Bee Hives To Maintain Bee Colony And To Get Raw Honey   
When talking about bee hives and raw honey folk frequently think about having to scale a tree to get them. This is frequently not true as many professional bee keepers have popped up around the planet and have their hives at floor level. This makes removing honey from the hive easier, and safer. There is however still the danger of getting stung, but at least you do not have to fret about breaking your neck.

Bee hives have been the first source of raw honey since the beginning of recorded history. Archeologists have found cave paintings of folks climbing trees to get honey out of suspended hives in varied locations. History does not tell us when we started training bees but we do know that we were actively practicing it around 2400 BC. Historical proof shows that early bee keepers used logs, pottery, and even baskets for bee's to build their colonies in and raise young.

Early beekeepers had to use crude methods of obtaining honey from bee colonies that they inclined. In most situations, they suppressed the bees with smoke then broke into the hive and ripped out the honeycombs. These were then mashed up and the honey was mixed with the larval eggs, the material of the honeycomb itself, and then crudely strained. This worked in getting the honey but wiped out the hive totally.

luckily , bee hives have evolved considerably since those times and removing the raw honey does not harm the colony. Modern bee farmers use slide out hives having a brush like structure that can easily be emptied, and then replaced. This makes sure that the bee colony will be safe, and can produce more honey later. Honey that's's cropped is then run thru a complex system of filters to make sure it's clean, and safe for consumption.

till the 18th century, we did not actually know much about bees. What we probably did know revolved around superstition, folklore, and old wives tales. Scientists at the time had had enough of this and started actively dissecting and investigating bee hives, bees, and the raw honey they produced. This laid the foundation for what we all know about bees today.

Insect behavior is quite complicated, even though it appears simple. Bees communicate with body language, pheromones, and occasionally a mix of the two. This can cause some fascinating activity if you've a colony with a glass window. Folk have been observing bees and other insects like this for decades and it continues to fascinate the curious mind.



Not only do bees produce honey, but they're crucial to the ecosystem of our planet. These sometimes-tiny insects can pollinate many hundreds of flowers in a day. These flowers then support a myriad of other insect and animal life that makes up our food chain. Even the smallest of bugs can have an insurmountable result on our planet.

At the moment, bee hives are still the only source of raw honey we have. Sure, you can try to imitate it with synthetic tastes but nothing comes close to the genuine thing. Honey is an essential part of breakfasts across the globe and many start their day with it. It also has many medical properties that make it highly sought after.
          Colony 13   
A patchwork picture essay of Colony 13 in Aberteifi | Cardigan open August 2013. Not inclusive and slightly random, I was running scared of all the halogen lights at low level - I have photo-sensitivity

The complete set of images

colony 13 Anne-Mei Mellis best viewed as camera flashescolony 13colony 13 Kathryn Campbell Dodd
colony 13 Roger Loughercolony 13nobody plays records anymorecolony 13colony 13colony 13 gwrandocolony 13

more, many more, images of Nobody Plays Records Anymore HERE

colony 13 we communitycolony
          Today in History: Liberia   

Today in History–July 26–the Library of Congress features Liberia, declared an independent republic on this day in 1847. Formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society—organized in 1817 to resettle free black Americans in West Africa—Joseph Jenkins Roberts was elected the first president of the republic in 1848. Find out more by visiting the Today in History section, then click the links below to […]

The post Today in History: Liberia appeared first on TPS-Barat Primary Source Nexus.


          71708   

code1:

Place Name: 
Seaforth Colony
Postcode: 
71708
Longitude: 
80.3502
Admin Code 1: 
KE
Latitude: 
7.0469

          The “Muslim Brotherhood” has spent the last 50-60 years buying up businesses, including media properties (or buying significant positions in newspapers, studios, TV and radio stations, book publishers, magazines, websites, social media, etc.)   
https://jdlcanada.wordpress.com/2012/07/31/canadian-hotels-owned-by-saudi-arabias-kingdom-hotels-colony-capital-llc/ To get an idea of how many businesses have been taken over by the MB, check the holdings of just one man and one conglomerate – Prince Alwaleed’s Kingdom Holding Company (he’s a 95% owner) here.  Look carefully at the list. Please know that the Muslim Brotherhood has spent the last 50-60 years buying up businesses, including media properties (or buying significant […]
          World Gold Coins Lead Heritage’s NYINC Coin Auction – Here are the top 5 (6) Coins   

Seldom Offered 1852 Type 1 Gold Adelaide Pound South Australia. British Colony gold Adelaide Pound Type 1 1852 AU58 PCGS, KM1, Fr-1. The exceedingly rare type 1 Variety with two linear circles around the beading on the reverse and a cracked die by the D of DWT. This type is the first true government coin […]

The post World Gold Coins Lead Heritage’s NYINC Coin Auction – Here are the top 5 (6) Coins appeared first on CoinWeek.


          Ikea Designers Live in Mars Research Center to Get Ideas   

如果想下载文章的MP3声音、PDF文稿、LRC同步字幕以及中文翻译等配套英语学习资料,请访问以下链接:
http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2017/06/23/6210/

Ikea is known for designing furniture that people can put together themselves. Recently, a team from the Swedish company spent time inside a Mars research center to get new design ideas.

For three days, five Ikea designers lived inside the Mars Desert Research Station in the U.S. state of Utah. The center is operated by the Mars Society. It simulates a Mars environment for humans taking part in experiments and training.

Real astronauts have spent long periods of time inside the research center to prepare for space flights.

“It’s a crazy, fun experience,” said Ikea Creative Leader Michael Nikolic, who took part in the project. “We’re basically completely isolated for three days to get a taste of what astronauts go through for three years.”

The team spent most of its time inside the Mars habitat – a round, two-story building just eight meters in diameter. The habitat contains a laboratory for doing experiments, as well as separate areas for eating, sleeping and other activities.

The Mars Desert Research Station in Utah simulates a Mars environment for humans taking part in experiments and training. (Ikea) The Mars Desert Research Station in Utah simulates a Mars environment for humans taking part in experiments and training. (Ikea)

The habitat attempts to create an environment similar to conditions astronauts would experience during a real Mars mission. It also prepares future space travelers for living in very small areas with limited supplies.

Some people - including SpaceX founder Elon Musk – have talked about setting up a human colony on Mars in the future.

The Ikea researchers received NASA training before heading to the research center. Their guide during the habitat visit was space architect Constance Adams.

She said the experience was meant to show the team how conditions in space affect the whole design process. For example, air is very limited in space and must be reused for many months, even years. This means all living materials have to be designed with this in mind.

Another consideration is the huge cost of space transportation. Adams said it would currently cost about $2 million to transport just one kilo of mass to the surface of Mars.

This makes it impractical for Ikea to send materials to Mars, unless the cost can greatly be reduced. But the company says by looking to space, it hopes to come up with better design ideas for people on earth.

Marcus Engman is Ikea’s Head of Design.

“My dream outcome would be to solve the biggest problem on earth. I guess it’s the same problem in space - and that is the thing about storage. How could you make storage in a completely new way?”

He said putting the designers in such a different and demanding environment forces them to think much more creatively.

“Then, from out of that, we get solutions that I think will work on earth better than anything.”

The Ikea designers are also working with people from NASA and students from Sweden’s Lund University to create a space-inspired furniture collection to launch in 2019.

And who knows, Ikea might even make it to Mars someday. If so, the company’s popular products could be discovered by new life forms we don’t even yet know about.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn wrote this story for VOA Learning English. Hai Do was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Do you think humans will ever live on Mars? Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

Words in This Story

furniture – n. chairs, tables, beds, etc., used inside a room

simulate v. make something look or feel like something else

isolatev. separate someone or something from other people or things

habitatn. natural environment where plants or animals live

diameter n. distance through the center of something from one side to the other

architectn. person who designs buildings

impractical adj. not easy to do or use

inspire v. make someone want to do something


          This Week in Science - Thursday May 10, 2007 Broadcast   
Karl Mogel of the Inoculated Mind Guest Hosts and Discusses Colony Collapse Disorder, The Weird From Washington w/ Dr. Mike Stebbins, ... tags: agriculturebiologyconservationismecologyeducationendglobalThis Week in Science - Thursday May 10, 2007 Broadcast
This Week in Science - The Kickass Science Podcast
          Customer Service Rep- Furniture/ Interior Design   
GA-Atlanta, Sandler Seating are manufacturers and distributors of commercial furniture to the contract and hospitality markets, founded in London in 1982 with expansion into the US in 1996. Our U.S. headquarters are at Colony Square in Midtown Atlanta with our upholstered chair production and warehouse located in Conover, NC. We are currently looking to add a Customer Service Rep to our team that has strong d
          6/28/2017: ROYALE PARKS: DID YOU KNOW?   

There are around 250 species of honeybee, and 24 of bumblebee, but only one species of honeybee in this country. Honeybees are smaller but live in much bigger colonies of up to 30,000, while bumblebees like to live with only around 40 -100 in a colony....
          The Adorable Pig-Rat   

This week we start off talking about animals in the world, from the cute capybara to killer pythons. From there we talk about my favorite channel, Discovery, which is starting up a new series called The Colony and paying tribute to legendary infomercial host Billy Mays. Speaking of television and fame, we get into celebrity cannibalism and how being boring can help you dodge the paparazzi. After that, it's on to companies who manufacture fake receipts and the weight of temporal elasticity versus the need for Medieval Times. Moving on, we take some time to deliberate on TV and movie advertising, and on the opposite side, the recent sale of Pirate Bay. Finally, the incredibly powerful need for style over substance when it comes to packing material. 

Opening Music: "Alive WIP v2" by George Carpenter
Closing Music: "Blau.ton" by Rauschwerk


          METAPHORS AND SIMILES FOUND IN HIGH SCHOOL ESSAYS   
METAPHORS AND SIMILES
Her face was a perfect oval, like a circle that had its two other sides gently compressed by a Thigh Master.

His thoughts tumbled in his head, making and breaking alliances like underpants in a dryer without Cling Free.

He spoke with the wisdom that can only come from experience, like a guy who went blind because he looked at a solar eclipse without one of those boxes with a pinhole in it and now goes around the country speaking at high schools about the dangers of looking at a solar eclipse without one of those boxes with a pinhole in it.

She grew on him like she was a colony of E. coli and he was room-temperature Canadian beef.

She had a deep, throaty, genuine laugh, like that sound a dog makes just before it throws up.

Her vocabulary was as bad as, like, whatever.

He was as tall as a six-foot-three-inch tree.

The revelation that his marriage of 30 years had disintegrated because of his wife's infidelity came as a rude shock, like a surcharge at a formerly surcharge-free ATM.

The little boat gently drifted across the pond exactly the way a bowling ball wouldn't.

McBride fell 12 stories, hitting the pavement like a Hefty bag filled with vegetable soup.

The whole scene had an eerie, surreal quality, like when you're on vacation in another city and Jeopardy comes on at 7:00 p.m. instead of 7:30.

Her hair glistened in the rain like nose hair after a sneeze.

The hailstones leaped from the pavement, just like maggots when you fry them in hot grease.

Long separated by cruel fate, the star-crossed lovers raced across the grassy field toward each other like two freight trains, one having left Cleveland at 6:36 p.m. traveling at 55 mph, the other from Topeka at 4:19 p.m. at a speed of 35 mph.

They lived in a typical suburban neighborhood with picket fences that resembled Nancy Kerrigan's teeth.

John and Mary had never met. They were like two hummingbirds who had also never met.

He fell for her like his heart was a mob informant and she was the East River.

Even in his last years, grandpappy had a mind like a steel trap, only one that had been left out so long, it had rusted shut.

Shots rang out, as shots are wont to do.

The plan was simple, like my brother-in-law Phil. But unlike Phil, this plan just might work.

The young fighter had a hungry look, the kind you get from not eating for a while.

He was as lame as a duck. Not the metaphorical lame duck, either, but a real duck that was actually lame. Maybe from stepping on a land mine or something.

The knife was as sharp as the tone used by Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-Tex.) in her first several points of parliamentary procedure made to Rep. Henry Hyde (R-Ill.) in the House Judiciary Committee hearings on the impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton.

The ballerina rose gracefully en pointe and extended one slender leg behind her, like a dog at a fire hydrant.

It was an American tradition, like fathers chasing kids around with Power tools.

He was deeply in love. When she spoke, he thought he heard bells, as if she were a garbage truck backing up.

She was as easy as the TV Guide crossword.

          What to Watch: Colony Finale, Scandal Search Is On, Dark Robot Sex and More   
On TV this Thursday: Colony wraps its sophomore run, Mom deals with (another) death in the family and one of Scandal‘s own remains in limbo. Here are 10 programs to keep on your radar:
          Colony Renewed for Season 3   
Bad news for the Bowman family, good news for Colony: The occupation continues. USA Network on Tuesday renewed the Carlton Cuse/Ryan Condal-helmed sci-fi drama for a third season, TVLine has learned. Colony opened Season 2 in mid-January with 926,000 total viewers and a 0.3 rating, and to date has held pretty steady in the demo, […]
          TVLine Items: Rookie Blue Star Visits Chicago, Colony Adds Three and More   
Chicago Fire‘s Severide is coming to the rescue of Rookie Blue vet Charlotte Sullivan. The actress will guest-star on the NBC drama as a patient in need of a bone marrow transplant, TVLine has learned exclusively. “Towards the end of the winter finale [airing Dec. 6], there’s a woman (Sullivan) who is in distress, who Severide […]
          Colony Gets Season 2 Premiere Date — Plus, Watch a Terrifying New Trailer   
The aliens are still in control… but mankind is ready to fight back. USA Network’s post-apocalyptic sci-fi drama Colony will return for a second season on Thursday, Jan. 12 at 10/9c, the network announced Tuesday. And in the just-released trailer below, the human-led resistance to the alien occupation is picking up steam. Opening with a chilling […]
          Colony Recast: Bethany Joy Lenz In, Thora Birch Out in Season 2   
Colony‘s resident computer whiz Morgan is undergoing a bit of a reboot. The USA Network thriller has tapped One Tree Hill alum Bethany Joy Lenz to join the Season 2 cast as the Resistance-allegiant software engineer, a role originated by American Beauty actress Thora Birch, Deadline reports. Birch, who was reportedly unable to return due to scheduling […]
          Colony Renewed for Season 2 at USA   
Colony spoiler alert: The aliens occupiers aren’t leaving anytime soon. USA Network has renewed its extraterrestrial-esque drama starring Josh Holloway and Sarah Wayne Callies for a second season, TVLine has learned. Additionally, the cabler has ordered 13 episodes, up from Season 1’s 10. Colony, which reunited Holloway with his former Lost EP Carlton Cuse, premiered […]
          Colony Review: USA Network's Alien-Occupation Thriller Is Packed With Anxious Moments   
Just because you’re paranoid doesn’t mean an alien drone isn’t about to hunt you down and send you to “The Factory,” a great big prison camp (quite literally) in the sky. That’s the unsettling reality that pervades every character motivation in Colony, USA Network’s tense new drama from executive producers Carlton Cuse (Lost) and Ryan Condal […]
          What to Watch: Josh Holloway's Colony, Blacklist's Ultimatum and More   
On TV this Thursday: A Lost vet forms a promising Colony, the Workaholics face new upper management, Mom‘s latest romance is a family affair and Hillary Clinton visits Jimmy Fallon. Here are 12 programs to keep on your radar:
          USA Sets Premieres for Satisfaction Season 2, Josh Holloway's Colony   
USA Network has set premiere dates for Season 2 of its infidelity-infused drama Satisfaction, the new futuristic drama Colony and others. Starring Matt Passmore and Stephanie Szostak, Satisfaction returns Friday, Oct. 16 at 10/9c. In Season 2, Neil and Grace confront their infidelities from the past six months, while Adriana (Katherine LaNasa) schemes to keep […]
          Accumulation is set up    
Craigslist is vast, but don't let that upset you. I am active to afford you a roadmap that will trailblazer you easy through with the woodland improved illustrious as Craigslist. It has been winning heart in the virtual ground of the net since 1995. As thick as it has grown, you would advisement that all and sundry essential have at smallest heard of it but in that are still a lot of individuals who have no indication around how to use Craigslist or even that it exists. If you are one of these ethnic group consequently you are not there out on an excellent possibleness to be a constituent of an ever expanding and persistently evolving online colony. This open is an untouchable resource for uncovering jobs, determination friends, discovery information, buying and mercantilism items, discussing substantial issues and more than. Our indian file this hebdomad will render a to the point making known to all of the unspecific categories you will breakthrough on Craigslist and eagerly get your flight by a long way more kind. So let's get started.The prime collection we will takings a face at is the especially all-round Jobs Category.The job class is by far the largest and most rife assemblage you will brainstorm on Craigslist. This class is useless hair into contradictory sub-categories to trademark it easier for viewing audience to scrabble for come-at-able trade matches. Viewers may discovery sector time, as powerfully as filled time opportunities in this aggregation. You can likewise insight teleworking positions and contract positions.Post ads:Plan Ahead Small Home/Office 18 Month Planner, July 2012 - / Sun Beaded Bookmark / 1/2 x 125ft x 24" BUBBLE WRAP ROLL (Large Bubbles)" / Day planner 2012-13 family_time.mine Mom Planner Agenda / Fisher Space Pen, Cap-O-Matic Space Pen, Chrome Plated / Ebtech Hum X Voltage Hum Filter / Prang Washable Watercolor Set, 16 Classic Colors with / Avery Easy Peel White Mailing Labels for Ink Jet Printers, / Letter Opener-Double Edged Sword (Hebrews 4:12) / HandStands Large Super Mouse Mat Pad (Teal) / Invisible UV Ink Markers and Blacklight Combo / Cortelco Single Line Wall Telephone (ITT-2554-V-IV)Resumes Category
          Building A Customer-Obsessed Operating Model   

Empowered customers, armed with ever-increasing digital capability, increasingly expect any information, any service, at their moment of need. We call this the age of the customer. Innovative brands, from Delta to Southwest, T-Mobile to Verizon, Home Depot to Walgreens, and Caterpillar to Rolls Royce, are sharing with Forrester how they are disrupting the way they work to meet their empowered customers' needs, to become customer-obsessed. Becoming customer-obsessed gives you, the CIO, an unprecedented opportunity: to overcome the nagging frustration of IT gravity that suppresses your and your team's ability to influence the direction of your business, to build new competitive advantage. But you have to be willing to change the way you work.

You're in an enviable position and are more essential to your firm's success than ever. Together with your CMO, you have the best overall knowledge of your customers and the technology know-how to deliver a superior customer experience and drive growth.

We've begun to identify how leading firms change their operating models to deliver more value and become truly customer-obsessed. Much of that change falls on the CIO to drive. This research is ongoing, but the actions leaders take to shape their customer-obsessed operating model -- focused on customer loyalty, innovation, and most importantly, growth, and fueled by customer insight -- are becoming clear:

Read more
          The dream colony : a life in art by Hopps, Walter, author, interviewee.   
"An innovative, iconoclastic curator of contemporary art, Walter Hopps founded his first gallery in L.A. at the age of twenty-one. At twenty-four, he opened the Ferus Gallery with then-unknown artist Edward Kienholz, where he turned the spotlight on a new generation of West Coast artists. Ferus was also the first gallery ever to show Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans and was shut down by the L.A. vice squad for a show of Wallace Berman's edgy art. At the Pasadena Art Museum in the sixties, Hopp
          Happy Independence Day Sri Lanka !!!   


Prior to the year 1972, Sri Lanka was known as Ceylon. For more than a century Sri Lanka was a British crown colony but on 4 February, 1948 the country achieved its independence to officially become the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka Flag

Don Stephen Senanayake became Sri Lanka's first Prime Minister.

Since the attainment of freedom from British rule, Sri Lanka has enjoyed a stable democracy and steady economic growth in spite of the conflict with a separatist military group called LTTE in the recent years.

The independence day of Sri Lanka is a great national occasion celebrated with parades and pageants combined with the spirit of patriotism and national pride. The celebrations begin with the hoisting of the national flag and singing the national anthem, followed by the traditional lighting of the lamp ceremony. Subsequently there are various cultural programs as well as serving of refreshments.

This national day holds much significance for the people of Sri Lanka as it reflects the history of great sacrifices made by many Sri Lankans in the Attainment of its freedom.

It is the day to pay tribute to the armed forces that played a major role in the country's freedom struggle.


එක මවකගෙ දරු කැල බැවිනා, යමු යමු වී නොපමා ප්‍රේම වඩා සැම භේද දුරැර දා, නමෝ නමෝ මාතා!

Also check out -


          RANKED: Doctor Who on Hulu   
Shortly after my previous blog post, in which I ranked the eighteen Doctor Who stories available on Netflix streaming, I was alerted to the presence of a larger collection of stories available on Hulu Plus. If you don't mind three commercial breaks per episode (and having to pay for the privilege), you can watch all 18 stories also available on Netflix, plus 74 more.

I'm going to lump these into groups. Ones that I think will go over best with New Series fans, ones that I think are good stories but you might find a bit rough, ones that are mediocre/average (or may be rather tough to get through if you're used to contemporary storytelling and special effects), and ones that are best left untouched (or only for the really brave).

Note: These are listed in BROADCAST ORDER.

Start With These...
54. Inferno (1970, Pertwee, 7 episodes)
This is a rare treat - the Doctor witnesses the destruction of a parallel Earth, can't do a thing to stop it, and as all hell breaks loose around him, he's in the unenviable position to rally a handful of survivors - even though he can't save their lives - to help him get back to 'our' Earth to prevent the same fate here. Fascinating to watch England re-imagined as an Orwellian fascist police state, with deliciously evil versions of the Brigadier, Liz and others. Not so fascinating are the green gorilla monsters, but still, worth the longer running time.

57. The Claws of Axos (1971, Pertwee, 4 episodes)
I love this - golden aliens come to Earth, offering wondrous technology in exchange for nuclear energy for their spaceship. The Doctor isn't fooled, not for a minute. Boundary-pushing special effects (especially episode 4's psychedelic freakout) for 1971. And the Master and Doctor's relationship is fascinating. The Doctor's potential for amorality is never more on display; when he announces he's abandoning Earth to its fate, and is prepared to betray the Time Lords to the Axons, it's plausible that he's serious.

65. The Three Doctors (1972-73, Pertwee, 4 episodes)
66. The Carnival of Monsters  (1973, Pertwee, 4 episodes)
69. The Green Death (1973, Pertwee, 6 episodes)
76. The Ark In Space (1975, Tom Baker, 4 episodes)

88. The Deadly Assassin (1976, Tom Baker, 4 episodes)
The Doctor returns to Gallifrey, is framed for the murder of the Time Lord President, and has to survive a nightmarish trip through the surreal terrain of the Matrix to unmask the real culprit. Very evocative of The Manchurian Candidate with all its political machinations, and the Matrix sequence is stunningly imaginative. Very controversial at the time, partly for the image of Tom Baker being drowned, and partly for knocking down our perceptions of the Time Lords from godlike superbeings to corrupt and/or clueless bumblers.

91. The Talons of Weng-Chiang (1977, Tom Baker, 6 episodes)
A major character is an Asian man played by a caucasian in yellowface (and prosthetic eyebrows), but if you can handle that, this is a great story. And since the BBC's bread and butter was Victorian-era drama, the Sherlock Holmes atmosphere is superbly rendered. The duo of Jago and Lightfoot would go on to star in their own audio adventures.

105. City of Death (1979, Tom Baker, 4 episodes)

114. Warriors' Gate (1981, Tom Baker, 4 episodes)
The cinematic direction and avant-garde flourishes distinguish this convoluted and fascinating story. The third part of a trilogy set in E-Space, it involves a super-heavy spaceship stuck near the gateway to our dimension, who carry a slave race of telepathic lion-like men who navigate the time winds.

136. The Caves of Androzani (1984, Davison, 4 episodes)

If You Survived Those, Try These...
1. An Unearthly Child (1963, Hartnell, 4 ep)
It's a great first episode, with three decent bonus episodes tacked on at the end. It's amazing how much of the show's mythology dates back to these first 25 minutes, and how ruthless and machiavellian the Doctor is initially.

2. The Daleks (1963-64, Hartnell, 7 ep)
Despite show creator Sydney Newman's stern "No Bug-Eyed Monsters" directive, he had to admit his modest aim for an educational adventure program over teatime turned into a cultural institution because of this story. The Daleks are icons. As slow-moving as this show is, it's pretty compelling. The ethics of persuading a pacifist society to take up arms, partly for their own best interest but mostly because four strangers in a blue box need them to, is pretty sticky. And some awesome special effects shots that have aged quite well a half century later.

6. The Aztecs (1964, Hartnell, 4 ep)

9. Planet of Giants (1964, Hartnell, 3 ep)
The "Honey, I Shrank the TARDIS"plot dates to the early brainstorming sessions in the show's development, and they pull it off pretty darn brilliantly. Post production, they edited the third and fourth episodes into a single episode - even then, they acknowledged that the emphasis on dialogue over action could make for tedious TV. Smart choice.

45. The Mind Robber (1968, Troughton, 5 ep)
51. Spearhead From Space (1970, Pertwee, 4 ep)

52. Doctor Who and the Silurians (1970, Pertwee, 7 ep)
Script editor Robert Holmes and producer Barry Letts quickly realized that once they confined the Doctor to Earth, they were limited to two plots: Mad Scientists and Alien Invasion. Here they cleverly sidestep that plot - they've been here already - and throw in a not too subtle parallel to Middle East politics. What do you do when you oversleep, wake up millions of years later, and those pesky apes have evolved into the dominant species on the planet? The Doctor is in the unenviable position of trying to negotiate a peace between two mutually xenophobic species... and he fails spectacularly.

55. Terror of the Autons (1971, Pertwee, 4 ep)
A soft re-boot of the series, with shorter stories, a new companion (Jo Grant), and Barry Letts' master-stroke: an arch-enemy Time Lord, the Master. And in addition to the Autons, we have everyday household items turning into fatal traps: inflatable chairs, troll dolls, and plastic daffodils.

56. The Mind of Evil (1971, Pertwee, 6 ep)
A mess of a plot, but a lot to recommend. An homage (read: ripoff) of A Clockwork Orange that can't decide if criminal behavior is actually due to 'evil impulses' that can be siphoned out of a person's mind, or if that's the bridge being sold to the gullible politicians who buy into it. And Britain has an illegal nerve gas missile that it's trying to dump; shame on them.

59. The Daemons (1971, Pertwee, 5 ep)
The Master appears in his fifth straight story, and after sub-contracting an alien entity that yet again grows too powerful for him to control, and once more has to rely on the Doctor to save his sorry butt, you'd think he'd've learned. This time around he poses as a rural vicar (quite a treat to see him wearing a collar), while summoning a cloven-hoofed demon in the church basement. The Doctor is rather a jerk to Jo in this one, at least in the first scene.

61. The Curse of Peladon (1972, Pertwee, 4 ep)
By this season, the production team was stretching the "exiled to Earth, with certain exceptions" beyond credibility. But this is still a treat, an alien whodunnit that's all about joining the EU, with a bevvy of alien creatures - including the much loved hermaphrodite hexapod Alpha Centauri.

67. Frontier In Space (1973, Pertwee, 6 ep)
Doctor Who rarely attempted grand space opera - mostly because it didn't have the resources - but here they go all out. The Master, with the Ogrons, is secretly manipulating Earth and Draconia into war... and he's a subcontractor working for another menace who are waiting to pounce...  Most of this is capture/escape/re-capture writ large, but it's a grand adventure, and the Draconians are awesome. Pity, though, that it all falls apart at the end, and Roger Delgado never got the sendoff he deserved.

78. Genesis of the Daleks (1975, Tom Baker, 6 ep)
The Time Lords draft the Doctor into trying to prevent the creation of the Daleks. The debut of Davros, their creator, superbly performed by Michael Wisher. Terry Nation modeled the Daleks after Nazi Germany, and no story he wrote made that clearer than this. Lots of corridor acting, and a major cliffhanger copout, but some supremely iconic moments balance it out.

82. Pyramids of Mars (1975, Tom Baker, 4 ep)
92. The Horror of Fang Rock (1977, Tom Baker, 4 ep)
98. The Ribos Operation (1978, Tom Baker, 4 ep)

100. The Stones of Blood (1978, Tom Baker, 4 ep)
Part 3 of the Key To Time season. Blood-sucking rocks, a great villain in Vivian Fay, and a superb sidekick in Professor Rumford (who might be Vivian's lesbian partner...).  Great line: "Doctor, are you from outer space?" "No, I'm from inner time."

110. The Leisure Hive (1980, Tom Baker, 4 ep)

112. Full Circle (Tom Baker, 1980, 4 ep)
Underrated and overlooked.

115. The Keeper of Traken (1981, Tom Baker, 4 ep)
A civilization so placid that evil shrivels up and dies. Yeah, that won't last long...

116. Logopolis (1981, Tom Baker, 4 ep)
Tom Baker's last. Bonkers evil scheme by the Master.

117. Castrovalva (1982, Davison, 4 ep)
Peter Davison's first. Bonkers evil scheme by the Master.

125. Snakedance (1983, Davison, 4 ep)
The Mara (from Kinda) is back.

127. Terminus (1983, Davison, 4 ep)
Grim story, but look for the moment at the end of Ep 3. The Doctor is standing next to the corpse of the space pilot who inadvertently caused the Big Bang... consider the theological implications here.

128. Enlightenment (1983, Davison, 4 ep)
Yacht race in space. Devious girl pirate.

132. The Awakening (1984, Davison, 2 ep)
English Civil War re-enactments are inadvertently summoning a malevolent alien entity. And Tegan visits her grandfather or uncle or something.

133. Frontios (1984, Davison, 4 ep)
Giant alien woodlice destroy the TARDIS, temporarily. Another grim story; one of the last human space colonies are under siege from meteors from above, and said bugs from below.

152. Remembrance of the Daleks (1988, McCoy, 4 ep)
The first story to feature script editor Andrew Cartmel's 'masterplan' to re-envision the Doctor as having a deeper, darker backstory than just being a 'madman with a box.' Two warring factions of Daleks bust up stuff in the Doctor's old stomping grounds.

155. The Greatest Show in the Galaxy (1988-89, McCoy, 4 ep)
An extended metaphor for the state of the program; the Doctor and Ace are trapped in the Psychic Circus, which fanboy WhizzKid acknowledges as "not as great as it used to be, but still..."

158. The Curse of Fenric (1989, McCoy, 4 ep)

159. Survival (1989, McCoy 4 ep)
An ironic title for the final story of the Classic Series... but the Master hasn't been this awesome in over a decade, the cat people look pretty cool, and stuff blows up real good.

If You're Still Hungry For More...
The Chase (1965, Hartnell, 6 ep) - A bumbling troop of Daleks build their own time machine to pursue the TARDIS through eternity. Incompetently executed on every conceivable level (particularly the robot duplicate of the Doctor), this one is classified as "So Bad, It's Actually Awesome." Though the montage of Ian and Barbara safe at home is legitimately wonderful. (The Hulu version contains a clip of the Beatles performing "Ticket to Ride," which is edited out of the DVD release)

The Time Meddler (1965, Hartnell, 4 ep) - We meet another Time Lord for the first time, a comically mischievous meddler in a monk's cassock, trying to change the outcome of the Battle of Hastings, just for the hell of it apparently.

The Ark (1966, Hartnell, 4 ep) - The TARDIS lands on a giant spaceship in the distant future containing the last surviving humans escaping the doomed planet Earth, and new companion Dodo's head cold causes an epidemic.

The War Machines (1966, Hartnell, 4 ep) - the first story since the debut episode set on contemporary Earth, and the first story to feature a supercomputer primed to take over the world.

The Tomb of the Cybermen (1967, Troughton, 4 ep) - not quite as good as its legacy, but still worthy of viewing, though the character of Toberman is troubling

The Enemy of the World (1968, Troughton, 6 ep) - Dr Who does James Bond, and Troughton pulls double-duty as the villain as well. Be glad this was re-discovered.

The Web of Fear (1968, Troughton, 6 ep) - Fondly remembered for its atmosphere - Yeti in the subway! plus the debut of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart and a memorable climax. Though to me, it drag

Colony in Space (1971, Pertwee, 6 ep) - Impoverished space farmers versus an all-powerful intergalactic mega-conglomerate. And a doomsday weapon. Guess who wins.

The Sea Devils (Pertwee, 1972, 6 ep) - A virtual re-write of "Silurians," with less subtlety and more stuff blowing up.

The Mutants (Pertwee, 1972, 6 ep) - Better than its reputation, though rather patronizing in that we need the white fathers to sort out the lives of the indigenous people.

The Time Warrior (Pertwee, 1973-4, 4 ep) - Hello Sarah Jane Smith!

Planet of the Spiders (Pertwee, 1974, 6 ep) - Goodbye, Jon Pertwee.

Robot (Tom Baker, 1974-5, 4 ep) - Hello Tom Baker!

Planet of Evil (Tom Baker, 1975, 4 ep) - generic, homage to Forbidden Planet

The Masque of Mandragora (Tom Baker, 1976, 4 ep) - generic, nice medieval setting.

The Sunmakers (Tom Baker, 1977, 4 ep) - extended metaphor for state taxation.

The Invasion of Time (Tom Baker, 1977, 6 ep) - Such a mess, but fun to watch Tom Baker chew scenery

The Pirate Planet
The Androids of Tara
The Power of Kroll

The Creature From The Pit (Tom Baker, 1979, 4ep) - Yeah, the one with the alien that looks like a big green willy. And Tom blows on it. Oh dear.

Nightmare of Eden (Tom Baker, 1979, 4ep) - Drugs are bad, especially when they are the crystalized remains of nasty hairy space beasties. Tom sabotages the ending.

The Horns of Nimon (Tom Baker, 1979, 4ep) - Such a mess, but fun to watch everyone chew scenery.

Meglos (Tom Baker, 1980, 4 ep) - Such a mess, but nice to see Jacqueline Hill (Barbara from season 1-2) again

State of Decay (Tom Baker, 1980, 4 ep) - Decent story, undermined by the hand puppet at the end.

Black Orchid (Davison, 1982, 2 ep) - No alien menace, a murder caper, a cricket match, and it's short.

Resurrection of the Daleks (Davison, 1984, 2 45-min ep) Tedious and grim, but with good moments.

Delta and the Bannermen (McCoy, 1987, 3 ep) Genocide and mass murder at a holiday camp with a hip 50's soundtrack.

Dragonfire (McCoy, 1987, 3 ep) - Alien done as a Christmas pantomime. It almost works.

The Happiness Patrol (McCoy, 1988, 4 ep) - Orwell on acid. Be happy or else.

Battlefield (McCoy, 1989, 4 ep) - Doctor Who does King Arthur. Of course the Doctor is Merlin, who else could he be?

Only The Brave Dare...
The Edge of Destruction (Hartnell, 1964, 2 ep) - trapped in a malfunctioning TARDIS, strong suggestion that it has telepathic capabilities. Great idea but executed poorly and awkwardly.
The Sensorites (Hartnell, 1964, 6 ep) - slow and tedious slog about xenophobia
The Rescue (Hartnell, 1965, 2 ep) - spoiler: Bennett is Koquillion. Now you can skip it.
The Web Planet (Hartnell, 1965, 6 ep) - revolution on a planet of insect people. epic in conception, tedious in execution.
The Space Museum (Hartnell, 1965, 4 ep) - revolution in a museum.
The Gunfighters (Hartnell, 1966, 4 ep) - aka Dr Who at the OK Corral
The Dominators (Troughton, 1968, 5 ep) - it's fun to imagine the title characters as a bickering gay couple
The Krotons (Troughton, 1968-9, 4 ep) - Robert Holmes' first script. They got better.
Planet of the Daleks (Pertwee, 1973, 6 ep) - Invisible Daleks, boring Thals, long slog.
Death to the Daleks (Pertwee, 1974, 4 ep) - Unarmed Daleks, boring Humans, interesting maze.
The Monster of Peladon (Pertwee, 1974, 6 ep) - Caves and corridors, corridors and caves.
The Sontaran Experiment (Tom Baker, 1975, 2 ep) - Filler.
The Android Invasion (Tom Baker, 1975, 4 ep) - aka, the alien plot falls apart if that dude looks under his eyepatch
The Invisible Enemy (Tom Baker, 1977, 4 ep) - Hello, K9.
Underworld (Tom Baker, 1978, 4 ep) - the one with the infamous CSO caves
Destiny of the Daleks (Tom Baker, 1979, 4 ep) - Terry Nation wrote this in his sleep.
The Visitation
Warriors of the Deep (Davison, 1984, 4 ep) - Sea Devils, Silurians, nuclear brinksmanship, all the elements of a good story, but nothing gels. And then there's the Myrkha.
The Twin Dilemma (Colin Baker, 1984, 4 ep) - Worst Doctor Debut story ever. Start of a long, sad decline.
The Mark of the Rani (Colin Baker, 1985, 2 45-min ep) - She sets a trap that turns people into trees. Trees. As if the acting wasn't wooden enough already.
The Two Doctors (Colin Baker, 1985, 3 45-min ep) - Unrelentingly grim, intentionally and unintentionally.
Timelash (Colin Baker, 1985, 2 45 min ep) - famously spells "Lame Shit." Sums it up nicely.
Time and the Rani (McCoy, 1987, 4 ep) - Worst Doctor Debut story since... the previous one.
Silver Nemesis (McCoy, 1988, 3 ep) - Cybermen vs Neo-Nazis vs oh god make it stop.
          Re: Keith family in Kenya   
As Kenya was a Colony it came under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office, so the European public servants like prison officers would probably have been employed by the Colonial Office. This was merged into the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1960s?). They have recently dispersed their library and records to a variety of places, including the National Archives, but if you google Foreign and Commonwealth Office Library there is a lot of information about what went where and, I understand, they still have a small unit which can give some information or point you in the right direction. Might be worth a look. You could also look at the South African records to see if you can find a birth for Jessie.
          The Ant and the Grasshopper   
The Ant and the Grasshopper
author: Amy Lowry Poole
name: Melissa
average rating: 3.65
book published: 2000
rating: 5
read at:
date added: 2011/04/06
shelves: acceptance, admirations, animals, preparations, rivalries, sharing, sticking-together, standing-up-for-yourself, conflict
review:
This short story is one that I read with a group of 2nd graders. We all enjoyed it. We liked the illustrations and the story line. It is about a colony of ants and one very lazy grasshopper. The ants work hard all winter to gather their food they will need. The grasshopper does not. He is too busy goofing off and have fun. When winter comes around, the ants have all the food and shelter they need. The grasshopper on the other hand was freezing and hungry. He is too busy goofing off and having fun. They all seemed to understand the concept very well because when I asked them clarifying questions about the story, they could answer them. Along with 2nd graders, I think this would be a great story for K-3rd grade.

