a complete bounder once; if there is a second occurrence then, well, as Cassius said, "The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in the stars, but in ourselves…".  The second alcoholic or batterer or selfish prick or whatever that you love or marry is entirely upon you.  This is actually good news, because that fault which is yours is the only one that you can do anything about.  

It occurs to me that this also explains why the current style of candidates' debates is one of the worst possible ways to determine who is a good candidate for office.  The old style of debate where people were willing to take the time to listen an hour or so to each candidate laying out his positions followed by discussion might have been useful, but the format where a questioner tries to catch a candidate off-guard and unprepared and where opponents seize not on an idea but on the phraseology with which it is expressed, merely awards glibness (which may be the worst possible quality in an office holder).  Whatever a candidate blurts out in a debate about an issue hardly reflects accurately how he or she will perform, even in matters pertaining to that issue.  Who hasn't said something like "They ought to shoot them all" about one group or other, or made some similarly sweeping statement in a moment of passion, or during a moment of light humorous conversation among friends?  I certainly have, yet I would be hard put to think of a single situation where I would attempt as President to push through any action (as if one could) remotely resembling such a statement.  It is true that carefully vetted 'positions' on issues are supremely uninformative, but I submit that they are no less indicative of the behavior we can expect in office than are the quick answers to 'gotcha' questions in the heat of debate.  Harry Truman is now much revered for his actions as President, but at the time he was in office he was famed for shooting off his mouth and having to retract later.  Mom used to tell me of a famous comedy sketch showing an actor representing Harry trying to retrieve a letter from a public mailbox.  It was funny to audiences because it captured this personal quirk so well.  

Thomas Jefferson, on the other hand, wrote and spoke beautiful words, but his behavior in office was thuggish and undemocratic.  Besides screwing the help, he schemed successfully to have his chief rival, Aaron Burr, executed; attempted to impeach Chief Justice Marshall for opposing him in some matters; established an embargo during the war of 1812 with the chief purpose of destroying those arch-rivals to Virginian supremacy, the merchants of New England; and sent warships to try and quell the outbreak of democracy in the black nation of Haiti to remove a bad example to the Blacks on his own estates.  Jefferson's idea of democracy is what we would describe as oligarchy: the only real objection he had to British Monarchy is that he wasn't the monarch.  This is remarkably similar to the motives that set bin Ladin on his path, as a Yemeni by family origin he was limited in how much power he could amass in Saudi Arabia, hence he set out to overthrow the monarchy which would always outrank him.  Originally he didn't give a shit about America, but like Jefferson, he was finely attuned to what sells with the people that he wanted to rule.   Not only did Jefferson did not want the vote extended to blacks or the white poor, he wanted to prevent the French and Spanish inhabitants of any class in the Louisiana Territory from voting also, based on their inferiority to those descended from the ethnicities we now call WASP.  

So words, especially those spoken on the fly or in the midst of passion, are mighty poor indicators of a man's fitness to hold office in a democracy, or his ability to frame policy in concert with supporters, opponents and the indifferent.  Actions (like punching a wife or opponent) are far more telling at those times, because these show what a man might do in office when aroused.  The ability of a man to speak dispassionately of his mistakes and of his own part in the failure of previous enterprises is, in my mind, one of the strongest indicators that he will be successful in the future.  At worst he will err differently, and two examples of failure might just inspire someone else to find the true solution, or the better path.  

And so back to the solitary life...

          A light! Dim or Diem?   
O gosh - the first thing I see is that they have 'improved' Blogger.  Not a good sign...

It is said that when you need something done, ask a busy man.  I am reluctantly having to admit the truth of this, at least in relation to me.  When I have nothing going in my life, I find I just can't sit myself down and write despite the fact that my aim here has never been to create a diary, "what-happened-today" type of blog and that there are plenty of people and events (and even a few ideas) that I have yet to write about.  Boredom for me is probably my name for a mild-to-middling state of depression.  When there are no people in my life - and by people in my life, I have found co-workers to be a big chunk o' that in the past - I have no oomph, no stimulation, no desire to get out of bed.  Well, I always get out of bed, in fact I often do so at six a. m. or earlier, but the amount of time between that event and my first nap can be about the amount of time that it takes me to descend the stairs.  

I began writing an entry when Marge's last nudge showed up in my "Comments" section during a week-long visit in this area from my first-cousin-once-removed Warren, he of the Iraq "hurt locker" service and my host in Bali last year.  Warren inspires me (so does Marge) and he makes me feel I have something to say.  I recently had a visit from another inspiring friend - a high school classmate and fellow altar boy from the past, a man who spent most of his life as a teacher, and who loved doing so.  He always acts so admiring of me, that I am fooled into believing it myself for a bit.  But the real reason I am back at the old keyboard is that I am all excited - unreasonably so - about a visit soon to transpire.  

When I lived in Houston for six rather awful months something like ten years ago (give or take), I was, as usual, pretty much alone most of the time and I had the usual amount of social life: almost none.  I dabbled in on-line dating, which for a person my age is the quickest path to a leap off a high bridge that I can think of.  However, I did find one exception to the general lack of interest or wild mismatching.  This was a man in his mid-forties whom I will call Diem.  Diem answered my ad, we decided rather quickly to meet, not least because Diem's English was minimal; he had, it turned out, arrived from Hanoi only two years previous.  I am nothing if not an optimist when it comes to dating, and I invited Diem to my apartment, which was in one of those horrible outsize complexes where one could be murdered and no one would know or care until they came to evict one because the rent was five days overdue, and where the murder would come as a welcome outcome (if it weren't too messy and one had the good taste to bleed on the linoleum area in the kitchen or bath rather than on the carpeting) because now they did not need to go through a lengthy eviction process, just a quick sweep and mop up.  Diem, who proved to be an extremely traditional soul terrified that he would be discovered by someone to be gay had not posted or e-mailed his picture, so it was with a certain degree of doubt that I waited outside the complex gates for his advent.  

Because of a series of errors and misunderstandings, mostly due to his poor English and my non-existent Vietnamese (these things work both ways after all), he actually was in the office trying to locate me while I was standing hopefully by an external gate.  My niece Graciela also lived in that complex and she encountered Diem in that office and got us both headed in the right direction, so I finally met Diem.  My first reaction was not negative, but not completely enthralled either.  Diem considers himself to be quite ugly, I think, and I suspect that by Vietnamese cultural standards he would not be considered handsome.  I have discovered that people who find those of other races attractive are often drawn to the extremes of such features as are deemed to typify that race.  Thus many whites who prefer blacks like very dark skin and facial features that whites find 'different' about blacks - large lips, wide noses and so forth which blacks themselves often tend to find less attractive.  Most whites can remember seeing stunning black men with white women who were, to white eyes, rather unattractive and certainly not 'in the man's league', as the saying goes.  I have found myself that my pastiness and blue eyes have gotten me far better reception when I traveled in non-white areas than they ever garnered in white America.  So I did not think Diem was ugly at all, and his sturdy frame was quite appealing; he was not fat, nor artificially muscular as a weightlifter might be but he was hardly the slim figure that one often sees with the Vietnamese.  There is nothing better (for me) than finding someone I find attractive who thinks he's ugly.  

When we were inside my apartment we hugged and then he threw back his head and gave me The Kiss.  I have thought about it lately, and I realize there are five kisses in my life that I actually recall specifically, where I remember the time, the kisser, the place and the circumstances.  The first was  a greeting kiss from my Aunt Delia in her kitchen when we'd come to the city to visit her when I had reached the age that I was self conscious about kissing people - especially old people - on the mouth and right then I made the conscious decision that although I didn't like it, that she and my Aunt Agnes were the two people for whom I would willingly make an exception.  The second was the the last kiss I received from my Mom when I was young.  We were in what we called the dining room although it was not adjacent to the kitchen and we almost never dined there, and Mom was making a happy fuss over whoever was the baby at the time.  Mom was very affectionate with her babies, but our family was extremely undemonstrative and rarely touched affectionately when past the toddler stage.  I had not been kissed by Mom for some years, but when she gave the baby a big, sort of a stage kiss, I said, "What about me?" and she turned and gave me a kiss.  It made me feel kind of awkward, although I liked it a lot on one level, I pretty much knew I wouldn't ask again.  It was a small odd moment, but I never forgot it.

My third remembered kiss was when I was in the mental institution, good old Maricopa State.  There had come onto our ward a black man named Levi, much older than me, who was there I believe because his alcoholism had caused enough previous commitments to that institution for him to be considered too chronic or damaged or whatever for re-admission to the alcoholic ward.  This was the progression at Maricopa State for alcoholics: the first few times people were admitted to the alcoholic wards, but frequent returners were determined to be mentally ill and were instead placed in the acute (i.e. people who were in a crisis that would require less than a year of hospitalization) mental ward.   The alcoholics hated to go to the acute ward because 'people there were nuts', while those of us in the acute ward looked down on the alkie ward because they were 'hopeless' (in our view).  Levi was a very good looking man of early middle age and as one of only two black men on the ward in 1966 or 1967, a time when black had not yet become beautiful in the popular imagination, he kept mostly to himself, although he was friendly and cooperative.  Levi went on leave one weekend and he returned in the evening totally blitzed and barely able to navigate.  I happened to be at the door when he entered and he pretty clearly was not going to make it to his bed.  I put my arm around him to help him to reach his bed (our ward was a dorm of some 20 exposed single beds) and when I did so he kissed me.  I never knew what to make of that, but I never forgot it.  It was a little exciting and kind of gratifying; it made me feel that I wasn't being viewed as some asshole in the 'other race' but as a friend.  It stirred some exciting fantasies, but I never showed any sign and Levi, though friendly, never was particular in his attentions to me again. 

The last kiss I remember was in the middle of the busy street which runs past the al-Batha Souk in Riyadh.  I had had an intensely passionate relationship with a Sudanese man named Mustafa when I was in Riyadh in the mid '80s and although Mustafa was largely illiterate even in Arabic, I had exchanged a few simple letters with him after I was sent home in 1986.  Mustafa made me dizzy with love or lust or desire or whatever and I missed him terribly.  When I got a job in Saudi again, this time in the coastal town of al-Jubail, three hundred miles from Riyadh, I began traveling to Riyadh on the weekends and among other activities, I managed eventually to track Mustafa down.  I reached him by telephone - I had gotten in contact with someone who knew him and who had a phone (which Mustafa did not) and we agreed to meet the following weekend in al-Batha Souk which is a large busy block of small shops where electronics, music and cheap clothing are sold, mostly to male Asian and African foreign workers, and which thus became a favorite meeting place for these people to socialize, as well as a busy pick-up area for men who preferred other men and who knew how to read the subtle hints being thrown out by some.  I cared so much for Mustafa, but had no idea how he remembered me, or if he had any particular feelings about our relationship which in any way resembled those I had.  When we finally spotted each other, the busy throng had spilled into the highway itself and Mustafa was out in the roadway.  I hurried to him and to my eternal joy, he threw his arms around me and delivered a hearty kiss - on the cheek, to be sure (we could have gotten into real trouble for a mouth kiss) - but so spontaneous and welcoming and so much what I had longed for - and in public!  That was number four of the five kisses that I never forgot.  

Diem's kiss was the last of the kisses that I never forgot.  It was as though he simply put his whole being into it.  A guy who up to a moment before had been a 'maybe', suddenly became a 'wow - what a guy!'.  We didn't even know each other yet - we had exchanged only a few stumbling sentences, but this was now a guy to be reckoned with.  I was able to see Diem only a few times before my work required a move to Delaware.  In my last months in Houston, Graciela and I had taken an apartment together because it made financial sense.  Diem could not be disabused of his notion that she would hold him in contempt because he was gay; although he visited me occasionally, he was ever wholly comfortable.  He was a very strict Catholic and believed completely in the teachings, yet alone with me he was completely open and very giving of affection.  But he never shook the feeling that he was contemptible in the eyes of everyone but ourselves.  He limited his visits because he lived with elderly parents and feared that too frequent visits would raise questions.  His parents depended on him completely; they spoke no English and he was their single line to non-Viet America.  He loved karaoke, and was provoked with me when I wouldn't sing on one of our visits to a karaoke bar.  I can't account for the block I have about singing in front of people now, when back in the San Francisco days I performed in Jesus Christ, Superstar and in other shows where I sang publicly.  I guess without Tumwell's support, I just lost my mojo.   

A couple of years after I left Houston, I had a job which led me to take an apartment in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin.  Diem and I had kept in desultory contact; he always sent gifts for me and my mother (whom he had never met) at Christmas and he always remembered my birthday with a card.  He enrolled in college and struggled mightily with learning his subject matter while learning English at the same time.  His English improved, but not quickly.  We spoke by phone.  He struggled to find work, and the jobs he held tended to demand a great deal of his time at unusual hours.  He seemed to be saying (though I was never completely sure about any complex issues we discussed) that his married siblings were coming to live in the US and that he would be freed up somewhat from his obligations toward his parents.  He was adamant that his parents had done everything for him and that he owed them everything.  I finally persuaded him to visit me  for a long weekend in Beaver Dam.  He came and I enjoyed his visit very much.  I began to think I could actually see myself in a relationship with him if only I could get him to garner the courage to admit to at least having me as a friend and to be willing to spend more time with me.  I had to find him a church and take him there on Saturday as well on Sunday of his visit.  He is genuinely religious, and is the most principled man I have known.  Yet, somehow he was able to give himself over to a gay relationship and when with me, he could live in the moment with none of the 'this but not that' reservations usually found in people so deeply conflicted.  I sensed he was of that mentality where he would make a decision about a partnership with someone and then make the best of it, much as if he had been thrust into an arranged marriage.  Although it would be his decision, not someone else's, he would stick it out once decided and make it work as if it were a marriage he couldn't leave.  I also sensed that I was, if I were willing, the one he would chose - not because he loved me madly, but because I liked him, I was willing, and he wanted someone with whom he was comfortable and unashamed.  He didn't want to kiss a lot of different frogs, and if I were not the prince, I was a frog with few enough warts to get on with it.