          1 killed, 3 injured in cross-LoC firing by Indian troops   

A man was killed and three others, including a woman, injured in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) as Indian forces opened fire from across the Line of Control (LoC) on Wednesday, local police said.

The casualties occurred in the Nakyal sector in southern Kotli district after shelling began in the area at about 3:30pm, with Indian troops using small arms, automatic weapons and mortars, according to local officials.

Abdul Wahab, son of Haji Razzaq, was hit by shrapnel from a mortar shell when he was on his way to Dothilla village, which lies along the restive LoC, police official Khurshid Ahmed told Dawn.

The 22-year old victim, who ran a shop in Nakyal bazar, died on the spot, he added.

Elsewhere, Mohammad Shakil, 25, was injured in Balakot, Asif Mahmood, 28, was injured in Mohra Gimb and Safeera Bibi, 32, was injured in Bohail Colony.

They were hospitalised in District Headquarters Hospital Kotli, police official Idrees Ahmed told Dawn.

“The shelling was so intense that people could not evacuate their injured persons to the nearest health facility for a long time,” he said.

“It continued till evening, intermittently, but has stopped now,” added an official who spoke to Dawn at 8:30pm.

Military sources and locals told Dawn that Pakistani troops “effectively” responded to Indian shelling.

Indian troops also resorted to small arms fire in Chakothi sector in Jhelum valley district, but there was no report of any “major losses” from there, according to Deputy Commissioner Abdul Hamid Kiani.

The heavily militarised LoC that splits the disputed Himalayan region of Kashmir between Pakistan and India has been tense for quite some time.

Last casualties were also reported from Nakyal sector on June 22, when a woman and a young girl were injured in Indian shelling.

Earlier, two men were injured in the Samahni sector of Bhimber district on June 15.

Prior to that, two teenagers were killed and three others injured in the Tatta Pani sector of Kotli district on June 12.


          How Poems Work #7 - Rob Taylor on Daniel Karasik's "The Pilgrim Looks Up"   
The Pilgrim Looks Up – Daniel Karasik

Of a book I read last week, on the theme of memory,
I’ve forgotten everything, except for a brief description
of how the narrator, on returning to his Tyrolean childhood home,
was remembered by acquaintances of his early years
for his habit of always,
upon stepping outdoors, looking up
to observe the sky’s condition.

When travelling
I too have often done this.

On the African coast, in harmattan season,
the sky would stay so perpetually hazed
that no amount of looking would make that pilgrim’s art
make sense.

A proud, even a hostile sky,
as I remember it: so utterly unwilling to reveal itself.
For three months I could look at nothing else.


When I approached Daniel Karasik with a request to republish his poem "The Pilgrim Looks Up" on One Ghana, One Voice, I mentioned that I was also considering writing a “How Poems Work” essay on it. Daniel sent me a reply confirming he was happy to have the poem republished, and even went so far as to offer me his own take on a “How Poems Work” essay for “The Pilgrim Looks Up.” It was two words long: It doesn’t.

It was a surprising comment on a poem Karasik had chosen only months before to include in his first poetry collection, Hungry (Cormorant Books, 2013). One can probably chalk it up, in large part, to Karasik’s humility and good sense of humour. But I wouldn’t be surprised if he felt there was a little bit of truth to the statement, as well (a disappointing thought considering the excellence of the poem). I remember how quickly I turned on a few of my own darlings (only sometimes deservedly) after finally seeing them in publication in my first poetry collection. Set in their new home within a larger collection, some of them having until then gathered dust in a drawer for 5+ years, a few of my poems seemed out of place, unable to hold their own. And the poems most likely to disappoint me were the ones I was now most distant from, both in the length of time since I’d written them and the physical distance I’d put between the “me” of here and now and the “me” of then and there (hunched over my notebook, scrawling out first drafts).

Our feelings about poems, especially our own, are elusive and ever-changing. Over time and space we return to these texts, inevitably older and hopefully wiser, and they become new things, the wisdom contained within them growing or shrinking or transforming. The poems we read while travelling the world take on different import in our minds than the ones we read in the comfort of our living rooms. Our relationship with poems we read at 20 or 30 or 60 years old are fundamentally different because of that change.

So maybe Daniel was being humble. Maybe he was being serious. Possibly (probably, I suspect) a little of both. To ask him, though, would ruin the fun of speculation. And from what better vantage point can one consider “The Pilgrim Looks Up” than from one clouded in uncertainty?


“The Pilgrim Looks Up” is a meditation on uncertainty, specifically on the key ingredients that make our understandings of the world less-that-assured: memory, place and perspective. The triangular relationship between these three forces is built throughout the poem, with a particular emphasis on one or the other presented from stanza to stanza. Running through the poem, also, is the establishment and merger of two separate narratives: the story of the speaker of the poem (the “speaker” for the purposes of this essay) and the story of the book-within-a-poem’s narrator (the “book’s narrator”). All of this builds to Karasik’s conclusions, on how we live in and embody uncertainty, in the closing fourth stanza.

Right from the first line, Karasik inserts his theme of “memory” into the poem. He does this by injecting it into the (fictitious?) book his speaker had been reading the week before the poem’s “action” takes place. Specifically, he brings in the theme of memory’s evasiveness – how most of what we experience slips away, leaving only touchstones (which themselves may not necessarily be “accurate"). In this case it is the book’s narrator’s habit of “looking up / to observe the sky’s condition” that remains in the minds of his childhood acquaintances. It is a habit that the speaker will come to embody by the end of the poem, as the meta-story creeps steadily into the poem’s central narrative.

The second stanza, a single brief sentence over two lines, performs an essential function. It propels the lives of the speaker and the book’s narrator further toward one another (both are “travelling”) and in so doing establishes that a sense of place and placelessness (a sense most clearly highlighted when one travels) is a concern not just of the book’s narrator, returning to his Tyrolean home, but also a direct concern of the speaker.

The third stanza provides for us the speaker’s place of travel, “the African coast,” and introduces the touchstone memory of the speaker’s story: the dust-filled harmattan sky. This touchstone fits well with the touchstone of the book’s narrator’s story – “looking up / to observe the sky’s condition” – preparing us for the closing fourth stanza, and the full merger of the two storylines. The third stanza also aggressively introduces new perspectives into the poem, which play with how we are to see, and approach, the poem. Until now, all we’ve known about the poem’s location is that it probably isn’t set in Tyrol (an international region in the Alps that includes both the state of North Tyrol in Austria and the province of South Tyrol in Italy), which seems “outside” the speaker’s world – a far off place read about in a book. But in stanza three we are not only given our first grounded place within the speaker’s world, “the African coast,” but also a clear perspective from which to view it: outside. “On the African coast… the sky would stay…”. We are viewing Africa from a distance, both of time and place (that place, I assume, being the Western world).[1]

Harmattan, West Africa
(Photo Source)
And yet a twist is thrown into that structure by the introduction of the word harmattan.[2] Harmattan is such a foreign concept to Western audiences that the word itself is underscored by a red squiggly line each time I type it into my North American word processor. (Do you mean Marmaton? it asks when I right-click – my word processor knows the name of a tributary of Kansas' Little Osage River, but not the name for a major recurring environmental event which affects the lives of hundreds of millions of people annually). Here in Karasik’s poem, though, harmattan is mentioned without explanation. And in making that choice, Karasik welcomes in another perspective to the poem: the West African insider, the person for whom “harmattan” does not need quotes or italics or a red squiggly line. The poem is instantaneously shot into this new moment and place, as if the author is saying “We all know what’s going on here. If you feel left out, you can Google it.”
Marmaton River, Kansas, USA


The poem also enters, in this moment, into dialogue with the volume of West African poems written on the subject of the harmattan, and some of the dominant themes such poems often embody – confusion, mystery, deprivation of one sort or another.[3]

So here in stanza three we reach the height of the poem’s kaleidoscoping perspectives: we see from the vantage point of the speaker, reading a book; then the book’s narrator, travelling to Tyrol; then the book’s narrator’s Tyrolean acquaintances, remembering back; then the speaker travelling “away”; then the speaker in place, the “away” becoming the “here”, the language assumed and comfortable. We are speaker, narrator, acquaintance, foreigner, native.

It should be noted that for all these locales and perspectives, most of which are affixed to particular geographic places, Karasik’s language avoids specificity. The childhood home is “Tyrolean,” which could refer to any number of specific places on either side of the Austrian-Italian border; the location for the harmattan is simply “the African coast.” Bearing the outside knowledge that Karasik once lived in Accra, one can assume that the poem is situated there. In the version of Karasik's poem “A Wrapping Ceremony” which appears in Hungry, Karasik doesn’t shy away from adding a locational tag as an epigraph to the poem in order to specifically locate the events in Ghana. Yet here he resists that impulse, and instead goes as far as to even strip the “West” off of “West Africa,” making it appear the poem could be situated anywhere on the continent (though, of course, most of Africa is harmattan-free). This seems to be an intentional choice of Karasik’s: to keep the exact locales of the poem, the exact places and perspectives and memories, as hazy as the harmattan sky itself. To keep us unfixed and borderless, as both travel and the harmattan encourage.


In the closing stanza Karasik merges the two narratives, and the two characters, in the poem. The “pilgrim” of the book and the “pilgrim” that is the speaker become one through their common motion: the speaker looks up into the harmattan sky “so unwilling to reveal itself.” The poem about reading a book about memory becomes a poem that has fully absorbed the book and become simply about the core thing – memory itself.

As the two characters become one in that closing image, our perspective, as readers, becomes clear as well. We find ourselves watching the speaker watching the sky, we as readers positioned both outside the speaker’s world and somewhat present in it, viewing the speaker through the very haze that he/she is staring up at. A triangular relationship is formed between the reader, the speaker and the harmattan, mirroring the triangular relationship between memory, place and perspective that has been explored in the poem.

But Karasik doesn’t simply leave us with these observations and connections as neutral thoughts – the speaker specifically ends the poem emphasizing how fascinating he finds all this fog and forgetting and uncertainty, essentially prodding us to be fascinated by it ourselves. And when we do that, the questions posed by the poem come spilling out: What are we looking at when we look into the haze of memory, mired as it is in different perspectives, cultures, and histories? Can we see a memory from different angles, once it’s been made? If memory is reduced to touchstones, can it ever be expanded again? What can we see? What can we know? What of our experiences can we really retain? What can we retell?

Memory fades. Perspective is always limited. Travel for insight alone is ultimately fraught. In the end all our efforts result in some kind of imperfection, some level of failure. This, of course, brings in the alternate reading of the poem’s last line: “I could look at nothing else,” not because the speaker was fascinated, but because he had no other choice. The harmattan would not permit another way of looking. Regardless of all this thinking on the matter, the outcome is the same. Everything results in haze, in harmattan. To some extent the answer to the question “How does it work?” is always It doesn’t. But, as Karasik asserts, each morning we inevitably step out the door and look up nonetheless, fascinated pilgrims that we are.









[1] The common thought here being that any inter-continental dialogue between Africa (especially English speaking Africa) and an outside force occurs with “the West,” most often Europe. As Ngugi wa Thiong’o put it recently on the Chimurenga blog:

The links between Asia and Africa and South America have always been present but in our times they have been made invisible by the fact that Europe is still the central mediator of Afro-Asian-Latino discourse… In my case, I had always assumed that my intellectual and social formation was tied to England and Europe, with no meaningful connection to Asia and South America. There was a reason. I wrote in English. My literary heroes were English. Kenya being a British colony, I had learnt the geography and history of England as the central reference in my widening view of the world. Even our anti-colonial resistance assumed Europe as the point of contest; it was we, Africa, against them, Europe.

This is changing, of course, with Asia’s steady advancement in Africa. But for now, and for the purposes of this poem, the presence of the West-Africa dynamic seems a fair assumption.

[2] For unfamiliar readers, the harmattan is a seasonal West African trade wind which blows dust from the Sahara down into the Gulf of Guinea. You can read other OGOV poems about the harmattan here.

[3] For a classic sample, read Kwesi Brew's "The Dry Season".


Rob Taylor is the editor and co-founder of One Ghana, One Voice.

          Peran Gereja Katolik Dalam Penanggulangan Kemiskinan   
Indonesian Catholic
Partner in eradicating poverty
Vera Wenny Soemarwi

1. Introduction
Right after the Independence war and after the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia, the Indonesian Catholics, from December 7 -12, 1949 held the first national meeting in Yogyakarta, the capital city of the new republic. In this first national meeting, known as Kongress Umat Katolik Seluruh Indonesia (KUKSI) – All Indonesian Catholics Congress, there was a strong awareness that after the termination of the Dutch colony, our new common enemy was poverty.

In many ways the Catholics tried to struggle against poverty in every kind of forms. Since the beginning, in every hart of a believer has been planted a vocation that helping those who are in need is a worship; it is called social worship. Helping the poor is an expression of loving Jesus Christ, who loved the poor in such a way that He identified Himself with the poor, the least, as said “‘I tell you the truth, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me” (Matthew 25:40).

Going to church and praying are expressions of faith but helping those who are in need, regardless their religious and ethnic back ground, is an actualization of faith; both are complementary.

2. The Option for the Poor
The Roman Catholic involvement especially in Indonesia in spirit of option to the poor based on at belief in God that all lives of Jesus is devoted to impecunious and maltreated people.
So that you could share your bread for starving one who and bring to your home the poor that has no house and if you see naked people, so that you give him/her clothes and not hide out to your brother by it self. (Isaiah 58:7)
Jesus answered: "If you want to be perfect, go, sell all your possessions and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in Heaven. Then come, follow Me." (Matthew 19:21)
As it is written: "He has scattered abroad his gift to the poor; his righteousness endures forever." (Corinthian 9:9)



3. Organizational Background in Indonesia
The Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia is founded in a Universal legal form of Catholic Church. Duty execution of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia is executed by Presidium in charge to accomplish and observe execution of Annual General Meeting attended by the members’. The Annual General Meeting decides annual programs, policies, accepting annual reports of its commissions and also releases tentative guidelines.

Its duty is implemented by Secretariat General that is Conference body; itemize conference duty to accomplish the objectives of the conference in executing conference’s policies under observation of the Presidium. Daily operational duty is carried out by Executive Secretary of the Conference and in collaboration with the Secretary of the Commissions. Secretary Commissions function is leading and coordinating the implementations of the duties.

The Roles of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia as a coordinating body as:

1. animator: it is given services by pastoral policy in accordance with its commissions/its secretariats and has to form the animation by visiting to the Archdioceses’ or Dioceses’ commission related and also organs related;

2. coordinator: it is given services by pastoral policy in accordance with its commissions/its secretariats and performing meetings as well as to be linked to national level, either through internal or external;

3. facilitator: it is given amenities’ services by pastoral policy in accordance with its commission/its secretariat, and providing available of information sources of commission/secretariats;

4. motivator: it is given service by pastoral policy in accordance with its commission/its secretarial such as the character of verbal-written, magazine, bulletin, pastoral note, and leaflet.


The vision of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia is to cooperate with God and humanity to actualize God’s love in Indonesia, so that human life becomes real gladness; joy based on safety that comes from God.

The Mission of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia to the Roman Catholics is to cooperate with believers in order to be ready to accept pastoral work of shepherds, in order to be taught and educated in esteeming the value of human life as early as possible. They can practice their worship with their pure hurt. The coming of the realization of God’s love can sense in really on their life.

The mission of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia to the Indonesian society is in cooperation with community tries to more readily accept and develop values of God’s love, so it is growing and becomes society that open to God and humanity, society that its members enlightened with intelligence and conscience and well-educated, society that peaceful, fair, equivalent, bound in real brotherhood, society that involve democratic values and braided with dialogical and creative communication, so those in discharged experiences of liberation bases its human dignity and values.


4. The Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia Program for and with the Poor
The Bishops' Conference Office in Jakarta has several commissions dealing with humanitarian concerns. This includes: the Justice and Peace Commission, the Commission for Gender Concern, the Migrants and Itinerants Commission, the Commission of Social Communication, the Commission for Socio Economic Development, and the Commission for the Laity and Youth. These commissions are replicated at the diocesan level. The Bishops' Conference is developing a National level Karina (Caritas Indonesia), which will become the main coordinating body of the Catholic Church humanitarian response.

Of the many commissions of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia, PSE (Social Economic Development Commission) is a commission that functions as the Social Pastoral Apostolate of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia. PSE provides a humanitarian response and social care, particularly in the socio-economic development field for all communities throughout Indonesia.
One of the program for the farmer and fishermen carried out by Community of Farmer and Fishermen coordinated by Ganjuran, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Archdiocese of Semarang in related to United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization is focus on securing and improving food production that oriented by environmental protection. By educating farmer and fishermen how to manage the income and production as well as how to prevent failure on their production, cultivating organic fertilizer, cultivating agriculture seed as well as seed to fish farmer, cultivating fish-net as well as fishing boat to the fishermen.

The program for students is carried out Commission of Education as well as Crisis and Reconciliation Service. By granting scholarship to poor students regardless of religion and ethnic, the Bishops’ hopes that the economic condition of students and its family will improve in the future.

In improving socio economic condition of the communities, the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia through Socio Economic Development Commission founded Credit Union. The values of Credit Union are three sectors: education, self supporting, and solidarity. In Credit Union contains elementary body: cooperative ('koperasi'), bank, and insurance. As the 'koperasi' there is characteristic that stake holders are members; there is education and training; place for borrowing capital and develop wealth. As the bank, it can be looked at well-provided financial management system. And as the insurance, it can give guarantee to member.

The Crisis and Reconciliation Service of the Bishop's Conference of Indonesia (Pelayanan Krisis dan Rekonsiliasi Konferensi Waligereja Indonesia [PKR-KWI]) was officially established by the Catholic Bishops of Indonesia on January 7, 1999. Its focus was to respond to conflict victims as well as survivors in Indonesia since 1997 including Aceh. After the tsunami and earthquakes affecting both Aceh and Nias, PKR-KWI became a significant instrument of the Indonesian Catholic Community to deal with the ensuing emergency relief needs. In Aceh, PKR-KWI works primarily with SEFA though there is also a cooperative relationship with the Humanitarian Volunteer Network (JRK) and the other local Volunteers network. SEFA (Save Emergency for Aceh) is a humanitarian organization, which was established on September 11, 1999, in response to the worsening humanitarian condition in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). SEFA’s work encompasses the following sectors: Emergency, Medical, Educational, Economic, Scholarship, and Documentation and Information. In Nias PKR-KWI works with the SCMM religious sisters, the ALMA sisters working in the social institution Perkasih, and the local church network.

KARINA-KWI was legally established on May 17, 2006 to act as the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia (KWI)’s humanitarian foundation. In time, it will become the main coordinating body of the Catholic Church and will respond to, and, provide relief services to all forms of natural and man-made disasters, address issues on violation of human rights, conflicts, gender, social injustices and act as an organization that enhances capacity-building for all 37 dioceses in Indonesia.

However, just a few days after its birth on May 17,2006, another devastating natural disaster occurred, The earthquake in Yogyakarta, Central Java. KARINA-KWI had to respond to too many natural disasters in the country. Tsunami in Pangandaran and Cilacap, Karina-KWI had provided emergency respond by distributing logistic, food, health assistance, building temporary shelter; livelihood by providing fisherman boats and fish-net. Earthquake in Yogyakarta, Karina has provided emergency respond by distributing logistic, food, health assistance, building temporary shelter; livelihood by providing capital loan, scholarship to the poor students, community base rehabilitation for spinal court injuries patients, and microfinance; reconstruction by rebuilding schools. Jakarta flood in 2007, East Java and Central Java flood in the ends 2007- the beginning of 2008, Karina-KWI had provided emergency respond by distributing logistic, food nutrition for baby and pregnant women, health assistance, and school equipments.

5. Closing

The Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia, Archdioceses, Dioceses, Religious Congregations, and Catholic foundations will be continued to reduce poverty in Indonesia. All above programs mentions are carried out by not only the commissions at the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia but also Commissions at the Archdioceses, Dioceses, Religious Congregations, as well as Catholic foundations. Above all it is a glimpse of Indonesian Catholic Communities in their participation in reducing poverty. Option to the poor is the spirit and our main focus.


Jakarta, May 27, 2008
          The Role of Indonesian Catholic in Eradicating Poverty   
Indonesian Catholic
Partner in eradicating poverty
Vera Wenny Soemarwi

1. Introduction
Right after the Independence war and after the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia, the Indonesian Catholics, from December 7 -12, 1949 held the first national meeting in Yogyakarta, the capital city of the new republic. In this first national meeting, known as Kongress Umat Katolik Seluruh Indonesia (KUKSI) – All Indonesian Catholics Congress, there was a strong awareness that after the termination of the Dutch colony, our new common enemy was poverty.

In many ways the Catholics tried to struggle against poverty in every kind of forms. Since the beginning, in every hart of a believer has been planted a vocation that helping those who are in need is a worship; it is called social worship. Helping the poor is an expression of loving Jesus Christ, who loved the poor in such a way that He identified Himself with the poor, the least, as said “‘I tell you the truth, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me” (Matthew 25:40).

Going to church and praying are expressions of faith but helping those who are in need, regardless their religious and ethnic back ground, is an actualization of faith; both are complementary.

2. The Option for the Poor
The Roman Catholic involvement especially in Indonesia in spirit of option to the poor based on at belief in God that all lives of Jesus is devoted to impecunious and maltreated people.
So that you could share your bread for starving one who and bring to your home the poor that has no house and if you see naked people, so that you give him/her clothes and not hide out to your brother by it self. (Isaiah 58:7)

Jesus answered: "If you want to be perfect, go, sell all your possessions and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in Heaven. Then come, follow Me." (Matthew 19:21)
As it is written: "He has scattered abroad his gift to the poor; his righteousness endures forever." (Corinthian 9:9)



3. Organizational Background in Indonesia
The Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia is founded in a Universal legal form of Catholic Church. Duty execution of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia is executed by Presidium in charge to accomplish and observe execution of Annual General Meeting attended by the members’. The Annual General Meeting decides annual programs, policies, accepting annual reports of its commissions and also releases tentative guidelines.

Its duty is implemented by Secretariat General that is Conference body; itemize conference duty to accomplish the objectives of the conference in executing conference’s policies under observation of the Presidium. Daily operational duty is carried out by Executive Secretary of the Conference and in collaboration with the Secretary of the Commissions. Secretary Commissions function is leading and coordinating the implementations of the duties.

The Roles of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia as a coordinating body as:
1. animator: it is given services by pastoral policy in accordance with its commissions/its secretariats and has to form the animation by visiting to the Archdioceses’ or Dioceses’ commission related and also organs related;

2. coordinator: it is given services by pastoral policy in accordance with its commissions/its secretariats and performing meetings as well as to be linked to national level, either through internal or external;

3. facilitator: it is given amenities’ services by pastoral policy in accordance with its commission/its secretariat, and providing available of information sources of commission/secretariats;

4. motivator: it is given service by pastoral policy in accordance with its commission/its secretarial such as the character of verbal-written, magazine, bulletin, pastoral note, and leaflet.


The vision of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia is to cooperate with God and humanity to actualize God’s love in Indonesia, so that human life becomes real gladness; joy based on safety that comes from God.

The Mission of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia to the Roman Catholics is to cooperate with believers in order to be ready to accept pastoral work of shepherds, in order to be taught and educated in esteeming the value of human life as early as possible. They can practice their worship with their pure hurt. The coming of the realization of God’s love can sense in really on their life.

The mission of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia to the Indonesian society is in cooperation with community tries to more readily accept and develop values of God’s love, so it is growing and becomes society that open to God and humanity, society that its members enlightened with intelligence and conscience and well-educated, society that peaceful, fair, equivalent, bound in real brotherhood, society that involve democratic values and braided with dialogical and creative communication, so those in discharged experiences of liberation bases its human dignity and values.


4. The Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia Program for and with the Poor
The Bishops' Conference Office in Jakarta has several commissions dealing with humanitarian concerns. This includes: the Justice and Peace Commission, the Commission for Gender Concern, the Migrants and Itinerants Commission, the Commission of Social Communication, the Commission for Socio Economic Development, and the Commission for the Laity and Youth. These commissions are replicated at the diocesan level. The Bishops' Conference is developing a National level Karina (Caritas Indonesia), which will become the main coordinating body of the Catholic Church humanitarian response.

Of the many commissions of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia, PSE (Social Economic Development Commission) is a commission that functions as the Social Pastoral Apostolate of the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia. PSE provides a humanitarian response and social care, particularly in the socio-economic development field for all communities throughout Indonesia.
One of the program for the farmer and fishermen carried out by Community of Farmer and Fishermen coordinated by Ganjuran, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Archdiocese of Semarang in related to United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization is focus on securing and improving food production that oriented by environmental protection. By educating farmer and fishermen how to manage the income and production as well as how to prevent failure on their production, cultivating organic fertilizer, cultivating agriculture seed as well as seed to fish farmer, cultivating fish-net as well as fishing boat to the fishermen.

The program for students is carried out Commission of Education as well as Crisis and Reconciliation Service. By granting scholarship to poor students regardless of religion and ethnic, the Bishops’ hopes that the economic condition of students and its family will improve in the future.

In improving socio economic condition of the communities, the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia through Socio Economic Development Commission founded Credit Union. The values of Credit Union are three sectors: education, self supporting, and solidarity. In Credit Union contains elementary body: cooperative ('koperasi'), bank, and insurance. As the 'koperasi' there is characteristic that stake holders are members; there is education and training; place for borrowing capital and develop wealth. As the bank, it can be looked at well-provided financial management system. And as the insurance, it can give guarantee to member.

The Crisis and Reconciliation Service of the Bishop's Conference of Indonesia (Pelayanan Krisis dan Rekonsiliasi Konferensi Waligereja Indonesia [PKR-KWI]) was officially established by the Catholic Bishops of Indonesia on January 7, 1999. Its focus was to respond to conflict victims as well as survivors in Indonesia since 1997 including Aceh. After the tsunami and earthquakes affecting both Aceh and Nias, PKR-KWI became a significant instrument of the Indonesian Catholic Community to deal with the ensuing emergency relief needs. In Aceh, PKR-KWI works primarily with SEFA though there is also a cooperative relationship with the Humanitarian Volunteer Network (JRK) and the other local Volunteers network. SEFA (Save Emergency for Aceh) is a humanitarian organization, which was established on September 11, 1999, in response to the worsening humanitarian condition in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). SEFA’s work encompasses the following sectors: Emergency, Medical, Educational, Economic, Scholarship, and Documentation and Information. In Nias PKR-KWI works with the SCMM religious sisters, the ALMA sisters working in the social institution Perkasih, and the local church network.

KARINA-KWI was legally established on May 17, 2006 to act as the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia (KWI)’s humanitarian foundation. In time, it will become the main coordinating body of the Catholic Church and will respond to, and, provide relief services to all forms of natural and man-made disasters, address issues on violation of human rights, conflicts, gender, social injustices and act as an organization that enhances capacity-building for all 37 dioceses in Indonesia.

However, just a few days after its birth on May 17,2006, another devastating natural disaster occurred, The earthquake in Yogyakarta, Central Java. KARINA-KWI had to respond to too many natural disasters in the country. Tsunami in Pangandaran and Cilacap, Karina-KWI had provided emergency respond by distributing logistic, food, health assistance, building temporary shelter; livelihood by providing fisherman boats and fish-net. Earthquake in Yogyakarta, Karina has provided emergency respond by distributing logistic, food, health assistance, building temporary shelter; livelihood by providing capital loan, scholarship to the poor students, community base rehabilitation for spinal court injuries patients, and microfinance; reconstruction by rebuilding schools. Jakarta flood in 2007, East Java and Central Java flood in the ends 2007- the beginning of 2008, Karina-KWI had provided emergency respond by distributing logistic, food nutrition for baby and pregnant women, health assistance, and school equipments.

5. Closing
The Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia, Archdioceses, Dioceses, Religious Congregations, and Catholic foundations will be continued to reduce poverty in Indonesia. All above programs mentions are carried out by not only the commissions at the Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia but also Commissions at the Archdioceses, Dioceses, Religious Congregations, as well as Catholic foundations. Above all it is a glimpse of Indonesian Catholic Communities in their participation in reducing poverty. Option to the poor is the spirit and our main focus.


Jakarta, May 27, 2008
          Saving the Bees   

A Langstroth HiveIt's a bit late for them to be taking notice but the Obama administration deserves credit for worrying about bees. Honey bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a truly critical national problem. From a grass roots perspective one might wish that the administration's recent Presidential Memorandum on pollinators had explicitly mentioned the possibility of creating programs to encourage urban hobbyist beekeepers but I think the wording of the Memorandum gives agencies enough flexibility to consider the option. As it happens, by the way, these days one doesn't need to become an expert on bees in order to have a hive. If you want, private services will install and manage a hive for you. In the DC area, for example, Eco Honeybees will be happy to set you up. Although DC has extremely restrictive regulations regarding urban beekeeping it apparently doesn't enforce them. And despite its ill-informed regulatory environment DC has become something of a national hub for innovative beekeeping. I've had a hive on order from Eco Honeybees for a couple of months and I can't wait for the bees to arrive!


          Tower of Wood: The EY Center | FJMT   

Arch2O.com
Arch2O.com - Architecture & Design Magazine

Tower of Wood: The EY Center At the heart of this project are both workplace design and city making. We have sought to make a building that reinterprets and honors the uniqueness and history of this place, positioned at the edge of Sydney’s Tank-Stream (the first water source of the colony of New South Wales). […]

The post Tower of Wood: The EY Center | FJMT appeared first on Arch2O.com.


          Custom built BSD Raider   
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Area: Avalon Peninsula
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          Episode 121: The Hateful Eight & The Revenant - Pop Culture Leftovers   
This week the Leftovers talk about The Hateful Eight and The Revenant.  Jake also gives us his review of Sicario and Jason talks about the new USA series Colony.   Share this:
          Blog Post: Epic Sci Fi shooter/RPG and fascinating intergalactic encyclopedia in one.    

Mass Effect 2 isn't the best RPG I've played but it's the best shooter I've played.Mass Effect 2 isn't just a game but it's an entertaining fictional intergalactic encyclopedia because it's codex provides detailed information about history/cultural aspects of all the different alien races and about wars that have happened between certain races and how certain races first encountered other races.It will also teach you about extinct races and about races that were around tens of thousands of years ago.When you travel to different planets,you'll be shown data such as the population of the planet,and info about it's size,surface temperature,how long it takes to orbit it's star,it's day length,what materials/gases the planet is made out of and it's very fascinating.The encyclopedia(codex)will even explain about flora and fauna that are native to particular worlds.

Mass Effect's story begins in epic fashion and once again you'll be using captain Shepard and will be trying to save the galaxy from alien beings known as 'Reapers' who show up every few thousand years and try to destroy all life in the galaxy.But it's not only the Reapers who are the problem,because a powerful insectoid-like race known as 'Collectors' serve the Reapers and the Collectors are going around to different colonies and when they do,every every person from those colonies disappear(yes,entire colonies are being wiped/disappearing when the collectors show up at the colony's planet!).

Shepard starts working for a human-run company known as 'Cerebrus' because Shepard owes his life to Cerebrus and Cerebrus want to stop the collectors/reapers and have a good amount of knowledge about the collectors which is crucial for surviving an attack on the collector's base and to find where the collectors come from.However,Cerebrus are looked at as being an evil organization because they've been guilty of doing some horrific things in the past and you'll learn what they are when you play the game.

Besides Shepard,there's other characters you'll meet who will either join your party or be interesting NPCs and some of these party members/NPCs will be familiar faces from the first Mass Effect game.Your party members and the NPCs will be from a good number of different,diverse races and genders.Some of the party members are humans who are loyal to Cerebrus or who have suffered greatly from the evil things Cerebrus has done.Where as some of the other party members are aliens who who come from very interesting and diverse cultures which greatly affects their personalities and mannerisms.The physical appearances of the aliens are very detailed and creative,such as a race of aliens who wear breathing apparatus,as well as a race of aliens named 'Krogan' who look like giant,amphibious toad things and often have boarish manners and are often violent,as well as a race of skinny,long headed,intelligent,good with computers/science,fast speaking aliens known as 'salarians' and other aliens with scaly skin or yellow,green,blue skin(some races have very bright colored skin).

What also makes the characters interesting is they have deep backstories to reveal and not only will you get to learn about their culture/backstory,there is times when you can or will have to involve yourself in their backstory and their race's political affairs,which means you'll need to travel to the planet that particular alien comes from and help them with problems they have with other people of their race.Or the backstories can be purely personal but not politically or racially related and can be quite emotional or make you want to help that character.Also,when you're trying to help out an alien party member,saying or doing certain things to members of their race could result in bad things happening to that alien character because their race will have a different way they look at logic or different moral values which humans are used to as well as different or more extreme ways they punish people from their race.

The story is often neither black or white and sometimes you will have to make decisions which are neither black or white and can be seen as good or evil decisions and sometimes your party members will have conflicting opinions about things and will argue with eachother you can choose which character to side with or be neutral and you can allow/assist a party member to get revenge or prevent them from doing something evil to get revenge against somebody who did something bad to them or to protect their family members.

As for the gameplay,during combat it's very much like a third-person cover shooter.You'll need to get behind cover to avoid being shot and killed.You'll need to find ammo for your guns.The shootouts can be intense and having good accuracy and reaction time is very important.The shootouts can reward you for being tactical because you can order each party member to move to a certain place on the battle area to draw the attention of enemies so you can sneak up on enemies from side-on.

I choose to play as the soldier class who specializes with guns.But there is other classes which allow your character to use biotics in combat,which are Mass Effect's version of spells and their biotic abilities can do things such as lifting up enemies in the air using gravity and crushing their body or disabling the shields of enemies.Even though the soldier doesn't have biotic abilities,he can do special types of gunshots which can greatly damage an enemy with one shot or freeze an enemy and kill them with one shot(your gunfire will shatter their frozen body and kill them easily).

The game has RPG elements such as being able to level up and choose which stats of your character you want to increase,as well as selecting what you want to say to your party members which affects your relationship with them and can lead to romance or allow you to have sex with certain party members but saying something a character doesn't like or not doing enough to make them happy or aroused can ruin your chances of creating romance or a sexual encounter with that character.Making the right decision to create romance or a sexual encounter or making the wrong decision to ruin your chances of creating romance of a sexual encounter are not as clear cut as you might think)and certain decisions you make can cause certain characters to die(not just your party members but some NPC's as well)and making a decision to stop characters from dying isn't as easy as you might think.Some characters flirt a lot in very descriptive sexual ways which makes the sexual inneundo in the Ar Tonelico games look mild.

I like how your party members and some NPCs can constantly have new things to talk about as the story progresses.The story can be emotional when certain characters die and the story becomes very intense and exciting near the end of the game.

However,the gameplay is not perfect because there's long loading times when you want to travel to different parts of your starship,as well a slight unresponsiveness for the cover mechanics when you want to make Shepard get behind cover.In my first playthrough,I had to reload the game twice due to glitches.One of them was the game froze up.The second one was my party members kept shooting at nothing and wouldn't move and kept shooting and I couldn't progress through the mission.Even though it was only 2 times I had to reload the game in a 30 hour experience,it's still frustrating having to redo gameplay sections.

Some of the environments in the game have so much atmosphere such as a beautiful metropolis on an alien world that has lots of flying cars flying around,or a world that's an industrial wasteland with powerful gusts of wind blowing across it's surface and some space stations have dance clubs,some of which look like they might be red light district style because feminine looking Asari aliens will be doing seductive dances in front of male patrons while wearing revealing clothing but some dance clubs look like they're places just to get a drink and dance and have nice looking hologram lighting effects on the walls.You also will or can travel to planets with very hot temperatures and stormy atmospheres or tropical planets as well as a variety of other styles of locations.

The cinematics show beautiful footage of space station exterior or beautiful footage of cities with flying cars or regions of space with nebula clouds and some of the cinematics can be very exciting and intense to watch as emotional or epic events will unfold.

However,a few of the environments in the game have objects in which the surface of them will fade and come back and some objects fade and come back in the distace.There's other occasional graphical glitches such as dead enemies being stuck in the air or party members walking in the air.

The voice acting of Shepard suits him well.Miranda's Australian accent makes her more noticable.I like how the alien assassin in your party speaks very softly but very religiously/spiritually too.I thought the alien who wears the breathing apparatus has a bit of a weird,Eastern European sounding voice but because her voice is affected by the breathing apartatus it makes her more unique.I like how the Krogan speak with very rough voices and don't focus on manners when they speak.I like how the Salarians speak very fast and like intelligent creatures.

I like how the music doesn't overpower the gameplay too much but the title screen music is very intense and awesome and is used during the intense story moments and makes things feel more thrilling.You'll hear the flying cars going past and aliens and humans having interesting conversations about a variety of things(giving you an idea of what living in Mass Effect's multicultural future is like)and when you go to dance clubs you'll hear awesome music that has an electonic/techno sound to it.

Overall,Mass Effect 2 is an epic sci fi journey,one of the most detailed sci fi universe you'll experience and has a good mixture of TPS and RPG elements.


          Customer Service Rep- Furniture/ Interior Design   
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          John Lothrop Motley   

Summary:


{{Template}}
'''John Lothrop Motley''' (April 15, 1814 – May 29, 1877) was an American author, best known for his two popular histories ''[[The Rise of the Dutch Republic]]'' and ''The United Netherlands''. He was also a diplomat, who helped to prevent European intervention on the side of the [[Confederate States of America|Confederates]] in the [[American Civil War]].

== Selected works ==
* ''Morton's Hope, or the Memoirs of a Provincial'', 1839
* ''Life and Character of Peter the Great'' (''North American Review''), 1845
* ''On Balzac's Novels'' (''North American Review''), 1847
* ''Merry Mount, a Romance of the Massachusetts Colony'', 1849
* ''Polity of the Puritans'' (''North American Review''), 1849
* ''[[The Rise of the Dutch Republic]]'', 3 vol., 1856
* ''Florentine Mosaics'' (''Atlantic Monthly''), 1857
* ''History of the United Netherlands'', 4 vol., 1860–67
* ''Causes of the Civil War in America'' (from ''[[The Times]]''), 1861
* ''Historic Progress and American Democracy'', 1868
* ''Review of S. E. Henshaw's History of the Work of the North-West Sanitary Commission'' (''[[Atlantic Monthly]]''), 1868
* ''Democracy, the Climax of Political Progress and the Destiny of Advanced Races: an Historical Essay'', 1869. (Pamphlet reprint of "Historic Progress and American Democracy," listed atove.)
* ''The Life and Death of John of Barneveld'', 2 vol., 1874


{{GFDL}}

          NIGHT IN THE SUN (poems)   


Weldaghost /1

An Occurrence In Dead City /5
Gothko /8
Profession /9
Auto-Da-Fe (For Holly) /11
Short Bit, Young Money /14
Lao Tzu In German /15
Big Beer /17
Lack Toes /19
Night In The Sun /20

Chikurubi /23

Xateros /27
The Head of Zumbi /28
Land of Plenty /29
The Amazon /30
Feral To The Wiser /31
Sin Vivo /32
S.O.L. /34
Tiny Samadhi /35
Mun Man /36
Survival Is A Gothic Thing /38
Mangelina /39
The Pope of Morgues /40

The Five Senses /43

Porchtripper /49
The Earlene of Our Dreams /51
One Skilled In Care Would Let Be /53
No After /55
Two Paintings Two Men /57
John Elena McGrady /59
The Full F /61
Mascot Of The Floating World /63
Outs /65
J.G. Will Say It /67
Stadistics /68
The World Stable /70

A Dracula For Marechera /73

Svilva /77
Youngblood Eternal /79
Drawing /81
Spare Change (In The American Colony) /83
Little Factor /84
1.27.45 /85
The Selected Pests of Mao Zedong /86
Pineal Man /89
Mutiny In Heaven /91




          Escúchame   
An intertextual experiment with Queers Read This...

Life at its best is a space of utter chaos. Having no respect for those who traverse the margins.

Queers Read This: "How can I convey this reality? How can I convey that your life is in danger of seizing to exist? That everyday you wake up alive, relatively happy, and a functioning human being, you are committing a rebellious and deviant act. The very fact that you are alive, breathing, filling up space with your flesh and bones, and the reality that you feel emotions for another human being means that you are a revolutionary and you don’t exist."

There is nothing on this planet that validates, protects or encourages the existence of the borderland. Homosexuality is an invisible institution and the only reason you are spared is chance, intellect, or because machista rhetoric necessitates the presence of los otros—necesitan a alguien a ser la cogid@. Pero estamos los otros entre los otros: la jotería.

The jot@ is up and against a White heterosexist framework that imposes particular understandings of what it means to be a sexual body in this world. Within the Mexican@ and Chican@ cultural contexts, homosexuality does not exist. Sexual orientation is based solely on sexual positionality. Los activos pass through the machista framework and retain their privilege that is afforded to them—a privilege and power that is shaped and formed in schizophrenic response to White heterosexist hegemony. Los pasivos son de los otros. Son los cogidos, los maricones, los homosexuales. I employ the use of the category of la jotería to describe the sexual bodies that fuck back. To describe a consciousness that links our sexual bodies to queer temporalities that are rooted in our tradition from the spine of Frida, to the butchered Coyolxauhqui, to the rough tender voice of Chavela.

Where do we locate la jotería in the postcolony? La jotería functions as subversive intervention and a relentless critique of masculinist and colonial categories of body, space, and time. La jotería explores a sacred geography we are all too familiar with: the margins. As a category of sexual bodies that are absent from the conversation because of our embodied realities as brown and pink individuals, la jotería critiques the impositions of Western White hegemonic masculine discourses. It introduces a new language to talk about sexuality in the postcolony.

Queer and feminist theoretical frameworks have a long history of being, and often times continue to be, monolithic. Speaking in the language of White, Western, Christian hegemonic masculinist ideologies, that when imposed upon homosexuals and other gender deviants, morphs them into their own idealized image of sexual morality. Being that we are not all White, Western, Christian heterosexual men, certainly is of no importance in those particular narratives.

We are reminded, however, that as jot@s in the postcolony seek to challenge those constructions of sexual normalcy that define sexuality in own contexts. Our diversity is our strength in the face of the familiar, tyrannical colonial project to impose the monolithic, all-enveloping truths.

This is our manifesto como la jotería.

Es nuestro (mari)festo.

Those in the margins remain erased and excluded within the composition of the imagined nation called America. These groups think to overthrow the government, with such racist legislation as the SB 1070 bill and, and defy those who identity within the majority of America: The White heterosexist.

It is somewhat possible to theorize ways retaliate against a colonizing and racist system of government that imposes such legislation, however only through the assistance and adoption of those who are willing to resist and subvert societal ‘norms.’ But there’s still something at work preventing them form achieving their goals; that is, the invisibility of white privilege. Now, however, is the time to reveal and deconstruct the invisibility of white privilege and its monstrous creations. Expose to the world the constructed narratives that operate through the filters of White heterosexism—a product of the colonial encounter.

The White heterosexist is oblivious of their privilege trapped in their own world and incapable of empathizing with those who don’t share their power. They are isolated from reality and cannot relate to anything lacking assimilationist qualities. At best, they are lackluster beings trapped in little universes, constructed realities, feeling only positive emotions which can only be associated with people who look, think, and act like them. Homosocialism runs rampant in the construction of nation. Afraid to face the ‘real world’—whatever that is—they are only aware of what and who they are.

Overflowing with positive emotions and non-empathizing ways, the White heterosexist is only concerned about one thing: assimilation. They have no regret for destroying cultures and depleting people. SB 1070, HB 2281, Proposition 8: the blueprints for how to get rid of the ‘illegals,’ ‘incompatibles,’ deviant behaviors and ways of thinking. The disposing of our cultural histories and the celebration of our heritage como la jotería and the recognition of relationships, because all these cultural images of brown bodies and same-gender oriented bodies uniting are not the cultural images of what is American.

Since they lack the lens to see the world outside their imposed binaries of a ‘black and ‘white’ world, White heterosexist discourse seeks to eradicate any form of coloration seen in society because it is the only way they can deal with the endeavors of legislatively eliminating the those whose embodied realities resist the normative trajectories they hope to impost through said pieces of law. Living in a belief system to be rightfully theirs and seeking law enforcement to pave the path clear of any obstructions they might encounter in the purification of the nation.

La jotería no existe or at least will seize to exist within this imagined space we call nation. The nation allows the privilege of White heterosexist discourse to assume any position it wants in order to impose systems of assimilation and doctrines of erasure upon the society.

Until the nation can take responsibility for the invisibility of the privilege it possesses as a result of White heterosexism.

Try to understand their power.

Try to empathize with those who don’t share mutual access to power and those who dwell in the margins. Anzaldúa cries out for us to listen to what our jotería is saying. That’s when the queers of color can fight back and resist such heinous legislations and borders around what constitutes nation and citizen. To fight back against borders and normative boundaries that exterminate beautiful ways of living and people’s rich culture making our global context unique.

Where is our space and time? Where do we locate la jotería in the postcolony? Nation and family time dictates our urban spaces that force us into the bedroom así que nostros podemos coger como los otros. We are not white enough to be twinks, bears, daddies, etc. We are a commodity, a fetish, a genre of porn the White faggot jerks off to. We remain to be los otros entre los otros because we do not fit within the normative trajectories of what is LGBTQ in the American context. We are not Mexican@s or Chican@s because we are the pasivos that fuck back. Where is our time and space? We are entirely rejected and not brought into a shared experience in the queer temporalities already in place, nor are we participating in the brown temporalities and spaces because we belong to an institution that doesn’t exist.

Is our time and space a Queer Aztlán? Comadre — We cannot have a primitivist conception of time. Primitivism is characterized by returning to a natural state before corruption, a time to the best. Aztlán is still loaded with images of violence and homosexual degradation and humiliation, why do we still hold onto the romanticized image that this is our utopia? We remain betwixt and between, on the borderlands because we can’t go home. Anzaldúa talks about homophobia incorrectly being described as the fear of going home, but how appropriate of a concept. If we fear going back to our homeland and we fear living in this world, then what temporal space do we belong to?

We occupy the liminalities of sexuality. We need to traverse in the margins and only make them wide so that the content between them becomes smaller and smaller to the point that it doesn’t exist and all that’s left is blank space. The White (hetero)normative world attempts to eliminate us so why not eliminate it. I implore you to be the subversive entity that crosses the borders. Jump the fences of normative time and space and nation, and fill up the margins.
          Fragments of the Body, Queer Memory, and the Latin American Avant-Garde   
CADA (Colectivo Acciones de Arte), "No +" (No más)

This semester I have been engaging some very exciting and thoughtful conversations about theoretical and cultural development in Latin America with my colleagues in a seminar. Our focus on subaltern studies, (post)dictatorship, and (post)hegemony have really provided a bit of a theoretical foundation for the queer readings I want to bring to a Latin American theological representation of jotería subjects. As a result I have a few projects in the works that will tease out the relationship between these themes and queer theological studies.

I have been particularly struck by the development of the Latin American avant-garde. I believe the avant-garde opened a space for the inversion of signs and a moment of resistance to the normative trajectories and political systems in place that created an innumerable amount of marginal subjects. These historias remain in fragments though, and thus questions of memory are at the forefront of these conversations. In my recent reading of The Insubordination of Signs by Nelly Richard, I was drawn to the fact that the memory lost as a result of the military regime in Chile remains suppressed, if only because it would threaten the very fabric of political reconciliation whose entire premise was to put the past in the past. For Richard, all that remains are residues, “fragments of experience…no longer speakable in the language that survived the catastrophe of meaning” (5). I am interested in this idea of fragmentation as the after-effects of erasure and trauma. Richard describes how the military regime banished dissident voices and identities and prevented their representation, leaving them nameless and inexpressible. Those banished identities and narratives remain excluded in the post-dictatorship.

I am really interested in locating this within queer studies, where conversations about erasure and recovery of fragments of experience are key to many queer narratives and theory. I’m thinking of An Archive of Feelings by Ann Cvetokovich in particular, where she discusses a queer approach to trauma that examines the recovery of those experiences already embedded in an archive—an “archive of feelings” that she defines as “an exploration of cultural texts as repositories of feelings and emotions, which are encoded not only in the content of the texts themselves but in the practices that surround their production and reception” (7). Needless to say, in Latin America during many of these moments of dictatorship and military regimes, queer bodies were equally erased and became part of an invisible institution of other dissident bodies and voices. I am thus interested in the process of recovery and how that relates to the body: Does the body remember?

Richard writes,
Memories associated with the subaltern registers of the domestic and the popular, the urban, the feminine, and the biographical-erotic, entered as contraband into the upper regions of cultural representation, to contest the hierarchies of race, class, and gender fixing the scale of distinctions and privileges consecrated by traditional art (13).
Recovery is a form of disruption then, which is queer in nature. But how is fragmentation made whole again? Is the subaltern experience always a fragmented one? Richard is obviously not talking about queer discourses, but I think her work informs my own in terms of me thinking about how I locate the queer subject in Latin America. In a context where homosexuality is an invisible institution and only based on sexual positionality, where then do we locate same-sex desire in the postcolony? I wonder if Richard provides me with a historical context in which recovery of the fragments is happening. I just wonder if this recovery and remembrance reproduces violence in the body. And even then, who gets to recover? Which dissident voices get to rearticulate their voices? Do we get to speak to those who are permanently disappeared?

I think about the ways in which we rescue and rewrite the signs to make them inverted and subversive against the hegemonic systems in place. The ACT UP movement, for example, transformed the face and image of AIDS activism in the United States. "Silence = Death" and the pink triangle moved the body and mind in a way that incited individuals to have a conversation about AIDS and the impact it was having on populations. The recent documentary, "How to Survive a Plague" really reminded of the efforts of CADA in Chile, in terms of the same resistance to normative trajectories and their creative moments of relentless direct action. The documentary uses the original footage from the personal camcorders of the activists themselves.



More recently, the Occupy movements have also reminded me of the avant-garde movement we saw by CADA, which was a collective movement by artists, activists, and even scholars. Everyone had a different reason and agenda for why they were occupying, but they gathered under the same umbrella and tent, if you will, of the occupation. My question is then, what would it look like for a queer avant-garde in Latin America that foregrounds jotería bodies that are resisting the normative trajectories in place that continue to perpetuate their erasure and invisibility. What would their recovery look like?

Revised from my original post in "Latin America in Theory"on October 9, 2012

          Can the Subaltern Fuck?   
As my brown body laid next to his white skin, I only existed in a sexual context through my relation to him. My language, my name, my flesh, and my thoughts give him satisfaction. But it was still his voice, his pleasure, and his embodied reality that made me exist. As I think about the sexualized brown body of the jot@, I am overwhelmed by what feels like non-existent voice. Why can't our colored boys who speak softly be heard? Why can't we have the freedom to fuck on our own terms and not in relationship to the context of our colonizers?

According to Gayatri Spivak, postcolonial studies must push for postcolonial intellectuals to learn that their privilege is their loss. Within my postcolonial frameworks, we need to consider the queer subject and where we located it. So what about the sexual subaltern or the queer subaltern subject? For Latin American subaltern studies (if I may quote liberally from the Latin American Subaltern Studies Group),
The subaltern...is not only acted on, despite the tendency in traditional paradigms to see it as a passive or "absent" subject that can be mobilized only from above; it also acts to produce social effects that are visible, if not always predictable or understandable, by these paradigms or the state policies and research project they authorize. It is our recognition of this role of the subaltern, how it curves, alters, modifies our life strategies of learning, understanding, and research, that underlies the doubts besetting these traditional disciplinary and historiographic paradigms, paradigms that are themselves related to the social projects of national, regional, and international elites seeking to manage or control subject populations and that bring in their wake the danger of filtering cultural hegemonies all the way across the political spectrum, from the elites themselves to the epistemologies and discourses of revolutionary movements looking to subvert their power in the name of the "people."
For me, then, the subaltern is by nature a queering subject. In the construction of a jotería space, the jot@ subverts the theo-political boundaries of accepted sexual practice in light of a cultural context that erases homosexual identity on the basis of sexual positionality. In effect, the jot@ "curves, alters, modifies" and repositions jotería as a the@-erotics and has the agency to not only be fucked, but to fuck back. It is our sexual histories that enable the body to produce a response to these colonial sexual structures of oppression and undoes a death-dealing erasure of our identities.

I intentionally sexualize Spivak's rhetorical strategy of asking if the subaltern can speak, to ask if the queer subaltern subject can fuck. Reflecting on the ritual of sati, Spivak argues, "One never encounters the testimony of the women's voice-consciousness. Such a testimony would not be ideology-transcendent or 'fully' subjective, of course, but it would have constituted the ingredients for producing a counter sentence." For Latin American subaltern studies, the rise of the genre of testimonio was imperative to the field. As I lay bare and brown next to the milky skin of my lover, I can't help but where my voice and testimony is within that sexual encounter, and will it always be filtered through his positionality.

Testimonio is equally an important aspect of producing a jotería theology, but I challenge us to move one step further and consider how we can produce a sextimonio. A sextimonio, like testimonio, is a transcending voice that functions in a liminal space that empowers and produces solidarity among nuestra jotería. Alberto Moreiras argues that testimonio is extratextual; that is, it “suspends the literary at the very same time that it constitutes itself as a literary act: as literature, it is a liminal event opening onto a nonrepresentational, drastically indexical order of experience” (212). It already abandons the literary as part of its nature and is more political than it is literary. Moreiras seeks to put an end to the desire to see in testimonio a recuperation of the ‘real’ in the face of fiction or the literary.

I propose that not only should we consider if the subaltern can fuck, but if the subaltern has a voice in using that sexual experience to be a political move. Sextimonio is a genre of our queer subaltern experiences that brings to light the paradoxes in human experience, re-educates the body and the popular, but also affirms the jotería body as a sexual one that takes ownership of that sexuality beyond culturally categorizing markers.

As I think about locating the jotería subject in Latin American discourse, I am interested in how subaltern studies informs and speaks to the colonial experiences of queerness. Is the subaltern a useful category for deconstructing and making sense of same-sex desire in the postcolony? Some scholars have argued that we've exhausted subaltern studies and that we are in a post-subaltern discourse. What does that mean then for the queer subject? So again, I ask: Can the subaltern fuck?
          Puta Mother for Queer Hijos de la Chingada   
Consider this an exercise in put@esthetics working toward new epistemologies in jotería theological perspectives. The idea of put@ readings in jotería and theological studies has been an on-going discussion between myself and others, so consider this a rehearsal of the put@ performance jot(e)ología that I hope to continue unpacking through future posts.

Where do we locate same-sex desire in the postcolony? We are considered in many ways el otro entre los otros, negotiating this liminal space between race and sexuality that traps us into a space where our experiences remain silent and our existence remains invisible—deviant bodies on all accounts because our embodied realities resist normative trajectories of queerness and Latinidad.

Mexicans have an expression to describe those we consider the "others" and the deviants that resist what's normative: they are hijos de la chingada. They are strangers, enemies, rivals, and bad Mexicans. And these "others" are not defined other than just being sons of a mother as vague and indeterminate as themselves. It is a category of erasure that eliminates the existence of all the invisibles and incompatibles.

Who is la Chingada? She is the Mother. A mythical figure in Mexican culture that has been forgotten and erased almost just as much as the name implies. Chingar has many meanings in Mexico, it's sort of a catch-all phrase depending on the context. The word, most importantly, is loaded with sexual meaning: to fuck. The chingón is the macho and he rips open the chingada. The chingada is passive, penetrated, and open. The power dynamics associated with being la chingada reflect the masculinist impulses in place that make being la jotería a death-dealing category. Homosexuality in Latin America is based on sexual positionality, thus the only 'gay one' is the receptive anal partner. However, through the development of jotería studies we push back against the dichotomy of activo/pasivo and claim a sexual identity on our own terms. But in normative contexts, we remain to be the fucked.

La Chingada in it's mythical form, however, refers to La Malinche, the Mayan translator for Hernán Cortés, who has become one of the most condemned figures in Chicano culture. Although she is a historical figure, historians know little about the details of Malinche’s life. Instead, as her story has been mythologized, her name has come to stand primarily for the betrayal of the Mexican race and the danger of female sexuality. In his seminal essay on Malinche, Octavio Paz articulates what has become the most common interpretation of Malinche: "Her passivity is abject: she does not resist violence, but is an inert heap of bones, blood and dust. Her taint is constitutional and resides... in her sex. This passivity, open to the outside world, causes her to lose her identity: she is the Chingada. She loses her name; she is no one; she disappears into nothing-ness; she is Nothingness. And yet she is the cruel incarnation of the feminine condition."


I would consider Malinche to be a deeply queer figure through the ways in which she has been marginalized, erased, and how her sexualized body is a negative image. She is called La Chingada, but she also carries the label of a 'puta'—the whore, bitch, libertine, but also a verb to signal fucking. Put@ also refers to anyone whose sexual activities and gender performance transgresses normative trajectories. As la jotería we share in this liminal space with Malinche. She is a transitional being that brings us into an ideological communitas.

As my friend at "THE-OLOGIES" describes, "'Put@,' not unlike 'woman,' is a category that, politically mobilized, can only performatively identify in the presence of difference." These are deeply sexualized differences and markers of identity and it is this sexualization that cannot be overlooked. As sexual minorities and deviants, la jotería inherits the put@ marker of Malinche. We inherit the same erasure due to our sexual transgressions. I, however, call us to take ownership of that transgression in our theological development.

Through the performance of my queerness in academia and my cultural celebration of it, I believe that I engaging something deeply political, which some find to be very disturbing. But there is a power in that disturbance that shouldn't go overlooked. The crossing of sexual borders makes us the writers of our theologies. Marcella Althaus-Reid writes that, "Transgressions have always been with us. Sexual theologies are the opposite of idealistic processes. They are materialist theologies which have their starting points in people’s actions, or sexual acts without polarising the social from the symbolic. It is from human sexuality that theology starts to search and understand the sacred, and not vice versa. Indecent theologies are sexual theologies without pages cut from the books of our sexual experiences."

I believe that through engaging our sexualized histories, and the legacy Malinche passes onto us, we can begin to uncover something inherently sacred about our experiences. We create beauty and sacred meaning out of a put@/jot@ identity that has already been assigned to us, but no longer is that label a death sentence, it is my hope that it can function as a life-giving category.


Paintings: “Malinche: Lost in Translation” by Gilbert Reyes and "Cortés y la Malinche" by José Clemente Orozco
          Jotería and the Postcolonial   
How do we categorize same-sex desire in the postcolony? Where do we locate it? What vocabulary are we to use when talking about same-sex desire in contexts where 'homosexuality' is an invisible institution? It is through these questions that I approach this blog, that is, a blog interested in examining how we complicate and wrestle over these questions through queer, feminist, Chicana/o, Latina/o, postcolonial, and theological perspectives.

As a Chicano activist-theologian, I am frustrated by the lack of attention to theological conversations around racialized queerness. I find the same neglect in ethnic studies in engaging theology as a way of understanding the embodied experiences of queer people of color. Accordingly, I am interested in producing a conversation at the intersections of all of these areas. In doing so, I employ and claim the ideologies of jotería as an identity and way of thought. Looking into my own contexts where the term 'homosexuality' simply cannot exist in language, I push back against the derogative nature of the term and instead embrace the identity already given to me and think about how to further extend and complicate the idea within the frameworks of cultural studies, literature, theology, etc.

Gloria Anzaldúa writes, "Chicanos need to acknowledge the political and artistic contributions of their queer. People listen to what your jotería is saying." It is in this spirit that I approach this project, to draw attention to what we do say, experience, and embody as la jotería and to bring in my own background in theology and question how this all operates on a spiritual and theological level.

Why theology? Because I believe that these discourses deal with ultimate questions about how we understand and interpret the world around us, which I believe to be fundamentally religious. I am interested in what a jotería theology does for queer and liberation theologies, and what it does for cultural studies. I use all these categories aware of their histories, tensions with one another, and power dynamics. But it is through these areas that I am interested in countering hegemonic pedagogies and instead construct pedagogies that deal with oppositional circumstances.

Why postcolonial? I recognize the ways in which queer studies and ethnic studies remain to be under the stricture of power dynamics informed by normative identities. The reality is, we have all been touched by the colonial project at one point or another in our lives and experiences, and it is thus the goal of my discussion to go at the class that's interested in keeping the colonized exactly where they are.

It is my intent to engage the intersectionality, intertextuality, intersexuality, and multiplicities that this new category of identity and thought introduces. I look forward to discussion that emerges on my part and through those willing to contribute.
          Interview of Norbert Untersteiner by Brian Shoemaker   
Interview of Norbert Untersteiner by Brian Shoemaker Untersteiner, Norbert, 1926- Dr. Untersteiner was raised in Austria. In 1931, his father took him to Spitsbergen. This trip and reading books about explorers of the polar regions influenced him to work in polar regions. He describes life in Austria under the Nazis. After World War II, he was employed by the American Occupation Troops to run errands after living in difficult conditions in Vienna. He was a student at the University of Vienna, and then transferred to the University of Innsbruck. In the summer, he worked with the Austrian Alpine Club to survey glaciers. After completing his doctorate in geophysics and astronomy, he accepted an apprenticeship with a Vienna radio station. After becoming an assistant at the University, Dr. Untersteiner was involved in a heat balance study, and in foliation studies in the Alps. He was a member of a team to study heat balance, moisture balance, and radiation on mountains in East Pakistan. After difficulties in obtaining a position, he was employed by the University of Washington, for the U. S. Northern Hemisphere Glaciology Program. Many studies on mountain glaciers and on ice floes are described in detail. The various problems of delivering supplies by airplanes are included. The problems of evacuating people and supplies from an ice floe (Ice Station Alpha) that is breaking up were challenging. On Ice Station Alpha II, he and his associates made physical measurements for a complete one year cycle. From some of this work, the Ekman Spiral was developed. Dr. Untersteiner used this data for a comprehensive paper on heat and mass balance of melt ice. Conditions at ARLIS II are compared to others. U.S. Submarines and Russian submarines added mystery to the work of a few persons on Ice Station Alpha II. The development of AIDJEX (The Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment) started in the late 1960s. After a short stay as Director of the Office of Ocean Programs for NOAA, he returned to the University of Washington as Director of the Polar Science Center. Before leaving AIDJEX in 1978, he received a grant to start the Arctic Data Buoy Program. In 1988, Dr. Untersteiner accepted the position of chairman of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences and retired in 1997. In 1992, he accepted membership on the U.S.A. Environmental Task Force to advise the CIA. Later, it was converted to MEDEA. He cites some work of MEDEA. He summarizes some of the early history of the Polar Research Board, National Research Councils and the usefulness of the meetings. He was in charge of the research plan for the Hansen Drift Station established by the International Research Council. In 1999, he accepted the position of Chapman Professor of Physical Science at the University of Alaska. In conclusion, he said “it was a very good time to be a scientist.” Major Topics 1. Early interest in polar studies kindled by a trip to Spitsbergen when he was five years old. 2. He describes living conditions at the University of Vienna for students after 1945. 3. His first position was weather forecaster for a radio station. 4. Early work studying ice melt is discussed. 5. Difficulty in conducting research and living on an ice floe is discussed. 6. The moving ice of the glacier made it necessary to more the Jamesways, and to build a new runway. The Jamesways were difficult to move. 7. The purpose of the camp on the glacier was to make measurements for a one year cycle. 8. He describes an incident with some crew members of a US submarine on the Ice Station Alpha. 9. The development of a Geophysics Department is described. 10. His role in designing the mission of AIDJEX is summarized. Cooperation with other research groups made the program more comprehensive. 11. He became Director of the Office of Ocean Programs for NOAA. He describes his disappointment with the position and returned to his faculty position in Seattle, and became Director of the Polar Science Center. 12. In the 1990s, he accepted a position on an Environmental Task Force which involved advising the CIA and a member of MEDEA. Key Individuals Mentioned 1. His father, _____ Untersteiner, M.D.—p.1, 2, 3 2. Richard Fensterwalter—p.7 3. Professor Viatorres—p.7 4. Professor Schotts—p.7 5. Professor Heinz von Ficker—p.8, 9 6. Herfried Hoinkes—p.10 7. Hans Almann—p.10 8. Karl Christian Wallen—p.10 9. Walter Schawarzacher—p.11, 14 10. Bullock Workman—p.11 11. Heinrich Herald—p.12 12. Walter Brendel—p.13 13. Alfred Hoikes—p.13 14. Colin Bull—p.14 15. David Elliott—p.14 16. Robert Sharp—p.14, 15 17. Bert Crary—p.15, 17, 89 18. Mildred Crary—p.19 19. Harry Wexler—p.15, 16 20. Richard Hubley—p.16, 23 21. Chuck Sterns—p. 17 22. Phil Church—p.18, 22, 31, 41, 42, 108 23. Arne Hansen—p.18, 20, 35, 36, 38, 43, 46 24. Joe Fletcher—p.19, 57, 60, 70, 90, 91 25. Father Tom Cunningham—p.19 26. Fritz Awe—p.19, 23, 28 27. Morris Davidson—p.20, 77 28. Ken Hunkins—p.20, 22, 28, 37, 38, 39, 40, 56, 57 29. Terrence McDonald—p.20, 84 30. Lt. Colonel Stromquist—p.20 31. Joe Smith—p.20 32. Joseph Bilotta—p.20 33. Brian Freeman—p.20, 21 34. John Sader—p.24 35. Charlie Keeler—p.24 36. Tom English—p.26, 37 37. Frank Badgley—p.28 38. Bill Campbell—p.29, 36 39. George Cvijanovich—p.35 40. Walfried Ekman—p.38, 39, 40 41. Wieland Bieckness (?)—p.39 42. Hal Brayton—p.43 43. Max Brewer—p.44, 45, 53 44. Art Leckenbrook—p.46 45. Lawson Brigham—p.47 46. Major Joe Belota—p.48, 49 47. Jack Calvert—p.49 48. Sir Hubert Wilkins—p.52, 53 49. Lowell Thomas Sr.—p.52, 53, 54 50. Peter Froekin—p.52, 53 51. Bernt Balchen —p.53, 54 52. Prof. Charles Raymond—p.55 53. Allen Thorndike—p.55, 70, 71, 80 54. Gary Baker—p.55 55. Sam Kolbeck—p.55 56. Walt Whitman—p.55, 92 57. Admiral Bowen —p.57 58. Richard Goodie—p.58 59. Suki Manave—p.58, 62 60. Brooks Brian—p.58 61. Ned Ostenso—p.58, 62, 74 62. Bill Swenbeck—p.58 63. Dick Waters—p.59 64. Ross Burent—p.59, 60 65. Kurt Bryan—p.62, 63 66. Bert Boleen—p.63 67. John Kutzba—p.63 68. Joe Smagerinski—p.63 69. Jule Charney—p.63 70. Admiral Tom Owen—p. 65, 66, 67 71. Brian Shoemaker—p.1, 52, 64, 68, 69, 100 72. Dick Schauss—p.68, 69 73. Admiral Geiger—p.71, 72, 94, 96 74. Admiral Bachokle—p.72 75. Waldo Ryan—p.72, 73 76. Elliott Weinberg—p.74 77. Ferris Webster—p.74, 76 78. George Beckman—p.77, 82 79. Drew Rothrock—p.71, 77 80. Jamie Morrison—p.77 81. Dick Trobridge—p.77 82. Reid Parmutter—p.77 83. Jim Evans—p.77 84. Gary Macutt—p.77 85. Tom Grenfell—p.77 86. Bob Brown—p.70, 77 87. Ben Vogel—p.78 88. Bo Buck—p.78, 79 89. Roger Colony—p.78 90. Jim Baker—p.80, 81, 82 91. Ross Heath—p.82 92. Gordon McDonald—p.84 93. Al Gore—p.84 94. Walter Monk—p.85 95. Rita Coburn—p.88 96. Larry Gould—p.89 97. Paul Palmeroy—p.89 98. Nick Washburn—p.89 99. Bill Keel—p.89 100. Tom Jones—p.90, 91 101. Bob Rutford—p.71, 91 102. Ed. Todd—p.91, 97 103. Peter Wilkness—p.91, 92 104. Sherry Abbott—p.91, 92 105. Trishnakov—p.95 106. Ron McGregor—p.96, 97 107. Max Britten—p.96 108. Sydney Chapman—p.100, 109 109. Keith Roncort—p.100 110. Dr. Sofoo—p.101
          DIY Halloween Ecard Invitation - A Tutorial of Sorts   
This year I wanted to send an ECard Invitation for Halloween.  I did an invitation a couple of years back that was on a CD, but this one I wanted to be able to email and play as a movie.

This is the final invitation. I've embeded it in a Photobucket player, the resolution is a better than Blogger's own video tool but please be patient, it may take a little while to appear... and ignore the play button in the top left hand corner (doesn't always work) in favour of the one in the bottom left hand corner (which does always work).  In case you're asking why I bothered... you should have seen the resolution from Blogger, it was worth it, I promise!


So, what do you need?  It's pretty simple: an image, preferably editable, and/or editing software; Microsoft Powerpoint and and music saved in a .wav format.

As there is no need to specify the theme this year, I decided to focus on the idea of a haunted house and graveyard instead and got the look just right with this great background (one of a series of Vectored Posters free to download on the Vector Graphics Blog) with its quirky, colourful and naive styling.  Having selected it, I opened and edited it in Adobe Illustrator; removing the original text and selecting the layers that I eventually wanted to animate.  I then saved a background file, which only included the imagery that would not be animated:


and each of the layers for animation separately.  They were saved as interlaced .png files and looked something like this:

The eyes from the Grave Monster, so that they can flash  spookily!

The skeletal hand that rises from the ground.

One of the series of bats that flies in.
Finally, in AI I created the three lines of text for the invitation in three separate layers and saved each one separately, again as an interlaced .png file.  I only wanted to animate each line, not individual letters.

The fabulous Mary Jane deGroot from Apostrophic Labs.

Once everything was saved, I moved into Powerpoint and inserted the background into a new slide; fitting it to fill the screen.  Then comes the fun part... animating the various parts in Powerpoint.  At this point I should say, I will not be telling you how to do that!  I wouldn't know where to start and there are plenty of very good tutorials to be found on the interweb that will help you far more than I could.  What I will say, is that the animation had to tell a story: the eyes flicker spookily, smoke rises from the house, a colony (or cloud, for those of you like me who like their collective nouns) of bats fly in and a lone skeletal hand rises from the ground as you are invited.... See what I mean?

One I'd started to tinker with the animation, I knew that I needed some sound effects or music and after a couple of attempts at thunder and haunting laughs, I struck gold with the first 30-odd seconds of the soundtrack to Dark Shadows.  The laugh at the beginning and the overall eeriness of music were exactly what I was hoping for.  As I only had an mp3 file I converted it here to a Powerpoint friendly .wav file.  Now, again, no tutes here from me about adding music to a Powerpoint presentation but I will say that the 2010 version impressed me. I  have not played about with adding music in any of the previous versions so maybe I'm horribly behind the times, but I could edit and tinker and fiddle all I liked and needed to.  Happy Halloweenie Bunny (oh! costume idea!?)

The final job was to create a video.  Again Powerpoint 2010 proved its worth here as under the Save & Send options you can Create A Video, easy.


Once selected, you have various options.  As I was winging it (pardon the pun) I decided to chose the option to record the timings.  The program plays your animation for you, you click to start the record and again to end it... I just wanted to be utterly certain of what my viewers would see and hear, and when the movie would end.


Then you create your video, it's as easy as that!  As it defaults to a Windows Media File, I used my converter tool from earlier (here, it really is very useful, converts most things to most other things) and converted it to any formats necessary (ie mp4 for my iPhone friends).

One Halloween Ecard Invitation, done.  

          Hollande promises to pay 'moral debt' to former colony Haiti   
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/13/hollande-haiti-visit-france-former-colony   François Hollande made a formal visit to Haiti last week, the first French president to do so. This visit was welcomed by the businesses and the government, but for many, it brought back painful memories of France's 1825 indepence debt that crippled Haiti financially for over 100 years. Hollande made mention during his trip of a 'moral debt' owed to Haiti, but did not go into specifics of when or how this
          The Demon City Vampire   
FIRST:
Do you like cats? You do.

There is a charity raffle for a no-kill feline shelter with fabulous prizes including signed by me copies of Vornheim and Death Frost Doom the raffle is here, check it out.

Now, the Demon City vampire...
The vampire’s curse is manifold, but the overarching principles are:

-Like addiction incarnate, the vampire is first of all drawn to despair—as carrion birds to an open wound. So long as it does not sense despair, it will not—and need not—feed.

-The vampire can do nothing to alleviate despair in a living being other than murder it.

A dead thing but animate, the taste of hopelessness borne in blood gives the vampire such life as it has. Some do nothing but sleep in windowless basements in ruined factories or dying warehouse districts, emerging when wrong turns bring misery seeping past the baseboards. Others leave the city, bury themselves beneath lonely fields, and do nothing for decades. 

Some—especially the youngest—alleviate the tedium of immortality by mixing with the living from whom they’ve seceded—and, unavoidably, given the ubiquity of despair, must kill every night. They are well aware that they are literally killing out of boredom.

Some whisper of a colony in the deepest Antarctic, spawn of a single fatal 19th century expedition, undiscovered by anyone, hungerless, unkillable, far from human misery, never feeling the cold, content to forever explore the bright ice, sophisticated now, with a language grown their own.

Joining them, if they do indeed exist, would be complex—the vampire cannot cross open, moving water while awake, restricting most to either hunting in the districts in which they were created, or relying on enslaved humans.

Typical Vampire

Calm: 1
Agility: 4
Toughness: 7 (Starting toughness is always at least 6 for vampires)
Perception: 5
Appeal: 3
Cash: 0 (if isolated) 4 (if social)
Knowledge: 3

All vampire stats can go as high as 10 as the vampire ages.

Calm check: 8

Special abilities common to all vampires:

Invulnerability: Vampires can’t be reduced below 0 Toughness by ordinary means, including firearms, crushing, falling, fire, etc.

Undead: Vampires don’t need to breathe or digest, don’t age, and are immune to poison, etc. and cannot be controlled with psionic abilities.

Sense despair: Range is 100x the vampire’s perception score in feet, though the detection is imprecise if the potential victim isn’t seen, like hearing a sound without knowing the source. Range is doubled if it is the despair of a virgin.

Bite: Does damage as an ordinary physical attack, Lost Die unless delivered on a sleeping, grappled or willing target.

Create spawn: If a victim is so despondent as to welcome the vampire’s bite, the vampire can create a new vampire by draining the victim completely. Over the following week, the new creature gains all the typical vampire’s special abilities and weaknesses and, over the coming months, one point at a time, modifies the victim’s characteristics as follows— Agility +2, Toughness +5 (minimum of 6), Perception +3, Appeal +1. Calm is reduced to 0 until the new vampire feeds (or Calm goes negative if it was already 0), at which point it has a Calm of 1 or its starting score whichever is lower.

In addition, elder vampires may possess some or all of the following abilities:

Enslavement: Vampires with Appeal of 6 or higher can essentially control any human or less powerful vampire (Calm check to resist). They can also force them to forget any stretch of time. The victim is allowed another Calm check each time the vampire’s request is more extreme than the last or violates a new boundary (for example, a victim would be able to check if asked to harm someone, then again if asked to kill, then again if asked to harm a friend, then again if asked to kill a friend).