After that one visit, which he said he enjoyed, I never saw him again.  I felt that it could be a good partnership, but that it wouldn't be, because I was stuck in whatever city I worked in, which never again seemed to be Houston and he was stuck with the parental units and a lifetime of shame.  His mother constantly schemed and nagged about his marriage, while never seeming to give any thought to loosening the bonds at home enough to allow someone else in.  In Houston I had worked with an American Viet woman who had started her marriage by moving in with her husband's traditional family, but who came to a point where she laid down the ultimatum "me or them", and 'me' meant a place of their own.  The husband had moved with her to their own place, but she was never forgiven by her MIL and though they interacted socially it was always a very negative experience for this woman, who was criticized by the in-laws at every turn.  People often cite these third-world extended family relationships as some sort of ideal but I have met many people who are members of such families and I have never met anyone for whom it wasn't a deep and constant negative experience.  Somebody is winning presumably, but it isn't the people with whom I have worked or socialized.  It is all obligation and guilt and very little joy whatsoever.  

After Wisconsin I tried hard to get Diem to visit again but he never would.  Either he had a demanding job with little free time or he couldn't justify another visit to his family.  "They will wonder why I keep visiting this American man,"  he said.  The siblings did arrive, but as with all married siblings, it was assumed that the single one had nothing else to do, so the parents continued to be Diem's responsibility.  He did manage to get his own apartment but it was in the same building as his parents, so there was no chance for me to visit and stay with him.  Once had I retired and had gained the time for a visit, I could not find the money to visit, since it would require a stay in a motel and rental of a car with no assurance that Diem would be brave enough to visit me there more than once or twice, since there was no way I could stay with him.  Finally I gave up.  Although I still wrote to thank him for Christmas gifts and to acknowledge birthday cards, I didn't call or initiate any correspondence because when a man hasn't left home by the age of 50, he probably never will quite garner the courage to do so.  

While I totally had put the whole thing into the 'never happen' category, I had this fantasy that it would be the most wonderful solution to my problem of loneliness and my wish to be part of a loving couple.  When in Wisconsin together, we had gotten along fairly well.  I find Diem very attractive and though we differ greatly in our desire to be active, the types of socializing we prefer, the entertainment that we enjoy, we nonetheless seemed to accommodate each other.  He was washing dishes one night while I watched TV and felt a bit guilty about it; when I mentioned this, he said, "That's OK, I like doing this and you like to watch TV."  Is that an angel come to Earth or what?  He is scrupulously honest; if I left him alone in my house for a month with a million bucks on the table, I'd likely come back to find a million and one there.  We accept each other's radically different views on religion.  My fantasy of how great we might be could well be that typical 'if only' people indulge in when the proof is impossible.  A woman I knew who worked in prisons told me once, "They all have this fantasy of the house with the white picket fence, but when they get out it is straight back to the action."  I am aware of that phenomenon in my case.  It kind of happened for me when I retired - a lovely setting is not enough; the relinquishing of  of a perfect fantasy that I control absolutely, for a reality that is - well real - is a whole lot less joyful than it is cracked up to be.  

A couple of weeks ago on a Thursday I got an e-mail from Diem saying happy birthday, but that he'd forgotten the exact day and would I send my phone number since he had lost it.  I mulled my answer - not from a sense of strategy, but because I didn't find a good time to write and how effort much did I want to put into a lost cause - that weekend I had the usual Breakfast Club with Mom and MY extended family as well as a visit from an old classmate.  I planned to respond on the Monday after my classmate left, but Diem must have found my number - well, obviously he did - because he called while my friend was still here.  He wondered if there were any jobs up here.  He couldn't find anything in Houston despite the Rick Perry miracle.  He had completed his 4-year degree three years ago (his English was also vastly improved; my Vietnamese, in sharp contradistinction, remains nonexistent).  There seemed to be some solution to the parental situation (I wasn't perfectly clear on this).   I still believe it is rude to have one social interaction in the midst of another, so I didn't talk long, but I told him I'd call back on another day.  On that Monday I got a birthday gift in the mail from him - a nice shirt which fit like a glove.  

I called and the upshot is that he is coming for a two week visit during which he will look for a job here locally.  He asked me to check around.  I suspect that he is desperate enough for a job that he is finally willing to leave home for one.  In short the dishonor of being unemployed is now trumping the honor of being an attentive son.  If he is a cost to his parents, he is no longer the good son he was with a job.  How much this is their thinking and how much his, I don't know.  That this means a relationship with me may be either a cost he is willing to pay or an added treat that he finally gets to enjoy.  I am not sure, but I hope and believe it may be the latter.  He is not quite the man of my dreams, but I really do like him and respect him and he is attractive to me.  I am certain I am not the man of his dreams in all respects, but I think he does like me and I think he is attracted.  We set this visit up a couple of weeks ago and the plane tickets are not refundable and he certainly understands that!
I have called him a couple of times since, and one time Mother's spidey sense must have started tingling, because her health took a bad turn, which caused Diem to waver on the job front and say he didn't know how long he might be able to stay here.  At my end, my longtime stalker (Tiko: I have written some about him) called all the way from Africa the same day Diem and I bought the airline tickets for Diem's flight on Sept. 6 and told me that finally after almost a year in Africa he would be returning to the USA - on Sept 6!   We each have powerful forces arrayed against our successful outcome, but hopefully we will prevail.  Since the wavering call, I have discovered a job fair here on the 13th, and Diem sent me his resumé and a cover letter for me to print out, so he does seem to have some thought of pursuing a job here; if he lands one, I think he will have a strong motive to stay.  Working is all-important to him.  I hope I am at least a pale second motive.

I am giddy down in the pit of my stomach with a buzzy kind of excitement.  I know that we have actually spent little time together and I know I will be moved out of my comfort zone, (or lethargy as some will call it).  I know Diem has a certain rigidity that might prove too much for me.  But maybe - oh, maybe - this could be it!  I really am no good alone.  I just don't move of my own volition.  I need a kickstart, a cheering section, a willing ear.   I know I haven't seen him, or he me, of a number of years - he is now 56, and we all know I am tottering at the edge of senescence.  I just don't know - but that is half the fun, isn't it?  There is realistically a 1% chance of this working out happily, but that is 1% more than I had of yore.  And I really always secretly suspect the best will happen, when anything is in prospect.  When nothing is actually on the horizon, I expect the worst.  Neutral I am not.  

In other news, Papa my old roommate from Saudi, whom George and I will be visiting in late October and much of November in India (did I mention that?) told me that his relatives are moving out of his house in Kerala and he is refurbishing the house, and that next year and during ensuing years  I will be welcome to spend a couple of months there even if he is still living in Saudi, which he expects to do for some time.  Winters in India as the snow piles up in Reedville?  Where is the downside to that?  

So all of a sudden I am writing again.  Tuesday is the big day - will the fire still burn with Diem?  Wish me luck.  Suddenly I feel sixteen.  In a good way.

          My Military Career   
Back in those golden days when there were communists behind every bush and people knew what was what, my University made membership in the ROTC mandatory for the first two years of any male undergraduate’s academic career.  The logic of training boys to die young when the ostensible purpose of paying all that tuition argued that they were preparing for a long and richly-lived career escapes me, but being a Catholic institution, NPU drew on 2000 years of practice at illogical actions and at extermination of any sign of independent thought.  Someone somewhere decided that training the undergraduates to march around in lockstep was an excellent idea, and it must have been someone to whom no one dared say nay.  Actually, I think, although I am far from sure of this, that the US government sweetened the cavernous pot of the University’s treasury for taking this decision, and while Holy Mother Church might pause in matters of morals or dogma, there is no such hesitation when the seductive charms of gold lurk in the offing. 

The rule was that the first two years of ROTC were mandatory and universal (universal, since one can hardly count the female students, a contingent that had not even existed for most of the University’s history; the University itself rarely counted females, in keeping with its thoroughly Catholic traditions), and if marching about in neat rows and barking orders were found to be appealing options, male students could take a third and fourth year of ROTC at the end of which they would emerge, with the cost of their education underwritten, as lieutenants in the Air Force.  Viet Nam was, at this time, just a small cloud on the horizon, home of a guerrilla action against which the US was supplying a handful of advisors to ensure that a brazenly corrupt government remained in power.  Fans of the Afghanistan War will instantly recognize the strategy.  The rules for such hapless freshmen as me were that all was fun and games six days of the week, but that on every Thursday we lads were to emerge from our dorms uniformed and spit-polished and ready, if not eager, to salute any upperclassman officer we might encounter.  At a certain hour, all of us would gather on what had in glory days been a football field, in ranks and rows to be inspected, to say, “Yes, sir!” and to be marched to and fro, up and down, left and right, until we understood where we ranked in the order of things, which was dead last.   (Again, I omit to include the standing of the ladies, who in the eyes of Holy Mother Church and the Air Force of those days, was pretty much where that gender today ranks in Pakistan.)  

From the get-go, ROTC was the bane of my existence.  Indeed, had I bothered to read the parts of the welcoming pamphlets which NPU had sent me, which dealt with topics other than location and fraternities and sororities and leafy green campus areas, I might have chosen another school based solely on this military requirement.  I do not thrive in organized activities, be they army, sports, IT departments, churches or gay organizations.  I don’t intend to ask, “why?” but somehow the word always intrudes and the type of person who rises to captain or clergyman or vice president in charge seems to be able to read in my mind the one question that ought never arise.  I don’t even believe in my own ideas, let alone anyone else’s.  Well, that is not quite true; I may believe in them, but never enough to rouse myself from my habitual sloth, and certainly not enough to march about, or hang posters or spend hours on my knees. 

First and foremost, there was that creased trousers and spit-polish thing.  Some of the guys in my dorm actually seemed to enjoy sitting there by the hour, buffing and wetting and polishing their shoes until they reached unearthly levels of gloss.  I was not one of them.  In fact, once I discovered that common Shinola liquid polish (the very brand from which my father often mused that I could not distinguish shit) could create a shine which passed cursory inspection three times out of four, the amount of time spent on my shoes was reduced to seconds per week.  Besides, those damn shoes were made from some kind of cardboard, and early in my inglorious career, before I discovered the beneficent effects of liquid Shinola, I had over-wet one spot on one shoe and it had caused me to rub up a roughened spot on that shoe that nothing ever quite repaired.  So each inspection put me at risk of having that spot discovered, and could a perfect shine do other than highlight this early error?  It is amazing what liquid Shinola could cover up.  If Shinola still exists, and if it still makes the liquid polish, and if it is ever looking for a heartfelt customer endorsement, let it come to me.  I haven’t polished a shoe in years and years, but I can heartily aver that their product is the cat’s meow. 

There was also the question of “brass”.  Brass referred to some metal insigniae that must be pinned to the uniform in exactly the right place at exactly the right angle.  There are two kinds of boy in this world: those whose shirttails remain tucked neatly into their pants all day long and those whose shirttails will not remain so anchored for love or money for longer than the half minute after they are first so tucked.  I can tell you for a fact, that young men of the latter type are incapable of placing, or at least of keeping said brass at said location and angle.  And, need you ask?, I am one of the latter group.  Moreover, nothing so delighted the spit-polish guys as surreptitiously re-pinning their room mates’ brass upside-down the night before Thursday’s torment.  Need I mention that my roommate Bigman, who was class president, who was on basketball scholarship (this was a time when these were given to white guys), who would later become captain of the team and fraternity president, bore the most spit-polished pair of shoes e’er seen at NPU?  The twinkling of his shoe tips in the Washington sunlight when forth he strode from the freshman dorm blinded anyone so unwary as to look directly at them.  In short, he loved to mess with my brass.   And I rarely retained the memory of the last week long enough to be sure to check the next week.

Hair was another issue.  I could not afford haircuts, to begin with.  When I was in college, I genuinely functioned without a penny in my pocket or wallet or anywhere else most of the time.  Merely keeping in beer took a superhuman effort and there was simply nothing left over for anything else.  Moreover, I hated short hair.  I recall the awe with which I saw the rise of the Beatles a few short years later; my first thought was how much I would love to let my hair grow so long, my second was that no one would ever dare do so in public.  How little could I foresee.  Boy’s – and men’s – hair, pre-Beatles, mattered very much and it must be very short.  The only longish hair at all was that favored by the “hoods”:  those slightly long, highly greased jelly-rolls that fell over the forehead and met in a 'duck’s ass' in back, but even this hair was meticulously trimmed at the base of the neck, and around the ears.  The length was all in the upswept sides and in the front, and unending care was required (remember Kookie, Lend Me Your Comb?)  Every boy wearing this style carried a comb in his back pocket always.  Part of the ritual of coolness was the constant pulling out of that comb and re-combing of the hair.  The coolest guys had unbelievably cool methods of hair-combing.  I shudder to think of the fate of any boy daring enough to leave his hair ungreased and allowed to fall down over his ears or onto his collar.  My military days were a constant struggle between hair the way I wanted it, and hair the way my flight commander wanted it.