Animal Enslavement: As Enslavement above, but with animals.

Shadow movement: The vampire can move without a sound in dark or shadowy places, and requires a perception check against at least a 6 to be seen before it strikes.


Transformation: The vampire has an alternate animal form which it can take at will—but the transformation can only take place when the creature is unseen. The animal form has the agility, toughness, perception and appeal of whichever is higher—the animal form or the original. Typically any given vampire only has one alternate form and typically this is a bat, wolf, rat, scorpion, spider or firefly. There may be a breed of amphibious vampires that can cross heavily polluted water which can change into a manta ray. These alternate forms all have pitch black eyes and are eschewed by genuine animals unless the vampire exerts an Animal Enslavement ability.



Weaknesses common to all vampires:

A vampire cannot willingly alleviate the suffering of a living being, except by killing them.

Sunlight causes damage to vampires each round as an ordinary physical attack.

The holy symbols of any faith causes a vampires to make a Calm check or flee until they are out of sight. The intensity of the calm check is equal to the degree of fervor of whoever is wielding it (1-5). In the case of an incidentally encountered symbol (a glimpsed church steeple, for instance) the intensity is 2.

The smell of garlic works the same way.

Touching a holy symbol, including holy water, does damage as an ordinary physical attack.

Vampires may not cross running water open to the air, no matter how narrow the stream. For these purposes “open” means “the fixed area where the water runs has been exposed to open air through which sunlight or moonlight could penetrate” (the water stores the essence of the light which harms vampires) thus a vampire could walk on a sidewalk that had a sewer beneath, but not over a bridge, and they can cross frozen rivers. The distinction between a very wide bridge and an open-ended tunnel through which water flows is relevant here—if the inner reaches of the tunnel never see natural light, the vampire may cross the ground above it. 

A vampire may be killed by a wooden stake through the heart. Aiming specifically for the heart in combat would typically lose the attacker a die unless the vampire is grappled.

Vampires cast no shadow, have no reflection, and cannot enter a human’s residence without being invited.

In the presence of a despairing human of any gender the vampire is attracted to, the vampire must make a Calm check vs the target’s Appeal to avoid immediately attempting to bite them. The vampire must check each round the target can be sensed in any way if the victim's Appeal exceeds the vampire's Calm.

Vampires at 0 Calm frequently contract Arithmomania in addition to any other psychological problems—causing them to pause and count any spilled quantity of rice, balls bearings, nails, etc dropped in their path.
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The Demon City Patreon is here


          Elder Geek Game Club #14 - Jamestown   
Justin Johnson, host of the RadioFreeGamer Podcast, joins us this time around as we discuss Jamestown: Legend of the Lost Colony.
          Bee and Wasp Season has arrived!   
Photo credit listed at the bottom of the article
As the days have become longer and warmer, bees and wasps have been increasing in activity and numbers. Knowing the differences between bees and wasps will help you to understand how to deal with them, how to remain safe, and when to contact a professional licensed pest control professional.
Bees are generally less aggressive than wasps, and are larger in width, and hairy. Wasps are more aggressive, narrow and hairs are less visible. Each species is beneficial in nature, providing valuable pollination services and the control of countless other insect species through predation or parasitation.  Control may be necessary when nests are constructed in or on structures or in recreational areas. 

What follows is a description of commonly found wasps and bees in the London, St Thomas, Grand Bend and South-Western Ontario areas.

1. Yellow Jackets and Bald-faced Hornets

 Yellow Jackets- are Yellow are Black colour and are 10-16mm in length, 1000-4000 individuals per colony.
 Bald Faced Hornets are white black in colour and are 15-20 mm in length, with 100-400 individuals per colony.

Nests can be located in the ground, within wall voids of structures, in shrubs, on trees, under decks or attached to homes etc. Nests may or may not be visible, are constructed of paper-like material, and are usually grey in colour. When visible, they may be football shape like in appearance.

These social insects will readily defend their nests when disturbed. Each individual is capable of stinging multiple times. Reactions to stings will vary depending on the number of stings and the individual’s body’s response. In some instances, medical attention may be required.  If prescribed an Epi-pen it should be with you at all times, it cannot help you if it’s in your home or car.

Early identification of nests within high risk areas should be completed by visual inspection. Control when warranted should be completed by an appropriately labelled dust, liquid or aerosol product.

2. Paper wasps

These wasps are brownish in colour with yellow markings. Size varies depending on the species. These wasps have long legs.

Nests range in size from that of a toonie to an open hand. Nests cells are visible and typically contain 150-250 cells. Nests may be constructed in voids of homes, in attics, at roof points, within exterior lights, and on the underside of branches. 

These insects are less aggressive than other wasps but will still defend their nests when threatened. Paper wasps are capable of stinging multiple times.

Early identification of nests within high risk areas should be completed by visual inspection. Control when warranted should be completed by an appropriately labelled dust, liquid or aerosol product.

3. Carpenter Bees

Carpenter bees are 12-25mm in length and are black and yellow in colour. These bees are similar in colour to Bumble bees but have a bare, shiny abdomen.
As their name suggests these insects bore into wood making a round hole 12mm in width and approximately 10-15 cm in length.

These bees are not social; they do not live in nests, or colonies. However many individual can often be found in the same area. Male Carpenter bees are territorial, often becoming aggressive towards other insects, birds and people. Male bees do not possess a stinger so they cannot sting. Females do posses a potent stinger but rarely use it.

Nest galleries are constructed in logs and stumps, unpainted boards and weathered wood. To reduce risk of activity, old logs and stumps should be removed and unpainted or weathered boards should be repainted. If galleries and bees are present treatment will be required to provide control.

3. Bumble Bees

Bumble bees are large and fuzzy sometimes containing orange markings.  They are 6-25mm in length. 

Theses bees are social; nests typically contain 50-400 individuals. Nests are usually constructed underground, often in an old mouse burrow. When constructed in a structure, it’s usually low to the ground in a void or cavity. Bumble bees are not aggressive but will defend the nest when threatened. These bees have unbarbed stingers and are capable of stinging multiple times.

4. Honey bees

These highly beneficial insects are 11-15mm in length and are orange and black in colour. 
These bees are social in nature; colonies typically contain 20000-80000 individual bees. A single queen is present in each colony, laying 1500-2000 eggs per day during the warm weather months. These bees are not aggressive but will defend their colony if threatened. Each bee can sting once prior to dying. If stung, remove the stinger quickly with a nail, knife or credit card to minimize the amount of poison absorbed. Do not grasp the stinger with your fingers or additional poison will be released.
Honey bees construct colonies of wax in tree cavities, in wall voids, attic spaces, and hollow floor spaces and on structures or bushes.
Bee swarms are produced in some colonies during the months of May, June and July. These swarms may be seen on trees, cars, homes etc. These insects are not aggressive when swarming and should never be sprayed or killed. Please contact Sawyer Pest Management or a local bee keeper for pick up and hiving.
Nests already present within walls or voids require removal of not only the bees but also the , wax and honey stores. to gain access to the nest floor boards and or drywall may require removal. It is not recommended to kill Honey bees within walls and to leave the colony in the void area as this will increase the risk of new bee activity in future years, mouse activity,  and additional bee activity as well as honey seepage into the home. Hive removal may take 3hrs to 2 days.


If you are having problems with bees or wasps please contact Sawyer Pest Management Inc. for additional information and control options.
Sawyer Pest Management Inc. is your local pest control professional and is licensed by the Ontario ministry of the Environment and is insured to provide pest management services. Each service representative is a licensed structural exterminator, and is trained and competent in the services we provide.

Sawyer Pest Management is proud to provided service programs in the communities of London, Melbourne, Ingersoll, Aylmer, Port Stanley, Strathroy, St. Thomas, Parkhill, Grand Bend, Bayfield, Exeter, Lucan and St. Marys and in the surrounding communities.

http://www.themomonline.com/blog/bee-and-wasp-season-has-arrived

Photo credit: "Xylocopa virginica male face" by USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab from Beltsville, Maryland, USA - Xylocopa virginica, m, face, talbot, md_2015-05-17-16.49.24 ZS PMax. Licensed under CC0 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Xylocopa_virginica_male_face.jpg#/media/File:Xylocopa_virginica_male_face.jpg





















          Honey Bees - Behaviour, Facts and Control   

Honey Bees - What’s All The Buzz About?  


Bees are found all around the globe, with more than 20,000 species known of to date. Honey bees represent a small percentage of these species, but as pollinators they are incredibly important to the survival of mankind. One quarter of the food humans consume comes from crops pollinated by honey bees. It might be surprising, but beekeeping is one of the oldest agricultural efforts known to humans. Today, beekeeping is both a hobby and a business.

honey bee pest controlHoney Bee Appearance  

Honey bees can be recognized by their golden, light brown colour and oval shaped bodies with dark-to-light ridges along their abdomen. They are typically about 15mm long and are covered with a golden fur. These herbivores are typically non aggressive, but they do have a stinger, which they will use if they feel threatened. For this reason, it is best to have a professional come and remove any honey bee nests that might be located near your home or business.





Habits and Behaviour 

pest control london ontario
bee control london ontarioHoney bees are unique from other bee species because they are extremely social creatures and live co-operatively among other members in the hive. In the wild, hives can typically be found in hollow trees; although, in rocky areas, caves and crevices in rocks can also be a good spot for bee hives.  Honey bee hives can also be found in homes, most commonly in wall voids. A honey bee hive is made entirely out of a wax that the worker bee secretes from a highly specialized gland in its abdomen. The  worker bee takes a couple pieces of wax from their abdomen, mixes it with saliva until it’s soft enough to form into the comb cells that make up the hive. In Canada and the rest of North-America, man-made bee hives are called apiaries and are constructed out of wooden box frames stacked on top of one another to make the hive.



Honey bees are social creatures that live in colonies; a single colony consists of: 

  • One Queen  - The queen lays eggs in the cells of nest and establishes new colonies; she can produce up to 2,000 eggs daily. The queen bee mates with drones; this happens only once in her life. She has a special organ that allows her to store sperm and release it, as needed, to fertilize eggs. The queen honey bee will produce worker bees for the remainder of her life, usually lasting up to five years.

  • Drones - These are male bees that have only one job, to mate with virgin queen bees; they die shortly after mating which happens in spring and summer. Drones are the minority in the hive; because their only purpose is to mate with virgin queens, they are forced out of the hive in the fall to conserve on food for the queen.

  • Workers - These are infertile females with several important duties in their short life span of 35-40 days. Her first job, as a one day old worker, is to:  clean the cells in which the queen will lay eggs, clean the new bees, and seal brood cells once an egg has be laid. At three days old she will tend to larva and the queen.  As she ages she will take care of: feeding and cleaning the queen, cleaning the comb, making honey, and protecting the hive from outside intruders.  As worker bees get older they will take care of: secreting wax and building cells, cleaning the hive, pollen packing, nectar ripening, sealing honey cells, and maintaining hive temperature by fanning the comb.  The last stage of the workers life involves working outside of the hive, including: protecting the hive, foraging, making sure the hive is well ventilated.

Swarming is a natural part of a healthy bee colony and will happen when a hive has limited space. This happens when the honey production is so great that the bees being fill cells that were intended for eggs. With limited space for egg laying, the queen with leave and split the colony. In this case, a queen bee will leave, bringing with her half of the worker bees and leaving behind a new virgin queen to ensure the survival of the hive. A honey bee swarm may consist of thousands of worker bees that temporary form a cluster on tree branches or shrubs, and will remain there for up to a few days; during this time a scout honey bee searches for a new location for the colony. Once a site is located, the swarm immediately flies to the new site. 

Pollination 

Honey bees and flowering plants live in symbiosis, depending on one-another to carry out their jobs on planet earth. Our planet would be drastically different without honey bees here to cross-pollinate flowering plants and fruit blossoms, which is why these creatures are of such high importance to humans. They are responsible for pollinating a vast amount of crops that produce seeds and food for our survival. This is why it is important to understand the significance of pollination by honey bees and to protect them through education and research. 


Professional Removal and Relocation of Honey Bees

Honey bees serve an important purpose, but they can also pose a problem and sting you if they feel threatened. This is why it’s important to have a professional remove a honey bee nest that may be located in or around your home or business.  Honey bee nests can often be found inside of wall voids and the roof of a home. It is vital that you do not try to kill a honey bee’s nest. These creatures are decreasing in numbers and need to be protected, not killed. 

Sawyer Pest Control is available to remove bee swarms and or nests located within structures. Once captured or removed, bees are placed into a hive and relocated from the site to a foster location or one of our yards. This is a time consuming and labor intensive process that requires skill, proper equipment and the specialized clothing. Sawyer Pest Control uses environmentally friendly methods to deal with honey bees, ensuring the least amount of damage to the area requiring removal, if any. A professional will safely remove the bees and relocate them to an awaiting hive or apiary, where the bees can continue with their job of pollination and humans can benefit from their honey production. This is a unique control process which supports the survival of the honey bee allowing for continued pollination services.

Below are some photos of a honeybee removal from a home.


pest control london ontario

Holes in the exterior of a house allow bees to move inside and locate a nesting place.


wasp control london ontario

The honey bees are nested under the floor.


bee control

Carefully, we access the sub flooring to expose the nesting site.


honey bees

The honey bee’s have made a hive in the insulation beneath the floor as shown here.


bee control

The bee’s have been carefully removed and placed in a bin for relocation.




If you are having problems with bees or wasps please contact Sawyer Pest Management Inc. for additional information and control options.

Sawyer Pest Management Inc. is your local pest control professional and is licensed by the Ontario ministry of the Environment and is insured to provide pest management services. Each service representative is a licensed structural exterminator, and is trained and competent in the services we provide.


Sawyer Pest Management is proud to provided service programs in the communities of London, Melbourne, Ingersoll, Aylmer, Port Stanley, Strathroy, St. Thomas, Parkhill, Grand Bend, Bayfield, Exeter, Lucan and St. Marys and in the surrounding communities. Below are some action photo’s of honey bee removal by Sawyer Pest Control.

          How to Kill Carpenter Ants   

Carpenter ants are exceptionally common, exceptionally destructive pests. Left unchecked, a carpenter ant infestation can spread rapidly. Because of this, identifying and exterminating carpenter ants as early as possible can help prevent serious structural damage, which can be quite costly to repair. See Step 1 below to start stamping out a carpenter ant infestation before it grows out of control.

Part 1 of 3: Spotting an Infestation

  1. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    1
    Learn how to identify carpenter ants. Carpenter ants are a group of ants belonging to the genus Camponotus, of which there are over 1,000 species.[1]Carpenter ants live on every continent except for Antarctica and, as individual species, have a wide variety of differentiating features. However, certain traits common to the entire genus are useful to know when attempting to decide whether the ants in your home are carpenter ants or another variety. Some common traits to look for are:[2]
    • Color: Usually red, black, or an intermediate shade
    • Shape: Segmented with oval abdomen and boxy, thin thorax. The tops of carpenter ant thoraxes typically have a smooth, even curve, rather than an uneven or bumpy one.
    • Size: Approximately 3/8”-1/2", depending on caste
    • Antennae: Yes
    • Wings: Typical worker ants do not have wings. However, relatively rare male drones may possess them.
  2. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    2
    Learn where carpenter ants live. Carpenter ants can (and will) establish a nest inside or outside of any type of structure, but wooden homes are especially at risk because carpenter ants like to bore tiny tunnels into wood. Unlike termites, carpenter ants don't eat wood - they only tunnel into the structure to create a nest.[3] Because moist wood is easier than dry wood for carpenter ants to tunnel through, the interior locations of carpenter ants will often be near a moisture source, like a leaky sink or bath.
    • Sometimes, carpenter ants build a network of one or more satellite or parent colonies outside a structure and travel between these colonies and their foothold indoors, entering the structure through small cracks or openings. In these cases, outdoor colonies will often be located in tree stumps, landscape timbers, wood piles or other sources of damp wood. You can often locate carpenter ant trails between colonies in the early morning or early evening when the carpenter ants are foraging.
    • When carpenter ants tunnel, they can leave “frass", a substance resembling tiny wood shavings or sawdust, behind. Frass often contains dead insects. This can provide clues to their nesting location. If you come across small piles of frass in or around your house, carefully inspect the wood nearby for tunnels - probing the suspected wood with a thin screwdriver can reveal hollow spots.[4]
  3. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    3
    Know where to look for carpenter ant activity. Though they usually nest in wood, if a carpenter ant colony is within the wall of your home, you may have a hard time finding it. If you suspect you have carpenter ants, it's a good idea to look for them in easily-accessible places where you are likely to find them. Certain common household sites are more supportive of carpenter ant activities than others - especially if these sites are damp and/or have access to food. Look for ants in the following areas:
    • Carpets – Check around doors, fireplaces, and other areas with easy access to the outside.
    • Patios and foundations
    • Areas with vegetation - Ants like to nest and forage in trails out of sight behind any vegetation, tree stumps, branches which rests against foundations, patios, etc. Pull back the vegetation to look for ants. When you find foraging ants, attempt to follow them back to their colony.
      • Mulch and leaf litter can harbor numerous types of ants in addition to carpenter ants, such as pavement ants, fire ants, and Argentine ants. Rake mulch back from the ground to check for colonies.
    • Floors – Potted plants, compost bends, or any other suitable item that has ground contact can contain carpenter ants.

Part 2 of 3: Exterminating Carpenter Ants

  1. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    1
    Use caution when dealing with carpenter ants. Though it's unlikely to happen, this warning bears mentioning: don't handle carpenter ants or their nests directly. Carpenter ants are not particularly aggressive and will not usually bite humans. However, when irritated or threatened, they can and will inflict a painful bite. Carpenter ants are also known to spray formic acid into bite wounds, increasing the pain. Though it's not the end of the world to be bitten by carpenter ants, you can avoid unnecessary pain by avoiding touching the ants or their nests unless it's absolutely necessary, in which case you should use long sleeves and gloves.
  2. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    2
    Locate the colony or colonies. The first step to exterminating a carpenter ant colony is to find it. To pinpoint the location of colonies in your home, look for ants, small holes, and piles of frass in the locations discussed in Part One, paying special attention to any areas that appear to contain moist wood. You can also test wood for infestations near the surface by firmly tapping. Wood with extensive burrowing can sound thinner or hollower than unaffected wood. Tapping can also agitate ants, causing them to leave the nest, where you may be able to see them more easily.
    • Don't forget that mature nests often have smaller satellite nests nearby, which also must be located to ensure the entire ant infestation is exterminated.
  3. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    3
    Destroy or remove the colony. In the case of smaller colonies, or ones that are fairly easy to access, it's sometimes possible to simply get rid of the colony itself. If the colony is outdoors, simply dispose of the affected wood carefully, using impenetrable materials like tarps to protect yourself from the ants as you handle the wood. If the colony has been located indoors, some pest control websites recommend using a vacuum cleaner's hose attachment to disrupt the colony and suck the ants out.[5]
    • If using the vacuum cleaner method, be sure to carefully seal and dispose of the dust bag to keep any ants that survive from escaping.
    • If you find a colony that has extensively burrowed through the wood in your wall, don't cut the wood out - you risk compromising the structural integrity of your house. Instead, call a professional.
  4. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    4
    Use baits for ant colonies that cannot be treated directly. You may not always be able to find carpenter ant colonies. However, if you can find significant numbers of the ants themselves, placing insecticides in their trails can control and eliminate the colony. A variety of baits, traps, and other ant-killing products are available for sale to the general public - visit your local hardware store to check which options are available to you.
    • Be very careful when using poison ant bait in houses with small children. Make sure that the child knows not to eat the poison, or, if s/he is too young to understand, keep the child under close supervision.
  5. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    5
    Contact a professional. If you can't quickly locate and eliminate the colony and you haven't had success with insecticides, it's usually best to contact a professional exterminator. Professionals have access to insecticides and other tools that aren't available to the general public, but, more importantly, their training and experience allows them to locate and assess carpenter ant infestations much more intelligently than the average person.
    • Keep in mind that certain methods that exterminators use to kill ants may require your family to temporarily vacate your house for a day or two.
    • Don't delay in contacting a professional - the longer you wait to deal with a carpenter ant infestation, the larger the colony can grow and the more extensive the damage to your wood structure may be.


  1. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 9.jpg
    1
    Eliminate sources of moisture. Moisture is a big factor in carpenter ant infestations. Often, a patch of wood will become susceptible to infestation after it's been exposed to moisture. By fixing or sealing any leaks that allow water into your house, you can make it much more difficult for carpenter ants to nest. Below are a few suggestions for eliminating the moisture that can contribute to carpenter ant infestations:[6]
    • Check around windows for signs of an improper seal
    • Check your roof and weather-facing walls for leaks
    • Keep basements, attics, and crawl spaces well-ventilated
    • Look for and fix leaky pipes
    • Clean clogged gutters to eliminate runoff water
  2. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 10.jpg
    2
    Seal up entry points, cracks and crevices. If carpenter ants can no longer get in and out your house, any indoor satellite colonies that are being fed by larger outside colonies will become isolated and may die off. Inspect the outside of your home for cracks, holes, and other small spaces that allow the passage of ants - pay special attention to the areas of exterior walls that are closest to the ground or foundation. Seal any holes you find with caulk or a strong putty.
    • Also check around the points where water and electrical lines enter your home, as these points are extra vulnerable to ant infestation.[7]
  3. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 11.jpg
    3
    Eliminate wood materials near your home. Because carpenter ants like to make their nests in wood both inside and outside of buildings, finding and eliminating infested wood outside your wood can keep ants from making their way into your house. Carefully inspect any sources of wood near your home - if infested, move or carefully dispose of these wood sources. Places to look include:[8]
    • Stumps
    • Firewood piles
    • Old trees, especially if their branches touch your house.
    • Piles of yard waste
  4. Kill Carpenter Ants Step 12.jpg
    4
    Consider installing an artificial barrier. If carpenter ants are a recurring problem, you may want to think about installing a small strip of gravel or stones around your home. This "barrier" zone is fairly inhospitable to carpenter ants and may discourage them from crawling into your house through holes near the foundation. Consult with a contractor to discuss the practicality and affordability of such a project at your house, or, if you're particularly handy, tackle this home improvement project yourself.


          When the Ocean Gets Choppy, Corals Clone   

The post When the Ocean Gets Choppy, Corals Clone appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


          Hugo Blanco [Galdós]: Zapatistan ecological socialist   
As the Verso Radical Diary reminds us, on this date in 1963, “Peruvian revolutionary Hugo Blanco [b. 1934] is captured after leading a ‘Land or Death’ peasant uprising that sparked the country’s first agrarian reform. Blanco was spared from execution thanks to pleas from Bertrand Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Che Guevara, and others.”

“To be a revolutionary is to love the world, to love life, to be happy.”—Hugo Blanco, “To My People,” written from El Frontón penal colony [‘Island of Hell’]. Blanco was sentenced to 25 years in prison, but was released after serving eight years. On Blanco’s life after exile and return to Peru, see this article from 2011 in the New Internationalist

Further Reading: Hugo Blanco, Land or Death: The Peasant Struggle in Peru (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1972) [Other books and articles penned by Blanco are found in his Wikipedia entry.]; and Jeffrey M. Paige, Agrarian Revolution (New York: The Free Press, 1975) [This work places the struggle of Peruvian peasants in its wider socio-economic and political context.] 


              Funda morardı   
    Başarılı şarkıcı Funda Arar, önceki gece 'The Colony Hotel Casino'da sahne aldı. 42 yaşındaki sanatçı, performansıyla ayakta alkışlandı. Arar, mor renkteki cesur kostümüyle de beğeni kazandı. Devamı için tıklayınız
              Life is like a taxi. The meter just keeps a-ticking whether you are getting somewhere or just standing still…   

    That’s a quote on life. So are you getting somewhere or are you just standing still? Still at square one? 

    But in fishing scenario, once the stupid boat leave the port, the meter start running. You can spend your time sleeping on the fishing boat or vomiting all the way, but the meter will still run (just like the meter in the cab). So if you sleep the entire journey, and when the time’s up, you still need to pay for the boat. During my last fishing trip last (somewhere last year), I started sleeping the moment the boat leave the port. In fact, I spend most of my time sleeping rather than fishing. Luckily I went to sleep (trying to make up all the sleeping time that I lost) because it was a rather quiet fishing trip. There’s no bait fish! There’s no bite! The boat ride was long and slow. Overall, boring is the word to describe it.

    At night it was raining heavily and in fact that’s the first time I spend a night in the middle of the sea with strong wind and storm. Maybe one fish and then it’s quiet all night long. Okay, not that quiet, a storm hit us at about 2am or so …

    OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA          
    Opportunity – In life, there’s this thing call opportunity. But I’m not talking about life here. I’m talking about fishing. Next day about noon, we are still zero in term of fish. Then there’s this debris in the middle of the sea (you can see it above in the picture). My friend seize this opportunity and that’s when we hit jackpot!


    OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

    When you see an opportunity, you seize it. After sleeping for more than 10 hours or so … I think that’s the only 1 hour fishing time I had for the entire trip. I don’t remember how many fish we caught, but I think we almost eliminate the entire colony that stay at that debris that day. Even the boatman is happy.

    So in life, sometimes you could be at a standstill … waiting for your opportunity to come.


              Product For Sale: Colony   

    by dawue

    €45.00 for Board Game: Colony
    Condition: New
    Location: Germany
               Beavers: Ready for the Winter Solstice!    
    Active beaver lodge at Highland Oaks County Park, Oakland County, Michigan  12/16/13 
    All photos by Jonathan Schechter



    Beavers are nature's supreme engineers and not just because of their dam building skills. These amazing animals are the largest rodents in North America and may weigh up to 60 pounds. And they  are the only species in Oakland County that alters the environment to suit their needs other than man!  Winter weather transforms the lives of the beaver and  by the time  the Winter Solstice arrives the sturdy lodges become the center of all activity. Each lodge has an above water platform chamber where the beaver family sleeps, dines and grooms all winter. And they stay warm even during howling blizzards. In spring the lodge becomes the birthing chamber for the kits. But to survive until spring the beavers had to prepare in autumn much in the way humans would prepare if given advance notice of a powerful storm---beavers and humans both store food and fortify their homes in preparation. 
                

    Branches were cut from trees they felled  in autumn and dragged to the pond  to be stored in underwater food caches near the lodges. And underwater entrances to the lodge enable the beavers to swim to their winter 'store' to shop for their stashed meals. The survival of each beaver colony during winter depends on the availability of this under-ice food supply and the sturdiness of the lodge to repel predators. In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan the wolf is the primary winter predator; in Oakland County coyotes pose some risk.  After ice-out next spring beavers  resume their surface swimming and search for fresh  wetland vegetation and tender young twigs and saplings on shore and more trees to cut to repair damage to dams and add to the lodge.


                                             

              Part-time and Full time office assistant(Optometry) - Colony Vision Center - The Colony, TX   
    Checking patients in for their eye exams Scheduling appointments, Doing patients preliminary testing ,Verifying vision and medical insurance, Helping patients...
    From Indeed - Tue, 28 Mar 2017 20:14:40 GMT - View all The Colony, TX jobs
              2010 J Rickards Winery 38 Vineyard Old Vine Zinfandel   
    Our Brignole Vineyard was originally planted in 1908 by their family who were members of the Asti ItalianSwiss Colony cooperative e grapes are an old style eldblend of 80 Zinfandel 10 Petite Sirah 5 Carignane 4 Mataro and a 1 smattering of Alicante Bouschet Muscat Canelli and Golden Chasselas In those days nobody sold the actual grapes because they are perishable They sold wine in barrels blended for the specific taste of the customer All old vine vineyards are field blends because the winegrower planted their own distinct blend of grape varieties to be harvested and fermented together Every grape grower was a winemaker too and thereby known for their signature wine blend
              Dutch reality TV project aims for Mars   
    Can this mean Snooki in space? A Dutch group promises a “media spectacle” like none the world has ever seen. Mars One has been working in secret since January 2011 on a plan to create a permanent colony on Mars within 11 years, and fund the private operation with an interplanetary reality TV show. The
              Make the Anthill Great Again! The Ant Colony and the Human One   


    Image above: the 1998 movie "AntZ". This post was inspired by a post by Antonio Turiel titled "Of Ants and Men" where he used the example of an ant to discuss the difficulties that humans have to perceive the real problems facing humankind today. Here, I examine again, a little more in depth, the same issue.


    Imagine yourself as an ant. What would be your perception of the world? Mainly, it is other ants from the same colony. As an ant, you are nearly blind but you have an excellent sense of smell and most of your sensorial inputs are the pheromones you receive from your sister ants that then you transmit to other ants. This kind of feedback-based pheromone exchange may lead to remarkably complex behaviors. Yet, the colony has no structure that we could see as a brain. If we define "self-consciousness" as the capability of a creature to model itself, the colony doesn't have this capability. It can react to external stimuli, and it can do that fast. But it can't plan for the future. It is the same for single ants: for them, the colony is a set of smells; they don't really perceive it.

    Now, zoom back to your condition of a human being reading a blog post. What's your perception of the world? You are probably smarter than the average ant, but, like an ant, your perception of the world is mainly shaped by the pairwise contacts you have with other human beings, members of the same colony. These stimuli are verbal, not olfactory, but the mechanism of transmission and retransmission is the same. Like an ant, you are continuously exposed to stimuli from the media and from social networks that you then retransmit to other humans. This often generates transient bursts of reinforcing feedbacks that may generate rapid, even violent, collective reactions on the part of the whole colony. But the human colony doesn't have a brain, it can react to external stimuli but it can't plan ahead. Those large human colonies called "states" don't show an intelligent behavior; not more than ant colonies do. States explore their environment, compete for resources, occasionally fight each other, at times very destructively. But these are behaviors that ant colonies engage in as well.

    Of course, single human beings have abilities that ants lack: they are self-conscious in the sense that they can model their environment and themselves. They even have specific brain structures dedicated to this purpose, such as the "mirror neurons" used to model the behavior of other humans. But all this doesn't seem to affect the behavior of the colony. The sophisticated modeling capabilities of human brains seem to be used mainly to gain an advantage in playing the sexual competition game between individuals. Outside of this realm, most humans probably see their "country" mostly as a semantic entity created by simple messages related to defense and attack. They have no perception of the immense complexity of a giant human colony of tens or hundreds of millions of individuals.

    Theoretically, however, the power of the human brain could be applied to the management of the colony. In history, we see the widespread attempt to place a single human being - that is, a single brain - in charge of the activity of the state. That sometimes leads to attempts of planning for the future of the whole colony, but it often backfires creating disasters. A single human brain cannot manage the immense complexity of a human state. Dictators, kings, emperors, and the like are normally just as clueless about the system they are supposed to manage as their subject. Maybe as clueless as the ants of an anthill.

    Yet, something changed in recent times. We may see the appearance of "world modeling" in the 1970s as the serendipitous awakening of consciousness in the human colony. Digital computers made it possible to perform studies such as the 1972 "The Limits to Growth" that modeled society on the basis of quantitative data and projected the results to the future. It was the first time in history that society could really plan for the future. In particular, the models identified a phenomenon scarcely known before: it was called "overshoot", the tendency of society to overexploit its resources and then collapse. The models could be used to plan ahead and avoid collapse.

    But, as well known, these studies had little or no impact and the world's human colonies continued their blind path toward collapse. This is probably understandable. The emergence of complex structures such as brains is driven by evolutionary competition. Humans developed their large brains as tools for inter-group sexual competition. But states or industrial companies compete by exploiting the available resources as fast as possible. They have no advantage in the capability of planning for the long term, especially when the results of the planning is that they should slow down the exploitation rate. Doing that would only give more chances to their competitors who don't. So, the behavior of human colonies remains dictated by one very simple rule: grow as much as possible and don't care about anything else.

    It is the same for ants: eusocial ant colonies have been around for more than 50 million years. If anthills had benefitted from being self-conscious, there was plenty of time for natural selection to create that characteristic. Instead, it seems that the intelligence of both individual ants and of ant colonies is optimized for the survival of the anthill. There is evidence that social insects are less intelligent than their wild counterparts as a result of the colony taking over in many tasks that were once for the individual to deal with. The same phenomenon may be taking place in human colonies: human brains have been shrinking during the past tens of thousands of years. The trend may have been greatly accelerated in recent times by the development of social networks on the Internet.

    In the end, it may well be that the evolution of the human species is leading it to develop a eusocial behavior similar to that of social insects such as ants or bees. That would possibly entice an overall reduction of individual intelligence, not completely compensated by an increase in societal intelligence. Eusocial human colonies would keep competing against each other for the available resources as they ar doing now. As a eusocial species, humans might be very successful, just as eusocial ants have been very successful in the insect world. But, on the whole, these eusocial entities would not be self-conscious and wouldn't engage in long term planning

    Yet, the future remains impossible to predict: humans are clever monkeys and you never know what they may be able to invent. There may be ways to make the human colony conscious and that would lead to a whole new spectrum of behaviors that, at present, we can only vaguely imagine. For the time being, it seems that we can't do much more than blindly keep at the impossible task of making the anthill great again.





    Some references

    Ant colony as an emergent phenomenon http://www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/use/publications/JLD/221.pdf

    The brain of social insects shrinks in size http://serious-science.org/ant-wars-6652

    The social brain hypothesis, Dunbar http://psych.colorado.edu/~tito/sp03/7536/Dunbar_1998.pdf

    The social brain hypothesis doesn't apply to social  nsects http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/06/16/the-distributed-brainpower-of-social-insects/

    Evolution of Ants starting from early Cretaceous, 100 million years ago. Article by Wilson and Holldobler http://www.pnas.org/content/102/21/7411.full

    On the shrinking human brain. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-have-our-brains-started-to-shrink/

              The Apple and the Ant   



    Antonio Turiel keeps what I think is one of the best blogs in the world (perhaps the best) dedicated to energy and fossil fuels: The Oil Crash. Too bad that, despite the title, the blog is written in Spanish. But if you can read Spanish or are willing to spend some time to decipher a Google translation, then you can truly learn a lot from Tutiel's blog. One of the best recent posts is titled "De hormigas y hombres," that is "Of ants and men". 
    Image "Ant man" from the 2015 movie.



    Reality can be only what you can perceive and it would seem that nothing can exist - for you - beyond your perception sphere. Out of it, there is the realm of the "unknown unknowns" as defined by Donald Rumsfeld, the "black swans" described by Nassim Taleb. But, in practice, there is a twilight zone in which you can vaguely perceive that "something" exist out there. Some only partly unknown unknown that you perceive enough that you realize you should be worried about it. But you don't know how and why. 

    One way to perceive the unperceivable is to imagine yourself as someone or something who/which faces a similar plight, but one that you can understand. The task of understanding dimensions beyond the third for creatures like us, who live in a three-dimensional world, was beautifully described by Edwin Abbott in "Flatland," a story set in a purely two-dimensional world.

    Another metaphor for the difficulty we have in understanding some concepts is that of ants or other social insects: splendidly organized creatures but very limited in their capabilities as single members of the group. Do ants understand that they are part of an ant colony? Probably not; they only perceive other ants. The colony is an emergent phenomenon that no single ant or group of ants ever planned or even perceived. 

    In his post on ants and men, Antonio Turiel describes a metaphor that starts from another characteristic of ants, their very poor eyesight. That serves to underline another kind of human limitation: the inability of seeing beyond the narrow limits of what we see and hear in the media. Turiel describes an "ant-man" who has good smelling abilities but cannot see beyond a very short distance ahead. This ant-man is more intelligent than a regular ant and can plan ahead, even by sophisticated ways of reasoning. But he lacks the capability of seeing above himself at any distance. 

    Let's assume that this ant-man smells an apple. He knows that the apple exists and he moves in the direction that makes the smell stronger, knowing that he is getting closer and closer to it. But, at some moment, he finds that, bizarrely, the smell starts diminishing while no apple is perceived by the ant-man's antennas or mandibles. So, the ant-man embarks in a series of scanning strategies to try to find the apple; first going linearly up and down, then moving in a spiral, and more. But he cannot find the apple for the simple reason that it is above him, hanging from the branch of a tree. Eventually, the ant-man dies of starvation. 

    Here is an excerpt from Turiel's post (translated from Spanish):

    "The metaphor of the ant-man is useful for us to illustrate the dilemma that the Western Societies have been facing lately: the lack of dimensional of the debate. During the past two years, we saw several countries engaging in a crucial elections, always with just two choices: the Greek Referendum, Brexit, the election of Donald Trump... Last week-end, it was France's turn, with the competition between Emmanuel Macron and Marine Le Pen. The winner was the former, with great solace of the financial markets and of the European Commission. In all these cases, a society that sees its way of life in danger, a society that knows it is being slowly but inexorably moving toward collapse, looks for new directions to move. In the same way as the ant-man of our story, society first moves following straight lines; initially in the classic alternative of left and right, but being those lines totally discredited (as in France, where neither the Socialist party nor the conservative UPM reached the second turn in the elections) people start looking for new directions. It is not casual that all this succession of elections that we have been discussing were choices among two alternatives: it is a movement between two extreme points, it is a straight line search. It is the most banal strategy, but the way in which our society has been working up to now. There was no need of anything more complex." <..>

    "There will come a time, as desperation spreads among the dispossessed middle classes, when this linear movement between two opposing and equally useless options will be abandoned and a spiral movement will begin, probably when the level of abstention is so high that it will destroy the legitimacy of two-choice elections. Arriving at this point, desperate solutions will be pushed by the dire conditions of the majority of the population. We commented on this point recently when discussing the end of growth: more than a quarter of the Spanish population is at risk of poverty and exclusion, and that when GDP saw two years of growth, unlike other countries around us. The whole possibility of getting out of the hole in which we find ourselves is that growth continues and at a good pace, but that is a chimera."