I have a couple of qualities, other than the aforementioned, that render me a poor fit for the military life.  One is that I am never sure I am doing things correctly, no matter what evidence exists that I am perfectly correct.  Another is that I hate, with a passion that surely has roots in some psychological defect that is better left unplumbed, to accord deference to people who do not seem to have earned it – or even to those who have.  I hate acts of self-abnegation, and to me saluting someone who is just another underclassman like myself, is deeply humiliating.  So I hated saluting our ROTC officers, and simultaneously I always felt like I was making some gross blunder when doing so which was imperceptible to me, but blatantly obvious to everyone else.  Wrong hand formation, wrong arm angle, wrong something.  This generalized feeling, that there is some secret known to everyone except myself, has lasted my lifetime.  It was why I never could, during school days, boast of female conquests; I was sure there was something about sex (and the female anatomy) that everybody knew but me, by which my ignorance would betray me as a liar.  The real reason why I almost never lie about important things, and never cheat at games or steal, is that I can think of nothing more awful than getting caught out. I dread it with a physical feeling of dread.  I bragged about something that wasn’t true in first grade once, because I couldn’t stand being the only one who hadn’t had an interesting adventure, and even now, when I recall it, I feel unreasonably ashamed and embarrassed, because although none of the kids knew I was lying, the teacher did and actually offered me several suggestions for alternative versions that would allow me to backtrack and I did not.  It doesn’t matter now, I know, but it matters to me.  

So the upshot of the above is that I would plan my routes from class to class on Thursdays with meticulous care to ensure that I would not pass any kid who was an officer requiring a salute.  I’d go through buildings' basements and up back stairs.  It was an obsession to me whose depth I can recall but which I cannot quite believe now or understand.  Saluting was like a small death.  The only thing as bad as saluting – or nearly as bad – was the marching.  At a certain hour, the entire male population of the freshman and sophomore classes would gather en masse in the athletic field, divided into the various ‘flights’ (which were a group similar to the groupings like ‘platoon’ or ‘squad’ or whatever group other military services have).  We’d be all uniformed and hatted and gloved and one-arm’s length apart and so forth.  And we’d be inspected (usually cursorily enough to miss my Shinola heresy), issued demerits as required, lectured on whatever needed saying that day, and then each flight was marched by his flight leader all about the field.  I was pretty good at staying in step, although that quick half-step, sort of a semi-skip, to get back into step when I had somehow strayed from perfection because I became engrossed in thoughts of things non-military, was not unknown to me. Since I can remember, I have endured boredom by just vanishing into my thoughts, a habit that allowed me to endure a 40-year career in Information Technology, among other things.  Oddly, I can often absorb information in this state, but one thing I cannot do is snap to it and stay in step with perfect ease. 

There was one boy in my flight, however, who was utterly incapable of remaining in step.  This boy, Berny Duck, was unusually tall – one of the very tallest boys in my class - and he possessed red hair of such brilliance – flaming, glowing, incandescent – that his head drew every eye.  Like most tall boys in that era, he was gangly in build and appearance, and his walk was such a loose-limbed lope that he just bobbed up and down like a cork on choppy water.   It wasn’t that he couldn’t keep up a rhythm when he marched, it was just that he was always, always bobbing in opposition to everyone else’s rhythm.  Where we marched to ‘One two three four’, he marched invariably to ‘one Two three four’.  He couldn’t help it.  He’d get in step only to fall out of step again within three paces.  And with that great red head, there was no missing the error.  My recollection of marching is inextricably interwoven with the recollection of the chant, “One two three four,  Mister Duck, get in step,  One two three four.”  I know it doesn’t appear to scan when you read it, but it did when the sergeant yelled it, which he did incessantly. 

I, like Private Duck, had an insuperable problem when it came to marching.  I could not, and cannot to this day, tell my left from my right.  I can, actually, but I have to think about it.  And the time it takes to do that thinking is the time during which every other airman left-faced or right-faced as I walked straight forward into the nearest one of them.  For a time, my fate was to draw the ire of whoever was calling the cadence, but fairly early on in my career there came a day when we were to be reviewed by someone from the Pentagon.   Since NPU was in Washington, there was always some dignitary or other available to come and do this sort of thing, and such occasions caused those upperclassmen officers, so different from me, to swell with pride and to vow to themselves (and for all I know, to each other) that never in the history of marching would any flights of men march so sharply, so perfectly aligned, so filled with martial ardor as would ours when reviewed by the lesser gods of the Pentagon.  In pursuit of this lofty goal, there was only one solution to the Shaughnessy problem.  Oddly, I am totally blank when I try to recall whether or not the Duck problem was similarly handled.   I was reassigned to a desk job. 

The ROTC at NPU published a newspaper for some reason or other.  I don’t recall the name of this journalistic endeavor – probably the Rifle or the F-15 or something suitably fierce and as unlike the actual content offered as possible.  Most of the content was as drab s one may imagine, but since the staff or the powers in control actually yearned for people to read the damn thing, I somehow persuaded the editor to allow me to create and write an advice column.  This was most unoriginally entitled Dear Sophie and it soon became quite a must-read on the NPU campus.  Although I endeavored to be humorous, and to actually have the nouns agree with the verbs in person and number and so forth, the real reason people flocked to read Dear Sophie was that the requests for advice which I made up referred to real relationships of real people on campus.  It is hard to remember in these jaded days, but colleges – especially smallish religious ones – were, in those halcyon days, far more like today’s high schools or even junior high schools.  Susie cutting in on Mary and Johnnie’s romance was the stuff of our conversation.  We did not gossip about who was sleeping with whom – probably very few were sleeping with anyone there and then - or who had got the clap or whatever is the currency of today’s campuses.  People talked about who was going with whom.  Or whether a girl would or wouldn’t get pinned by her fraternity boyfriend – ‘pinned’ having no sexual connotation (and, usually, no privileges) whatever - it merely meant he gave her his frat pin as a pledge to eventually give her a diamond.  A lot of these girls were saving themselves for marriage, goddamit, and in those pre-pill days, a pregnancy meant shame and expulsion, no less in college than in high school - so most of the pinning was done at shoulder level. 

I seem to have some quality which results in people telling me things.  I also enjoy knowing everyone in any environment in which I function.  A lot of people like to know the president or vice president of their group, but I find everybody else just as interesting.  I want to know the janitor and the nurse and the guy who only comes in on Wednesday.  People are surprisingly interesting if you let them be.  I remember once walking through the downtown area of al-Jubail with my supervisor when I was working in Saudi and all the coin sellers and restaurant guys and street sellers and passing people from all different nationalities were calling out to say hello, and my boss said, “You know everybody here!”  It was always that way for me.  I don’t talk to people to be nice or to feel good about myself or because I felt some moral obligation; I do it because they are almost always interesting (OK, maybe feeling good about myself enters in).  At one of our class reunions, a girl like said to me, “You were friends with everyone, even the most outcast.”  But I didn’t always realize that someone was an outcast.  And I couldn’t stand to see people sad or picked on.  I always felt as if, somehow just by witnessing cruelty, I was both complicit in the cruelty of the aggressor and shared in the shame of the victim.  This is not a virtue, or a considered plan of action, it is how I cannot help feeling.  I feel ashamed – a genuine slightly nauseated feeling – when I see someone being picked on.  It is why I do not enjoy the early audition rounds of American Idol; I can’t stand seeing vulnerable people hurt.  It is not funny to me that people are odd-looking or delusional.  I think it is more a weakness in me than anything else; I always feel like I have some quality worse than that other guy’s which will become apparent if I speak out.  I think I dread humiliation beyond all other things, and seeing someone else suffer it is as painful to me as if it were me.  I have actually flicked to other channels when some of the more egregious contestants have embarrassed themselves.  I feel sorry for them.  Whatever is the cause of this sort of pathological empathy, the result seems to be that people tend to tell me things. 

Using the information I was getting from everybody, I was able to construct fake letters for my column that hinted at real situations.  I never exposed anyone, but I always conveyed I knew things, and people used to read half afraid they’d show up in Dear Sophie.  I am not sure this column made any significant military contribution, but it sure contributed to my quality of life. 

There was one boy who, from another context which I explained long ago, was called First-of-all.  This lad was one of those folks whom life itself wanted to pick on.  He was an odd mix of goody-goody and ineptitude.  First-of-all loved ROTC.  No one polished his shoes or aligned his brass more assiduously than he.  And of course he drew the attention of all those like my roommate who delighted in jokes, often rather cruel ones.  One day, after we knew he’d spent his usual solid hour of pre-Thursday shoe polishing, Bigman and another guy on the basketball team hoisted me through the transom of First-of-all’s room with a jar of Vaseline in my hand from which I gouged two huge gobs of salve and placed one inside the toe of each shoe.  We all went snickering back to our own rooms.  But, of course, I began thinking about First-of-all’s approaching humiliation, and I began to feel sorry for him and ashamed of myself.  Had our target been someone like Bigman himself, or the other basketball player, I would have continued to enjoy the joke, but there was something peculiarly vulnerable about First-of-all.  For him, ROTC seemed to be bringing some weird validation that he was unable to find elsewhere.  I just knew that it would be more painful than funny when he put on his military shoes Thursday morning.  

Finally I slunk down the corridor and found a couple of fairly husky friends whom I persuaded to hoist me back through First-of-all’s transom.  I brought some tissues and cleaned out the inside of the shoes and never let anyone know. 

A number of the boys who marched on that field with me in those days later died in Viet Nam.  As I have recounted earlier, I inadvertently dodged the draft and never found myself in that awful place, for which I am profoundly grateful.  I would have been a complete casualty, one way or another, whether I lived or died.  I know there would have come a time when I came face-to-face with an enemy.  There I would have been, armed to the teeth with inadequately polished shoes, brass awry and hair longer than his.  I would have been terrified.  And when I looked at him, I bet I would see, or imagine, that he was terrified, too.

And I would have felt sorry for him.

          To Dream the Impossible Dream   
My brother Liam is a poet.  I hadn’t actually put this thought into words, but someone else told me this and I realized that it is true.  My sort-of sister-in-law Nellie (she and my brother Rob have been together for at least 37 years – possibly longer) is an accomplished musician.  She has made her living from music most of her life.  She and Rob lived together in Arizona until just a few months ago when her mother passed away and she inherited the mother’s house back here in the City just north of here.  Music has hardly made her wealthy and this was too good a gift to pass up.  Back in Arizona, an all-woman blues group of which she was a member won the state blues title (did you know there was such a thing?) four years running until they decided to stop competing.  That group and her previous group have made a number of recordings, and she has played with a number of blues artists, or rhythm and blues artists, over the years including Bo Diddly. 

Recently, at the Breakfast Club (I think you all know that is what we call the Sunday breakfasts with my mother, don’t you?) a song by my brother Liam came on my iPod speakers (Liam was not present) and the conversation turned to songwriting and so forth.  Nellie said, “I have written some songs, but Liam is a poet.”  And she is exactly right – about him, whether or not she might be underrating herself.  Liam just seems to have a gift for saying things in such a way that you see the picture.  In a song of his that many people like quite a bit, he tells of seeing his son get off the school bus during a snowstorm and watching him come up the driveway with his coat unbuttoned, and it was “like watching a tear sliding down from the night”.  This song, The Loneliness Birds, (the title is from something someone else has written) is about hearing the news that this youngest son, at age sixteen, had been killed. 

My favorite song of all that he has written is a meditation on the story of Hansel and Gretel which reflects on how children ultimately decide their own paths and define who their parents were, no matter how hard those parents worked or how deeply they cared.  This song seems to me to encompass all the cares and worries of watching one’s children become independent: the driver’s license, the possibly dangerous friends, the parties where drink or drugs might be present, the person who will break his or her heart.

I can see the breadcrumbs
That you left to mark your trail,
And I see the loaf you tore
Them from grow grey and stale.

I see you moving on
Unconscious of the trap,
Not knowing of the crows behind you
Eating up your map.

All the warnings you have heard
Of strangers in the wood,
And all the lessons you have done
Don’t do you any good.

And as you hurry on, you drop
Your last small piece of bread
And walk in, without knocking,
To that house of gingerbread.

I go, “Wait a minute; have I mixed up my nursery rhymes?
Have I confused my heroes and my heroines?
Might I be thinking of some different dotted line?
Could it be me who needs the rescuing?”

But it’s you who writes the story
And you who turns the page.
Will I be the wicked witch
Who locks you in a cage?

And as I reach to touch you
Will you turn without a word
And hand me out the tiny bone
Of some small flightless bird?

Or will I be the woodsman
With bright and shining axe
Who searches in the forest
 To find your scattered tracks?

After I have saved the day
And freed you from the jail
Will you find your way home
Or another aimless trail?

I ask you, does anything describe the fragility of your child in your heart better than ’the tiny bone of some small flightless bird’?   Here goes this mere baby into the world, and that is his armor.