    And there we are: totally unable to conceive the real terms of the problem. Nobody realizes that behind everything that's happening around us there is a physical problem: the deadly combination of resource depletion and ecosystem disruption. Our society is an emergent phenomenon which we cannot really perceive, full of unknown unknowns and our desperate two-dimensional search of something that will save us is hopeless: left or right, it doesn't matter. We are blind like ants unable to see the apple hanging from a tree above them.



    Read Turiel's whole post (in Spanish) on "The Oil Crash"











              Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale    

    Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale brought to you by Maureen McCabe of Real Living HER.   

    Search Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale

    Columbus Oh 43235 homes for sale



    Columbus, Ohio 43235 the West Worthington area

    The graph shows inventory of single family homes in the Columbus Ohio 43235 zip code for the past fifteen months.  There was 17.5 months of inventory (homes for sale) based on January 2011 home sales in the West Worthington area.



    Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale - a market report for January 2011

    • Columbus, OH 43235 homes for sale - 121
    • Columbus, OH 43235 homes sold - 7
    • months of inventory available in the Columbus, OH 43235 zip code based on recent sales -17.3

     

    • average active price -$256,000
    • average sale price - $263,000
    • median sales price - $228,000


    January 2011 home sales were down 50% in the area from 2010.  Average active price was down about 9% from 2010 but the average sale price in the area was up 1.2% from a year ago.  Yes the average sales price was higher than average active (list) price. 


    Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale - neighborhoods

    Columbus Corporation Limit The West Worthington area is home to three school districts, Columbus, Dublin and Worthington.  The largest part of the zip code is Worthington schools.  Some of the neighborhoods in the area have homes in more than one school district. 

    Columbus schools neighborhoods including Gables, Indian Hills, Linworth Village, Sycamore Hills and others have homes for sale.

    Dublin schools neighborhoods include Brookside Colony, Brookside Woods, Oakridge Meadows, Summerwood and others have homes on the market now.

    Worthington schools neighborhoods including  Brookside Estates, Brookside Woods, Linworth Woods, Oldstone Crossing, Summerwood, Worthington Hills,  Worthingview and others have homes for sale.  The homes in Columbus Ohio 43235 zip code are in the City of Columbus or Perry or Sharon Townships.   


    Published February 2011 based on data available from the Columbus Board of REALTORS® at the end of January 2011. Trendgraphix reports presented are based on data supplied by the Columbus Board of Realtors.  According to Trendgraphix neither  CBR nor the MLS (multiple listing service ) guarantee or are in anyway responsible for it's accuracy. "Information deemed reliable but not guaranteed."  Therefor since I am relying on their info you have no guarantee from me either!

    If you use the Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale link above you will search the online inventory of Central Ohio homes  for sale on my Real Living HER site.  You will be offered the opportunity to receive listings directly from the Columbus Board of Realtors MLS (multiple listing service)  in real time. You can know the true status of those properties you are interested in.  Are you looking for a home in the Columbus,  Ohio 43235 area? We got 'em.

    Worthington homes for sale  there is overlap, the Worthington schools homes in 43235 would be in both market reports.

    Edit 4 2013 to fix a  broken link.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    This post provided by Maureen McCabe HER Realtors*

    Contact Maureen McCabe of HER Realtors* - 614.388.8249

    HER Realtors  Maureen McCabe

    Search Columbus mls

    email: MaureenatMaureenMcCabe.com  at = @

    *Real Living HER

    Information is deemed to be accurate but should be verified to your satisfaction.  Information provided herein is supplied by several sources and is subject to change without notice.  Opinions expressed are solely those of Maureen McCabe.

     


     


              West Worthington Real Estate - Nov. 2012    

    West Worthington real estate courtesy of Maureen McCabe of HER Realtors

     W. Worthington real estate graph

     

    Home prices in the W. Worthington area.  The West Worthington area is the 43235 zip code in north-west Columbus. 

    Real estate prices in the W. Worthington area November 2012

    • Average "for sale" price - $264,000
    • Average sold price - $249,000
    • Median sold price - $223,000

     

    The Columbus, Ohio 43235 area is divided into three central Ohio school districts:

    Columbus real estate home prices - average sold price $118,000

    Dublin real estate home prices - Average sold price - $337,000

    Worthington real estate home prices - Average sold price $204,000

    The Columbus, Dublin and Worthington home prices are sold for the entire school district in November 2012. 

    Compare prices of W. Worthington real estate to:

    Columbus Board of REALTORS mls home prices - average sale price $174,000

    Franklin County, Ohio home prices - average sale price $166,000

    List Price: Depends on "where" in Columbus  about "list price."  The "average list price" on the list of cities is not an actual average list price though. The Columbus Business First article says “Homes matching the criteria in Columbus cost an average of $177,599, according to Coldwell Banker.” It's complicated. 

    Real estate prices in the W. Worthington area (the 43235 zip code) a market report for November 2012:

    The November 2012 average "for sale" price of a single family resale listing in the West Worthington* area was  $264,000 that was down from November 2011 when the average "for sale" price was $271,000. The average sold price of of a single family resale home in the W. Worthington area was up 47.3% % from a year ago. The average sold price of a home in the area was $249,000 in November 2012 compared to $169,000 in November 2011.

    The median sale price of a home in the W. Worthington area in November 2011 was $153,000 and this November the median price was $223,000. The November 2012 median sold price of a home in the area was up 45.8% from November 2011.

    Homes in the W. Worthington area sold within 97% of their final list price on average in November 2012.  A year ago homes in the area were selling at 95% of their final list price.

    Home sales in the W. Worthington area in November 2012 were up 93.3% from a year earlier.  The number of homes for sale in the area was  down 40.8%  from November 2011.


    * The West Worthington area is the Columbus, Ohio 43235 zip code. The homes are in the City of Columbus or in unincorporated areas (Perry or Sharon Township.)  The neighborhoods in the area are in either Columbus, Dublin or Worthington schools.  School district boundaries were set in place long before most of the area was developed.  The Columbus, Ohio 43235 zip code was part of the 43085 zip code until the late 1980s.   

    W. Worthington real estate: Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes for sale by price range

    Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes priced $100,000 to $200,000

    Columbus, Ohio 43235 homes priced $200,000 to $300,000

    The Columbus, Ohio 43235 searches are set up to show  single family homes.  Change home searches to match your needs.  Edit 1-5-2013 searches were on RealLiving.com url yesterday and redirecting to an error page today.  These are on the HER Realtors url. 

    The W. Worthington area includes neighborhoods in Worthington schools such as Worthington Hills, Stilson Highlands, Brookside Woods and Brookside Estates.  The Dublin school district neighborhoods in the Columbus, Ohio 43235 zip code include Brookside Colony and Whispering Pines.  The Columbus schools neighborhoods in the W. Worthington area include Linworth Village, The Gables and Sycamore Hills.

    The graph above shows average home prices of single family resale home prices in the W. Worthington area (the Columbus, Ohio 43235 zip code) for the past 15 months through November 2012.  The median price information is not shown in the graph, that would be a separate graph.

    Published in January 2013 based on data available from the Columbus Board of REALTORS® mls (multiple listing service) at the end of November 2012. Trendgraphix reports are based on data supplied by the Columbus Board of Realtors. According to Trendgraphix CBR and mls  do not guarantee the accuracy of the data.  Trendgraphix says: “Information deemed reliable but not guaranteed.” Since I rely on the info from the CBR mls and Trendgraphix, I can offer no guarantee.   Contact me with questions about W. Worthington real estate.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    This post provided by Maureen McCabe HER Realtors*

    Contact Maureen McCabe of HER Realtors* - 614.388.8249

    HER Realtors  Maureen McCabe

    Search Columbus mls

    email: MaureenatMaureenMcCabe.com  at = @

    *Real Living HER

    Information is deemed to be accurate but should be verified to your satisfaction.  Information provided herein is supplied by several sources and is subject to change without notice.  Opinions expressed are solely those of Maureen McCabe.

     


     


              Do Routine Preoperative and Intraoperative Urine Cultures Benefit Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux Surgery?   
    Objective. To determine if routine preoperative and intraoperative urine cultures (UCx) are necessary in pediatric vesicoureteral (VUR) reflux surgery by identifying their association with each other, preoperative symptoms, and surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of patients undergoing ureteral reimplant(s) for primary VUR at a tertiary academic medical center between years 2000 and 2014 was done. Preoperative UCx were defined as those within 30 days before surgery. A positive culture was defined as >50,000 colony forming units of a single organism. Results. A total of 185 patients were identified and 87/185 (47.0%) met inclusion criteria. Of those, 39/87 (45%) completed a preoperative UCx. Only 3/39 (8%) preoperative cultures returned positive, and all of those patients were preoperatively symptomatic. No preoperatively asymptomatic patients had positive preoperative cultures. Intraoperative cultures were obtained in 21/87 (24.1%) patients; all were negative. No associations were found between preoperative culture results and intraoperative cultures or between culture result and postoperative complications. Conclusions. In asymptomatic patients, no associations were found between the completion of a preoperative or intraoperative UCx and surgical outcomes, suggesting that not all patients may require preoperative screening. Children presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) prior to ureteral reimplantation may benefit from preoperative UCx.
              Great Scott! It's a Great Auk   

    Thought to have been hunted to extinction in 1844, the Great Auk was a large flightless bird found on coastal regions and islands throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Standing up to 50ft tall, these majestic birds were easy targets for hungry sailors.
    Just recently I discovered a small breeding colony on my travels...and these ones look particularly plump and juicy. I shall return tomorrow with my small cannon and proceed to bag a few of the tasty blighters. mmmm, I do love a good Auk pie!
               Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) following high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinical benefits at no extra cost    
    Lee, SM; Radford, JA; Dobson, L; Huq, T; Ryder, WDJ; Pettengell, R; Morgenstern, GR; Lee, SM; Radford, JA; Dobson, L; Huq, T; Ryder, WDJ; Pettengell, R; Morgenstern, GR; Scarffe, JH; Crowther, D; - view fewer <#> (1998) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) following high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinical benefits at no extra cost. British Journal of Cancer , 77 (8) pp. 1294-1299.
              Se vende terreno comercial en the colony tx   
    Gran inversion, a solo una cuadra de la main street , the colony esta creciendo y los precios de las casas se duplican ano a ano, no dejes pasar esta oportunidad, L Toyota vino con sus empleados que ganan mucho dinero y companias inversionistas estan invirtiendo en the colony, aprovecha ahora antes que sea demaciado tarde, estos terrenos van a valer 120,000 cuando la main este terminada, pero vendo este terreno0 por que necesito el dinero para otra inversion. Gracias Se acepta el pago cash,... $60000
              $60000 / 6000ft2 - commercial lot for sale one block from main street (The...   
    Best location, only one block from main street, with new remodeled main street the traffic will increase a lot, this is perfect to build your own business,or invesment, the colony is growing, Toyota is in town, and there is a lot new families with a good income. This is a great investment, price duplicate year over year, this lot will cost 120k next year, maybe more. a lot of investors are coming to the colony. Get this lot before is too late. cash option or owner to owner with down payment of... $60000
              Commonwealth Books of Virginia Congratulates James Thompson Who will Appear on Virginia Time Travel's 100th Episode, on December 23rd, December 25th, and on December 29th   

    Host Andrew Mills and the author of "The Birth of Virginia's Aristocracy" explore how a handful of prominent men transformed themselves and their families into an upper crust that dominated the colony of Virginia for more 200 years.

    (PRWeb December 10, 2014)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/12/prweb12379060.htm


                 


    Ασχετο, αλλα γιατι να μην υπαρχει ενα 24 hour bar lounge με χαμηλους, μαλαακους καναπεδες με πουπουλενιες μαξιλλαρες, ζεστα χρωματα, χαμηλους φωτισμους και αισθηση γυναικειου boudoir - pinup art on the wall optional.Να το λενε "come to bed" και ναχει απιθανες κοκταιηλιες.

    Νυσταζω. Βρεχει, ειναι εκεινες οι μερες του μηνα, και μετα απο ενα γερο ξενυχτι φιλοδοξουσα να το μεσημεριασω, αλλα με ξυπνησε ο ηχος των @#$%&*@*# αυτοκινητων, που προσπαθωνατς να αποφυγουν τα @#$&*#@** οδοφραγματα που εν οψει των ολυμπιακων εχουν ξεφυτρωσει σε καθε γωνια της @#%&*@#** πολης, εχουν ανακαλυψει και τις πιο απιθανες παρακαμψεις. Κ το ησυχο δρομακι μου, κατι οι καλοκαιρινες φουσκοδεντριες των νεαρων της γειτονιας που γυρω στα μεσανυχτα σκαρφαλωνουν απο το φραχτη στο παρκο απεναντι για να κανουνε παρτι, κατι οι φουσκοθαλασιες των γλαρων που επιμενουν να ζευγαρωσουνε τις πιο απιθανες ωρες, κατι τα τουτου, δεν ειναι καθολου πια ησυχο, @#%&**@#*.



    Χτες βραδυ, μαζεψα την Αγγελικουλα απο τη Harley Street, και μετα απο 2 λεπτα οδηγησης με την οροφη του αυτοκινητου της κατεβασμενη (ναι, χτες ειχε ερθει το καλοκαιρι ΚΑΙ στο Λονδινο), παρκαραμε πισω απο Marylebone και ανεβηκαμε στο μπαλκονι του Orrery. Το οποιο ηταν τιγκα στα κοστουμια μεσης ηλικιας,με ελαχιστες πορτοκαλι γυναικες ταγιερατες. Τσαλαπατησα αποφασιστικα καποιες τσαντες ακουμπισμενες στο εδαφος, ανιπαρεκαμψα κανα δυο κρουσματα γνωριμιας, και εκανα αποφασιστικο beeline για αυτο που μου φαινοταν για το μπαρ στην ακρη του διαδρομου. Ο σερβιτορος δεν προλαβε να μας σερβιρει το πολυποθητο peach Bellini - το βασιλειο μου για ενα ποτο!- οταν αρχισαμε να συνειδητοποιουμε οτι πισω απο το τραπεζι του δεν υπηρχε κανενα μπαρ περιωπης, παρα μονο κατι κρυσταλλινα ποτηρια και κανατες η σαμπανιες, και μας πλησιαζει ενας burly τυπος της ασφαλειας που μας λεει "lovely to see you ladies, but this is a private function." :-[

    Η Ματινα που ηρθε αργοτερα (καφε δερματινες σουεντ μποτες, μαυρο one shoulder jumpsuit all saints, γαλαζια ματια, κοντα μαυρα μαλλια και καπελλο καουμπου, this is London, hell, yaaah!!) - μας επεπληξε πολυ αυστηρα, που δεν δηλωσαμε οτι τιμη τους να ομορφυνουμε την χαζοεκδηλωση τους με την πανεμορφη παρουσια μας. Εμεις βεβαια ειχαμε φυγει χασκογελωντας σα πιτσιρικια που τα πιασανε να κανουνε κοπανα. το μονο regret ηταν που δεν προλαβαμε να πιουμε το @#$&*@*@ bellini τους(αλλα σιγα το παλιοbellini, που θα ηταν με prosecco)(off with her head, cried the Quuen of Hearts).



    Λιγα λεπτα αργοτερα, η φοβερη Αντζελικα θα ανακαλυπτε ενα καινουριο μπαρ με διακριτικη live jazz,ξυλινη και πετρινη διακοσμηση, ζεν καλλιτεχνηματα στους τοιχους που σε φερνουν σε κατασταση διαλογισμου μονο και ποου τα κυττας (εχμ, μετα απο κανα δυο ποτακια σε αδειο στομαχι δλδ), το Colony. Με τις πιο καταπληκτικες κοκταιηλιες που εχω πιει τους τελευταιους μηνες. Μετα το πρωτο watermelon collins στο αδειο στομαχι μου (wyborowa, basil, lime,watermelon puree, spiced syrup and soda) ημουνα ευτυχισμενη, το Piim's punch (Pimms με φραουλες και rose champagne)ειχε κανει την Αντζελικα αγγελικα χαμογελαστη, οποτε οταν ηρθε η Μαρουσα (American preppy look me Ralph Lauren sweater, capri μαυρο παντελλονι και καραμελλενιες γοβες Prada που κρατηθηκα να μην απαιτησω να τις ανταλλαξει με τα Τodd's ψηλοτακουνα μου εδω και τωρα)ειχαμε ηδη πιασει φιλιες με το μπαρμαν κ προσπαθουσαμε να κλεψουμε τα μυστικα του για τα ποτα.


    Στο τριτο ποτο προβληματιζομουνα εντονα εαν το συμπαν μου εστελνε κρυπτογραφημενα μηνυματα οτι πρεπει κι εγω να μαθω να κανω καταπληκτικα κοκταιηλς (sms στον Ζ, που με ειχε παρει τηλεφωνο νωριτερα, να του το δηλωσω - καρφωτη απαντηση, οπως ξερεις δεν πινω κοκταιηλς, αλλα ποτε ναρθω να με παςσ στο μαγαζι? πφφφφ..!). Η να μαθω να μαγειρευω υψηλη μαγειρικη. Η εστν να α νοιγω φυλλο/φτιαχνω γλυκα/cupcakes/κλπ. Τελικα αποφασισα οτι το συμπαν μου στελνει ξεκαθαρα μηνυματα, I MUST get out more αντ γκετ α λαιφ(ο)!



    Η Ματινα μας βρηκε στην εισοδο του κινηματογραφου. Οταν ειδαμε το καπελλο της, κυτταχτηκαμε με την Αγγελικουλα - ποιος θα μας βρισει παλι που θα του κρυβει την οθονη- μετα ξανακυτταχτηκαμε οι τρεις και με τη Μαρουσα - η Αντζελικα με ακριβο ταγιεροπανταλονο κατευθειαν απο τη δουλεια, εγω με λευκο φορεμα riviera style με σφικτο μπουστο και αθωα αβυσαλλεο embonpoint - νταξ, δεν κολλουσαμε με τιποτα ενδυματολογικα, τα ρουχα μας διηγοντουσαν τελειως αλλες ιστοριες - αλλα με εναν περιεργο τροπο το συνολο μας εδενε.

    3 ωρες αργοτερα, μετα απο γελια μεχρι δακρυων (bridesmaids. just watch it.) και μετα το 4ο Japanese Mojito (Zubrowka Bison Grass Vodka, Lime Juice, Shiso leave & Vanilla Syrup,Mint), ενα κορυφαιο καμακι στη Μαρουσα με το που ελysε την χρυσοκαστανη της κομη ( "my friend wants to tell you a story"), σχεδια αποδρασης στο σπιτι της Ματινας στο Παρισι και αποριες τυπου "μετα τριαντα-σαραντα χρονια που θα ερχομαστε εδω, θα σε ρωταω, θυμασαι τοτε που βγηκαμε που φορουσα το καπελλο " "και εγω θα σου λεω, το καπελλο το θυμαμαι, εσυ που με ρωτας ποια εισαι? :-)" σταματα η μουσικη... γιατι στις 12.30 η ωρα φευγει η κολοκυθαμαξα της Σταχτοπουτας, και το @#%&*@*@# Nobu ΠΑΥΕΙ να σερβιρει ποτα. γρουμφ. life is a bitch.

    Νυσταζω. Σταματησε να βρεχει, αλλα ο ηλιος το παιζει αναποφασιστος. Εχω ξανανοσταλγησει το κρεβατι μου. Life's too short, but occasionally sweet. :-)

              Immigration from Ireland on the "Cadell"   
    I am trying to find a record of the immigration of Mary Murphy from Ireland. Mary married Job Boneham in Adelaide in 1860. A transcript of the 1869 Mount Gambier Hospital records states that Mary came on the "Cadell" and had been in the colony for 14 years. So far I have not been able to find any reference to the "Cadell" Any help wopuld be appreciated.
    Rodor11
              2 Scientists, 2 Different Approaches To Saving Bees From Poison Dust   
    It's planting time in America. Farmers are spending long days on their tractors, pulling massive planters across millions of acres of farmland, dropping corn and soybean seeds into the ground. Most of those seeds have been coated with pesticides known as neonicotinoids, or neonics for short. And despite attempts by pesticide makers to reduce this, some of that coating is getting rubbed off the seeds and blown into the air. That dust is settling on the ground, on ponds, and on vegetation nearby. Honeybees and wild bees, looking for food, will encounter traces of the pesticides, and some will be harmed. They may become disoriented and bring less food back to their colony. Many may die. Several years ago, Christian Krupke , an insect specialist at Purdue University in Indiana, became one of the first researchers to discover that rogue dust was wiping out bee colonies. At first, Art Schaafsma , an entomologist at the University of Guelph, in Canada, didn't believe it was true.
              Mapas de starcraft con mineral y gas infinito   

    Hace tiempo estas 2 web me parecio buenizimo, aqui encontre varios mapas como el famoso "fastest map" y entre otras.

    Web: http://www.creepcolony.com/melee.shtml
    Web con imagen: http://www.geocities.com/powerpufffiend/maps.html

              Facebook Ant Age Super Money Cheats   
    Ants Age Cheats Super Money is an online virtual world game on Facebook. On Ants Age you'll be able to build a small tribe of ants that you can grow to match your own idea of how an ant colony should be like.

    Process wood, grow some fruits and in addition, accumulate cards to combine with magic gems.

    On Ants Age, you can also send your ants to war your friends' ant hives or on Ants Age's BattleField to show your tribe's supremacy over the Ants Age world. This is where Ants Age Cheats become handy..

    Ants Age Super Money cheat will get you some Money or Wood to help you get all items needed to put together the best army of ants. Ants Age cheat needs only the most recent version of Flash Player and Cheat Engine v5.5 and the Firefox browser in addition to your facebook account.

    Steps in Ants Age Cheats Super Money

    1st Step in Ants Age Cheats Super Money

    -Open your Firefox 2 and Head to your Facebook account

    2nd Step in Ants Age Cheats

    -go to your application in Ants Age and homeland

    3rd Step in Ants Age Cheats

    -Then click on shop and buy one Wooden hatchet

    4th Step

    -Open Cheat Engine v5.5 then click on process and

    5th Step

    -Search for Firefox.exe then check out Ants Age game

    6th Step

    -and copy the amount of Woods in your Ants Age inventory and navigate to

    7th Step Ants Age Cheats

    -Cheat engine v5.5 and paste the amount on the value bar and click on First Scan then check out Ants Age again then go to shop Tools and Click weapons and get one Wood Sword. After that, you can see your money deducted base on what you buy then go to cheat engine choose "double". Copy again the amount of your coins paste it to the Value Bar, after that you can see on cheat engine, the FOUND address. Click that last address then you can see under the FROZEN And Click the screen in Ants Age go to shop again and get some decorations. Click DIY and buy violet Flower Pot Click anywhere on the screen. Ants Age will then freeze and you will have to wait for a while. One the process is done, you will notice that your now loaded!

              One Hong Kong, two sentiments after 20 years of Chinese rule   
    Hong Kong is planning a big party as it marks 20 years under Chinese rule. But many people in the former British colony are...

              Actor Arya & Actor Shaam Launches ‘Pink Designers’ Boutique in Shanthi Colony Main Road, Anna Nagar, Chennai   
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              Stick-weaving: Innovative behavior in tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).   
    Some captive cotton-top tamarins spontaneously weave sticks in the mesh of their enclosures so that the stick is lodged between two mesh openings. Sticks are broken from natural branches placed in the enclosures and often modified by biting them in the center before weaving through the mesh. To investigate this further, we systematically surveyed all animals in our colony and found that all successful stick-weaving tamarins were descendants from only 2 of the 16 breeding groups contributing to the colony membership at the time of surveying or were the mates of these descendants, suggesting stick-weaving is a socially learned behavior. Successful stick-weavers were presented with pipe cleaners, soda straws, and wooden dowels to see if they would generalize stick-weaving to novel objects. Seven of 10 animals successfully wove with straws or pipe cleaners, showing that they could generalize the behavior to objects that were physically different but had the same affordances as the sticks. Data from a father-daughter pair suggest a form of coaching. Innovative behavior is needed for the emergence of culture with subsequent social transmission. Although innovative behavior in primates is mainly associated with foraging and is more likely to occur among males, stick-weaving has no obvious reward and appeared equally in both sexes. Stick-weaving behavior and its probable social transmission across generations suggest the possibility of cultural traditions emerging in this species. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
              TANIA BRUGUERA, #YOTAMBIENEXIJO, A CALL FOR FREEDOM OF SPEECH AT REVOLUTION SQUARE IN LA HABANA, THIS TUESDAY DECEMBER 30 AT 3:00 PM   

    TANIA BRUGUERA, #YOTAMBIENEXIJO, A CALL FOR FREEDOM OF SPEECH AT REVOLUTION SQUARE IN LA HABANA,
    TUESDAY DECEMBER 30 AT 3:00 PM
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Open Letter
    17.12.2014
    Vatican City, Italy.
    Download PDF

    Dear Raúl, querido Obama, dear Pope Francis,

    First let me offer congratulations, because politicians are expected to make history and today, December 17th, 2014, has been a historic day.

    You have made history by proposing that the embargo/blockade become empty words. With the restoration of diplomatic relations, you have transformed the meaning of fifty-three years of policies defined by one side (the United States) and used by the other (Cuba) to ideologically guide the daily lives of Cubans everywhere. I wonder if this gesture is not also a proposal to kill ideology itself? Cuba is finally seeing itself, not from the perspective of death, but of life. But, I wonder, what will that life be and who will have the right to that new life?

    Very well then, Raúl:

    As a Cuban, today I call for the right to know what is being planned with our lives and, as part of this new phase, for the establishment of a politically transparent process in which we will all be able to participate, and to have the right to hold different opinions without punishment. When it comes time to reconsider what has defined who we are, that it not include the same intolerance and indifference which has so far accompanied changes in Cuba-a process in which acquiescence is the only option.

    As a Cuban, today I demand there be no more privileges or social inequalities. The Cuban Revolution distributed privileges to those in government or deemed trustworthy (read: loyal) by the government. This has not changed. Privilege created the social inequalities under which we have always lived, inequalities which were then rationalized as a revolutionary meritocracy and are now being transformed into a reliable entrepreneurial class. I demand that the emotional and tangible rights of those who cannot participate in this new phase-those at the bottom-be protected.

    As a Cuban, today I demand that we not be defined by the financial markets nor by how useful we can be to government. I call for equality for the Cuban who, due to the blockade/embargo, spent his life working in a factory only to come home a proud worker's hero but now has no place in a world of foreign investments and can only hope to receive a pension defined by the standards of socialist times, not by today's market economy. What is the plan, Raul, to avoid the same mistakes made by the countries from the former socialist camp? To avoid returning to the Cuba of 1958? How do we repair the emotional abuse the Cuban people have endured through the politics of recent years? How do we ensure there is social and material justice? How do we guarantee we will not become a colony, that we won't have to accept our new providers without question-as happened first with the Soviet Union and then with Venezuela?

    As a Cuban, today I call for the right of peaceful protest in the streets to support or denounce any government decision without fear of reprisal. I call for the legal right to establish associations and political parties with platforms that differ from that of the ruling party. I call for the decriminalization of civic activism, civil society, and of those with different points of view. I demand that the legitimacy of political parties born of the popular will be recognized. I call for direct elections in which all political parties are allowed to participate, and for ideological discrepancies to be resolved with debate and not via acts of repudiation.

    As a Cuban, today I demand the right to be a political being-not merely an economic entities or symbolic exchange to make history.

    As a Cuban, Raúl, today I want to know the vision for the nation we are building.

    As an artist, Raul, I propose you today to exhibit "Tatlin's Whisper #6" at the Plaza de la Revolución (Revolution Square). Let's open the microphones and let all voices be heard. Let's not offer just the clatter of coins to fulfill our lives. Let's turn on the microphones. Let's learn together to make something of our dreams.

    Today I'd like to I propose that Cubans take to the streets wherever they may be on December 30th to celebrate, not the end of a blockade/embargo, but the beginning of our civil rights.

    Let's make sure it's the Cuban people who will benefit from this new historic moment. Our homeland is what hurts us.

    Tania Bruguera
    Vatican City, December 17, 2014

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Communique #1
    20.12.2014



    WHO ARE WE?

    Following the Open Letter sent by the artist Tania Bruguera to Cuban President Raúl Castro on December 17th, a volunteer civic platform sprung up from its key phrase, "I demand," with the purpose of gathering on December 30th at La Plaza de la Revolución in Havana to call for the political, economic, cultural and civil rights of Cuban citizens. #YOTAMBIENEXIJO is a public and inclusive platform.

    The answer to the question "Who are we?" is none other than "Who am I?" If you are Cuban and you believe in the restitution of your rights, then this platform is you.

    WHAT DO WE WANT?

    A call to Cubans to come peacefully to La Plaza de la Revolución in Havana on December 30th in order to use an open microphone to make a personal gesture in a public space. Speaking for ourselves is the first step toward the reclamation of our rights. Everyone has the floor. Make La Plaza de la Revolución the place for discussion and debate. LA PLAZA ES TU PLAZA.

    HOW DO WE WANT IT?

    Next December 30th at 3 P.M. EST, #YOTAMBIENEXIJO will gather, without violence and without fear, at La Plaza de la Revolución to transform it into a space of respect for diversity of opinions about what kind of country we want to build. True freedom means tolerance.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Press Release #1
    21.12.2014



    Cubans call for a peaceful gathering in La Plaza de Revolución. After the joint announcement from Cuba and the U.S. about the reestablishment of diplomatic relations, Cuban citizens, based on the demands articulated in #YoTambienExijo, call for a peaceful gathering in Havana's historic Plaza de la Revolución on December 30th at 3 p.m. (local time) in order to discuss, via an open microphone, what kind of nation they want for themselves.

    "It would be a personal gesture in a public space. Speaking for ourselves is the first step toward the reclamation of our rights. Everyone will have the floor. Make the La Plaza de la Revolución a space for discussion and debate", said the organizers of #YoTambienExijo. The group's Facebook FanPage added more than 1,000 likes in the first 24 hours after the historic news.

    Following the Open Letter sent by Cuban artist Tania Bruguera to Cuban President Raúl Castro, the U.S. President Barack Obama and Pope Francis on December 17th, a civic, volunteer and non-partisan movement sprung up.

    Based on the key phrase from the letter, "I demand," Cubans will reclaim their civil, political, economic and cultural rights. "#YOTAMBIENEXIJO is a public and inclusive platform. The answer to the question "Who are we?" is no other than "Who am I?" If you are Cuban and you do believe in the restitution of your rights, then this platform is you", states the call."Today, as a Cuban, I demand to be informed about the plans being made with our lives, and that, as part of this new stage, a process of political transparency be established; where we all can have a space of participation and the right to have a different opinion that won't be punished (...) "Today, as a Cuban, I want to know which is the idea of Nation that we are building", asserts Tania Bruguera in her Open Letter to the three Chiefs of State.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Communique #2
    #YoTeInvito (I invite you) to our Plaza
    22.12.2014



    Dear Cub@ns,

    Following the news of December 17th that stirred our Nation, I sent a letter to the Cuban newspaper Granma (which, of course, was not published). After its publication by other press media, a group of Cuban citizens with no party affiliation reacted to a phrase in this letter that calls all Cubans to gather next December 30th at La Plaza to speak out at an open microphone.

    They have created the platform #YoTambienExijo (http://www.facebook.com/YoTambienExijo) to which they have invited me, and so far, it has added more than 1000 persons with the common purpose of making real what was kind of a metaphor in my letter or maybe an unconscious desire that slipped out of my mind due to that day's commotion.

    The idea is to get together at La Plaza on December the 30th at 15:00 in order to speak and discuss peacefully about what concerns us in these days, to be there and let others know of what we think and our reasons for it, in an atmosphere of tolerance and respect.

    Let there be diversity of opinions and topics so we can discuss and talk among us all. We do not have any kind of agenda nor follow any particular ideology; we just want people to come, those that have not found a space to share their doubts or experiences, and those that felt they were not represented by the alternative spaces already open.

    Let's all come: housewives, self-employed persons, movie makers, mechanics, taxi drivers, managers, sex workers, students, marginalized persons, teachers, retired persons, farmers, blue collar workers, in fact all; let's get together and think about what is the concept of nation that we want to build and put into practice. We are not going to celebrate the potential ending of the embargo; we want to celebrate the birth of our rights. On this day we are not going to claim our rights, instead we are going to exercise our rights.

    It would be great to interact with you on that day at La Plaza, as a direct reference to a work I did at the 2009 Bienal de la Habana, where I set a microphone that was used by those who stood for the Revolution, those who criticized it, those who couldn't understand our reality, those who were afraid, and those who tried to vocalize their right to express their ideas.

    It would be an honor to have you there. See you on December 30th at La Plaza. A different Plaza, our Plaza.

    Hugs,
    Tania Bruguera
    Yo También Exijo

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Declaration of Principles for Artistic Action
    Ten instructions to activate "Tatlin's Whisper# 6"
    25.12.2014



    Given the fact that art leads to multiple interpretations.

    Given the diversity of views that are summoned there and the passion with which Cubans defend their ideas.

    Given the fact that we have received proposals from Cubans around the world who also want to speak from their Plaza.

    Given the peaceful nature of the #YoTambienExijo platform that promotes the meeting of the 30th of December.

    We want to provide access to instructions, so that this work may be performed with us in Havana, or elsewhere.

    Ten instructions to activate the work "Tatlin's Whisper# 6"
    (Note: Before starting the work a person explains the rules to all present).

    1. The microphone is open for anyone who wants to use it.

    2. Each person has a minute to speak whereupon should leave the microphone to those who follow and respect the right of others to express themselves on equal terms.

    3. Each group to perform this piece can choose in what way they will indicate that the intervention time is over. We suggest: clapping, finger snaps, a buzzer alarm sound, a musical instrument.

    4. The main rule of this work is that ALL reviews are welcome and the audience may NOT stop the intervention. If someone disagrees he/she can use its minute at the microphone to offer a different opinion.

    5. Each person involved in the performance will speak from his/her point of view. No spokespersons or alternative institutions or government groups will be accepted. It is a public but individual action.

    6. Vulgarity, swearword, curse, calls to violence, discrimination or affronts to the integrity of individuals, shall not be accepted.

    7. Illegal acts or violent actions against public order are not accepted.

    8. The length of the work is up to the public. In the event the work spans for several hours and recurrent ideas are detected, the audience can resolve to establish a new 'open mic' to talk about a specific topic. Whenever a new group starts, the rules will be explained again.

    9. The order of speakers will be determined by the order in which the word is requested. The order of speakers should be respected.

    10. The work is an Art Space where we all can design our desires and our human imaginaries.

    #YoTambienExijo

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Press Release #2
    Cuban artist will perform on Havana Square
    29.12.2012



    The aim of the artistic performance "Tatlin's Whisper # 6" that Cuban artist Tania Bruguera will perform at La Plaza de la Revolución of the city of Havana, Cuba, on December 30th at 15:00 (local time), is that Cubans peacefully express the ideas they have about their nation and its future, after the re-establishment of relations between Cuba and the United States.

    "The work is an artistic event that will allow Cubans to speak with their own voice on issues that concern them on the verge of a new year," said Bruguera, who is widely recognized throughout Cuba and abroad for her work and reflections on the social role of art. For a full minute, any Cuban attending the performance may claim his/her rights and talk about his/her dreams and everyday problems. Similar to the performance "Tatlin's Whisper # 6", held on the Havana Biennial 2009 at an ‘open microphone'. This will render all attendees have their turn to speak.

    The initiative is an example of political art and the role of art in society. "It's what I call ‘Art Made for a political specific timing', which can be translated as a work done for a particular context and political situation," says the artist. "Performances and initiatives such as that to be held in La Plaza are usual in other countries. The social and artistic movements have always been connected, one of the soundest cases in Latin America was that of ‘Tucumán Arde', for example," says Bruguera, who has her home-studio in Cuba and lives among the United States, France and in any country where her work develops.

    In Letter to Pope Francis this December 26th before leaving to Cuba, Bruguera said: "Dear Pope, our freedom is also in your protection. We need your blessing at a time when we have clearly in mind the words of John Paul II, who in that same Plaza asked Cubans not to be afraid, to open to the world, so that the world could open to us."

    The artistic action will be a peaceful event where calls to violence, discrimination, affronts to the integrity of individuals, illegal acts or violent actions against public order, will not be tolerated or accepted, the artist clarified in the letter addressed to the Pope.

    At a meeting on Saturday December 27th with Bruguera, the President of the National Council of Arts, Ruben del Valle, made clear that the state agency does not support the organization, disclosure, or legal procedures necessary for carrying out the work. Bruguera then confirmed: "The work will be performed. This is a contribution of Art to the necessary discussion of ideas in Cuban society. "

    Useful Art for a better society

    Civil Platform #YoTambienExijo emerged as a result of the Open Letter Bruguera forwarded on December 17th to Pope Francis, President Barack Obama, and Cuban President Raul Castro in response to the announcement of the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States. The Platform brings together dozens of Cubans inside and outside of Cuba on behalf of human rights.

    "Processes like this expand the borders of the world, and as Cuba is part of the world, we see this as a very positive deed for Cuban society, to be involved in global art and human rights movements, promoting and rescuing the faith for a better world" defended the Cuban artist. Bruguera, spokesperson for the Platform, said the action is based on the need for Cubans to publicly share their expectations on the surprising political shift between the island and the United States. "Cubans have the right to ask questions and to receive answers," justified the artist.

    As for the Platform #YoTambienExijo, she said that it "was born as an inclusive project with no political affiliation or belief, from concerns among friends, acquaintances of acquaintances, but without any experience in activism and leadership within Cuban civil society."

    FURTHER INFORMATION:
    . See FanPage #YoTambienExijo: www.facebook.com/YoTambienExijo
    . See Facebook Event: www.facebook.com/events/1515487705372907
    . See Open Letter at Blog www.taniabruguera.com
    . Twitter: @yotambienexijo
    . Press Contact: Email: exige@yotambienexijo.org


    "Neither slaves, nor consumers. Let's be Citizens." #YoTambienExijo

              The hotness of second-class citizenship   
    I've just started a new dys/u/eutopian sci-fi that I'm tentatively calling The Marriage Decree. The idea is that a group of colonists left earth in the 31st century to form a traditional male-led society, but five generations on their descendants have begun to abandon the founding principle of family discipline. The conservative administration, controlled by traditionalists, imposes the Decree for Ensuring Domestic Tranquility, which demotes women to second-class citizens, with their voting rights controlled by their heads-of-household and men explicitly required by law to use corporal punishment to keep their wives in line.

    I'll leave the tease there for now, but I want to explore the reasons why I should think it's so hot to imagine myself as a second-class citizen, when everything in my personal and cultural makeup screams how wrong that is. It's a theme I've worked on and to which I've returned several times in my erotica, including an excerpt I'll share below, but which, when writing fiction intended to arouse my reader, I don't really have the opportunity to consider in an analytic way.

    Here's my theory: the submissive sexual orientation eroticizes power, above all—I think those of us who self-identify as BDSM in one way or another can all agree on that. So to have my power legally taken away, so that I have no choice at all but to obey my husband or receive just correction in whatever way he sees fit—belt or paddle or cane or butt-plug, ratchets up the arousal. 

    At the same time (and perhaps this is actually the most important reason the fantasy works for me) any individual man, whether my husband or the government auditor who is required by law to check in once a month and make certain I am receiving the discipline I need as a second-class citizen, is only doing his job as he orders me over the family spanking-bench to receive the lesson I've earned. As a second-class citizen, after all, it's essential that the first-class citizens in charge of me maintain order, even if that means that when I misbehave they must thrash me with terrible severity and (if it's my husband) fuck me in a style that makes clear who's in charge in this society—for my own good, of course, and with cuddles afterward, and "I'm so sorry I had to do that, Emily, but you must learn, and it's my responsibility to teach you. I want you to remember, when you feel how sore your anus is tomorrow from my cock, that you are a second-class citizen who is under my protection. I have to answer for your conduct, so I will make sure that conduct is perfect, even if it means you have to go over the spanking-bench every day."

    It goes without saying, I hope, that the only reason this demotion of status can be hot for me is that it's not the way things actually are. If I actually couldn't vote for myself but had to allow my husband to cast a vote for me, it wouldn't turn me on in the slightest. 

    The fantasy though, of him telling me that I'm silly to want our taxes raised and, when I protest that we can certainly pay more to help others who are in need, ordering me into the bedroom for a date with his belt and a good hard dominant fucking, until I see that of course poor people should have to pull themselves up by their bootstraps… worked up sufficiently, with the lecture in economics given in an angry voice as the thick leather comes down on my bare backside over and over, it makes my panties damp.

    One of the books where I treat this theme, rather with my tongue in my cheek, is Assigned a Guardian. Here's a sample:

    Whereas the colonists of the planet Draco face hardships that make certain freedoms to which modern people are accustomed unsafe to maintain, and whereas the colonists wish to secure to themselves first safety, and, later, prosperity, therefore be this basic law adopted and enacted as the foundation of good order on the planet Draco, this fifth day of January in the year 2187 of the Common Era, by Earth reckoning, and the year 12 of human life on Draco.

    An article about the post of governor, which had far-reaching executive powers, followed. Then came an article about the governor’s council, which served as the colony’s legislative body. The specifications for the court system followed. Then the real innovations, if they could be called that, began.

    By recommendation of the governor, and ratification by the governor’s council, all recognized forms of gainful employment shall be classified as appropriate either only to men or also to women. No woman shall be gainfully employed in a post designated as appropriate only to men. Forms of gainful employment designated as appropriate to women shall be further placed under the direction of a male agent of business, ordinarily the head of household in authority over the woman occupied in such employment. These forms of employment shall be further designated as ‘women’s work,’ and any remuneration for them shall be delivered to the agent of business.

    The maintenance of discipline throughout the civil order being vital to the survival of the citizenry, the practice of corporal punishment shall be employed throughout the civil administration of Draco, and the planetary administration shall promote said practice for use in the homes of citizens. The foregoing notwithstanding, men are explicitly advised that the right to use any form of discipline acceptable to them, provided it do no permanent injury to the party disciplined, shall not be abridged by the governor or by legislation made in the governor’s council.

    Patrick had already seen one of the posters that clearly traced their origin to this article of the Basic Law. It showed two photographs of a young woman, at a guess in her twenties. In the photo on the left, her cheeks were stained with tears, and she was shown in a medium-shot that suggested she was bending over something—a stool or the arm of a chair, perhaps. On the right side of the poster the same young woman was hugging a child close, with a touchingly maternal smile on her face. The caption was in block letters: SOMETIMES FAMILY HARMONY IS ONLY A SPANKING AWAY.

    One of the questions Patrick had been told in his citizenship interview that he should expect to be asked on the test concerned the origin of this article, which was apparently called ‘the spanking article’ of the Basic Law. It had of course been highly controversial at the time of its adoption, but John and Marjorie Leary had given an interview together that won the hearts of the colonists, in which they revealed that John spanked Marjorie regularly, and that they both attributed the strength of their marriage to that practice.

    The social disorder on Draco had been very severe at the time. The values coalition’s principal rival, the liberal progressives, had refused to concede that their demands for radical equality had anything unrealistic about them. The day before the Learys gave the interview, several hundred protesters, 70% of them young women, had been arrested when they tried to storm the administration building.

    It turned out in the wake of the protest and the interview that most of the colonists were more than ready to embrace something new, especially since John Leary made it clear that part of the values coalition platform was that the government’s power stopped at each citizen’s front door. Patrick had to admit that the notion of keeping order so simply appealed to him as well. Jack Tatum, the official who had conducted Patrick’s citizenship interview, had told Patrick that guidance was readily available to him, should he wish it, on the matter of discipline in the home.

    “But,” Jack had said, “that’s probably not something you’ll have to worry about all that soon—although we encourage men to get married as soon as they can find a suitable wife.”
    Then came the article about guardianship.

    At the age of eighteen, each unmarried woman shall be assigned a male guardian. A woman’s guardian shall be responsible for her conduct. He shall have authority to discipline her in any way he sees fit, so long as he does not cause her permanent injury.

    Jack had pointed Patrick to a separate document, titled the disciplinary codicil, which defined the disciplinary rights of a guardian. It appeared that the only thing a guardian was forbidden to do was force himself sexually upon the woman for whom he had responsibility. There was a list of punishments that guardians were specifically and explicitly allowed and encouraged to use as well: spanking, strapping, paddling, and caning were the more familiar types of punishment there. There was also a section on forms of humiliation that the administration found potentially beneficial, and which Patrick imagined had originated in the Leary household. Astonishingly, they included the removal of pubic hair and the dressing of the fractious woman in diapers.

    Another, rather propagandistic, document called ‘A Guide to Guardianship’ made it clear, though, that such measures were to be employed only in situations ‘in which ordinary disciplinary measures such as hand-spanking and belt-whipping prove ineffective.’ For the most part, the pamphlet said, the role of a guardian was to check in with his charge once a week, and help her in the process of courtship that would lead to her marriage.
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              God Colony announces debut gig at Liverpool’s Rat Alley   

    As the GIT 2017 award nominees God Colony prepare to make their Liverpool debut, Getintothis’ Stephen Geisler offers the latest scoop. GIT Award nominees and nefarious production duo God Colony have finally announced their debut Liverpool gig for July 22 in Rat Alley – a moniker for the Kazimier‘s former smoking area, and a perfect outdoor rave venue. [...]

    The post God Colony announces debut gig at Liverpool’s Rat Alley appeared first on Getintothis.


               Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) within cord blood sera may be partially responsible for the reduced proliferation of cord blood T cells    
    Cohen, SB; Woolley, J; Bogunia-Kubik, K; Natarajan, P; Kotecha, R; Belaramani, L; Fallen, PR; Cohen, SB; Woolley, J; Bogunia-Kubik, K; Natarajan, P; Kotecha, R; Belaramani, L; Fallen, PR; Perez-Cruz, I; Madrigal, JA; - view fewer <#> (2000) Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) within cord blood sera may be partially responsible for the reduced proliferation of cord blood T cells. European Cytokine Network , 11 (4) pp. 608-617.
              6/29/2017: Asia/Philippines: City divided, 20 years after Britain’s exit   

    Hong Kong is planning a big party as it marks 20 years under Chinese rule. But many people in the former British colony are not in the mood to celebrate. Fireworks, a gala variety show and Chinese military displays are among the official events...
               First trimester maternal serum Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) is raised in pregnancies with subsequent severe pre-eclampsia    
    Sebire, NJ; Lader, CS; Roberts, L; Flanagan, AM; (2000) First trimester maternal serum Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) is raised in pregnancies with subsequent severe pre-eclampsia. In: J PATHOL. (pp. 30A - 30A). JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
              Oceanographic Variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone Region over the Last 210 Years from Multi-site Coral Sr/Ca Records   
    In the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the variability in a sub-seasonally resolved microatoll Porites colony Sr/Ca record from Tonga and a previously published high-resolution record from Fiji are strongly influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) over the calibration period from 1981 to 2004 (R2 = 0.67–0.68). However, the Sr/Ca-derived SST correlation to instrumental SST decreases back in time. The lower frequency secular trend (~1°C) and decadal-scale (~2–3°C) modes in Sr/Ca-derived SST are almost two times larger than that observed in instrumental SST. The coral Sr/Ca records suggest that local effects on SST generate larger amplitude variability than gridded SST products indicate. Reconstructed δ18O of seawater (δ18Osw) at these sites correlate with instrumental sea surface salinity (SSS; r = 0.64–0.67) but not local precipitation (r = −0.10 to −0.22) demonstrating that the advection and mixing of different salinity water masses may be the predominant control on δ18Osw in this region. The Sr/Ca records indicate SST warming over the last 100 years and appears to be related to the expansion of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) including an increasing rate of expansion in the last ~20 years. The reconstructed δ18Osw over the last 100 years also shows surface water freshening across the SPCZ. The warming and freshening of the surface ocean in our study area suggests that the SPCZ has been shifting (expanding) southeast, possibly related to the southward shift and intensification of the South Pacific gyre over the last 50 years in response to strengthened westerly winds.
               Differential expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and macrophage colony-stimulating factor/colony-stimulating factor-1R (c-fms) by multinucleated giant cells involved in pathological bone resorption at the site of orthopaedic implants    
    Al Saffar, N; Revell, PA; (2000) Differential expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and macrophage colony-stimulating factor/colony-stimulating factor-1R (c-fms) by multinucleated giant cells involved in pathological bone resorption at the site of orthopaedic implants. Journal of Orthopaedic Research , 18 (5) pp. 800-807.
              The Small Blue Project   
    The Small Blue: what is it and what does it need?

    The Small Blue (Cupido minimus) is the UK’s smallest resident butterfly. Its survival is entirely dependent upon the presence of Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria), a plant which can only flourish in early successional conditions (i.e. short-turf grassland with abundant bare ground). Whilst the larvae need the Kidney Vetch, the adult butterflies need places to perch and to roost. Ideal habitats include chalk & limestone grassland, especially with naturally occurring broken ground; man-made habitats such as quarries, gravel pits, road embankments, disused railways and other brownfield sites as well as coastal grassland and dunes.

    UK decline and status in Hertfordshire

    Across the UK, it’s estimated we’ve lost 80% of our chalk grassland habitat over the last 60 years. That's 80% of the sites where Kidney Vetch has the potential to flourish. And, according to Butterfly Conservation, we’ve lost nearly 40% of the UK’s Small Blue butterfly population since 1970. At the end of 2014, there were only 3 known colonies of Small Blues in the whole of Hertfordshire. It’s rare and is a high priority UK Biodiversity Action Plan species.

    10/06/2015 Small Blue on Kidney Vetch at the A41 Bourne End exit
    Hemel Hempstead 2015

    On the 8th June 2015, David Kirk and I happened to spot a single Small Blue butterfly in Dellfield meadow, Westbrook Hay. We could hardly believe our eyes! It was the first to be recorded on Trust land. Further investigations revealed that the roadside verge of the A41, less than 200 metres away, had been planted with Kidney Vetch (KV). Two days later, I counted up to 12 Small Blue butterflies on KV beside the A41 at the Boxmoor/ Bourne End exit.

    Eager to confirm breeding, over the next 9 weeks, I visited the A41 site at least once a week. By the middle of July, larvae were appearing on the KV flower heads and at the very end of July, a second, albeit modest generation emerged of at least 3 butterflies. It was the best possible news. And, the Trust, who'd been keeping a close eye on progress, and had already been considering the feasibility of attracting Small Blues to the land, were keen to do everything in their power to help sustain this rare, local breeding population.


    Small Blue: larvae through to adult at the A41 colony

    The Box Moor Trust Small Blue Project

    The KV along the A41 isn't managed or protected. The Trust’s aim is to attract the butterfly to food plants within managed habitat so that the colony is safeguarded. A handful of suitable sites nearby, on Trust land, were identified for an autumn planting of Kidney Vetch: 2 at Roughdown Common (chalk grassland) and a few at Bovingdon Brickworks (a brownfield site with areas of nutrient poor, bare sandy, clay soil). The Trust worked extremely hard to dovetail this project with county-level conservation objectives and researched thoroughly the various conditions needed to ensure that both Kidney Vetch and Small Blues would be given the best chance to thrive. At the end of November / beginning of December, organised and led by David Kirk (Chairman), more than half a dozen enthusiastic helpers (from trustees, staff and volunteers) rolled up their sleeves and planted some 500 seedling plugs and seeds across the two sites.


    27/11/2015 Kidney Vetch plants (plugs & seed) protected from rabbits by wire mesh
    Left: Lower Roughdown south-facing bank by A41. Right: Further Roughdown sheltered gully by railway line

    04/12/2015 Kidney Vetch plants (plugs) protected from rabbits by wire mesh
    South-facing bare-soil banks at Bovingdon Brickworks

    04/12/2015 Left: a south-facing bare soil bank was sown with Kidney Vetch seeds. Right: more KV plugs protected by wire mesh
    Bovingdon Brickworks

    David (Chairman), Peter Ablett (Chairman of Estate & Land Committee) and other key trustees, volunteers and staff have busted a gut to get this project off the ground before winter. Let's hope the rabbits and slugs munch elsewhere and we reap the well deserved rewards in the spring!


              奥巴马发表胜选演讲   
    OBAMA: Thank you. Thank you. Thank you so much. 奥巴马:谢谢,谢谢,非常感谢。 Tonight, more than 200 years after a former colony won the right to determine its own destiny, the task of perfecting our union moves forward. 两百多年前,美国人民在这块
              The Overnightscape #177 (4/19/05)   
    Tonight's subjects include: Frank Ralph Nora's Navy Adventures in Liberia, Part 7 - "Tropical Diseases And The Peace Corps", fingernails, Officer Qualifying Test, honesty, headaches, blunders, bush pilots, the leper colony, soap, schistosomiasis, malaria, maps, veneral disease, rogues, cement, wood carvings, yaws, temp files, Korean websites, and jackhammering. Hosted by Frank Edward Nora. (30 minutes)
              The Overnightscape #545 (9/15/06)   
    Tonight's subjects include: Welcome to the 2-Hour Experimental Extended Episode! Featuring... a disk of putty, Lucky Bail Bonds, British Airways Concorde, weird confetti, The Overnightscape Video Review #4 (Produce Review - "Tropical Dragonfruit" and "Sun-Pro Sugar Cane"), beverage review ("Ruedrich's Red Seal Ale", "Sapporo Gabu Nomi", "Bolthouse Farms Prickly Pear Cactus Lemonade"), snack review ("Kettle Brand Bakes Potato Chips - Lightly Salted"), toy review ("Capsule Tomica - Mini Car Collection - Series 9 - Nissan Skyline 2000 Turbo GT-ES"), listener email ("Paul from Manhattan - Governors Island"), NYC audio (Unveiling of the new version of Monopoly ("Here and Now") in Times Square on 9/12/06... and Frank gets to be one of the first people in the world to play the game!), a mid-show trip to NYC (Rainy day, 8th Avenue, Broadway Theater Disctrict, 44th Street, Spamalot, Shubert Alley, Junior's Times Square, Marriott Marquis, site of the Monopoly event, one million dollar bill, the weird sound, caffeine, and the Cardworks Hallmark public auction), Dream Review ("Moogerfooger and Movie Viewer", "Time Travel to 1986 - College Dungeons and Dragons Sale"), Inside the Show, "Intrepid Sea, Air, and Space Museum", the nature of kombucha, futuristic video billboards, Boston Red Sox, The Wizard of Speed and Time, Evening News with Katie Couric, Saturday morning TV in the '70s, dream engineers, radio commercials, "Damnation Alley", The Space Gamer, Katagiri, "Ark II", Statue of Liberty, a colony of microorganisms, going in to NYC on 9/11/06, Completely Random Memories ("Proposed Giant Statue in Queens", "Deaner Weaner Beaner", "Vague TV Memory - Any2 for 11is?", "French Girl", "Pascal Class / TRS-80 / LSD / Destroyus (computer game)"), "Max Brenner - Chocolate by the Bald Man", TI-99/4A, The Strand Bookstore, haircut, lemon sense, widebody monorails, and a comic book store from someone else's dream. Hosted by Frank Edward Nora. (2 hours)
              Sand worms and lightning: Aven Colony takes city-building to exoplanets   
    A city-building game set at the start of humanity's galactic civilization era.
              HAVE WE ALREADY LANDED? Google Mars shows fully-fledged colony on Red Planet   

    CONSPIRACY theorists, who believe there is a secret space program, have been sent into meltdown by Google images showing a fully-fledged space colony on the surface of Mars.

    Google Mars is a website like Google Earth, but users can zoom in on satellite imagery of the Martian surface.

    If certain coordinates are used it shows an artificial colony of white buildings powered by solar panels.

    Users can even zoom inside the buildings, showing it is a genuine artificially-built complex.

    But there’s little chance of an imminent alien attack as the images are fake and were uploaded to Google Mars, by Google for an April Fools Day joke this year.

    The internet giant released a fictitious story at the time to say it had set up a storage facility on Mars. 

    However, a series of conspiracy theory videos have emerged on YouTube, questioning if the complex could actually exist.

    http://www.express.co.uk/news/weird/822428/Google-Mars-human-colony-facility-solar-panels-on-Red-Planet-conspiracy-theory



    image


              One Hong Kong, two sentiments after 20 years of Chinese rule   
    HONG KONG (AP) — Hong Kong is planning a big party as it marks 20 years under Chinese rule. But many people in the former British colony are not in the mood to celebrate. Fireworks, a gala variety show and Chinese military displays are among the official events planned to coincide with a visit by […]
              Hong Kong handover anniversary: Chris Patten: ‘Britain did not sell out Hong Kong – but we should have pushed China … – Telegraph.co.uk   
    Telegraph.co.ukChris Patten, the last governor of Hong Kong, said Britain did not sell out its former colony by guaranteeing a level of autonomy in the city for only 50 years – but he regretted not pushing China more on democracy. Concerns have been raised by … and more …read more Source:: Hong Kong News By […]
              After Swarms and Hive Population: Lost Colony   
    Despite my best efforts, for the first time ever, this spring my hives threw two swarms. More specifically, the colony in the middle of the group threw both swarms.

    Not only did it swarm once, but a week later it threw an after-swarm. An after swarm is where once a colony swarms, the population is still strong enough to support another swarm (and the colony has extra virgin queens) that they swarm again.

    We caught the first swarm, and missed the second one by about 2 minutes. As we were suiting up to catch them, they moved on, having only been clustered on the branch for 20 minutes (we saw them swarm from the hive and land on a branch in the yard).

    Here is a picture of how the bee yard at my house looks today.
    You may be thinking, "wait, I still see 3 hives, what is different?".



    The middle hive stand is empty. That middle colony that threw two swarms left themselves with about 8 frames of bees. They dwindled rapidly down to only 2 frames of bees within 2 weeks time, despite a queen trying her best to lay eggs and rebuild the population.

    Then Small Hive Beetles overtook the colony and all 20 frames were crawling with larva.

    I shook out the now 2 frames of bees (they'll find their way into one of the other hives in the yard I'm sure) and froze the two deep hive bodies in the deep freezer for 8 days.

    If you do this, make sure you put the frames into a trash bag, apparently the larva will try to escape the cold by jumping out of the frames, and thus, will line your freezer with frozen Small Hive Beetle larva. So put the frames in a bag before putting them into the freezer.

    After the frames sat in the freezer for 8 days, I moved a nuc I've had since the spring splits into the now empty full size hive. They've been busting at the seems and trying to swarm, in fact, they may have, I couldn't find the old marked queen, and instead found a virgin queen already laying eggs, so I marked her.

    The nuc is now in a full size hive (pictured on the far right in the picture), taking up 15-18 frames of space already (could you imagine them all fitting into a 5 frame nuc!).

    You may also be wondering, "hey- didn't you have two nucs from spring splits?". You'd be correct. I sold one of them a month ago.

    All 3 of the colonies are doing well, have good population to them and they are all queen right. Soon I'll consider mite treatment and then wait for the fall harvest.

              Swarm Hive Update II   
    This weekend we took the swarm that we caught a week ago over to the outyard.

    The day we caught the swarm we found an unmarked queen so marked her with a dot of white paint.

    In the days following, when we checked them again, we could find no trace of a bee with a white paint dot or signs of a queen either.

    I checked them yesterday and found two frames of eggs and an unmarked queen. Still no sign of the queen we marked with white paint, and the queen I saw this weekend was about twice the size and a much darker color with no paint on her.

    I tried to catch her to mark her, but she was too quick and disappeared down into the hive easily.

    I decided not to give chase, and simply closed them back up.
    The swarm is still covering 10 frames in the brood box, so we gave them a second brood box of drawn comb to use.

    We'll give them a week and then check on them again over at the outyard, and see if we can find, catch and mark the queen then.

    Thoughts I'm left pondering: We noticed a decent amount of young bees, old bees, drones and possibly two queens in the swarm. I guess when a colony swarms, anyone is eligible to leave with the swarm?!

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              India and the Industrial Revolution   
    Nevertheless, there were powerful forces at work that inhibited the growth of science and technology in India and prevented Indian manufacturing from entering the industrial era on it's own terms.Perhaps the most important of these factors was the relative prosperity that India enjoyed vis-a-vis the rest of the world. A mild climate meant that the peasantry and working class could survive relatively cheaply. And the huge trade surplus the country enjoyed enabled the nobility and the middle classes to live lives of relative luxury and comfort. There was little incentive to bring about revolutionary changes and the forces of parasitism and conservatism prevailed quite easily over more radical forces. Harry Verelst (Senior Officer of the East India Company) described Bengal before Plassey quite succintly: "The farmer was easy, the artisan encouraged, the merchant enriched and the prince satisfied".But in Europe, virtually all classes had an interest in bringing about revolutionary changes that could improve their lives. Long and harsh winters meant that even the peasantry and working class needed more items of personal consumption just to survive, let alone live comfortably. The demand for cheap manufactured goods for mass consumption was initially far greater in Europe than in the warmer parts of the globe. The short days in the long and harsh winters created a much more compelling need for breakthrough inventions like the light bulb or electric heater or piped hot water and indoor toilets.But need alone was an insufficient factor in securing technological breakthroughs. Europe also needed important social changes to create a climate where scientific study and technological innovation could flourish. For centuries, the catholic church in Europe had preached the idealogy of worldly renunciation and taught it's followers to accept their earthly suffering in exchange for a promise of redemption in the next world. Rational and scientific thinking was routinely condemned as sacriligious or heresy. It was then little wonder that Europe had slipped into a period of intense stagnation and became inordinately dependant on imports from the more developed nations of Asia.But it was precisely this backwardness and internal oppression that lead to mass radicalization and calls for revolution or reform. The protestant movements were the first in a series of movements calling for greater democracy and radical improvements in social conditions for the masses. At the same time, the European intelligentsia was no longer willing to wait for redemption after death but wanted to enjoy the good life right here on earth. Secular and rational challenges to Christian orthodoxy grew and science and philosophy were gradually liberated from the strangulating influences of the church. The knowledge of the East was translated into the European languages and found it's way into university curriculums. Scientific research and investigation began to thrive and technological innovations followed. All the social ingredients for the industrial revolution were beginning to fall into place.But at first, Europe still lacked a vital ingredient for the industrial revolution to take off and succeed - and that was capital. For centuries, Europe had to fund it's negative trade balance (vis-a-vis Asia) by exporting gold, silver and other precious metals. To make matters worse, exports from India (which made up an important share of European imports) were heavily marked up by various intermediaries in the Middle East and later by the Venetians. By the 15th century, this burden was becoming almost impossible for the royal houses of Western Europe to bear. It was in response to this crisis that voyages to discover a new route to India were funded, and eventually led to the creation of the East India Companies. {The pillage and plunder of the Americas (and later Africa as well) played a significant role in financing these voyages.}While this made imports from India more affordable, it did not eliminate the negative trade balance. European banks were initially in little position to fund the new inventions that were waiting to find industrial sponsors. Colonization provided the answer. Europe thus embarked on a complex transition where within it's borders it followed a path of progress and radical reform, but externally, it raped and pillaged without mercy.This occurred at a time when the rest of the world was largely ill-equipped at dealing with such a wily and complex enemy. In much of the world, large sections of society were moving in the opposite direction - and particularly so in the Islamic world. Madrasahs resisted numerous attempts at introducing anything resembling science and reason in the curriculum. This was also true in India. In spite of repeated attempts by Akbar to introduce a secular curriculum in the nation's Madrasahs, the conservative clergy successfully resisted all attempts at change. Similiar processes were at work in many of the Buddhist monasteries and the Hindu Gurukuls who had succumbed to the influence of orthodox Vedantism. In extreme versions of the Vedantic world-view the real world was more an illusion, and hence all efforts at changing it or transforming it were deemed unimportant.Even in schools that escaped Vedantic influences, and where science and logic remained a part of the curriculum, religious instruction often took precedence. In addition, Brahminical notions of purity created a needless divide between the mental and physical creating obstacles to experimentation and transfer of theoretical knowledge to practical applications. The fixation on astrology and other such superstitions also served to distract sections of the intelligentsia from more scientific pursuits.So just as Europe was preparing itself to meet the challenges of the industrial revolution, significant sections of society in Africa and Asia were becoming more resistant to studying science. This made the process of colonization much easier as those who resisted colonization were technologically outmatched and outwitted.Once colonization had taken hold of a nations economy, educational options became further limited. Often, the few who were keen to pursue a career in the sciences could only do so under the auspices of their colonial masters. But for the colonial powers, teaching science and technology to the colonized was not necessarily a benevolent act. The western educated individual played an important role in the colonial process - either as a manager or engineer in a company that produced cheap raw materials (or industrial goods) for export from the colony to the master nation, or as a representative of an import agency that imported expensive manufactured goods and machinery into the colony.So great was this contradiction in some nations that science and technology almost came to be associated with treachery and religious obscurantism became synonymous with patriotism. As a result the masses were often denied the opportunity to deal with an industrializing Europe on anything even remotely resembling equality.Like other colonized nations, India was dragged into the industrial era on terms that were not of it's own choosing and many of the technological developments that have since taken place in India have been geared more towards the export market than bringing about all-round improvements in the quality of life for the Indian masses.For that reason, it cannot yet be said that India has fully entered the modern industrial era. Only when India is able to harness the power of technology and modern industry towards improving the quality of life for the vast majority of it's people will that be the case. That will require not only major advances in the Indian education system but radical social changes that have yet to take place in a systematic way. Above all, the forces of religious fundamentalism, religious obscurantism and social backwardness will have to be pushed back and defeated. That is the real lesson of the Industrial Revolution that has yet to sink in completely in India.

    The Impetus for Metallurgy 1:14 AM with 0 comments »
    Monumental architecture required considerable advances in the technology of lifting, loading and transportation of construction materials, building construction ramps, scaffolding, and related tools and implements. As in ancient Egypt or Babylon, appropriate techniques also had to be developed and implemented in India. But more importantly, stone-based construction presupposes the existence of hard metal based tools and implements for cutting and shaping stone. The discovery of iron thus played an essential role in the development of monumental architecture in India which may have in turn given a further impetus to the development of metallurgical skills. As early as the 4th C. BC, Kautilya's Arthashastra had a section outlining the processes for metal extraction and alloying. Later Sanskrit texts talk about assessing metal purity and describe techniques for achieving metal purity. Various alloying techniques were in use and some may have had their origin in the Harappan or Vedic periods. (For instance, there are references in the Vedic literature that suggest that copper vessels were coated with tin so as to prevent milk from going sour.)A combination of scholarly investigation and broad dissemination of practical techniques propelled the development of metallurgical skills. The fifth century Iron Pillar of Delhi is a remarkable example of those skills. Standing over 23 feet high it consists of a single piece of iron and has weathered over 1500 monsoons without showing any signs of rust. The pillar is made of wrought iron with an iron content of 99.72 % and appears to have been protected from rust by the application of a thin coating of manganese dioxide.By the 12th century, construction engineers were using iron girders and beams on a scale unknown in any other part of the world. The most significant use of iron beams was in the temples of Puri and Konarak. The Puri temple contains 239 iron beams and one of the beams in Konarak is 35 feet long. All are 99.64 percent iron and were produced in a similiar manner to the Delhi iron pillar.During the middle ages, India acquired a reputation for producing very high quality steel and was also able to extract zinc from it's ore by the 14th century. Bidari (an alloy of copper, lead and tin developed in the Deccan) was also extensively used.Unsurprisingly, developments in metallurgy also had their impact on artillery production. According to A. Rahman (Science in Medieval India), by the 16th century, the heaviest guns in the world were being cast in India and a variety of weapons were being manufactured in the subcontinent. The Jaigarh cannon factory was one of India's best and before the crucial battle of 1857, the Jaipur Rajputs laid claim to owning Asia's largest cannon. Yet, none of the Rajput cannons were ever used to confront the British who succeeded in conquering the sub-continent without ever having to fight against the country's best equipped armies, thus demonstrating that technological progress is not an end in itself.

    Social Conditions and Technological Progress 1:10 AM with 0 comments »
    It is quite possible that the decline in civil society extended to other areas such as agricultural planning and maintenance of irrigations systems making the civilization more vulnerable to natural disasters such droughts, floods, fires or earthquakes - thus contributing to the eventual extinction of that vibrant civilization. This suggests that technological progress cannot be divorced from social conditions that may either encourage the progress of technology or conversely cause civilizations that may be (in relative terms) quite advanced to stagnate and even decline. For instance, 3000 years after Harappa, we find anecdotal evidence of impressive urban settlements constructed during the Mauryan period. Greek travellers have left behind admiring descriptions of Patliputra - the Mauryan capital. But social strife brought a precipitous end to the grand civilization. The growth of a parasitic, exploitative and socially oppressive elite led to massive social upheavals. In the course of the civil wars, fires and looting destroyed virtually all of the wood-based dwellings including grand palaces and public buildings.Thus, an entire tradition of wood-based urban construction - (which may have taken several centuries to develop) was destroyed. But it also led to a greater emphasis on the use of more lasting construction materials. The very social conditions that destroyed technological progress in one direction gave birth to technological progress in another. Sculptural finds from the Mauryan period indicate that Mauryan sculptors of that time had achieved a high degree of proficiency in working with stone. They must have had tools and implements that enabled them to create smoothly modelled and highly polished representations of human and animal figures. Later civilizations in India employed these skills not only for the purposes of sculpting but for creating entire monuments constructed from a variety of hard building materials. For instance, various methods for preparing cements were developed, and by the 7th century, cement of highly durable quality came into use in the construction of important monuments that survive to this day.

    Technological discoveries and applications in India 1:06 AM with 0 comments »
    The earliest evidence of technological progress in the Indian subcontinent is to be found in the remains of the Harappan civilization (4000-3000 BC). Archaeological remains point to the existence of well-planned urban centres that boasted of private and public dwellings laid out in orderly fashion along with roads and drainage systems complementing them. The drainage systems were particularly remarkable for the times since they were built underground and were constructed in a manner to allow for regular cleaning. Smaller drains from private homes connected to the larger public drains. Larger private dwellings were invariably multi-storied and all homes were constructed from standardized fired bricks and provided for separate cooking areas and toilets. Storage facilities for grain and goods for trade were built as were public baths and other buildings intended for various public functions.Urban centres were often planned near riverine or sea-ports. Accurate weights and measures were in use and ports such as Lothal were developed as export centres of early manufactured products from smelted copper and bronze. Kilns for smelting copper ingots and casting tools were in existence as were metal tools such as curved or circular saws, pierced needles and most significantly, bronze drills with twisted grooves. The drill enabled the production of items with unparalleled precision for the times and could be regarded as an ancient precursor of the modern machine tool.There is also evidence of planned irrigation systems and it appears that fire and flood control measures to protect farms and villages were also in place. Artisans made use of the wheel and clay pottery was decorated in a variety of colors and designs. Cotton was grown and used to produce textiles.Urban centres in the Harappan region traded with each other as well as with counterparts in Babylon, the Persian Gulf, Egypt and possibly the Mediteranean. The span of the Harappan civilization was quite extensive, and included much of modern Sindh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Western UP.But prior to it's disappearance, there is also evidence of considerable social decay and disintegration. Excavations from the later phases of the Harappan civilization suggest that population pressures led to greater anarchy in building construction. Urban dwellings became smaller and settlements became more haphazard indicating a breakdown of social mores and structures that promoted urban regulations and enforced construction codes.
              Bee "colony collapse" another environmental hoax   
    Ezra Levant of TheRebel.media has been following an eco-scam for a future years now: the idea that b
              Visit To The Nudist Colony   
    Description:
    In this weeks Out In Public were at "naked beach" and off the gate this boy just tells us where he is going and we decide to follow and were sure glasd we did. Once we caught up with him we saw him enjoying himself and we had to join in on the fun right there infront of everyone and everyone I mean everyone was there to take part in our fun and boy did we have fun. We did it all out in the open and I beleive that we inspired a couple of people that were around us, trust me I have it on camera lol. I hope you guys enjoy this update we sure did,Stay Tuned!

              Canadian Week in Review 17 October 2016   


    I have come across the following Canadian genealogy, history and heritage websites, social media, and newspaper articles this past week that were of interest to me, and I thought you might be interested in them, too.

    This Week in Canadian History 

    12 October 1957 Canadian awarded for creation of U.N Peacekeepers

    On this date, Canadian external affairs minister, Lester B Pearson , received a telegram from Sweden telling him that he had was being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. It was due because of the way that he had handled the Suez Crisis. 

    He had proposed a neutral UN military force and they would be occupy to occupy the middle ground between the two sides became the standard concept of the the blue berets - UN Peacekeeping Force. Lester Pearson was thereafter known as the Father of International Peacekeeping.

    For more information, go to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacekeeping

    Social Media 

    (Video) Mother of fallen Canadian soldier: New Afghanistan war monument a 'godsend' 


    A demilitarized version of the same vehicle that Bev McCraw's son Shawn was in when he was killed by an IED in Afghanistan in 2008 will be installed permanently as a new war monument at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum., 

    Newspaper Articles 

    Nova Scotia 

    Bluenose II preps for summer tour with travelling exhibit 

    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/bluenose-ii-summer-tour-travelling-exhibit-1.3795438

    For the first time in nearly a decade, Nova Scotia's sailing ambassador will live up to its name. 

    The Bluenose II will leave the province next summer and travel to ports along the Eastern Seaboard to "demonstrate Nova Scotia's rich Maritime heritage and expertise," according to government documents published Friday morning. 

    The tour will conclude in Quebec City where the ship will be part of the celebrations for Canada's 150th anniversary. 

    Mi'kmaq History Month 


    Membertou Heritage Park is where people can learn about Mi’kmaq culture through year Each year at this time, Jeff Ward notices a surge of interest in aboriginal culture. 

    Hand-written recipes featured in Nova Scotia Archives online exhibit 


    From generation to generation, some recipes and cookbooks have become treasured family heirlooms. 

    The Nova Scotia Archives has scores of them in its personal collections, and has created a digital exhibit featuring hand-written and early printed recipes, some dating as far back at the 1700s. 

    New Brunswick 

    Tales from the crypt: 6 tips for exploring N.B. graveyards 


    Graveyard exploring sounds macabre to some; however, according to one local historian, the sites are a gold mine of information on local history. 

    This is Main Street: Rise and fall of a once thriving commercial district 


    When Saint John was a smoky 18th century seaside colony, Main Street was a trade road, used to cart goods from the First Nations settlement at Indiantown up to Fort Howe.  

    From the 1700s until the mid-1960s, it evolved into a thriving commercial district in Saint John rivalled only by Prince William Street. 

    Man jailed 2 years for possessing stolen N.B. Museum plaques
    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/sentencing-stolen-plaques-museum-1.3803563

    A man who pleaded guilty to possessing stolen bronze plaques from the New Brunswick Museum was sentenced Thursady to two years minus one day in provincial jail.

    Prince Edward Island
    P.E.I. Scottish history part of huge tapestry on display

    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/prince-edward-island/scottish-diaspora-tapestry-p-e-i-history-1.3804077

    A gigantic tapestry which celebrates Scottish heritage and the influence its people have had around the world has arrived in P.E.I., and is on display at the Confederation Centre of the Arts. 

    Ontario 

    Exhibit tells the story of Jewish farming in Ontario 


    A small photographic exhibit in the main-floor gallery of the Miles Nadal JCC at Bloor and Spadina tells the small but interesting story of Jewish farming in Ontario, past and present. 

    Italians collect London stories 


    A two-day conference dedicated to preserving Italian-Canadian history is coming to London. 

    The Italian-Canadian Archives Project (ICAP) links communities across the country with history experts, public archivists and community organizers. The goal is to train Italian-Canadian communities to gather, organize and share their history 

    The website is at https://icap.ca/about-us/ 

    Collection of military history essays captures the importance of the battle at Hill 70 


    The True Story of the Real-Life Winnie-the-Pooh 


    When a soldier shipping off to World War I stepped onto a train platform during a brief stopover in a small Canadian town, little did he know his footsteps would lead a dozen years later to the October 14, 1926, publication of “Winnie-the-Pooh.” Find out how a real-life black bear inspired A.A. Milne to write one of the classics of children’s literature. 