Liam called me last night, and we had one of the best conversations we have had in years.  It was good because I ended it (actually one of our phones gave out and thus ended it for us) feeling really good and engaged and a bit enlightened.   I passed on to him Nellie’s remark because I think people should hear all the good stuff about themselves that is said.  This got us onto the subject of poetry and song and writing in general, and we agreed that the really great stuff has a quality where two and two make five or ten.  Great stuff contains the kind of lines where what is said conveys more meaning than the words themselves actually say.  I always think, in this context, of the description of Tom and Daisy Buchanon (which I may remember incorrectly) in Gatsby, “They were the kind of people who broke things.”  These people were not vandals or vindictive, but merely sort of spiritually careless is my reading of this line.  It says so much, and yet that mere sentence in another context could be said about somebody’s ill-behaved children and contain no emotional depth or nuance whatever.

I always think also of Dylan’s line “Just to dance beneath the diamond sky with one hand waving free.”  (Would that not be the best day of one’s life?)  Or Eliot’s famous over-quoted line, “In the room the women come and go/Talking of Michelangelo.” which can read as a flat statement of fact, but which conveys such depths of boredom, such shallow artifice, incomprehension and waste of time.  These are lines that sing in my head even though I have not heard or read some of them in a very long time.  Dylan Thomas was “young and easy under the apple boughs/ About the lilting house/ And happy as the grass was green.”  Isn’t that a wonderful image of childhood before you find out that there are people who don’t love you? 

Anyway, this was among the types of thing we talked about – Liam also brought up the secret language of families with its loaded phrases that seem so innocent to outsiders and which are such deadly shots to the members thereof.  There was no worse insult among us kids than “typical teen”.  My Mom had a habit of wondering why none of us boys dated certain girls and she tended to describe these girls as “full of fun.” (In short, they were the kind of girl that other girls would love to have around).  “Full of fun” became a deadly phrase among us boys, meaning a girl you wouldn’t date on a desert island where she controlled the water supply.  Mom herself had these innocent-sounding zingers – god help the person she described as “sweet as a peach”.  She used this roughly in the sense conveyed by others when they say “butter wouldn’t melt in her mouth”.   “And there she stood,” Mom would say, “sweet as a peach…” usually in reference to someone who had instigated a lot of trouble and who acted all innocent and, perhaps, even outraged by the resulting chaos.  Kind of like, “Who, me?”  There was no worse sin in Mom’s catechism than “troublemaking”.

What got me started here before my usual dilatory trip all over the place was something that clicked into place in my head near the end of our conversation.  I have long known a few faults or characteristics or habits of mine, as we all do about ourselves if we are not borderline psychotics.  I wrote an essay or entry or blog (what does one call these things anyway?) some time ago on my defunct Spaces blog about my love of going to out-of-the-way places (my first trip abroad was to Zambia) or of trying things that most people don’t try – or even want to try (hitchhiking across the USA; living in Saudi).  And anyone who has the least degree of perception seems to see, as I most certainly do myself, that I have a big tendency toward depression and inactivity – the sin of sloth is my vice of choice, which is certainly the least attractive of them all, and the least fun, which is even worse.  I have always attributed my tendency to end up sitting around doing nothing to the depression which has dogged me since my teenage years at least, and which once ended me up in a nuthouse for eleven months.  So I have thought about this sloth at times and I have thought about the adventures at other times.  The only way I have ever thought of them in tandem was when I felt lousy; usually I attributed this bad feeling to not being on some kind of adventure.  Mostly though, like other things I think about, I thought of either one or the other, but not both at once.  Suddenly, while I was talking with Liam last night, the two came together with blinding clarity, and when I said this sentence to Liam, he was equally struck by how exactly correct it seemed:

I would rather do nothing than do anything that is ordinary.

Like most things, this means more to me than it will mean to anyone else – but it somehow is a whole new way for me to look at what seems to be my current dilemma.  A sort of corollary to this is that I hate doing anything unless I feel I can (and notice the word is CAN, not WILL) become very good – among the best – at that thing.  I think this explains such things as my sudden complete revulsion toward going to the gym.  I actually didn’t mind going for six months, and I originally went because it seemed to be a healthy thing to do, and I was concerned about an increasing lack of muscle tone and a real lack of stamina.  I really had no goal other than to ameliorate my physical deterioration somewhat.  But six months into it, something happened.  I found I had lost two inches around my waist, I had reached a level of elasticity that allowed me to touch my forehead to my knee, I had gained an inch on my biceps and, most important of all, I noticed one day in the mirror that there was the tiniest hint of an indentation on each side of the place where one’s abs should be. 
“Wow!” I can imagine many people thinking, “What a great reward for what really, after all these years, is not a huge amount of time!”  How can this be a bad thing?  But a this brought  a very subtle change into the whole process; it is exactly the kind of thing that has often stopped me in the midst of other endeavors.  (OMG, I just realized why painting my dining room has never been completed!)  You see, for six months I was visiting a strange land.  I wasn’t “one of them.”  All about me were these serious people who worked out – either younger people who were building truly admirable bodies or seniors who were “keeping fit.”  So long as it seemed like I was some kid wandering in and being tolerated by the ‘real athletes’, it was kind of fun.  But now I was ‘one of them.’  At first I thought I was elated when I saw real progress.  I could have a (smaller) waist again; I bought pants two inches smaller than my old ones and they fit perfectly.  But shortly after this, I couldn’t make myself go any more; I really couldn’t figure out why.  It seemed pointless and unrewarding.  Although everyone there was friendly, no one became a friend.  They weren’t there to make friends –nor was I – but I felt like I might have wanted to go if there was the subtle pressure of expectation by a friend of seeing me there.  But whether or not this is true, that isn’t the real problem, I realize now.  The problem is I was ‘getting fit’; I was becoming one of those seniors who would never, ever again look as good as the younger folks at the gym or the younger me, and this made me feel pathetic.  I don’t want to look "good for my age", I want to look good, period, or else to hell with it.  I was now only doing what a lot of old people do, and over time as I aged I was going to get worse and worse.  It was pointless, because I didn’t feel ‘special’ any more.  I was so ordinary, so predictable, so ‘still active in my golden years’.

There are so many things I can do a little; I am better than average at calligraphy, I used to draw well and I still draw better than average.  I HATE ‘better than average’.  I want ‘great’ or not at all.  I don’t have to BE great, but I have to believe that it is within the realm of possibility to reach that point.  When I was young, I loved to run.  I would run across our pasture lot or across the lawn or through a field with complete joyous abandon.  The joy arose, however, not from the feeling of running itself, or the exercise or anything like that.  The joy was because I truly believed, with every fiber of my being, that I could run faster than anyone else on Earth if I wanted to.  The day that no longer seemed true was the last day I ever ran.  What was the point?  This is why I don’t try learning to dance; I am too old to be the best.  It is not a case of defeating others, but just of being really good.  “By ‘best’ I don’t really mean better than anyone else so much as ‘as good as the very best’. 

There are few processes I enjoy (writing is one of those few, however, so long as I can keep from letting it fall into that area where all things become futile).  I enjoy the results of things.  I don’t want to make curtains, I want to have curtains, really nice, unusual curtains,  that I made.  I enjoy knowing I can do things.  I have a spiffy leaded glass window I made 30 years ago depicting the head of a Watusi warrior I modeled after a picture in a National Geographic.  I kind of love it, and I am quite proud of it.  I never made another.  Because it would have had to be better.  I remember in first grade we were each given a lump of modeling clay and told that whatever we made would be displayed for our parents at a forthcoming PTA session.  Most of the kids began making those coiled baskets where they rolled the clay between their palms into long thin tubes and then wound the tubes into a basket shape; or else making turtles – essentially a big rounded lump of clay with five smaller lumps attached for head and legs.  I, however, decided to make a giraffe.  I couldn’t imagine why the others were going for stuff so simple and dumb and obvious.  I can still see the giraffe as I pictured it then – and from the first I could picture how it should look very clearly.  But my hands couldn’t seem to make it happen; to start with, the neck wouldn’t remain upright.  I couldn’t believe I couldn't do it!  Finally, I realized it was beyond me, so I set out to make something I thought would be easier – either a hippo or an elephant (I think I tried both), something thicker and sturdier.  But my hands just couldn’t seem to make the clay take the desired shape.  I kept wadding the whole thing up and starting anew, and of course, time ran out with all the other kids’ turtles and baskets perfect, as turtles and baskets go, and me with a big lump of nothing.  Nonetheless, my opus was displayed on a piece of colored construction paper with my name on it among all the other offerings.

My Mom, never one to pay in false coin, made a funny little story out of it when she told me about the PTA meeting.  “All the other mothers,” quoth she, “were saying to me, ‘Look!  My Ginny made this nice turtle!’ or ‘See the nice basket Bobby made!  What did your Davy make?’  And there I was pointing to this lump of clay, saying, ‘Well…’”  Mom wasn’t being mean, and she actually made me laugh and feel better by telling this story in the way she did.  I was never one of those kids that could draw a picture and respond happily to something like, “Oh is that a doggie?” when the speaker was pointing to my depiction of one of my brothers.  I know when I have failed and I do not gain anything from anyone else’s pretending otherwise; it only makes it worse, as if I am pathetic and beyond saving.  If you have to ask, it isn’t right. 

It is all very well to say that I shouldn’t feel this way – the ‘nothing or the best ’ way.  Actually, ‘best’ is only one way that would be acceptably uncommon; even ‘worst’ would be better than ordinary.  But I didn’t know I DID feel this way exactly.  I saw bits of it, and perhaps I am only seeing a bit more of it now, rather than all of it.  This whole linking of the ‘ordinary’ with doing nothing is somehow a new slant for me.  Fear of failure?  Maybe.  My favorite film of all time, hands down, is Lawrence of Arabia.  I suspect that the film assumed mythic proportions to me when, in response to the pleading of Prince Ali who cared deeply for Lawrence and was trying to persuade him to take a more reasonable, less risky and debilitating course than the one he was on, Lawrence asks, "Do you think I am just anybody, Ali?"  Oh. My. God.  Yes!  Yes!  Yes! That is a truly great person!  As early as junior high or early high school, a time when I was deeply Catholic, a girl I liked said to me (after a friendly argument - she always liked to present herself as anti-Irish and anti-Catholic) "You will either wind up as Pope or Anti-Christ."  Can you see why I liked her?    

So this is why I feel so free, I think, in Third World countries.  I will never be ‘just one of them’.  I will always be different.  I don’t have to DO anything except be undemanding and interested (because demanding and superior are ordinary ways to travel there.)  I can relax and have fun.  One of the greatest compliments I ever received was after I left Saudi when a Bangladeshi I used to chat with told Papa I ‘”wasn’t like the rest of them.” 

It is hard to change how one thinks or behaves if one doesn’t know why one does so.  It is impossible to change if one doesn’t even KNOW one does something.  It is something to think about – and it is certainly a useful piece of information to have when I am thinking, “What next?”  Maybe I’ll forget it all tomorrow, but maybe I won’t; I hope not.  It seems kind of commonplace, so perhaps only I know how right and powerful this exact linkage between doing nothing, and doing something extraordinary is for me.  So why should anyone even care? 

Well the thing is: I went to all the trouble of writing this down; I might as well do something with it.  

          Vendesi - Doctor Dolittle (dvd, 2000) with Slipcover - € 22   

Ultimo 39016, Italia
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الفئة : دراجة رياضية ثابتة . الفئة المستهدفة : الرجال و النساء من مختلف الأعمار . اقصى وزن تتحمله الدراجة : 110 كيلو جرام . وزن الدراجة نفسها : 9 كيلو جرام . اللون : أزرق ...
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بروجكتور العروض المدرسية والمنزلية للفيديو والصور والباوربوينت موديل18 هذا البروجكتور مميز في عروض الفيديو الصور الباور بوينت ولا يصلح لإستخدامات عرض شاشات ...
          بروجكتور العروض المنزلية و المدارس للفيديوهات والصور والباوربوينت   
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          استقدام شغالات من فيتنام-غانا-بنجلادش-سرلنكا فى 45يوم(0553982498)   
الشغالة فيتنام-غانا-الفلبين-بنجلادش-سرلنكا 45يوم من مكتب عبد اللطيف النصر مرخص ومعتمد شغاله مضمونه ومدربه ونستقدم ايضا سائقين من الهند-فيتنام-سرلانكا اتصل الان ...
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COOLUXa2 نقدم لكم اليوم واحدا من أفضل البروجكتورات ذات الحجم الصغير وأكثرها أناقة وصداقة للبيئة وتوفيرا للطاقة على مستوى العالم. يعمل بتقنية LED، العمر التشغيلي المتوقع ...
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          شهادات توفل او ايلتس معتمدة للبيع من داخل السعودية 00966508895848   
شهادات توفل او ايلتس معتمدة للبيع من داخل السعودية 00966508895848 00966508895848)#كيفية #الحصول #الايلتس #على #شهادة #ايلتس او #التوفل #اشتري #شهادة الTOEFL او الIELTS #للبيع #بدون #اختبار ...
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          الجهاز الرقمي الإلكتروني لقياس ضغط الكفرات في أقل   
الجهاز الرقمي الإلكتروني لقياس ضغط الكفرات في أقل من دقيقة لكل صاحب سيارة لكل سائق سيارة لكل إنسان يحب السفر ويحب أن يكون دائما جاهز بسيارته على أكمل وجه لا تحتار ...
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طبعا كتير مننا سمع عن السنسور بارك أو حساس الركن الخاص بالسيارة ، وهوه مهم جدا عند الركن والرجوع للخلف لإنه بيساعد السائق علي معرفة المسافة المتبقية مابينه وبين ...
          Kommentar zu Die Bundestagswahl ist längst egal von Libelle   
Da frage ich mich doch ob der Autor auch mit dieser rosaroten Brille ins Bett geht. Sorry, ich kann das nicht nachvollziehen. Vielleicht wäre das anders wenn der Autor einige Quellenangaben hinzufügen würde um seine Einschätzungen und Meinung zu untermauern. Auszüge: Wenn dann auch noch Putin zeitgleich den kaputten Euro lobt, der auch nichts anderes ist als Fiatmoney, dann akzeptieren offensichtlich auch die obersten Banker des Vatikan, Familie Rothschild, der er de facto über Goldmann-Sachs ja gehört, dass das letzte Stündlein des Dollars als Weltleitwährung auch für die EU geschlagen hat. ???????????????????????? Der Euro aber hat als Reservewährung nur dann noch eine Zukunft, sofern sich die EU von ihrer Sanktionspolitik, die ihr von den USA aufgezwungen wird, verabschiedet. Das kann ihr nur recht sein. Damit wird aber der politische Einfluss der Neocons auf die EU weiter schwinden. ???????????????????????? ------------------------------------- Ja wer ist denn nun der Befehlshaber der EU? Der Vatikan? Oder die Amis? Oder der Vatikan über die Amis? ------------------------------------ Denn auch der Vatikan wäre nicht der Vatikan, wenn er nicht längst erfasst hätte, was da läuft. Folglich steuert er machtpolitisch um. Seine Annäherungen an Russland und China sind nicht zu übersehen. Denn er hat begriffen, dass sein EU-Imperium, das ihm noch verbleibt, politisch gerade gnadenlos auseinanderfällt und schon jetzt der Einfluss der Russen und Chinesen auf dem europäischen Finanzmarkt so gewaltig ist, dass der macht- wie raffgierige Franziskus die USA und mit ihr seine militärische Filiale „Pentagon“ nicht mehr länger zum Niederhalten der europäischen Völker missbrauchen kann und sie nun aufgeben muss. ??????????????????????? Die USA werden nicht umhin können, die BRD als ihr Besatzerkonstrukt genauso aufzugeben, wie ihre hier stationierten Atomraketen und die völkerrechtswidrige Rammsteinbasis. Damit verlieren der Vatikan und seine Malteser das NATO-Spiel um Deutschland. ???????????????????????????????? Denn Katars Gaslieferungen werden künftig nicht mehr nur in Petrodollar, sondern in den jeweiligen Landeswährungen seiner neuen Handelspartner beglichen. ????????????????????????????? Denn auch die Saudis werden – wenn auch etwas leiser (was aber nicht heißt, unwirksamer) von den umsichtigen Chinesen knallhart bearbeitet und konsequent von der Leitwährung des Imperiums abgekoppelt.[ ??????????????????????????? Ganz abgesehen von der rosaroten Brille, finde ich den Artikel völlig unstimmig zusammengemarmelt.
          Rihanna’s new billionaire lover ‘revealed’   
SUPERSTAR Rihanna’s mystery lover is believed to be a Saudi businessman from one the richest families in the world, reportedly worth $US1.5 billion ($1.97 billion).
          Abu e le Sette Meraviglie    

Per evitare le nozze della figlia Alicia con l'umile taglialegna Abu, il Sultano dell'antico regno di Persia affida al ragazzo una missione impossibile: portargli le prove dell'esistenza delle sette meraviglie del mondo...

Con una scrittura ironica e trascinante, Matheson racconta la ricerca di Abu, in compagnia del fratellino Mut e di un brontolone genio della lampada, e le mille peripezie che dovrà affrontare per esaudire la richiesta e ottenere in sposa la principessa. Solo alla fine del suo viaggio avventuroso, Abu capirà che la meraviglia più preziosa è quella custodita nel proprio cuore.

Età di lettura: da 9 anni.


          The Messenger - Terrore al Vaticano   

In una piazza San Pietro gremita di folla, due kamikaze si fanno esplodere e tre razzi vengono lanciati contro la facciata della Basilica. Gabriel Allon, restauratore d’arte e agente dei Servizi Segreti Israeliani, riesce a mettere in salvo il Papa. Il numero delle vittime è tuttavia altissimo, i danni alla chiesa simbolo della cristianità irreparabili.

L’attentato è rivendicato dalla Fratellanza di Allah, guidata da Ahmed bin Shafiq, di cui si conosce solo il nome. Finanziatore del gruppo terroristico è un ricco uomo d’affari saudita, Abdul Aziz al-Bakari. Ha così inizio una complessa operazione di spionaggio, che dovrà infi ltrare Allon e la sua squadra nel mondo dorato e letale di al-Bakari.

Scopo della missione: scoprire l’identità di bin Shafiq ed eliminarlo. Roma, Londra, Parigi, Gerusalemme, le Bahamas, i Cantoni svizzeri sono lo scenario globale di questo frenetico thriller. Una storia che non dà respiro, un meccanismo narrativo perfetto, grazie a cui è possibile calarsi completamente nella mente e nelle tecniche di una spia.

Un thriller di drammatica attualità che, attingendo a fonti inedite e di prima mano, scava nel complesso panorama del fondamentalismo islamico e dei suoi ambigui, inconfessabili, legami con l’Occidente.


          L'Orologio Azzurro   

Francesco vuole diventare grande e chiede ai genitori un orologio. I genitori non esaudiscono il suo desiderio e lui, di nascosto, se lo compera. L'orologio azzurro fa vivere Francesco un "suo" tempo: Francesco infatti non vuole aspettare, ha troppa voglia di crescere e con l'aiuto del suo amico orologio viaggia nel futuro. Alla fine però decide di ritornare bambino.


          Il ritorno del piccolo principe   
Il classico di Antoine de Saint-Exupery terminava lasciando aperta la possibilità di un seguito. Oltre mezzo secolo dopo, Jean-Pierre Davidts esaudisce questo desiderio...
          Per Piacere   

C'è chi pretende senza sosta di vedere esaudita ogni richiesta.

Se gli altri non sembrano ascoltare, resta solo una cosa da fare.

Ci sono due magiche parolette che le domande rendon perfette: se qualcosa volete ottenere, ricordate di dire "per piacere".

 

Età di lettura: da 3 anni.


          Senate Heads Toward Showdown Vote on Saudi Arms Sale   
Kentucky Senator Rand Paul opposes President Donald Trump’s proposed weapons sale to Saudi Arabia. The Senate is heading toward a showdown vote over the proposal.
          Paul Introduces Resolution Opposing Saudi Arabia Arms Sale   
U.S. Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky is urging his colleagues to vote against the largest-ever arms sale to Saudi Arabia.
          Cidade Richmond, EUA, paga "bolsa-bandido para aliviar violência    
Cidade paga “bolsa-bandido” para manter jovens longe do crime.
(Entenda Richmond dá dinheiro para jovens com histórico violento não cometerem crimes. A controversa iniciativa está dando certo 1   
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Tiago Cordeiro especial para a Gazeta do Povo [23/06/2017] [17h14] 
Para receber o dinheiro, não basta apenas não cometer crimes. É necessário cumprir uma lista de metas que inclui, por exemplo, parar de suar drogas, voltar a estudar, tirar carta de motorista, ajudar algum membro idoso da família, e conseguir um emprego Reprodução [3] ↑ TOPO Pense na violência como uma doença. Ela surge em regiões específicas do corpo (ou, no caso, em determinadas áreas de uma cidade) e se alastra a partir daí. É possível neutralizar seus agentes causadores, que, em geral, são homens jovens que vivem em bairros dominados pelo crime organizado. Mas não é necessário neutralizar matando, ou colocando na cadeia, até porque geralmente os mesmos jovens também são vítimas. É possível curar essas pessoas, dando a elas novas oportunidades de estudo e carreira. E, assim, recuperar o corpo todo. Dezenas de programas de redução da violência e da criminalidade trabalham com esses pressupostos: em vez de operações policiais massivas e agressivas, ações pontuais junto a pessoas selecionadas. Há pelo menos 20 anos cidades americanas como Chicago, Boston, Nova York e Detroit mantêm programas que investem na abordagem dos indivíduos específicos que fazem parte de um ciclo vicioso: eles crescem em lugares violentos, perdem amigos e familiares em situação violenta e acabam envolvidos em atividades violentas que fazem outras pessoas perderem amigos e familiares. PUBLICIDADE 
 Richmond, na Califórnia, também tem uma iniciativa desse gênero. Com uma diferença: ali, parte da recuperação consiste em dar dinheiro para jovens de comportamento agressivo reorganizarem sua vida. É isso mesmo: a cidade paga para possíveis bandidos não cometerem crimes. Os valores partem de US$ 300 e chegam a um teto de US$ 1000. São concedidos por nove meses seguidos, no máximo, para os jovens que participam do programa e não se envolveram em confusão por seis meses. E mais: neste período, os garotos são orientados por ex-criminosos – é um dos poucos empregos do mundo em que ter ficha policial é pré-requisito. Eles comunicam a experiência de quem já passou por problemas parecidos até encontrar um caminho de reabilitação. Um dos instrutores, por exemplo, é James Houston, que cumpriu 18 anos de pena por duplo homicídio. Resultados expressivos O programa gera polêmica nos Estados Unidos.
Em 2016, Washington anunciou que adotaria uma iniciativa parecida, mas voltou atrás porque a ideia encontrou resistência ferrenha do prefeito. Sacramento, Toledo, Los Angeles e Filadélfia ainda observam Richmond com atenção, sem começar seus próprios programas. A insegurança é razoável. Por enquanto, além da cidade californiana, a ideia só foi aplicada uma vez, e por apenas poucos anos, em Baltimore, a partir de 1972 e até que um novo prefeito cancelou a iniciativa por não concordar com as mesadas. Mas a questão é que, por mais difícil que seja aceitar a iniciativa, ela parece estar funcionando: os índices de homicídio de Richmond vêm caindo. Em 2014, chegaram a 11, o menor número em quarenta anos, uma queda de 77% em relação a 2007. O total tem se mantido na média de 15, contra 47 há dez anos. Pode-se alegar que Richmond pode ter alcançado tal avanço porque, nos últimos anos, também reorganizou suas delegacias e instituiu o policiamento comunitário. Além disso, a crise econômica americana diminuiu e a população envelheceu. Mas Oakland, outra cidade californiana marcada pelos assassinatos, também mudou a estrutura da força policial, passou pelas mesmas mudanças econômicas e demográficas, e ainda assim não atingiu os mesmos resultados. Parece mesmo que pagar pela paz compensa. Ou, pelo menos, é um recurso útil de prevenção, que funciona em paralelo ao trabalho da polícia.
 Na verdade, a iniciativa é mais complexa do que simplesmente dar dinheiro para jovens ficarem quietos. Os garotos também participam de atividades variadas, que incluem desde tratamentos de controle de raiva e conversas com mães de jovens assassinados até visitas a campi universitários e a outras cidades. Alguns dos jovens já foram à Disney, a Washington, ou mesmo ao México, à Arábia Saudita e à África do Sul. Membros de diferentes gangues viajam juntos e assim têm a oportunidade de se conhecer melhor. Além disso, para receber os US$ 1000 mensais, não basta apenas não cometer crimes. É necessário cumprir uma lista de metas, estabelecidas caso a caso, mas que inclui, por exemplo, parar de suar drogas, voltar a estudar, tirar carta de motorista, ajudar algum membro idoso da família, conseguir um emprego. “Nossa ação é baseada em práticas tradicionais, de eficácia comprovada, como o contato pessoal nas ruas, o trabalho com conselheiros e a terapia”, diz o idealizador da iniciativa, DeVone Boggan. “O resultado é uma redução significativa da violência urbana com armas de fogo”. Iraque na Califórnia A Operação Peacemaker começou a partir de 2007, quando a cidade estava em pânico. Com pouco mais de 100 mil habitantes, era a 9ª mais perigosa para se viver nos Estados Unidos. Nada parecia funcionar. Os políticos locais a comparavam a viver no Iraque. Em setembro de 2006, por exemplo, um homem levou um tiro no rosto durante o funeral de um adolescente que havia sido morto a tiros. Foi quando a comunidade aceitou contratar DeVone Boggan. Ele criou um departamento municipal, o Office of Neighborhood Safety, para sustentar a operação. Se decidiu dedicar sua vida a recuperar jovens, é porque DeVone foi um deles. Nascido em Michigan, chegou a ser detido por tráfico de drogas. Dois conselheiros o ajudaram a mudar de vida. “Foram pessoas mais velhas, que se interessaram por mim e investiram tempo, energia e recursos”, o ativista conta. “Eles viram algo positivo em mim num momento em que muitos outros não viam, nem mesmo eu”. O jovem acabou por cursar direito na Universidade da Califórnia-Berkeley. Um de seus irmãos se tornou treinador de futebol americano. Outro, Dhanthan, morreu assassinado em agosto de 2008. DeVone já estava envolvido com iniciativas contra a violência (era diretor de uma consultoria da área em Oakland) e havia acabado de começar o trabalho em Richmond quando chegou para o enterro e os amigos disseram que sabiam quem eram os culpados pela morte de Dhanthan. “A polícia não vai fazer nada. Se você quiser, podemos nos vingar deles”, afirmaram. O ativista teve que manter o autocontrole e dizer não. Foi embora da cidade rápido, antes que mudasse de ideia e deixasse o desejo de vingança falar mais alto do que seus ideais.
 Nos primeiros dois anos em Richmond, DeVone criou um sistema de ronda nos bairros violentos. Em 2008, os homicídios caíram para 27. Mas, em 2009, chegaram a 47 de novo. Foi quando ele, contando com a consultoria do especialista em criminologia Barry Krisberg, desenvolveu o formato atual do programa, com os conselheiros com ficha criminal e o pagamento de mensalidades. Dessa vez, o trabalho começou com uma análise dos arquivos da polícia. DeVone concluiu que, da cidade inteira, havia 17 jovens suspeitos de terem participação em 70% dos 47 homicídios de 2009. Começou então a pesquisar a vida um a um, para conhecer seus hábitos antes de fazer o primeiro contato. O trabalho demorou três meses. Neste meio tempo, a equipe descobriu que o número era maior: 28 suspeitos de envolvimento, ainda que sem provas contra eles. Antes mesmo do primeiro contato, três deles já tinham sido assassinados. Dos 25 que sobraram, 21 toparam conversar. Todos homens, com mais de 16 e menos de 26 anos. Começava assim a nova etapa do programa. Até hoje, foram convidados 93 garotos, dos quais 84 aceitaram. Nenhum desistiu durante os 18 meses de programa, que custa US$ 3 milhões anuais, divididos meio a meio entre a prefeitura e a iniciativa privada. Críticos e defensores Em outubro de 2011, dois grupos de jovens, de gangues rivais, chegaram ao Office of Neighborhood Safety ao mesmo tempo. Começaram a se agredir logo no estacionamento. Algumas fraturas (mas nenhuma morte) depois, todos fugiram. DeVone se recusou a fornecer qualquer tipo de informação à polícia sobre o incidente. Diz que foi neste dia que ganhou a confiança dos jovens. Desde então, mantém a política: não colabora com dados, nem obriga seus jovens a testemunhar contra ou a favor de ninguém. Os críticos da iniciativa são muitos. “Concordo com a ideia de focar as ações nos indivíduos com maior risco de cometer atos violentos ou se tornar vítima de crimes. Mas acredito que existem ações mais eficazes do que o pagamento aos participantes”, diz John Roman, professor da Universidade de Chicago e especialista em violência urbana do Urban Institute, de Washington. Para ele, fornecer educação e treinamento profissional não deixa de ser uma forma de investir nos garotos, mas funciona melhor. “Pequenas mesadas por um curto período de tempo não dão conta de mudar o comportamento no longo prazo.” Também é comum que programas desse tipo sejam obrigatórios e voltados para os jovens que estão em condicional. Em Richmond, é voluntário. O jovem pode sair quando quiser. Mas DeVone tem seus defensores. Uma entidade dedicada ao problema, a National Council on Crime & Deliquency, publicou em julho de 2015 um levantamento a respeito do impacto do programa de Richmond. Identificou que, das 68 pessoas que participaram até 2014, 66 eram negros, 30 tinham filhos e 14 já tinham sido baleados. Entre os 68, 54 se mantiveram longe de problemas com a lei. Quatro morreram baleados. Será que o programa funcionaria em cidades maiores? Mesmo no Brasil? DeVone acredita que sim: “Desde que replicado na escala apropriada e com fidelidade ao programa, pode funcionar até mesmo em cidades com o tamanho e os problemas do Rio de Janeiro.” 