    Chief Shingwauk and SRSC Included in Special 150th Anniversary Exhibition at Archives of Ontario 


    As Canada gets ready to mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation and the creation of the Province of Ontario, the Archives of Ontario has unveiled a special exhibition titled “Family Ties: Ontario Turns 150” in Toronto, Ontario. One of the families highlighted in the exhibition is the family of Chief Shingwauk. 

    FEATURE: Archives house valuable artifacts of Canada’s Jewish left 


    One of the most dramatic moments in the history of the Jewish left in Canada occurred some 57 years ago, in 1959, when a huge and irreparable split developed within the ranks of the United Jewish People's Order (UJPO) and a significant number of members left to form a new organization, the New Fraternal Jewish Association (NFJA). 

    Saskatchewan 

    Historic Gull Lake, Sask., hotel 'a shadow of what it once was' after destructive fire 


    A piece of history is gone from Gull Lake, Sask., after a fire broke out at the Clarendon Hotel Sunday morning. 

    Emergency crews were called to the hotel and bar around 8 a.m. CST 

    Alberta 

    Bones, tools unearthed by Alberta flood could fill gaps in First Nations history 


    Archeologists are hoping bones and tools unearthed after the 2013 southern Alberta floods will help paint a better picture of a little understood period in the region's indigenous history. 

    Students get heartfelt history lesson with Field of Crosses 

    http://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/students-get-heartfelt-history-lesson-with-field-of-crosses

    What began with a few hundred white crosses in 2009 has grown to more than 3,200, all paying tribute to those who died serving their country. 

    The North 

    Arctic Bay Thule man to form part of Inuit exhibit at history museum 


    A Thule man who lived near Arctic Bay hundreds of years ago will soon be part of an exhibit on Canada’s Indigenous peoples to be unveiled at the Canadian Museum of History in Gatineau in July 017 to coincide with Canada’s 150th birthday. 

    Epic voyage planned for Canada's 150th anniversary 


    Canada's three oceans will be the centrepiece of an epic 150-day voyage to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Confederation. 

    The Students on Ice Foundation is planning to take an icebreaker on trip that will begin in Toronto and end up in Victoria next summer, transiting the Northwest Passage on the way. 

    Canadian Stories this Week 

    Find My Past 


    I was surprised to see the fandmypast has put on some Canadian databases, and they are Ontario Birth Index 1860-1920 and New Brunswick Birth and Baptism Index 1769-1899

    Since the Archives of Ontario are the official keeper of the births, marriages, and deaths after they are released from Office of Registrar General Service Ontario, it surprises me that they include records up to 1920, whereas the archives on this website say that they only includes records up to 1917. 

    The AO Site says that "Due to changes in regulations, 1918 and newer birth registrations and indexes will not be transferred to the Archives of Ontario until 104 years after the year of registration. The 1918 birth registrations and indexes will be transferred to the Archives in 2023". 

    Since the explanation on their website doesn't provide a good explanation, I will write to findmypast to see if I can get a clearer definition of the collection. 

    The second collection is the New Brunswick Birth and Baptisms Index 1769-1899 and it contains over 25,000 transcripts of civil registration records. Each record will include your ancestor's birth year, birth place and parent's names. The records will also provide you with the information you need to order a copy of an official birth certificate through Service New Brunswick at www.snb.ca.

    I have checked the New Brunswick Archives at http://archives.gnb.ca/Search/FEDS/Databases.aspx?culture=en-CA and the date do not seem to coincided with the date of the births that the archives have, so I am wondering were they got these records from because the collection does not say.

    Drop Me a Card 

    Take a minute to go to this page of my friend, Daniel B. Parkinson, to look at the postcards he has put on the webpage http://uptorawdon.com/supplementary-card.html 

    These postcards are beautiful, and the ones which show Ottawa as it use to be in the olden days. There are nice ones , including ones about Easter, for example, (and they are in perfect condition), so they are worth your time. 

    And that was the week in Canadian news! 

    This e-newspaper has been published since April 2012! 

    Be sure to tell your friends about us. 

    If you would like to subscribe, please send your email to genealogycanada@aol.com 

    Publishers Elizabeth and Mario Lapointe 

    Sponsored by Elizabeth Lapointe Research Services. To learn more about the research services offered by ELRS, go to www.elrs.biz 

    (c)2016 All rights reserved.

              Canadian Week in Review 17 October 2016   


    I have come across the following Canadian genealogy, history and heritage websites, social media, and newspaper articles this past week that were of interest to me, and I thought you might be interested in them, too.

    This Week in Canadian History 

    12 October 1957 Canadian awarded for creation of U.N Peacekeepers

    On this date, Canadian external affairs minister, Lester B Pearson, received a telegram from Sweden telling him that he had was being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. It was due because of the way that he had handled the Suez Crisis. 

    He had proposed a neutral UN military force that would occupy the middle ground between the two sides, and it became the standard concept of the the blue berets - UN Peacekeeping Force. Lester Pearson was thereafter known as the Father of International Peacekeeping.

    For more information, go to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacekeeping

    Social Media 

    (Video) Mother of fallen Canadian soldier: New Afghanistan war monument a 'godsend' 


    A demilitarized version of the same vehicle that Bev McCraw's son, Shawn, was in when he was killed by an IED in Afghanistan in 2008 will be installed permanently as a new war monument at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum., 

    Newspaper Articles 

    Nova Scotia 

    Bluenose II preps for summer tour with travelling exhibit 

    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/bluenose-ii-summer-tour-travelling-exhibit-1.3795438

    For the first time in nearly a decade, Nova Scotia's sailing ambassador will live up to its name. 

    The Bluenose II will leave the province next summer and travel to ports along the Eastern Seaboard to "demonstrate Nova Scotia's rich Maritime heritage and expertise," according to government documents published Friday morning. 

    The tour will conclude in Quebec City where the ship will be part of the celebrations for Canada's 150th anniversary. 

    Mi'kmaq History Month 


    Membertou Heritage Park is where people can learn about Mi’kmaq culture throughout the year. Each year at this time, Jeff Ward notices a surge of interest in aboriginal culture. 

    Hand-written recipes featured in Nova Scotia Archives online exhibit 


    From generation to generation, some recipes and cookbooks have become treasured family heirlooms. 

    The Nova Scotia Archives has scores of them in its personal collections, and has created a digital exhibit featuring hand-written and early printed recipes, some dating as far back at the 1700s. 

    New Brunswick 

    Tales from the crypt: 6 tips for exploring N.B. graveyards 


    Graveyard exploring sounds macabre to some; however, according to one local historian, the sites are a gold mine of information on local history. 

    This is Main Street: Rise and fall of a once thriving commercial district 


    When Saint John was a smoky 18th century seaside colony, Main Street was a trade road, used to cart goods from the First Nations settlement at Indiantown up to Fort Howe.  

    From the 1700s until the mid-1960s, it evolved into a thriving commercial district in Saint John, rivalled only by Prince William Street. 

    Man jailed 2 years for possessing stolen N.B. Museum plaques
    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/sentencing-stolen-plaques-museum-1.3803563

    A man who pleaded guilty to possessing stolen bronze plaques from the New Brunswick Museum was sentenced Thursday to two years minus one day in provincial jail.

    Prince Edward Island

    P.E.I. Scottish history part of huge tapestry on display

    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/prince-edward-island/scottish-diaspora-tapestry-p-e-i-history-1.3804077

    A gigantic tapestry which celebrates Scottish heritage and the influence its people have had around the world has arrived in P.E.I., and is on display at the Confederation Centre of the Arts. 

    Ontario 

    Exhibit tells the story of Jewish farming in Ontario 


    A small photographic exhibit in the main-floor gallery of the Miles Nadal JCC at Bloor and Spadina tells the small but interesting story of Jewish farming in Ontario, past and present. 

    Italians collect London stories 


    A two-day conference dedicated to preserving Italian-Canadian history is coming to London. 

    The Italian-Canadian Archives Project (ICAP) links communities across the country with history experts, public archivists and community organizers. The goal is to train Italian-Canadian communities to gather, organize and share their history 

    The website is at https://icap.ca/about-us/ 

    Collection of military history essays captures the importance of the battle at Hill 70 


    The True Story of the Real-Life Winnie-the-Pooh 


    When a soldier shipping off to World War I stepped onto a train platform during a brief stopover in a small Canadian town, little did he know his footsteps would lead a dozen years later to the October 14, 1926, publication of “Winnie-the-Pooh.” Find out how a real-life black bear inspired A.A. Milne to write one of the classics of children’s literature. 

    Chief Shingwauk and SRSC Included in Special 150th Anniversary Exhibition at Archives of Ontario 


    As Canada gets ready to mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation and the creation of the Province of Ontario, the Archives of Ontario has unveiled a special exhibition titled “Family Ties: Ontario Turns 150” in Toronto, Ontario. One of the families highlighted in the exhibition is the family of Chief Shingwauk. 

    FEATURE: Archives house valuable artifacts of Canada’s Jewish left 


    One of the most dramatic moments in the history of the Jewish left in Canada occurred some 57 years ago, in 1959, when a huge and irreparable split developed within the ranks of the United Jewish People's Order (UJPO) and a significant number of members left to form a new organization, the New Fraternal Jewish Association (NFJA). 

    Saskatchewan 

    Historic Gull Lake, Sask., hotel 'a shadow of what it once was' after destructive fire 


    A piece of history is gone from Gull Lake, Sask., after a fire broke out at the Clarendon Hotel Sunday morning. 

    Emergency crews were called to the hotel and bar around 8 a.m. CST 

    Alberta 

    Bones, tools unearthed by Alberta flood could fill gaps in First Nations history 


    Archaeologists are hoping bones and tools unearthed after the 2013 southern Alberta floods will help paint a better picture of a little understood period in the region's indigenous history. 

    Students get heartfelt history lesson with Field of Crosses 

    http://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/students-get-heartfelt-history-lesson-with-field-of-crosses

    What began with a few hundred white crosses in 2009 has grown to more than 3,200, all paying tribute to those who died serving their country. 

    The North 

    Arctic Bay Thule man to form part of Inuit exhibit at history museum 


    A Thule man who lived near Arctic Bay hundreds of years ago will soon be part of an exhibit on Canada’s Indigenous peoples to be unveiled at the Canadian Museum of History in Gatineau in July 2017 to coincide with Canada’s 150th birthday. 

    Epic voyage planned for Canada's 150th anniversary 


    Canada's three oceans will be the centrepiece of an epic 150-day voyage to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Confederation. 

    The Students on Ice Foundation is planning to take an icebreaker on trip that will begin in Toronto and end up in Victoria next summer, transiting the Northwest Passage on the way. 

    Canadian Stories this Week 

    Find My Past 


    I was surprised to see that findmypast.com has put on some Canadian databases, and they are Ontario Birth Index 1860-1920 and New Brunswick Birth and Baptism Index 1769-1899

    Since the Archives of Ontario are the official keeper of the births, marriages, and deaths after they are released from Office of Registrar General Service Ontario, it surprises me that they include records up to 1920, whereas the archives on this website say that they only includes records up to 1917. 

    The AO Site says that "Due to changes in regulations, 1918 and newer birth registrations and indexes will not be transferred to the Archives of Ontario until 104 years after the year of registration. The 1918 birth registrations and indexes will be transferred to the Archives in 2023". 

    Since the explanation on their website doesn't provide a good explanation, I will write to findmypast to see if I can get a clearer definition of the collection. 

    The second collection is the New Brunswick Birth and Baptisms Index 1769-1899 and it contains over 25,000 transcripts of civil registration records. Each record will include your ancestor's birth year, birth place and parent's names. The records will also provide you with the information you need to order a copy of an official birth certificate through Service New Brunswick at www.snb.ca.

    I have checked the New Brunswick Archives at http://archives.gnb.ca/Search/FEDS/Databases.aspx?culture=en-CA and the date do not seem to coincided with the date of the births that the archives have, so I am wondering were they got these records from because the collection does not say.

    Drop Me a Card 

    Take a minute to go to this page of my friend, Daniel B. Parkinson, to look at the postcards he has put on the webpage http://uptorawdon.com/supplementary-card.html 

    These postcards are beautiful, and the ones which show Ottawa as it use to be in the olden days. There are nice ones , including ones about Easter, for example, (and they are in perfect condition), so they are worth your time. 

    And that was the week in Canadian news! 

    This e-newspaper has been published since April 2012! 

    Be sure to tell your friends about us. 

    If you would like to subscribe, please send your email to genealogycanada@aol.com 

    Publishers Elizabeth and Mario Lapointe 

    Sponsored by Elizabeth Lapointe Research Services. To learn more about the research services offered by ELRS, go to www.elrs.biz 

    (c)2016 All rights reserved.

              Daleks and Krotons - Two Big Finish outings   
    It's another duo as we press on with Six and Charley, and hope that somewhere we'll address the elephant that is Charley's time with the Eighth Doctor. We deal with two Classic enemies, the ever present Daleks, and the only seen once Krotons. It's an interesting pair.


    Brotherhood of the Daleks
    This serial is basically a play on the same idea as Scaredy Cat. That of the idea you can brainwash the evil out of someone. I've got no problem with Who reusing plot foundations. After 50 plus years it's bound to happen. But these two are both Charley stories which makes it stand out a lot more. Big Finish try to get away with it here by upping the factor to ‘can you brainwash a Dalek into being a Thal?’ Obviously it doesn't work, but thankfully we don't rely on just that to tell the story. Instead we focus heavily on the mystery of Charley. Which is pretty impossible to avoid with Daleks.

    It takes the rather brilliant turn that these Daleks are post-Terror Firma, which is way in the future for the Doctor, yet awhile ago for Charley. That they recognise Charley, and make obvious future references to the Doctor starts getting him wondering what’s going on. And everybody else for that matter. But by the end, the Doctor is no closer to the answer as to when this story started. I’m starting to think this is getting a little silly.

    However, let’s not takeaway from what is a fantastic performance by India Fisher. When the Daleks send in a replicant Doctor, who does confront Charley on her behaviour and secrets, she breaks down hard, and gives a heartfelt confession that is some of the finest acting Fisher has given in the role in the seven years she’d been performing at this point. It’s a shame that this was relegated to a non-confession, because this would have been a great scene to finally out it all.

    Return of the Krotons
    Am I glad that I decided to throw in The Krotons during this round. Originally the plan had been just The Ice Warriors but the fact I had the first Peladon in Pertwee and The Wheel of Ice to read, at the last minute I threw in Zoe’s last two recommended appearances. Mostly for Seeds of Death, but The Krotons has had the most impact on Charley’s third and fourth season.

    In her Eighth Doctor finale the HADS, an emergency relocation of the TARDIS, from that serial played a major plot device, now here with Six the actual race has come back. And I couldn’t be happier, because audio’s perfect for the Krotons. Their terrible design can be ignored, and we can concentrate on how alien they are. Which unfortunately doesn’t happen.

    Not to say this isn’t a bad sequel. It’s the Dalek Invasion of Earth to The KrotonsThe Daleks. Instead of an alien world and a couple of Krotons, we have humans and enough Krotons for what eventually ends up an invasion. The Krotons are a race that could be so much more, and I’m glad Big Finish gave them this serial because one Troughton outing wasn’t enough.

    There’s also references to The Ark in Space, a Fourth Doctor serial I’ve not got round to. The idea of Earth sending out colony ships to survive the Earth’s death. This this is a second ship that believes the first was a failure is another great touch. Again, it’s great the Big Finish are picking up on little bits of throwaway continuity from the old series to make a more fulfilling timeline. I realise that it’s more for the hardcore, but I’m long down that rabbit hole.
              Colony Tire   
    none
              Longmont prairie dog colony may be moved to Rocky Flats   
    Prairie dog protection advocates announced this week that they've found a new home for a southeast Longmont prairie dog colony that the activists are hoping to prevent being exterminated.
              Space: Above and Beyond (1995-1996)   
    Space: Above and Beyond (Also known variously as Space 2063, Squadron 58, Space Marines, Space War 2063, Space Commando, Star Squadron and many others, depending on which country you are from) was a short lived military Sci-Fi TV series created by X-Files writers/Creators Glen Morgan and James Wong as a side project while that series was still ongoing.

                                                                   (Series Title Card)

    The first, and only, series takes place between the years 2063 and 2064, a time in which mankind has begun to explore and colonise not only the outer solar system, but also due to the discovery of predictable but highly mobile wormholes, other star systems as well.

    The series begins proper when the first extra-solar colony, named "Vesta", comes under attack by an advanced alien species, ironically while the colonies leader delivers a speech about mankind being alone in the universe.
    A second colony, named "Tellus" is planned, however the colony ship is attacked and heavily damaged as it makes its landing run on the planet.

    The Tellus colony ship is what sparks the beginning of the series storyline, as prior to its launch a colonist named Nathan West is forcibly removed from the program on the orders of US Government senators for political reasons. This removal separates him from his long term girlfriend Kylen, whom he pledges he will find and be with again, which leads him to enlisting in the US (Space) Marine corps, as there is a slim chance that he will be stationed to system monitor duty in the Tellus system, which will allow him and Kylen to be together again, the destruction of the Vesta and Tellus colonies puts a damper on this plan though, as for the first time, mankind has to fight a war against a completely alien enemy.

    Initially, the series plays out along the lines of what is seemingly a "humans v evil aliens" type storyline, however, as time passes, it slowly becomes apparent that the aliens, who are nicknamed the "Chigs" (due to their passing resemblance to a chigoe flea - their real name is never revealed) are not as evil as it was thought, and that the cause of the war is not a straightforward question of "Us vs Them".
    Nathan West is eventually assigned to USMC 58th Squadron, attached to the Carrier vessel USS Saratoga, where, during the course of the pilot episode, they distinguish themselves by thwarting a Chig plan to directly attack the planet Earth.
    The remainder of the series follows the members of 58th Squadron as they fight their way through the war one day at a time, hampered by the various bits of infighting and politics that are as still prevalent amongst mankind in the future as they are now.



    Numerous plot arcs and story lines are followed in this series, and, unlike most Sci-Fi offerings of the time, are intelligently written, examples include:-



    Racism/Prejudice - Part of the series backstory is that about 5 years prior to the series beginning, mankind fought a war against "The Silicates", a race of human created androids intended to perform labour considered dangerous or too menial for humans. At some point, a computer programmer, seeking to revenge himself upon a supervisor who took credit for his work, inserted a virus in the Silicates programming, which urged the androids simply to "take a chance" instead of following logic. This petty decision led to all of the worlds androids rebelling, which in turn erupted into open conflict, causing the deaths of millions of people.
    In response to this, Human genetic engineering gave birth to a race of artificially created humans, referred to as "in-vitros", who are created in laboratories and who were originally intended to be used as soldiers to fight the AIs. However, this backfired, as in-vitros, known mostly by the derogatory terms "Tanks" (referring to both their method of birth and the fact that they are generally tougher than normal humans) and/or "Nipple-necks" (due to them having a noticeable navel on the back of their neck, as opposed to being on the stomach as it is on a normal human) are "born" with the physical age of 18, but the mental age of a newborn baby, they are then quickly and brutally rushed through education and indoctrination, which although instilling the required level of military knowledge into them, instils none of the psychological knowledge which normal humans acquire through years of life (most of the in-vitros shown during the series appear to have an adolescent type of mindset).As such, the in-vitros are considered to be both lazy and cowardly, as during the AI war, very few of them actually fought or performed any of the duties they were created for.

    Most humans are shown to treat in-vitros with extreme prejudice, who for most of the series are shown to be treated as little more than slaves and/or animals.This leads to various plot lines where they are openly defiant and rebel against humans, and are even used by humans in plots to cause trouble with the war effort.

    Loyalty/Betrayal -  One of the recurring themes is the intense loyalty that 58th Squadron develops for each other, sometimes at the cost of disobeying their superiors. Conversely, one theme that also recurs is betrayal or distrust of "outsiders". Numerous characters pop up during the series whose motives and true intentions are either never made clear, or who outright betray everyone. While this is an expected trait from AIs (all of whom harbour an intense dislike of humans) when it is displayed in other humans, it usually ends up being something shocking or unexpected.

    Conspiracies/Cover ups -  One thing that crops up at various points in the series is the involvement of the megacorporation "Aero-Tech" in numerous aspects of both the war and human space exploration in general. Aero-Tech is shown to be a major aerospace company who manufactures space craft for the various Earth governments, but also seems to have numerous hidden agendas, and, who as it turns out, may have had a hand in inadvertently causing the war in the first place, a fact which they try, using various underhanded means, to cover up.

    Psychology/Torture - Throughout the series, both the humans and the Chigs are shown to make extensive use of disinformation and psychology to try and outwit each other, up to and including psychological torture and "reprogramming" of individuals to perform some purpose inherent to their respective war efforts. On the human side, things such as hypnotic suggestion and psychological programming are used to make people believe things that are not true, or to coerce them into performing deeds which they normally wouldn't. Both the Chigs and the AIs are shown to make extensive use of terror tactics and terror weapons in order to destabilise the human war effort.

    Although S:AAB didn't really tread any new ground (similar plot lines were explored in the TV series "Tour of Duty") , it did bring forth a fairly interesting, although sometimes dry, Sci-Fi tale which was set close enough to "now" to still be recognisable to the causal viewer, but just far enough into the future to allow for convenient Sci-Fi trappings to give the writers enough freedom to explore plotlines without having to make too many nods towards realism.

    Although the series was well recieved, its convoluted plot and expensive special effects, coupled with it "schedule hopping" led to the decision being made not to commission a second series.
    As such, the series ended on a cliffhanger, which the creators hoped to resolve in a possible feature length episode or movie, however as time went on, people lost interest in the project and thus it never materialised.
    Since then the creators have given rough outlines to what would have happened if the series had continued, including most of 58th Squadron being killed or captured and the various survivors encountering personal problems, both due to their experiences and with the replacements for those killed.

    In the years that have passed since the series aired, actor Joel de la Fuente, who played Lt. Paul Wang in the series, has been vocal in his criticism of the way in which the series handled stereotypes, labeling his character as being little more than a stereotypical "Asian coward" and most of the other characters as being "cardboard cut outs". Understandably, de la Fuente has not been asked to take part in many of Morgan/Wongs other projects since, unlike many of the other people who starred in this series.

    S:AAB is a nice series, but some of the series 24 episodes are just downright boring to watch, as the writers seemed to be trying too hard to make the series cerebral, and ended up instead making convoluted and dialogue heavy scenes which confused many viewers and created plot holes.

    Its not a bad series, but its not a great one either....








              Updates from the Hive   
    Friday morning there was a mosquito service a block away spraying but my bees seem ok. I’m hoping the combination of early morning spraying schedule and distance may have helped. Today, I took an early morning look-see inside the hive to check status of feeding and colony. Unsurprisingly, they’d consumed the gallon of supplemental feed(...)
              Ep. 08: ISRO, Indian Ocean and Infrastructure   
    Will ISRO be relevant in ten years? Will Britain give up its last colony in the Indian Ocean? How should India think China's infrastructure projects? In the eighth episode of the The Pragati Podcast, Hamsni Hariharan and Pavan Srinath swap news from June that may matter more than you know. In the second half, Hamsini sits down with contributing editor, Pranay Kotasthane and one of India's foremost experts on China, Dr. Alka Acharya, to contemplate how India approaches China. You can listen to this show and other awesome shows on the IVM Podcast App on Android: https://goo.gl/tGYdU1 or iOS: https://goo.gl/sZSTU5 You can check out our website at http://www.ivmpodcasts.com/
              Korean movies opening today 2017/06/28 in Korea (2017/06/28)   
    Korean movies opening today 2017/06/28 in Korea 'Anarchist from Colony', 'Real' and documentary 'Dancing with Jikji'.
              Happy 1st anniversary to Pinnacles National Park!    
    California’s Pinnacles National Park, known for its rare wildlife and striking geologic formations, celebrates the first anniversary of its designation as a national park on Jan. 10.

    Though it had been a national monument for more than a century prior to 2013, central California’s Pinnacles area was considered something of a hidden gem. Now, with the added cachet of national park status, which was conferred one year ago today, the 26,000-acre stretch of land is drawing a bit more attention from tourists, rock climbers and nature-seekers.

    Pinnacles National Park is named for its striking rocky spires, the result of volcanic and geological upheaval over the course of millions of years. Rock slides have formed several talus caves (openings between boulders) in the park, some of which are home to major bat colonies. Elsewhere, habitat ranges from dry chaparral to riparian forest full of flowering native plants. The park is home to unique and wonderful wildlife as well, including the threatened California red-legged frog and about two dozen California condors. The latter, managed as part of an ongoing recovery effort, are buoyed by their dramatic nine-foot wingspan as they survey the craggy peaks from high overhead.

    Whichever element of Pinnacles most strikes your fancy, the park offers gorgeous scenery to suit. Here are a few sights visitors might consider:

    Bear Gulch Cave

    Photo: Visiting Bear Gulch Cave. Credit: flickr, Mat Honan.

    Bear Gulch Cave provides residence for a colony of Townsend's big-eared bats, making the rocky hollow an important natural resource as well as a draw for visitors. The bats generally prefer to stay close to home, and they have been threatened by habitat loss and human incursion, making it especially important that tourists follow park rules and keep their distance.

    Machete Ridge

    Photo: Machete Ridge, in the western part of Pinnacles National Park. Credit: flickr, Peter Eimon

    If you visit Pinnacles to hike or climb, you’ll definitely want to swing by Machete Ridge. This sheer rock wall and its immediate surrounding area in the western part of the park is a challenge for adventurous climbers--the Destiny climb, found along the Machete Ridge Trail, is among the park’s most popular--as well as a picturesque landmark for photographers and nature-lovers.

    Balconies Cliffs

    Photo: The view from Balconies Cliffs Trail. Credit: flickr, Peter Eimon.

    The Balconies Cliffs trail reputedly offers great views of Machete Ridge and is considered a moderately easy hike. The trail loop goes through deep, dark Balconies Cave, but the wide-open section offers a pretty good vantage point to spot condors and other birds, including prairie falcons, American kestrels and golden eagles.

    Learn more about Pinnacles National Park.

    Photo: Pinnacles National Park.

    Credit: flickr, thaths.


              117: The Secret Life of Walter Mitty   

    For the Uniform.

    We knew from the start that Benjamin Sisko had a temper. After all, he punched Q in the face in the sixth episode of the series. But if you really make Sisko mad he’ll do more than just punch you. He’ll chase you down in a broken ship and then try to punch a holographic projection of you. That’s what happened to Michael Eddington when he decided to escalate the Maquis-Starfleet conflict by sabotaging the Defiant and attacking a Cardassian colony with biogenic weapons. In this episode of The Ready Room we’re joined by Ben McCormick, Mike Schindler, and Max Hegel to discuss Peter Allan Fields’s futuristic take on Les Misérables, the extreme tactics of both Eddington and Sisko, and how this episode paves the way for another of Fields’s classics, “In the Pale Moonlight.” We also explore the creative communication methods employed in this story, including the holographic communicator and the shouting Ferengi. In news we get into the Halloween mood with our favorite scary or spooky Star Trek episodes, debate the results of a poll that asked which character should have died differently, take a look at a new Starfleet uniforms infographic, and hear a few tidbits about the next Star Trek film. 


              Heike Odermatt - The 4 future kings   

    Who would now think that these 4 brown 'wool balls' will become beautiful static king penguins? On Saunders Island there is only a small colony of breeding king penguins. And this was the little creche at the time I was there. I liked these formation of the chicks in the foreground and the rocks behind as a repetition and the rainy weather brought the colors nice together.
              Termite queen avoids inbreeding by leaving a legacy of clones   
    Termite colonies are families – millions of individual workers all descended from one king and one queen. But the colony itself tends to outlast this initial royal couple. When they die, new kings and queens rise to take their place. These secondary royals are a common feature of some families of termites, and they will…
              Lachlan McIntosh   

    He was a Revolutionary leader involved in the most famous duel in Georgia history.



    Lachlan McIntosh was born in Scotland in 1727 and came to Georgia with a group of Highland Scots to defend the colony’s southern border. He grew up in the Scots settlement of Darien and became a prosperous rice planter. During the Revolution, Georgia’s Provincial Congress chose McIntosh to lead the state’s Continental Battalion despite his limited military experience. This frustrated the ambitions of another prominent leader, Button Gwinnett, beginning a dispute between the two that eventually led to Gwinnett’s death in their famous duel in May 1777.



    McIntosh transferred to Washington’s Army at Valley Forge, and eventually commanded the entire Western theater in the Ohio Valley, where he helped establish American claims to the region. McIntosh returned home for the failed siege of Savannah and was captured when the British took Charleston in 1780.



    McIntosh County honors the Scotsman who helped secure American independence, born on March 5, 1727, Today in Georgia History.

    Date: 
    Wednesday, March 5, 1727
    Time Period: 
    Fast Fact: 
    McIntosh's great-great nephews were generals on opposite sides of the Civil War.
    Region: 
    Thumbnail: 
    Location: 
    Darien, Savannah, St. Simons Island
    Audio: 
    Priority: 
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    BrightCove VideoID: 
    1471822655001
    Video Embed Code: 
    <iframe src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/220368192?color=000000&title=0&byline=0&portrait=0" width="632" height="356" frameborder="0" webkitallowfullscreen mozallowfullscreen allowfullscreen></iframe>
    Video Source: 
    Use the Video Embed Code mentioned above.

              Professional Liability Insurer Owes Defense To 2 Of 3 Au Pair Placement Agencies   
    DENVER - A Colorado federal judge on May 17 found that a professional liability insurer has a duty to defend two out of three insureds against underlying claims that they operated as a cartel and colluded to fix standard au pair wages (Colony Insurance Co. v. Expert Group International Inc., et al., No.15-02499, D. Colo., 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 75073).
              Bee, Wasp Venom Shortage Could Be Dangerous for Those With Allergies   
    Pesticide overuse has a much greater impact than many realize. CNN reports that a shortage of bee and wasp venom is hindering the manufacture of lifesaving shots used in venom immunotherapy. 

    That there is a shortage of this venom should not be a surprise to anyone who has followed the troubling bee colony collapse disorder that has been decimating the bee population for years. Neonicotinoids have been increasingly blamed for bee deaths (and were implicated in the 2013 mass bee die-off of 25,000 bumblebees along with millions of bee deaths in Canada). 

    The majority of soybean, corn, canola and sunflower seeds planted in the U.S. are coated with neonicotinoid pesticides (neonics). The chemicals, which are produced by Bayer and Syngenta, travel systemically through the plants and kill insects that munch on their roots and leaves.

    Neonicotinoids are not the only chemicals the bees have to worry about. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's Roundup herbicide, may also play a role in bees' deaths. In many cases of bee die-offs, the bees become disoriented, suggesting endocrine hormone disruption. Glyphosate is a very strong endocrine hormone disruptor.

    To avoid harming bees and other helpful pollinators that visit your garden, swap out toxic pesticides and lawn chemicals for organic weed and pest control alternatives. Even some organic formulations can be harmful to beneficial insects, so be sure to vet your products carefully.

    Better yet, get rid of your lawn altogether and plant an edible organic garden. Both flower and vegetable gardens provide good honeybee habitats. It's also recommended to keep a small basin of fresh water in your garden or backyard, as bees actually do get thirsty.

    Keep in mind that you also help protect the welfare of all pollinators every time you shop organic and grass fed, as you are actually "voting" for less pesticides and herbicides with every organic and pastured food and consumer product you buy. You can take bee preservation a step further by trying your hand at amateur beekeeping.
     

              IT’S A LOUNGE!! (6/28/17)   

    451 10th known/recorded appearance of Halley’s Comet.  This is the date of its perihelion
    548 Byzantine Empress Theodora dies
    1098 Crusaders defeat Muslims outside of Antioch, ending the reverse-siege of Antioch. The area all belongs to the Crusaders now
    1228 Sixth Crusade launched by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II
    1389 Turks win Battle of Kosovo, opening path for conquest of southeastern Europe (or June 15)
    1491 King Henry VIII of England born
    1519 Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.  The election costs him 850,000 ducats
    1577 painter Peter Paul Rubens born
    1635 Guadeloupe becomes a French colony
    1637 195 French soldiers at Mainz (only survivors out of 2,000 after 6 weeks of shelling) surrender to Imperial forces
    1641 Battle of Wolfenbuttel: imperial forces attack but don’t drive allied forces away in the Thirty Years War
    1651 The biggest battle of the 17th century (really?) begins - Battle of Beresteczko between Poles & Ukrainians
    1703 Methodism founder John Wesley born
    1712 Jean Jacques-Rousseau born
    1754 George Washington learned a large French force coming to his small band
    1776 Declaration of Independence committee reports the result to the Continental Congress
    1776 South Carolina militia repulses a British assault on Sullivan’s Island
    1776 Thomas Hickey, private & bodyguard to George Washington, hung for mutiny & sedition
    1787 Ben Franklin, hoping to tone down animosity in the constitutional convention, proposes the convention be led each morning by a clergy member. (This idea fails)
    1787 Day 2 of Luther Martin’s long Jeremiad against the Virginia Plan.  Everyone is sick of it by the end
    1787 French government offers to parlement of Paris a bill to make the corvee (forced labor) a tax, which it passes fairly easily
    1792 Lafayette abandons his command to speak to France’s National Assembly.  Instead, he is accused of abandoning his post
    1814 Lt. Col. Forsyth, controversial and highly zealous US officer on the Canadian front, killed.  It’s a polarizing death, even after the war
    1836 James Madison dies
    1838 Queen Victoria crowned
    1857 Italian rebel leader Carlo Pisacane lands near Naples at Sapri to begin latest wildly futile attempt to stir up rebellion
    1865 Army of the Potomac disbanded
    1886 1st scheduled transcontinental Canadian train departs from Montreal for Port Moody, BC
    1892 Homestead lockout begins
    1894 Congress makes Labor Day a legal holiday
    1900 Franz Ferdinand renounces throne for any kids he has with wife Sophie (who is not blue blooded enough)
    1902 Congress passes the Spooner Act, authorizing Pres. Teddy Roosevelt to acquire the rights from Colombia to build the Panama Canal
    1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip
    1916 rain ends, allowing for abbreviated artillery barrage at the Somme
    1919 German government, under protest, signs the Versailles Treaty - many new nations created
    1919 Harry Truman marries Bess Wallace
    1921 new constitution of Yugoslavia proclaimed. Doesn’t take.
    1922 Erik Bauersfeld, voice actor (Adm. Ackbar), born
    1922 Irish Civil War begins - shelling of Dour Courts in Dublin
    1922 Michael Vale, the “Time to make the donuts” guy, born
    1926 Mel Brooks born
    1928 nuke inspector Hans Blix born
    1932 Pat Morita born
    1933 German Newspaper Publishers Association co-ordinates self with the German government
    1933 State Party, once a major player in German politics (under a different name) formally dissolves
    1934 Ernst Rohm expelled from German Officers League.  The army is put on full alert.  Plans for the Night of the Long Knives are proceeding
    1935 New law passed under Nazis, making harsher laws for gays under the ambiguous phrase “unnatural sexual act”
    1936 Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang formed in northern China
    1938 Leon Panetta born
    1940 Adolf Hitler goes to Paris
    1940 Romania cedes Bessarabia (now Moldova) to USSR
    1943 Donald Johanson, paleoanthropologist (he personally discovered the Lucy fossil in East Africa), born
    1943 Night of June 28-29, bombing of Cologne kills 500
    1946 Gilda Radner born
    1948 Cominform circulates a paper on Yugoslav situation; in effect expelling them from the communist bloc
    1948 Kathy Bates born
    1950 Seoul falls to North Korean forces. Doesn’t take
    1956 June 28-29, harsh working conditions & dissatisfaction with the government cause a riot in Poznan, Poland
    1956 The King and I released
    1960 John Elway born
    1962 Roger Degueldre, the top OAS killer, executed by French
    1964 Malcolm X forms Organization of Afro-American Unity
    1966 Argentina military stages a coup
    1966 John Cusack born
    1966 Mary Stuart Masterson born
    1967 Israel annexes East Jerusalem
    1969 Stonewall Riots in NYC
    1971 Elon Musk, HyperLoop guy & PayPal co-founder, born
    1971 Franz Stangl, commandant at Treblinka, dies in prison
    1971 Lemon v. Kurtzman: Supreme Court establishes the “Lemon Test” on legislation. Laws concerning religion must: 1) have a secular purpose, 2) not primarily designed to advance or inhibit a religious practice, and 3) not result in “excessive government entanglement” with religious matters
    1973 elections held for the North Ireland Assembly. This leads to power sharing between unionists & nationalists for the 1st time
    1973 Ingrid Seynhaeve, Sports Illustrated swimsuit model, born
    1974 Elton John’s album Caribou comes out
    1975 Rod Serling dies
    1978 Heaven Can Wait released
    1978 Supreme Court rules against racial quotas in Bakke case
    1979 Felicia Day, actress, born
    1979 movie Meatballs released
    1981 Islamic Revolutionary Party in Iran has a big meeting - and bomb goes off killing at least 72 party officials
    1983 Mianus River Bridge collapses in CT - 3 die
    1984 Richard Ramirez - the Night Stalker - murders a 79-year-old widow.  It’s his first victim
    1985 AC/DC album Fly on the Wall released
    1985 St. Elmo’s Fire released
    1988 90,000 protest in Budapest against the communist Hungarian government
    1988 Public Enemy’s album It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back released


              Going almost nacked with Dior Nail Glow...   
    Before we start do know that I'm not an exhibitionist, truly I'm not! I love buttoned up blouses and they're what I wear most of the time but once in a while I can show a little cleavage... hmm now that doesn't count now does it? Joining a nudist colony? No way baby! First I don't think I'd enjoy the view(s) and as for myself, I'd need a portable Photoshop beautifying chamber!

    Ok so joking aside, for the past few months, well actually for almost four months now, my nails have been in rehab! For some reason I just can't get them back to the shape they were in before. My index fingers and thumbs keep splitting and cracking at the ends! :(

    The cracking and splitting are likely due to me wearing colors on them for so long so I've stopped! *cries* I miss my dark claws! This Kitty ain't happy but hey, I gotta do what I gotta do to get them back into shape!