28 de junho
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          Military conference at Church House disrupted by Christian protesters   

An arms industry-sponsored event was disrupted today by Christian campaigners just as Defence Secretary Michael Fallon was due to speak.

An arms industry-sponsored event was disrupted this morning (28 June 2017) by Christian campaigners just as Defence Secretary Michael Fallon was due to speak. The Land Warfare Conference, at Church House Westminster, was challenged by Christian campaigners who object to a Christian venue hosting a military conference sponsored by arms companies.

Ten Christian protesters blockaded the main entrance to the centre for about an hour after around 8.40am this morning. They were removed by police, who arrested one of them for attempting to walk into the building.

The blockade followed an attempt to question Defence Secretary Michael Fallon about arms sales to Saudi Arabia as he made his way into the conference. He did not answer any questions and his critics were physically dragged away from him by Church House security staff.

The conference, organised by a military thinktank the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), is sponsored by arms companies including Airbus Defence & Space and L3, who have both been challenged over the provision of arms to Saudi Arabia.

Church House claim that Church House Westminster (formerly known as Church House Conference Centre) is a separate business. Critics point out that, as well as being in the same building, it is a wholly owned subsidiary business of Church House Corporation, whose president is the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby.

As the door was blockaded this morning, army officers and arms industry personnel clustered around the steps, unable to get through the doorway, before being diverted to an inconvenient back entrance.

The ten Christians, who included several members of the Church of England, displayed banners declaring “Evict the arms dealers”, “Anglicans against arms” and quoting Jesus’ words, “All who take up the sword will die by the sword”.

“I did not take this action lightly,” said Christian author and Ekklesia associate Symon Hill, who was arrested as he attempted to walk into the building before being released shortly afterwards. “Church House have consistently refused to listen or talk with us, ignored the points we have raised and even been petty enough to block critics on social media.”

He added, “As those with power refuse to listen, we have taken nonviolent direct action, putting our bodies in the way of the evil that is going on at Church House today.”

When the conference opened yesterday, hundreds of tweets were sent to Church House Westminster to object to the event, including several from Church of England clergy.

There have been protests and vigils outside RUSI conferences at Church House every year since 2012.

“Jesus lived a life of active nonviolence,” said Eve Waterside, a member of the Church of England living in Oxford, who took part in today's protest. “We are called to follow his example, however fallibly.”

She continued, “A leading Christian conference centre is being used to plan large-scale violence, funded by companies that arm some of the world’s most oppressive regimes. I am sad and angry to see the church of which I am part profiting from war and the arms trade."

Christian pacifist network the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR) responded to the protest by declaring that the blockade was “morally justifiable”.

FoR explained, “Church House Westminster say they can’t check who funds all the events they host, but it’s not hard to find out, as it’s plastered all over the organiser’s website”.

They added, “We think that taking money from weapons manufacturers is the opposite of Jesus’ message of peace and nonviolence. While we recognise the humanity of each and every arms dealer, their profession has no place in a house of prayer.”

[Ekk/1]


          Fireflies Review (Part 4)   

Today on the 5: This is the unplanned but final fourth part of my Fireflies review. In this part I talk about what Fireflies did right that most crowdfunded ventures don’t.


          Fireflies Review (Part 3)   

Today on the 5: This is part 3 of my newly arrived Kickstarter backed Fireflies wireless bluetooth earbuds.


          Fireflies Review (Part 2)   

Today on the 5: This is part 2 of my newly arrived Kickstarter backed Fireflies wireless bluetooth earbuds.


          Fireflies Review (Part 1)   

Today on the 5: I recently received my Kickstarter backed Fireflies wireless bluetooth earbuds. This is part 1 of my review.


          Roiling Under the Surface with the S&P 500 in Week 2 of June 2017   

The Federal Reserve surprised no one with the announcement that its Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) had voted to hike U.S. short term interest rates by a quarter point.

For our dividend futures-based model for forecasting the S&P 500, investors appeared fully focused on 2017-Q2 in setting stock prices on the day of the Fed's announcement, which given the influence that the Fed has over the future expectations of investors, was to be expected.

Alternative Futures - S&P 500 - 2017Q2 - Standard Model - Snapshot on 16 June 2017

But what happened after that is somewhat telling. Although the top line number for the value of the S&P 500 didn't change much, the action of stock prices in the days following the announcement combined with the week's major economic news (and to be honest, in the weeks preceding the announcement) suggest a division within the component companies that make up the index has intensified over what we observed in Week 1 of June 2017.

Where there that gets interesting is that what the S&P 500 is communicating about the expected timing of the Fed's next rate hike action is very different from what other futures-based models are communicating.

Our model suggests that investors are currently betting on 2017-Q4 as the likely timing for the Fed's next rate hike, currently giving about a 72% probability of that being the case, with the remainder banking on the Fed taking action in 2017-Q3. CME Group's Fedwatch model however is currently giving almost the opposite odds between the two quarters, with an 84% probability that the FOMC will act to hike its Federal Funds Rate at the conclusion of its 20 September 2017 meeting.

Update 2:30 PM EDT: We stand corrected, where we appear to have gotten our wires crossed in reading the FedWatch FFR futures! According to CNBC, "Market expectations for a September rate hike are just 13 percent, according to the CME Group's FedWatch tool." That's a lot closer to what the dividend futures are telling us.

It will be fun to watch how both indicators evolve over the next several weeks. From the perspective of our dividend futures-based model, it will take some substantial good economic news to boost the odds that the Fed will next hike interest rates in September 2017, which would be accompanied by a decline in stock prices. Conversely, if that news is bad and the Fed is compelled to delay its next action until later in 2017, then the S&P 500 would find itself drifing sideways to slightly higher in the weeks ahead.

Right now, we think that the context of the current market environment from the major market news stories of the second full week of June 2017 are supporting what dividend futures appear to be anticipating for the future for the S&P 500, but here they are so you can judge for yourself.

Monday, 12 June 2017
Tuesday, 13 June 2017
Wednesday, 14 June 2017
Thursday, 15 June 2017
Friday, 16 June 2017

For a succinct summary of the week's positives and negatives for the economy, be sure to check out Barry Ritholtz' latest!


          The S&P 500 in Week 5 of May 2017   

The fifth and final trading week of May 2017 was shortened by the Memorial Day holiday weekend, but one thing clearly stood out about it. Investors are tightly focused on 2017-Q2 in setting today's stock prices!

Alternative Futures - S&P 500 - 2017Q2 - Standard Model - Snapshot on 02 June 2017

The reason for that is straight forward - it has almost everything to do with the expected timing of the Fed's next rate hike in short term U.S. interest rates. But, you don't have to take our word for it - in addition to the S&P 500 tracking our dividend-based model's projections for the path that the S&P 500 would follow if investors are focused on the soon-to-end quarter of 2017-Q2, that assessment also directly correlates with what the headlines of the week revealed about the forward-looking expectations of investors....

Tuesday, 30 May 2017
Wednesday, 31 May 2017
Thursday, 1 June 2017
Friday, 2 June 2017

Elsewhere, Barry Ritholtz summarizes the week's markets and economic news into positives and negatives.

We'll close with two observations. First, the ticking clock problem that we've mentioned in recent weeks for the S&P 500 is alive and well, where investors will be shifting their attention to some other point of time in the future within the next two weeks, with the expiration of options and futures contracts on 16 June 2017 marking the longest that investors will maintain any of their attention on 2017-Q2. Second, the first week of June 2017 will contain a potential geopolitical noise event in the form of the U.K.'s snap elections and their uncertain outcome that might contribute to triggering a sudden shift in the forward-looking focus of investors.

Update: Speaking of potential geopolitical noise events with market-moving potential (at least for petro-markets), how highly did Qatar rank on anyone's forward-looking radar before this weekend?


          Arábia Saudita interrompe investimentos nos EUA com lei antiterrorismo e vitória de Trump   
Sauditas estão reavaliando sua multibilionária estratégia financeira nos EUA devido a mudanças no cenário político americano, incluindo se vai optar por algum outro país onde abrir o capital da sua petrolífera estatal, a Aramco.
          Stimulus: Obama to Pitch $60B Saudi Arms Deal to Congress; Largest Arms Deal Ever   
none
          Saudi King appoints son Mohammad Bin Salman as New Crown Prince: UPDATED   
none
          Josslyn Kane – Rob Gets His Punishment – HD 1080p   
Release Year:2017Genres: Pee,Scat,Femdom Scat,Extreme ScatVideo language: English Filesize:429 MBFormat\Resolution:MPEG-4,FullHDDuration:00:15:45Video:HEVC, 1920×1080, 29.970 FPS, 3641 kb/sAudio: AAC LC, 44.1 kHz, 2 channels, 161 kb/s http://ssh.yt/O26WBrfjG/Josslyn_Kane_-_Rob_Gets_His_Punishment_-_HD_1080p.m4v Tweet
          Josslyn Kane – Pervert Neighbor Gets Punished – HD 1080p   
Release Year:2017Genres: Pee,Scat,Femdom Scat,Extreme ScatVideo language: English Filesize:429 MBFormat\Resolution:MPEG-4,FullHDDuration:00:18:10Video:HEVC, 1920×1080, 29.970 FPS, 3134 kb/sAudio: AAC LC, 44.1 kHz, 2 channels, 161 kb/s http://ssh.yt/NwmmccmjG/Josslyn_Kane_-_Pervert_Neighbor_Gets_Punished_-_HD_1080p.m4v Tweet
          Nossa Senhora da Arábia   
"Apesar de os países árabes serem majoritariamente muçulmanos, a devoção a Maria aparece em alguns núcleos cristão. Os grupos são pequenos, mas vivem com fervor evangélico e muita fé.

Na Arábia Saudita, Maria recebe o nome de Nossa Senhora da Arábia, padroeira dos cristãos desse país."


Fonte: http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nossa_Senhora_da_Ar%C3%A1bia




          Rihanna Spotted Locking Lips With Saudi Buisnessman Worth $1 Billion   
Apparently, when you’re a celebrity, there are no private moments. Yesterday, pictures surfaced of Rihanna kissing a man in a pool in Spain. There was lots of speculation about his identity, but you know the internet was on top of the research.     Meet 29-year-old Hassan Jameel, aka Naomi Campbell’s ex-boo. The Saudi businessman […]
          Former Clinton Foundation Donors Flocking to the McCain Institute   

by Whitney Webb, The Anti Media:

In years past, the Clinton Foundation enjoyed significant donations from individuals and countries that sought to purchase influence in Washington. But now, the McCain Institute is their new darling, having received large sums from the likes of George Soros and Saudi Arabia.

(MPN) — With the Clinton Foundation [...]

          Congressman Ted Lieu: US troops could be prosecuted for Yemen war crimes: Lawmaker   
Congressman Ted Lieu: US troops could be prosecuted for Yemen war crimes: Lawmaker By Press TV on November 4, 2016 An American soldier talks with Saudi troops. (File photo by the US Army) A US congressman has warned that American troops could be prosecuted for providing military support to the Saudi war on Yemen. Ted Lieu made the warning in […]
          Saudis support Turkey’s hidden agenda to destroy Iraq   
Saudis support Turkey’s hidden agenda to destroy Iraq By Ian Greenhalgh on November 4, 2016 [Editor’s note: As I have written previously, Asharq Al-Awsat is a Saudi government propaganda mouthpiece, which makes it useful for determining the Saudi opinion on various events. In this case, we have an article that tells us what the Saudis think about the situation in […]
          Try as It May, Trump Administration Can't Avoid Qatar Crisis - U.S. News & World Report   

U.S. News & World Report

Try as It May, Trump Administration Can't Avoid Qatar Crisis
U.S. News & World Report
Qatar's rift with its Arab neighbors emerges as the geopolitical crisis that the Trump administration just can't quit. June 28, 2017, at 5:03 p.m.. MORE. LinkedIn · StumbleUpon · Google +; Cancel. Try as It May, Trump Administration Can't Avoid Qatar ...
Qatar denies being hacked by Russia, accuses Gulf countries of cyberattackCBS News
How to negotiate the Qatar crisisNew York Daily News
How a 91-year-old imam came to symbolize feud between Qatar and its neighborsStars and Stripes
The Nation. -Gulf Times -Aljazeera.com
all 246 news articles »

          By: Ross Holloway   
The only thing I query in your blog, is the need for Western powers to sort this out. Saudi Arabia is a hugely rich country, with plenty of arms. Why isn't Saudi Arabia, or Bahrain, or the UAE sending in peace-keeping forces? If the USA or Britain, or France, were to intervene, many in Muslim world would blame us for "invading a Muslim country", notwithstanding that Syria is not a 'Muslim Country' insofar as not all Syrians are Muslims. However poorly and misjudged, and sometime plain wrong and evil (I'm thinking of Abu Graib), were the Western powers actions in liberating Iraq, the USA and her allies never acted as badly as Saddam Hussein, yet in the Arab world it's all the West's fault for invading a 'Muslim country'. And you expect for us to give up our lives of our sons and daughters again?
          By: ameliadraws   
Hello Saudiwoman, I am from a small country town in Australia and I have been following aghast what has been happening in Syria from the moment they discovered the poor boys body, to the courage of his parents, to this... it sickens me, it disgusts me. I cry and I feel helpless because I do not know how I can help other then say: no I am watching. I do see the horrendous crime against my fellow humans, i do. Amelia
          By: mk   
Arab Like Me By Lee Habeeb February 15, 2012 4:00 A.M. There are two kinds of Arabs in this world. Those who hate Jews, and those who don’t. And in my life, I have met more of the former than the latter. I am not proud to say that. Arabs will not like me for admitting it. But it is true. And it is something I wish the Obama administration understood. It is something Americans should know as the “Arab Spring” enters its second year. I didn’t know much about any of this as a Lebanese kid growing up in New Jersey. But I found out about it when I wrote my first pro-Israel column for my college paper as a young student journalist. I defended Israel on some point I’ve long forgotten, but what I’ll never forget is the backlash I received from fellow Arabs. Some were Americans, others were students from Arab countries, many of whom I counted as friends. First came the letters to the editor, then the personal insults. It was as if I’d broken a secret code I didn’t know existed. Some secret blood oath, which goes something like this: Arabs don’t speak unkindly of Arabs in public, or kindly about Israel. The backlash stunned me. I pondered the pounding I had taken, and floundered a bit. I even thought for a short time of writing something negative about Israel the next time I had a chance, just to balance things out and reestablish my Arab bona fides. One friend accused me of being a self-hating Arab. He explained to me that I was exploiting my ancestry to ingratiate myself with white America and the Jews who controlled white America. I explained to him that I was white. And that I was an American. And that I didn’t believe that Jews controlled America. The Jewish men I knew had a hard enough time controlling their own families! But nothing I said helped relieve the tension, not even my stab at humor. I also explained that many of my Jewish friends did not like my column. Most were liberals from New York or northern New Jersey who assumed I was with them on the politics of the Middle East, that I was in agreement with the governing thesis that drives most Arabs and liberal Jews: that it is Israel that is the problem in the region, not the Palestinians, and not the Arab world itself. I also explained to him that I was mostly Lebanese, but also part German and part Italian, and that I was raised by parents who didn’t much care for the whole notion of hyphenated America. They taught me to think for myself, and have the courage to challenge authority. Even theirs, if I could make the case. The fact is, Arabs don’t all look alike or think alike. But we are often pushed into a kind of groupthink, a kind of self-censorship that hinders our development and our understanding of ourselves and the world around us. We are not a universal group. But some of us believe in a simple universal truth: that every Arab deserves to live in freedom, wherever he or she might call home. Some of us want Arab countries to be more like America and Israel, places where the individual can flourish. Say those words to many Arabs and they are shocked and angered. Soon, words like imperialist are thrown about, and the subject turns to Israel. Always, it seems, it turns to Israel. Why the anger when I hint that America and Israel might have something to teach the Arab world? I thought about it for the longest time, and only recently stumbled upon the answer. It is all about Arab self-doubt. It is all tied to a profound lack of cultural self-confidence, and a deep-seated fear that maybe, just maybe, Arabs won’t be very good at the self-governance thing. That Arab nations won’t be capable of building democratic cultures that engender the flourishing of human freedom, and that these nations won’t have the ability to tap the God-given talents of their people the way Americans and Israelis do. That maybe, just maybe, the Arab world will never measure up to America or Israel. Better, goes the logic, to cling to anger over the plight of the Palestinians. Better to cling to international policy disputes and to a deep-seated hatred of Israel. Better to play the role of victim, and the role of self-righteous critic, than to do the hard work of lifting up the conditions of your people. An Arab American friend of mine who works for a large NGO is a case in point. He is Jordanian, he’s well educated, and he speaks five languages. But mention the word Israel, and watch his blood boil immediately. He will go into a lengthy diatribe about the injustices perpetrated against the Palestinians by Israel. When Prime Minister Netanyahu’s name is mentioned, I worry that he will have a seizure on the spot. Why is this? Why is all of his passion, all of his anger and rage, directed at this one country, this one people? Why is it not directed at Syria, I ask him? By all accounts, the Syrian government orchestrated the assassination of one of the Arab world’s great men of peace, former Lebanese prime minister Rafic Hariri. And President Assad continues to terrorize his own people. Why not at Hezbollah, which orchestrated the takeover of Lebanon? Why not at Hosni Mubarak when he was in power? Or Saddam Hussein? Why not at the ways in which Islam degrades women in the Middle East, trapping them in a life of servitude? Why not at the ways some Muslims are persecuting Christians throughout the Middle East, as reports pour in about atrocities upon atrocities? Why not a critique of the Koran itself, which regrettably finds little separation between mosque and state, thus relegating the majority of Arabs to life under theocratic regimes? Two reasons: fear, and envy. To the dismay of Arabs around the world, Jewish people turned an ancient piece of real estate in the Middle East into a thriving oasis of intellectual, political, religious, and commercial activity, where people are free to do as they please. One of the oldest places on earth — a place where Abraham walked — Israel is as thoroughly modern as any place on earth, with a functioning government that respects religious and economic freedom. A young person in Israel can choose to work in some of the best high-tech companies in the world, or can pursue a life dedicated to Talmudic studies. A woman has an equal right to pursue any career she likes, and people of different sexual orientations are not driven underground — or worse. The fact is, the God-given talents of the people of Israel are allowed to flourish in ways Arabs should want to emulate, and replicate. This smart, dynamic Jordanian friend instead focuses on border disputes and the acts of the Israeli government. He performs Houdini-like intellectual twists to dodge my questions, which are always gentle, but cut right through to his very clear — and almost programmed — bigotry. I ask him why he is obsessed with the 1967 border dispute, and not some other border grudge, as it would not take long to find other countries unhappy with the ways in which territories were allocated as spoils of various 19th- and 20th-century wars. I tell him that using his logic, Mexican terrorists should be blowing themselves up in Houston and El Paso. And they should have his unwavering support to compel America to return Texas to its rightful, original owner. I now ask Arabs who show such a knee-jerk reaction to Israel a simple question, one that cuts to the heart of all this nonsense: Why do you hate Jews? They first get angry, but then quickly point out that they have no beef with Jews. It’s Israel they hate. To which I reply, “If Israel had been handed over to Bolivians or Albanians or Estonians, would you still hate it?” It is a none-too-subtle question, but it makes the point: Despising Israel the way Israel is despised in much of the Arab world is all about anti-Semitism. And most anti-Semitism anywhere in the world has its origins in envy. Benjamin Netanyahu once gave a speech in which he pointed at a map of the Middle East. He rattled off many of the countries in the region, and the relative size of those nations to Israel. Jordan is four times the size of Israel, Iraq 20, Egypt 46; Saudi Arabia is nearly 90 times the size of Israel. “Big countries,” he said. “But small accomplishments.” He then went on to describe Israel, which is just slightly bigger than one of America’s smallest states, New Jersey. “Little country,” he concluded. “But big accomplishments.” And there you have it, in one perfectly formulated binary. Today, Arabs are at a crossroads. The “Arab Spring” is an opportunity like none the region has ever seen. The people who live there are no more or less capable than the people of Israel or the United States. But it is up to them to build functioning democracies, and a culture that breeds and rewards hard work and success. It is up to Arabs themselves to take advantage of their newfound freedom, and unleash the productive capacities of their people. Countries aren’t built on spite and hate, but on love, trust, shared sacrifice, and hard work. Maybe, just maybe, Arabs in the Middle East will be so busy working, yearning, and striving to make their own lives better that they will have little time left to burnish old grievances. Maybe, over time, Arabs will build governments worthy of their people, as Israel and America have done. Maybe, Arabs will come to see Jews not as their enemies, but as their neighbors, and as their trading partners. And maybe, just maybe, as their friends. Here is one Arab praying that will happen. http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/291094/arab-me-lee-habeeb
          Comment on What happens when a beer festival can’t legally identify breweries at its event by Bier, Bars & Brauer (Ausgabe 7) - Bier, Bars & Brauer   
[…] zwischen Werbung für Alkohol und der Transparenz gegenüber dem potentiellen Messebesucher. Die Veranstalter weisen jedoch bitterböse darauf hin, dass Norwegen sich mit derartigen in bester G…: Ähnliche Regelungen existieren u.a. im Jemen, Saudi Arabien oder […]
          Comment on What happens when a beer festival can’t legally identify breweries at its event by Beer, Bars & Brewers (Edition 7) - Bier, Bars & Brauer   
[…] This week Norwegian craft beer festival What’s Brewing wanted to announce their lineup of craft breweries attending the event. But due to some bizarre, dusty Norwegian law they were forbidden from identifying other craft breweries. Apparently, Norway is not alone with this: Afghanistan, Kuwait, Libya, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen have similar laws.Not exactly trust inspiring.They continue to drop hints and descriptions on their Facebook page but crafty blogs have put some serious time in to identifying the breweries. What’s Brewing can neither confirm or deny any of their attendance.  […]
          Tillerson Bertemu Menlu Qatar Terkait Krisis Teluk Persia   
Menlu Tillerson bertemu dengan Menlu Qatar beberapa hari setelah Qatar menolak tuntutan yang diajukan Arab Saudi, Bahrain, Mesir dan Uni Emirat Arab untuk mencabut sanksi mereka terhadap negara kerajaan kecil di Jazirah Arab itu.
          PALAESTINA FELIX mette a tacere il "Salvini Inglese" Tommy Robinson nei 140 caratteri di un solo "tweet"!   
Le elite massonico-finanziario-sioniste e mondialiste vogliono garantire il loro osceno dominio sull'Occidente importando in Europa e in Nordamerica numeri sempre più mostruosi di immigranti allogeni non integrabili e poi lasciando che gli indigeni e gli ultimi arrivati si massacrino in lotte etniche senza costrutto, lasciando così indisturbati i "padroni dell'universo".

Pedina indispensabile di questo schema sono i falsi movimenti "identitari", che berciano contro gli immigrati e fanno propaganda violenta e anche razzista, ma senza mai indirizzare i propri attivisti e militanti contro la VERA ragione dell'immigrazione incontrollata e della propaganda multikulti e meticciatrice.

In questo modo la popolazione autoctona viene menata come un toro dietro la muleta e si stanca e si sfianca senza riuscire a incanalare le proprie energie vitali allo scopo della vera difesa dei suoi interessi, ma disperdendole e sprecandole.

Esempio preclaro di questi 'falsi identitari' sono le pedine a sei punte dell'EDL, l'English Defense League, i cui militanti, guardacaso, sono TUTTI filosionisti, amanti di israhell e ferocemente anti-palestinesi.
Il cretino Tommy Robinson fu co-fondatore dell'EDL e per un periodo ne fu anche portavoce ufficiale.

Sul suo tweet che riportiamo qui sopra il cretino chiede: "Ma se l'ISIS é così distante dal Vero Islam come mai tanti islamici lo seguono ed aderiscono alla sua ideologia?".

Tersa e chiara la nostra risposta: "Forse perché i vostri 'alleati' sauditi e qatarioti hanno speso miliardi di dollari per diffondere e propagandare quell'ideologia?".

I cretini non sono pericolosi, é che sono fastidiosi perché per metterli in riga bisogna metterci del tempo che sarebbe preferibile spendere ad altri fini.
          Rihanna Is Dating Saudi Billionaire Hassan Jameel And They’re “Really Serious”   
Posted on Wed Jun 28th, 2017 11:50am PDT       By X17 Staff She found love in not the most hopeless place! Rihanna practically broke the Internet yesterday when photos surfaced of her making out with a hot dude in a pool, and now we know who that hot dude is! The singer is dating Saudi billionaire Hasaan Jameel, the deputy president and vice chairman of family business Abdul Latif Jameel. The company owns distribution rights for Toyota cars in Saudi Arabia, and he’s set to inherit a $1.5 billion fortune. Wowza! It sounds like they’re already pretty serious, too, after keeping their romance on the down low for the last few months. “This relationship is the real deal. Rihanna has told friends she’s in love with him and seems completely smitten. They’ve been spending a lot of time together away from prying eyes and are really serious. They’re really enjoying each others’ company,” a source dished to ...

Source: Odd Onion

http://www.oddonion.com/2017/06/28/rihanna-is-dating-saudi-billionaire-hassan-jameel-and-theyre-really-serious/


          Rihanna and her Saudi Billionaire man are all smiles as they emerge from their hotel in Ibiza   

 Rihanna and her new Saudi billionaire boyfriend Hassan Jameel were all smiles as they emerged from their hotel  in IbizaThe 29-year-old carried a bouquet of flowers while the Toyota Heir grinned ear to ear on their romantic Ibiza getaway this week

The post Rihanna and her Saudi Billionaire man are all smiles as they emerge from their hotel in Ibiza appeared first on NixusBlog.com.


          Rights group: Migrant workers abused in UAE homes   

Many Asian and African women working as domestic workers in the United Arab Emirates say their employers beat them with sticks or cables, punched and slapped them, and there's little they can do because they're excluded from the country's labor law protections, a rights group said Thursday.

The abuse complaints are rampant throughout the wealthy Persian Gulf region that relies on foreign labor. The Human Rights Watch says the problem is that the migrant workers' residency is tied to their employers through a sponsorship system that prevents them easily changing jobs.

It cited passport confiscation, non-payment of wages, excessive work, forced confinement, food deprivation and psychological, physical and sexual abuse.

The New York-based advocacy group said the report was based on interviews with 99 women domestic workers, recruitment agents and employers in the UAE. Twenty-two of the women said their employers physically abused them, beating them with sticks or cables, punching or slapping their faces, kicking or chocking them. Six said their employers or members of the household sexually assaulted or harassed them.

Some 146,000 migrant women are employed as domestic helpers in the UAE, one of the world's 10 richest countries. Most of them come from the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Ethiopia.

A 28-year-old Indonesian quoted in the report said her employer beat her every day and in March last year twisted her right arm behind her back so severely that it broke a bone above her wrist. The employer refused to take her to a doctor. Two months later, the employer threw a shoe at her foot so forcefully her foot bled. The worker managed to escape.

Another Indonesian worker said her employer raped her last year when he took her to clean a second house he bought. A Filipino worker said her employers would slap or punch her to make her "work harder."

Almost all workers interviewed complained of long hours, up to 21 hours per day in extreme cases, the report added. Many complained of not being paid on time or in full. One said she was never paid for almost three years.

The report said workers often endure months of abuse and exploitation because of fear of deportation, of being banned for future employment or being charged for "absconding."

Human Rights Watch called for a repeal or changes to the UAE visa sponsorship system that give employers control over domestic workers' immigration status, freedom of movement and freedom to terminate employment. It urged the workers' home countries to improve cooperation with the UAE on oversight of the recruitment process, validity of contracts and resolving legal cases.

Philippine Labor Secretary Erlinda Baldoz said her country has stopped processing contracts for domestic helpers bound for UAE, because the UAE won't let Filipino labor officials verify contracts. She said the Department of Foreign Affairs can take the lead in bilateral talks to change the visa sponsorship system.

Other countries in the oil-rich Gulf, including Saudi Arabia and Qatar, have also faced criticism over their treatment of migrant workers.


          'BradCast' 12/23/2016: Guest Host Nicole Sandler with Ari Berman on the VRA, Sen Bob Graham on Saudi Arabia & 9-11 and more   
Independent investigative journalism, broadcasting, troublemaking and muckraking with Brad Friedman of BradBlog.com
           تردد قناة Canale 5 HD الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final) Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF   
 تردد قناة Canale 5 HD الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF


                     السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته متتبعي الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...  أهلا بكم في هذا الموضوع الذي يخص.....


 تردد قناة Canale 5 HD الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF



Live-2017-03-06-UEFA-Champions-League-Final-Juventus-FC-vs-Real-Madrid-CF-Live


Saturday (Samedi)03.06.2017 (GMT+00)
GMT+00



مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer بث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.   ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم,  real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,






UEFA Champions League(Final)




18:45 

موعد مباراة ريال مدريد ويوفنتوس,يواجه نادى ريال مدريد نادى يوفينتوس في نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 

تابع مجانا مباراة 

  Juventus FC VS Real Madrid CF



 تحصل على تردد قناة ZDF HD حصريا 

ترددات أشهر القنوات الرياضية الناقلة لمباريات دوري أبطال أوروبا حصريا عبر شاشتها .






                 الى هنا نكون قد قدمنا لكم هذا الوضوع ليكون اضافة في سرح المعرفة اتمنى ان يكون في متناول الجميع ....

                 اذا واجهتك أي مشكل او تسائل ضعه في تعليق اسفل الموضوع و سنجيبكم على كل التسائلات باذن الله ....

                 ان اعجبك الموضوع لا تنسى بمتابعتنا بالنقر على متابعة بالبريد الالكتروني في اسفل الموضوع حتى يصلكم كل جديد في موقع الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...

يمكنكم متابعة ايضا المواقع التالية كمصدر لاهم المعلومات .....

  زورو المواقع التالية



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يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - 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           تردد قناة Canale 5 الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final) Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF   
 تردد قناة Canale 5 الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF


                     السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته متتبعي الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...  أهلا بكم في هذا الموضوع الذي يخص.....


 تردد قناة Canale 5 الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF



Live-2017-03-06-UEFA-Champions-League-Final-Juventus-FC-vs-Real-Madrid-CF-Live


Saturday (Samedi)03.06.2017 (GMT+00)
GMT+00



مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer بث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.   ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم,  real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,






UEFA Champions League(Final)




18:45 

موعد مباراة ريال مدريد ويوفنتوس,يواجه نادى ريال مدريد نادى يوفينتوس في نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 

تابع مجانا مباراة 

  Juventus FC VS Real Madrid CF



 تحصل على تردد قناة ZDF HD حصريا 

ترددات أشهر القنوات الرياضية الناقلة لمباريات دوري أبطال أوروبا حصريا عبر شاشتها .






                 الى هنا نكون قد قدمنا لكم هذا الوضوع ليكون اضافة في سرح المعرفة اتمنى ان يكون في متناول الجميع ....

                 اذا واجهتك أي مشكل او تسائل ضعه في تعليق اسفل الموضوع و سنجيبكم على كل التسائلات باذن الله ....

                 ان اعجبك الموضوع لا تنسى بمتابعتنا بالنقر على متابعة بالبريد الالكتروني في اسفل الموضوع حتى يصلكم كل جديد في موقع الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...

يمكنكم متابعة ايضا المواقع التالية كمصدر لاهم المعلومات .....

  زورو المواقع التالية



مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,
مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - 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يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - 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 تردد قناة C8 HD الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF


                     السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته متتبعي الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...  أهلا بكم في هذا الموضوع الذي يخص.....


 تردد قناة C8 HD الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF



Live-2017-03-06-UEFA-Champions-League-Final-Juventus-FC-vs-Real-Madrid-CF-Live


Saturday (Samedi)03.06.2017 (GMT+00)
GMT+00



مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer بث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.   ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم,  real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,






UEFA Champions League(Final)




18:45 

موعد مباراة ريال مدريد ويوفنتوس,يواجه نادى ريال مدريد نادى يوفينتوس في نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 

تابع مجانا مباراة 

  Juventus FC VS Real Madrid CF



 تحصل على تردد قناة ZDF HD حصريا 

ترددات أشهر القنوات الرياضية الناقلة لمباريات دوري أبطال أوروبا حصريا عبر شاشتها .






                 الى هنا نكون قد قدمنا لكم هذا الوضوع ليكون اضافة في سرح المعرفة اتمنى ان يكون في متناول الجميع ....

                 اذا واجهتك أي مشكل او تسائل ضعه في تعليق اسفل الموضوع و سنجيبكم على كل التسائلات باذن الله ....

                 ان اعجبك الموضوع لا تنسى بمتابعتنا بالنقر على متابعة بالبريد الالكتروني في اسفل الموضوع حتى يصلكم كل جديد في موقع الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...

يمكنكم متابعة ايضا المواقع التالية كمصدر لاهم المعلومات .....

  زورو المواقع التالية



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مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - 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           تردد قناة 2stv الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final) Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF   
 تردد قناة 2stv الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF


                     السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته متتبعي الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...  أهلا بكم في هذا الموضوع الذي يخص.....


 تردد قناة 2stv الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF



Live-2017-03-06-UEFA-Champions-League-Final-Juventus-FC-vs-Real-Madrid-CF-Live


Saturday (Samedi)03.06.2017 (GMT+00)
GMT+00



مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer بث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.   ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم,  real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,






UEFA Champions League(Final)




18:45 

موعد مباراة ريال مدريد ويوفنتوس,يواجه نادى ريال مدريد نادى يوفينتوس في نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 

تابع مجانا مباراة 

  Juventus FC VS Real Madrid CF



 تحصل على تردد قناة ZDF HD حصريا 

ترددات أشهر القنوات الرياضية الناقلة لمباريات دوري أبطال أوروبا حصريا عبر شاشتها .






                 الى هنا نكون قد قدمنا لكم هذا الوضوع ليكون اضافة في سرح المعرفة اتمنى ان يكون في متناول الجميع ....

                 اذا واجهتك أي مشكل او تسائل ضعه في تعليق اسفل الموضوع و سنجيبكم على كل التسائلات باذن الله ....

                 ان اعجبك الموضوع لا تنسى بمتابعتنا بالنقر على متابعة بالبريد الالكتروني في اسفل الموضوع حتى يصلكم كل جديد في موقع الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...

يمكنكم متابعة ايضا المواقع التالية كمصدر لاهم المعلومات .....

  زورو المواقع التالية



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يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.  ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم, real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017,كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccerبث مباشر : ريال مدريد - 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           تردد قناة KTN الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final) Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF   
مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, ابطال اوروبا ريال مدريد × يوفي real madrid juventus live stream 03 06, بث مباشر, live, real madrid, uffa, juvetus, saudi, ch league, champions league qualifikation, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer بث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus - شبكة الرادار real madrid juventus live مباشر نهائى دوري الأبطال ريال مدريد × يوفينتوس 03-06-2017.   ث مباشر : ريال مدريد - يوفنتوس 03-06-2017 / Live : Real Madrid – Juventus, real madrid, saudi, juvetus, live, hd, uffa, مشاهدة مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد بث مباشر بتاريخ 10-05-2017 دوري أبطال أوروبا, مباراة ريال مدريد واتليتكو مدريد, بث مباشر, دوري أبطال أوروبا, front row sports soccer, champions league qualifikation, ch league, epl, مشاهدة أهم مباريات اليوم, أهداف المباريات بث مباشر, كورة كوم,  real madrid live, real madrid live stream,real madrid vs man city,fc barcelona vs real madrid,real madrid score,real madrid game,real madrid,real madrid transfer news,realmadrid news,real madrid latest news,rmadrid,realmadrid fc,Real Madrid vs Juventus,أخبار ريال مدريد,مباريات اليوفينتوس والريال,موعد نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 والقنوات الناقلة,نهائي دوري أبطال أوروبا 2017 كورة,يلا شوت,بث مباشر,يلا كورة,مباريات اليوم,yallakora,كووورة,كورة اون لاين,كورة لايف,يلا شوت مباشر,مباشر,موقع يلا شوت,مباريات اليوم مباشر,العربية مباشر,موقع يلا كورة,قنوات بث مباشر,


                     السلام عليكم ورحمة الله و بركاته متتبعي الساتيليت و الفضائيات ...  أهلا بكم في هذا الموضوع الذي يخص.....


 تردد قناة KTN الناقلة مجانا لمباراة القمة يوم السبت بين ريال مادريد و جوفانتوس UEFA Champions League(Final)   Juventus FC vs Real Madrid CF



Live-2017-03-06-UEFA-Champions-League-Final-Juventus-FC-vs-Real-Madrid-CF-Live


Saturday (Samedi)03.06.2017 (GMT+00)
GMT+00



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