    Now no color is boring but naked nails are flat out depressing! To the rescue...

    Dior Nail Glow...

    Oh how I love thee! This baby is part of the Dior Backstage Essentials Collection and yes, I can truly say it is an essential, for me anyway. It's a clear high gloss polish with a rosy tint that instantly illuminates natural nails. I never apply more than one coat, really it's enough and the beauty of this little wonder is that if you don't have time to redo every few days or so, it fades evenly, really a no fuss product. This is what makes it different than any other clear polish I've ever tried. It doesn't peel or flake away, it just fades evenly.


    Notice the poor state my index finger nail is in! :( 


    I know some prefer to go all dressed up or flat out naked... on the nails I mean, but mine have a yellowish color that makes them look neglected in a way. Could be due to my nail shape I just dunno. Dior Nail Glow is like instant Photoshop for my nails, love, just love!


    This is my right hand, nakked nails! Not an option! 


    So, if like me going nakked isn't an option, go grab this baby, really it's a great beautifying product to own!

    Now what do you like, colored, naked or a little somethin somethin... on the nails?




              Man dies after being hit with cricket bat   
    Man dies after being hit with cricket batNew Delhi: A 20-year-old man died after he was allegedly assaulted with a cricket bat following a heated argument with two juveniles in north Delhi’s Subzi Mandi area. The incident happened yesterday. Police said that the victim Angad Gupta, a resident of Sita Sharan colony in Subzi Mandi area, was passing through the area where […]
              Part-time and Full time office assistant(Optometry) - Colony Vision Center - The Colony, TX   
    Checking patients in for their eye exams Scheduling appointments, Doing patients preliminary testing ,Verifying vision and medical insurance, Helping patients...
    From Indeed - Tue, 28 Mar 2017 20:14:40 GMT - View all The Colony, TX jobs
              Copan, Lago Atitlan's flower power colony and Semana Santa in Antigua   
    Antigua Guatemala, 4 May 2003 [...]
              The Mexican Immigrant and the Violence of Scapegoating   
    By Sr. Denise Sausville, RSM [PDF Version] [Return to HomePage]


    Denise Sausville, RSM has been ministering at the U.S./Mexico border for over ten years. Denise is the founder of MercyWorks, a non-profit resource dedicated to the works of mercy beyond borders. Denise’s border work embraces concern for immigrants, deportees, and maquiladora workers, as well as the elderly poor and handicapped. Denise is also a volunteer at ARISE, a community development agency that serves new immigrants in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. Denise Sausville brings a theological, spiritual, and ethical perspective to her reflections on immigration.




    "Part of the process of conversion of mind and heart deals
    with confronting attitudes of cultural superiority, indifference, and
    racism; accepting migrants not as forboding aliens, and terrorists,
    or economic threats, but rather as persons with dignity and rights,
    revealing the presence of Christ." Strangers No Longer, USCCB, 2003

    INTRODUCTION

    We all know about the violence that is now rife in every Mexican border town. Drug cartels are staking out their territories in nearly every colonia with mafia-style extortion and intimidation of small businesses along with shootouts within school zones. Twelve year old children attracted by money wear hoods and carry rifles in service of the gang. Kidnapping and extortion of immigrant (Central Americans) and citizen families of every income level are commonplace. The everyday lives of the community have been disrupted significantly. Persons do not feel free to move about. Indeed, the population of northern Mexico is a people under siege.

    In the meantime, the US side of the border, the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas is a more subtle reflection of its Mexican neighbors. Human trafficking, or slavery, is unveiled in the discovery along Valley towns of whole houses full of kidnapped persons. Gang-members on both sides of the border partner in the trafficking of drugs. “Gentlemen’s Clubs” are proliferating throughout the Rio Grande Valley, where prostitution and trafficking of women are slippery issues which are hoodwinked by local law enforcement officials. All of this violence on both sides of the border is part of an overall industry that services the addictions and greed of both Mexican and US citizens. In the meantime, immigrants are caught in the crossfire.

    The major point of the reflections in this paper, however, is about a violence that is both subtle and creeping, like the kudzu plant that overtakes whole counties while we are sleeping. The violence I am talking about is the violence of scapegoating, of racial profiling, and the more recent violence since 9/11 in which the image of the immigrant has become fused with the image of the criminal. Yes, I believe that much of the public no longer views those migrating from the south as simply field workers, low-wage construction workers, and people working in the service industries—persons seeking education for their children and a better life for their families—contributors to our economy and our society. Rather, the physical evidence of the militarization of our southern border including a wall, an army of foot soldiers (the border patrol, the national guard, and minutemen), along with infrared technology, drones and helicopters—tells us that not only drug-runners and traffickers of people, but also immigrants have become the enemy, because they are often times treated the same. This kind of xenophobia objectifies and dehumanizes the immigrant, making it easier for the general population to scapegoat him, holding him responsible for many of our social ills and economic problems, and now criminalizing him.

    This paper will take a look at the phenomenon of scapegoating. Webster’s College Dictionary defines the scapegoat as “a person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place.” The focus of this paper is on documented and undocumented economic migrants from the south, specifically on new Mexican immigrants who represent the largest significant group immigrating into the United States in recent history. It is also the group with which the author has the most personal experience, having lived and worked on both the U.S. and Mexican sides of the Rio Grande River The methodology of the cycle of see-judge/discern-act, or ver-juzgar/discernir-actuar will be used in this paper as a way to track the conversion process which must take place for those who wish to involve themselves in pastoral work with new immigrants.

    PART I: SEE/VER

    The eyes are like the lamp of the body.
    If your eyes are sound, then your whole body will be full of light. (Mt. 6:22)

    Lord, that I may see. (Mk. 10:51)

    The lead quote in this paper refers to a conversion of mind and heart. To step out into this journey of conversion requires that we first of all see concretely what is going on around us. When we truly see, which in the context of this paper means to draw on both the dimensions of mind and heart, a shift in consciousness takes place in which we ourselves become emigrants, as we encounter new and unknown territories that take us out of our comfort zones.

    Stories

    There is nothing that helps us get an inside take on a situation more than a story. Individual stories help us to know the inner experience of persons who are otherwise abstract statistics on a graph in a report in the New York Times. Or, as with reporters and talk show hosts such as Lou Dobbs and Rush Limbaugh the immigrant is made into an object on which hate and fear can be projected so that we don’t have to do the homework of looking at ourselves. In his article, “Why Would People Migrate,” John J. Savant claims that “In attempting to understand what is just, we have to imagine real persons and their concrete situations.”

    The Story of Juan

    I met Juan during one of my regular forays to an immigrant shelter in a Mexican border town across from the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. For eight years I had done volunteer work at the shelter where I had witnessed migrations of emigrants from the south of Mexico and Central America heading to the United States. After 9/ll, shelter staff began witnessing a gradual trend in which fewer and fewer immigrants seemed to be coming from the south and heading north with the intention of crossing the river. There are various reasons for this. One is because of stricter border enforcement on the U.S. side. Another is the frequency of kidnapping, extortion, and other abuse—sometimes even leading to murder, of Central American immigrants during their passage through Mexico. Instead of large numbers of immigrants heading north, in the past two years, shelter personnel were seeing greater numbers of deportees, persons who had been deported from U.S. prisons and deportation centers back into Mexico. The options for these persons were either to keep heading south, back to their people, or attempt to re-enter the United States, with the risk of apprehension and capture, long prison terms, and a second deportation. Hiring a coyote to guide and “protect” the immigrant in his return north would cost him and/or his family up to $4,000, with no guarantees.

    “I don’t know what I’m doing here”, said Juan in perfect English with
    little accent.

    “But, you do know that you’re in a shelter, right?” I said.

    “Yes, I know what this place is, and I know that I’m in a Mexican border
    town, although I feel like I’m in some kind of war zone”.

    “How did you get here?”

    “After the long ride on the bus from the deportation center, we were dumped at the bridge and told to walk over here into this Mexican town. As soon as we set foot here in Mexico I was one of the ones who got beat-up and robbed. They took my belongings and what little cash I had. We were told by some men working on a street nearby that there was a shelter on this side of town, so we walked over here. So, I guess, here I am.”

    Though a strapping man, Juan looked fearful, tenuous, disoriented, and dazed—as though the real Juan had been left somewhere far away. Juan’s was the face of trauma the archetype of a fresh and raw deportee with a new reality looming before his eyes. I had seen many men like Juan, sometimes a hundred and twenty arriving at one time.

    “I am so sorry to hear about your experience at the bridge”, I said.

    Juan had been one of the many victims of a set-up by local Mexican police, who, when they are aware that a bus of deportees is arriving, don civilian clothes and set up ambushes. Knowing the vulnerability of deportees, and the fact that deportees don’t report their victimizations to local human rights authorities because of a fear of reprisal—these otherwise law enforcement officials boldly strip the new deportees of whatever cash or valuables they may have.

    Juan began to tell his story, explaining that less than three days before he had been living a normal life in the United States. He unfortunately was picked-up for a traffic violation and everything went downhill from there. The patrolman who had stopped him deciphered that Juan’s driver’s license was invalid, and Juan was immediately seized and put in jail. This is a common story. Although Juan may have been qualified to receive his permanent residency papers, he had probably lived with falsified documents all his life. Like many undocumented immigrants, he may not have been able to afford the lawyer’s fees and penalty or processing fees that are part of the legalization process.

    “You speak such good English,” I said, “surely you must have lived
    in the United States a long time.”

    “It’s true. I’m forty-four years old now, and I came to the United States with my parents when I was twelve. I remember very little about my life in Mexico. I was just like anybody else ‘over there’ (in the United States), I went to school, got a job, got married and had kids. I’m not supposed to be here in Mexico. I don’t know anyone in here anymore. My life is in the United States. All of my family is in the United States. Besides, I have to get back to my job.”

    “Does your family know where you are right now?” I inquired.

    “I didn’t have anything I could tell them. I didn’t know where I would go once I crossed that bridge.”

    “You can arrange to make phone calls from here. Do you have anyone in the United States who can work on your case? Can your wife get a lawyer?” I said.

    At some level, I wondered why I was even asking him these questions. Was I offering false hope? Juan didn’t have a case, really. And, even if he did, good immigration lawyers are hard to find and often very costly. Juan had committed crimes. He had been driving with a false driver’s license. He was living in the United States illegally. Juan was a criminal. To stretch it a little farther, to some, Juan might even be considered a terrorist suspect. After all, he was dark-skinned, his first language wasn’t English, he was foreign-born, and, he crossed the southern border into the United States.

    The Story of Alicia

    And, then there’s Alicia. Forty year old Alicia had entered the United States from Mexico along with her two small children and without documents some fifteen years before I met her. After entry into the United States she married and had two more children, but the marriage didn’t last. Alicia was a member of a wellness class that I had taught at a community center in a small town in Hidalgo County, South Texas. When the class ended we continued to make contact, and I was able to link Alicia to a resource person who assisted her in pursuing legal residency status.

    In visits to her home, I could see the depth of poverty she and the children were experiencing. Yet, Alicia explained that her life in Mexico was much worse, and that she had desperately wanted her children to have education and the ability to make a better life for themselves. When it rained, Alicia’s yard was mired in mud. The house was nothing more than a hovel. With no running water in the kitchen, Alicia improvised by running a hose through the window to the kitchen sink from a hook-up outside. There were no beds, only mattresses on the floor. Nonetheless, Alicia and her children were always immaculate, going off to school well-groomed and with freshly laundered clothes augmented by Alicia’s solar dryer, a clothesline.

    For income, Alicia had taken a low-paying job in the refrigeration section of a large operation that prepared lunches to be sent out to local public schools. There were always a couple of inches of water on the floor in the area where she worked, and Alicia could not afford rubber boots. Eventually, she had to quit the job since with the cold and the damp she found herself in constant bad health. After this, she took a job scrubbing with Clorox the insides of empty industrial-size trucks after they were used to haul carrots, onions, or cabbages from the fields to warehouses. Because of the chemical fumes, and the wear-and-tear on her back, Alicia also had to let go of this job, knowing that it would be difficult to find something else.

    On a later visit to the house, Alicia proudly flashed in front of my face what looked to be an official document. She had received a letter proving that after all the paperwork she had done and fees she had scraped together, she was now officially considered a legal resident. The letter began: Dear Alicia__________, WELCOME TO THE UNITED STATES.

    There was something ironic about that greeting, “Welcome to the United States.” Reading it in the circumstances in which I was standing, an Anglo and citizen from birth, I didn’t know whether to laugh or to cry. For fifteen years Alicia had lived an unnerving way of life, a low-profile life in the shadows. She never knew if she would someday be stopped somewhere and be deported. And now, for someone who had been unwelcome, it seemed strange, almost ludicrous, when that welcome finally came. I wanted to put words in her mouth, “I’ve been here all this time, but you didn’t want to know my story. I was working for you all this time in the shadows. I am giving to you (baby boomers) four good workers to subsidize your social security. I am not what you think, I wanted to be a citizen, I wanted to contribute.”

    In Alicia’s story, we can see her persistence, and what measures some immigrants take so that their children might encounter opportunity where there was no opportunity. Some scholars go so far as to posit a Darwinian theory that the persons who emigrate illegally are some of the most intelligent, strong, resilient and resourceful people that could be found in their countries of origin. Having personally heard many first-hand stories of immigrant crossings, and knowing many new immigrants myself, I believe this is true.

    After receiving her residency papers, Alicia obtained a scholarship to a massage therapy school, where she earned the top grades in her class. Her two older boys who are now legal residents work in a mechanic shop and on an oil rig, while her two younger daughters who are citizens are pulling excellent grades in school.

    The Story of Sylvia

    Forty-five year old Sylvia was someone I met when my office was located in a community center close to an industrial bridge leading over to the Mexican side of the border. Always animated and quite gifted in her ability to decorate and produce handicrafts of every kind, an extrovert and interested in learning, (she took every English class offered at the center,) Sylvia exhibited a high motivation to work. Now divorced, Sylvia had entered the United States illegally eighteen years previously with her then husband. She later bore three children each in different states where her husband had migrated to find work.

    Some years later, after her divorce, Sylvia was ecstatic when she finally found work sitting with an elderly infirm couple who were able to pay her five dollars an hour. Besides caring for the elderly couple, both were wheelchair bound, her work included cleaning the house and preparing a noon meal. This little bit of salary helped Sylvia and her family to tread an economic tightrope that would keep them from going deeper below the poverty line. Sylvia received high marks from the elderly couple’s middle class professional children on the work she had done for their parents. Because of ill health, the couple needed to be moved to a skilled nursing facility. During the long time between jobs, Sylvia cleaned houses here and there for a couple of years. At one juncture, she took a job at a local restaurant, where the owner told her that she wouldn’t receive a salary, that she could only receive her tips. Being constantly placed to serve a section of the restaurant where there were few customers, Sylvia began to feel abused by this system, and she quit work. She tried working at a cleaner, but was ill-treated there also, and the conditions were very poor. After a long search she was connected to another elderly couple where she continues to work. The positive side of Sylvia’s story is that her three teen-age children are in a magnet school, and are college bound.

    Sylvia has a real gift for working with the elderly and this has great implications for America’s baby boomers. In a recent phone call from an elderly friend from a northern state, I heard her discuss her concern about her long term retirement plans. “What am I going to do if Gary and I become incapacitated? Who will take care of us? We don’t want to leave our home to live in a facility.” “Beats me, I said. If my friend Sylvia were documented, she could come up and help you out. As it is, she’d never get through the checkpoint.” Not only that, I thought, but if Sylvia were documented she could demand just wages, too.

    The above stories are common stories, with the exception that immigrant women are often far more isolated than immigrant men who often work in crews. Immigrant women often cannot drive, they don’t have significant connections, including extended family, that can help them find employment. They are often charged with the care of young children

    Now that our eyes are a bit more open to the outer reality of the life of the immigrant, let us look at aspects of the system of immigration itself, by examining some recent laws and policies regarding undocumented immigrants.

    Laws and Enforcement Policies

    Persons working in ministries with and for immigrants throughout the United States are well aware of the escalation of laws and policies governing undocumented persons. Communities at our southern border see physical signs daily of activity involving border patrol wagons, the wall, helicopters and drones that is directed toward a drug war, yes, but also decidedly toward keeping the “alien” out. The draconian anti-immigrant laws instituted in the State of Arizona have leaked over into other states. Texas alone recently passed SB 9 which is directed toward “secure communities,” but which in essence “reduces safety for all Texans by undermining the authority of law enforcement officials to police their communities.” Texas also passed a voter ID law that requires that voters who appear at the polls must produce a photo ID or proof of citizenship. This legislation penalizes groups of people who already struggle to make their voices heard within our society.

    At the federal level, now at stake is the 14th Amendment, which guarantees the right of citizenship to all who are born in the United States. A proposal forwarded by senators from Kentucky and Louisiana looks to amending the U.S. Constitution “to require that children born in America be considered citizens only if they have at least one parent who is a citizen, a lawful permanent resident, or an active member of the military.”

    My own experience of the escalation of recent anti-immigrant laws and policies comes through my contacts with immigrants who have been affected by the lack of due process and the lack of reading of one’s rights in the deportation process. I have known stories of local persons whose motor vehicles have been stopped for no reason other than racial profiling. Through a Sisters of Mercy Immigrant Advocacy Group, I hear horror stories of the conditions of jails and for-profit deportation centers where undocumented immigrants are held with criminals, and some for months at a time before a hearing. To counter this, the U.S. Bishops both caution and plead that “Any enforcement measures must be targeted, proportional, and humane.”

    That the undocumented immigrant has been criminalized is a fact. I believe that this phenomenon is, in part, a consequence of post 9/11 paranoia which has inadvertently fused in the minds of the American public “the image of the immigrant at our southern border” with “the image of the terrorist”. It is ironic that the 9/11 terrorists themselves crossed the northern border from Canada to enter the United States.

    The Person in the Pew

    In the meantime, ordinary Catholics are unaware that their own Church is addressing the issue of immigration as it unfolds. Recognizing the complexities surrounding the issue of the undocumented, the Catholic Bishops of Mexico and the United States drafted a document that includes five principles that underlie their positions on comprehensive immigration reform. One of the five principles states that “persons have the right to migrate to support themselves and their families.” The Bishops acknowledge the impact of globalization, including the unfair balance wrought by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) , which has displaced 1.3 million agricultural workers in the south of Mexico. The Bishops recognize that the root causes of migration exist in the global underdevelopment of the migrant’s country of origin, and that the ultimate solution to migration issues lies in the development of these countries. In the meantime, the Bishops acknowledge that the dignity of the human person must be respected.

    It is now time to harmonize policies on the movement of peoples,
    particularly in a way that respects the human dignity of the
    migrant and recognizes the social consequences of globalization.

    The Bishops insist on the dignity of the immigrant and they add that he is to be seen as “the presence of Christ,” who himself was a migrant at several junctures throughout his lifetime. “For the bishops”, says Andrew Rivas, the Executive Director of the Texas Catholic Conference, “the issue of immigration is not simply a political one, but a moral issue that impacts human rights and the very life and dignity of the human person.”
    Significant work has been done by the U.S. Catholic bishops, in particular, who have made consistent efforts toward forwarding comprehensive immigration reform.

    As our journey of conversion takes us to unknown territories where we hear stories of Mexican immigrants, become familiar with recent anti-immigrant laws and policies, and hear for perhaps the first time the prophetic voices of our Bishops on this topic, we hopefully begin to sense a small shift in consciousness. This shift is what I call seeing. It can be an uncomfortable place to dwell, yet we must dwell in it, since it is the uncomfortability born of new consciousness that can move us to the next place.

    PART II: JUDGE/JUZGAR; Discern/Discernir

    A second important movement in the conversion process is that of discerning. Discerning is the effort we exert to make discriminations about what is really happening. It is making a decision about how we want to view something, what we want to believe about it, or what standards we want to use to evaluate it. Discerning involves landing at a certain place on a certain issue, in this case on the issue of immigration. The kind of discerning we are talking about in this paper requires letting-go of all pre-conceptions and assumptions in order to be truly free to judge.

    ….and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free. (Jn.8:32)

    The History of Immigration in the United States

    Recently, I was starkly dumbfounded, not knowing how really naive I was, to find scathing caricatures of the Mexican immigrant in blogs following an on-line article in our local newspaper. The article was about a new Investors Pilot Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of State. Under the program, Mexican nationals willing to invest more than $500,000 in U.S. enterprises would be granted permanent residency. The plethora of negative comments on this article were not objecting to the fact that the program only addressed wealthy Mexicans, without acknowledging the economic contributions of the many Mexicans who are already working here, but rather the comments were directed toward Mexicans in general. Respondants characterized their brothers from south of the border as, “lowlifes”, “parasites”, “problems”, and “cowards” to name a few. One blogger commented, “We don’t want them here!!!! Well…maybe their fiestas.” These kinds of diatribes would be devastating commentaries, except that they are nothing new. Mexican immigrants constitute the latest wave within a history of waves of immigrant groups entering the United States. Every significant new wave or group that has come here in the past century, including Italians, Slavs, Irish, Chinese, Japanese, and more—have been called names similar to those given by our bloggers, and worse. This is not to condone these awful slurs, but rather it is to point out that there is something at work when a new group arrives at our shores (or borders)—when there is a need to somehow characterize or define the new group in certain ways. I want to say that what is at work is a kind of violence that undermines, that leaves little room for the immigrant group to redeem themselves in the eyes of the new country until they are totally assimilated into the new culture and a second group comes behind them only to be as downgraded as the previous group.

    In an article entitled, “Unwanted: Immigration and Nativism in America”, by Peter Schrag, the author notes that nativism, zenophobia, and racism are not new in America, or in other countries. “What makes them significant in America is that they run counter to the nation’s founding ideals…[and] ideas in the founding documents…to be a nativist in this country…[is] to be in conflict with its fundamental tenets.’ [Emphasis mine.] The nativist is one who is always evaluating; ‘Who belongs here.’ They have been known to come up with the idea that only a certain kind of people belong, such as pure Anglo-Saxons (if these exist anymore), or people of northern European descent. Or, could we “include ‘inferior’ people, such as Southern Italians, Greeks, Slavs, Jews, or Chinese,” which was a major question during the nineteenth century. Nativist Benjamin Franklin even wrestled with the issue of whom to allow in and whom to shut out, when he “warned that Pennsylvania was becoming ‘a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them and will never adopt our Language or Customs any more than they can acquire our Complexion.’”

    Recently, I heard a nativist statement that was very telling. I was eating lunch with two women, one, a younger Mexican-American woman who had had her citizenship papers for a number of years, and the other, an older Anglo-American. During the meal I commented that I wished I had a tortilla, so that I could make a taco with the food on my plate. This followed with a discussion about food, and the Anglo woman stated, “We Americans can make a sandwich out of anything.” Did she mean that Anglos are American and sandwiches are American? If so, it would mean that if Benjamin Franklin were here today, he might ask, “What will happen when the Mexicans Mexicanize us instead of our Anglifying them?” What will we do when the taco replaces the sandwich the way that salsa has replaced ketchup? This is the fear that is wrought by a nativist mentality.

    Nativism—What makes a citizen?

    Historically, immigration issues began coming to the fore in the 1880’s after the closing of the western frontier, which had served as a safety valve to assuage many social problems. Schrag claims that in the early decades of the Twentieth Century congressional debates were centered around the concern that, “In the face of inferior, low-skill, low-wage but high-fecundity [child bearing] classes from Southern and Eastern Europe, demoralized Anglo-Saxons would bring fewer children into the world to face that new competition.” Beneath these early fears, we can hear xenophobia and racism targeted at what were then the latest wave of immigrants. Today these same fears are at work, and are directed primarily at the undocumented Mexican immigrant.

    Yes, xenophobia and racism are still with us, and in fact are on the rise. The Southern Poverty Law Center (the SPLC) has a reputable thirty year track record for documenting the establishment and growth of hate groups around the United States. In its Intelligence Report for Spring 2011, the SPLC indicated that,

    Last year’s rise in hate groups was the latest in a trend stretching all
    the way back to the year 2,000, when the SPLC counted 602 such groups.
    Since then, they have risen steadily, mainly on the basis of exploiting the
    issue of undocumented immigration from Mexico and Central America.
    Last year, the number of hate groups rose to 1,002 from 932, a 7.5 increase
    over the previous year and a 66 percent rise since 2000.

    The report went on to indicate that antigovernment Patriot groups grew dramatically “on the basis of furious rhetoric from the right aimed at the nation’s first black president.” What the Mexican immigrant without papers is forced to face along with the exploitation of “the issue” of his undocumented status is that he, too, is a person of color. Among some hate groups skin color alone makes one a legitimate target for threats, harassment, and even death.

    ^All this information on nativism, along with zenophobia and racism, has led me to ask the question, “What, in the minds of the populace, constitutes a citizen?” Perhaps an even more important question might be, “Who defines or decides what constitutes a ‘citizen’?” From a legal perspective, the answer to this question is the INS. But, I might ask you, my reader, whether you are Hispanic, Asian, of African descent, or Anglo, when I say the word “American citizen,” what immediately comes to your mind? The answer to this question might be very telling. I present this question because of conversations I have had with citizens who do not in fact imagine themselves to be American citizens. One conversation was with a small group of Hispanic women all of whom I knew to have their citizenship papers. I now forget the topic of the conversation, but in the middle of it one of the women said, “And, then Sally who is a citizen came in to the meeting.” I knew Sally, and I knew in this instance that what the Hispanic woman was saying is that, “And, then this white, middle class professional woman, someone who is different from us, came in to the meeting.” I was pretty certain that for the speaker the word “citizen” was used here to capture “whiteness”, English-speaking, and advanced education. I said, “But, Rosa, you are an American citizen.” “I know,” she said, “but that’s different.” ^

    In the ensuing discussion I discovered that everyone in the group believed that there are “citizens” and there are citizens. The real citizens are persons who are in seats of power, have had economic advantages and connections, and have had educational opportunities, and of course are Anglo. The other kind of citizen is a low income-low opportunity person, often a person of color, and in some cases non-Engilsh speaking. I asked these women if what I perceived to be their internalization of these nativist beliefs would ever change. They replied that they thought they would always feel like second-class citizens. In a similar conversation with a thirteen year old boy who is the son of undocumented immigrant parents, the youngster claimed that one of his friends was a citizen. I said, “Yes, Jose, but you are a citizen, too.” “Yes, but that doesn’t count.”

    These two stories tell me that there are pervasive stereotypes of exactly who is a “real” American citizen, the one who is considered worthy of the bounties that this Country has to offer. The subtleness of this kind of thinking, like the creeping kudzu that I referred to earlier in this paper, is a kind of violence that can undermine the self esteem of not only the undocumented Mexican immigrant, but also whole groups of citizens within the society. This mentality, whose birthplace is the cauldron of nativism, zenophobia, and racism, is the violence that undermines and that manipulates to the advantage of dominant groups. Because it is often institutionalized, it is less visible, like low-intensity warfare.

    The Insidious Phenomenon of Scapegoating

    It is stories and experiences like those detailed in this paper that have led me to begin an investigation into the root causes of the violence of nativism, xenophobia, and racism, especially as they relate to the Mexican immigrant. There are many windows through which I could approach this topic, but for me the phenomenon of scapegoating best describes what is happening when hatred is directed toward the Mexican immigrant, or any other cultural group, in the United States.

    For those of us who are Christian, we know that Jesus himself stands as the ultimate “scapegoat-hero-messiah”, as he faces his very human pain and mortality…” But, it is the earliest description of the scapegoat in the Hebrew Scriptures that gives us stark clues as to the meaning of the scapegoat as it is used in the context of this paper.

    Then Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live
    goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the people of
    Israel, and all their transgressions, all their sins, putting
    them on the head of the goat, and sending it away in
    the wilderness by someone designated for the task.
    Leviticus 16:21 (NRSV)


    As far back as the earliest primal cultures, the existence of the scapegoat served a useful purpose in the society. The scapegoat represents the society’s efforts to push toward wholeness by splitting-off any negative attributes of its own, and projecting these onto an object, the scapegoat. The Book of Leviticus tells us that the community projected their “iniquities”, “transgressions” and “sins” onto the head of a goat that was then led out to the wilderness, in essence taking with it the shadow side of the community. The consequence of this is that the community itself never needs to look at its own negative attributes such as its greed, slothfulness, self-righteousness, or its propensity to violence, dominance and control. These were things that now belonged to the scapegoat. This example illustrates that it is much simpler for societies to find scapegoats than for them to do the real work of coming into wholeness, which would require that they withdraw their projections from the scapegoat and allow their own negative attributes to come into consciousness. The story in Leviticus helps us to see that when a group is making projections, the projections actually speak to what exists in the group itself, and not to what exists in the scapegoat. Thus, when we see a blog that expresses that members of a certain group are “lowlifes”, “parasites”, or “cowards”, at some level the blogger is talking about himself.

    “It took me awhile to recognize the scapegoating mechanism as it operated in my own life. The clearest example I can give the reader relates to the first time that I lived singly, in housing apart from a convent of sisters. After living alone for a short while I began to notice that I was doing things around the house that I hadn’t recognized before. I noticed that I left cups of stale coffee on the kitchen counter, and stacks of bills on the desk. I failed to establish a routine and stayed up late at night, not wanting to get up in the morning. I had total control of the TV remote, which in any household is a sign of who’s in charge. I was finally free. However, what I ultimately found out about living alone was that if I was unhappy, I didn’t have anyone to blame. In living singly I could no longer have thoughts about my fellow sister such as, “If it wasn’t for her…the house would be clean, the bills would get paid on time, I could stay up as late as I wanted without waking anyone up, etc.” I could no longer project onto her that she was “controlling”, “lazy”, “messy”, and the like. Instead, I had to begin to admit that I was all these things, and I had to integrate these new found facts into my image of myself. It was a very painful process. Needless to say, most individuals and groups avoid doing this kind of work. We all like to think that we are good people beyond repute. It is much easier to find a scapegoat than to confront the negative or shadow side of our individual or group personalities.”

    Myths take jobs away…crime culpability, etc.


    PART III: ACT/ACTUAR

    In the above section on discerning, I have chosen to view immigration through the lens of the phenomenon of scapegoating. In the context of this paper scapegoating is shown to be fueled by the societal ills of nativism, zenophobia, and racism. When we understand how these processes work we are then better able to understand the dilemma of the Mexican immigrant and the struggles he or she has to face in the larger society. For us, this newfound understanding born of “mind and heart”, must now guide our decision-making and hopefully lead us into pastoral action on behalf of the Mexican immigrant. Action is the third part of the three-part conversion process of “see-discern-act”. Without action, the conversion process is incomplete. Seeing and discerning, the first two parts of the process are rendered hollow when there is no action. Below are some examples of pastoral action in behalf of the Mexican immigrant on the part of a community service group named ARISE. Scripture… you must therefore go forth and bear fruit, fruit that will last. “whatsoever you do to the least” “rise up!”

    Modeling

    The impact of scapegoating on new Mexican immigrants affects them most profoundly at the level of self-esteem. Already vulnerable because of the trauma of a journey that has taken them away from family, country of origin, and the familiar, the immigrant is an easy target for groups that have a need to discharge hate, or what we now know to be the shadow material of the group. The new immigrant has neither the forum nor the language to interpret himself/herself to the new culture. Besides that, the immigrant has become a stranger unto him or herself, since the secure anchors they had once known have been ripped away.

    The self-esteem of the new Mexican immigrant is also affected by the punitive law enforcement policies mentioned above in which the Mexican immigrant is profiled or criminalized. Along with this, in their everyday lives they experience exploitation by bosses, invisibility or humiliation in stores, at their childrens’ schools , and in the offices of professionals, as well. The little child of a young immigrant mother who was ill-treated by the receptionist in a doctor’s office inquired of his mother, “Mama, why don’t they like us?”

    When I think of pastoral action that addresses the self esteem of the immigrant, I think about the staff of ARISE, a program in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. ARISE, is a non-profit community service agency that is co-sponsored by two religious communities , and that functions within the Catholic Diocese of Brownsville. The agency sees itself as “neighbors, helping neighbors, in the neighborhood”. The women on the ARISE staff claim that the agency is an organization “of the people, by the people, and for the people” , the “people”, in this case being the new Mexican immigrant. What is notable is that the staff of ARISE work in the neighborhoods where they live. The staff is composed of first generation immigrants who have made their way to the United States with the same concerns, hopes and dreams as their clients. They are women who have broken through their fears and isolation in order to make a healthy adjustment to their new country. Staff members are now either U.S. residents or citizens who hold education as a high value, and who themselves have passed through hours of personal development and training in leadership and community organizing to enhance their work in local neighborhoods. Here, they visit homes, run educational programs, and organize for systemic change. The ARISE staff also work at developing cultural pride, knowing that the Mexican immigrant brings gifts to their new situation, including the values of family and community, the importance of education and celebration, their religious faith, and loyalty to their country.

    Though ARISE is a neighborhood service agency, its workers see themselves as a community of women involved in a mission that takes them beyond the realm of mere social work. Each staff member readily recognizes herself in the new immigrant who comes knocking at her door, since the staff member has herself been on a similar journey. Thus, the staff member with conviction has much hope to offer the new immigrant, who struggles with fear, depression, a sense of isolation, and economic and language issues. The ARISE worker stands as a model and an enlightened witness, a figure who for the new immigrant demonstrates in her very person possibilities for the future, and who offers the challenge to the immigrant that Jesus’ offered to the bent woman of the Gospels, “rise up!”

    Storytelling in a Safe Space

    After a difficult journey to what heretofore was an unknown land, the immigrant finds himself/herself in a state of insecurity, both in his/her surroundings, and in his/her inner life. Indeed, he/her is a stranger in a strange land. It takes trust and courage on a grand scale for him/her to begin to open up to others, to recount the story of his/her journey and his/her life. Yet it is in the telling of his/her story that he/she can begin to release feelings that have perhaps been plaguing him/her since much before the time that he/she left his/her country of origin. She/he does not yet know that the story of his/her crossing is a sacred story that needs to be told and that needs to be honored in its hearing.

    I believe that there are elements in the Mexican culture that contain important inherent kernels of healing that can hold the new immigrant in good stead. I will name two of the elements that I have observed. First of all, I perceive in both the Mexican and Mexican-American the ability to express a wide range of emotions. Whether it is great passion, the depths of despair, the height of celebration, or jealousy and anger, the culture provides permission for expression. I experience this over-against my own Anglo style of politeness, restraint, self-discipline, quieted exuberance, checked spontaneity, controlled suffering and anguish, seriousness, and task orientation. I find that my behavior is notably different when I am with Mexican and Mexican-American friends, in whose company I can let more of myself “hang-out”.

    Along with this range of emotions, a second kernel of healing I have observed in the Mexican culture shows up in group situations. When an individual is telling her story in a group, she is automatically granted whatever time she needs. No one is counting the minutes, or feeling huffy because the individual speaker is not “sharing time” with the rest of the group. Here time is not a commodity that is parceled out on an equal basis, but rather time is opened up, and it can sometimes be open ended. Time is not to restrain or contain, but rather to allow for processes to unfold naturally.

    When I think of the theme of storytelling in a safe space, I again think of the staff of ARISE. ARISE regularly conducts personal development classes for new immigrant women of the colonia communities of the Rio Grande Valley. These offerings provide safe spaces for immigrant women to come together thus breaking through the isolation that is so common in the lives of new immigrant women. In these classes, with the guidance of a staff member, women can both cry their tears, and they can take time to tell their stories. In this process, usually there is a hushedness that takes over the group. Every listener is with the speaker’s story, walking around in it, empathizing with the teller whose story so much parallels their own. Sometimes there are long silences in which the group simply sits in the sacred space constructed by the recounting of the experience. The consequence of the telling is that, no matter what the content of the story, the speaker feels valued, as the group reaches out in acceptance. However, the wisdom of the group knows that the story continues, and that the new immigrant’s journey is not over. The difference is that now there is a community walking with the new immigrant.

    The Use of Ritual and Symbol

    Part of the richness of the Catholic faith is the sacraments that it makes available to believers. However, beyond the seven sacraments that mark significant moments in our journey on earth, there are sacramental moments that occur in ordinary circumstances as points of intersection of the sacred with the divine. I believe these sacramental moments are taking place all the time, especially as I witness the effects of small gestures, occasions, and gatherings that bring healing, wholeness, and reconciliation to souls weathered by life’s inherent struggles. Participation in sacramental moments touch deeply the hearts and minds of the Mexican immigrant, since the Mexican psyche carries within it a deep understanding and need for both ritual and symbol.

    The simplest example of this is the story of Rutila. Rutila was a regular participant in the ARISE programs. Being a great cook, she often helped out with food preparation when there was a big event for the community. A single mom of a large family, Rutila was always giving. One year when the ARISE staff members realized that Rutila’s birthday was coming up, they surprised her with a cake that said, “Feliz Cumpleaños Rutila”. When the staff went to Rutila’s house to sing to her and present her with the cake, Rutila cried and cried. She couldn’t seem to stop crying, until finally she could tell the group that she had never before received a cake on her birthday, much less a cake with her name on it, Rutila. Later the little group sat down with Rutila and her children and shared the cake together. The gathering together, the cake, a symbol of the community’s love for Rutila, and the eating of the cake, brought eucharist, with a small “e” into the life of the community that day, and inherent in that eucharistic moment was healing.

    In a similar vein are the many celebrations that ARISE holds for its fin de ciclo, which is an event designed to celebrate the end of a cycle of classes, such as citizenship, English as a second language, or handicrafts. Here each woman is honored with a certificate of completion and a special dinner is held for the honorees.

    I myself was able to use ritual in a satisfactory way when working at an immigrant shelter on the Mexican side of the border. Upon my arrival at the shelter one morning, the sisters in charge of the shelter signaled to me their concern about a twenty-five year old female immigrant named Perla. Like many immigrants at the shelter, Perla had made the long and harrowing journey from the south of Mexico to its northernmost border with hopes of making entry into the United States. Her desire was to find gainful employment and to be re-united with family members who lived on the USA side. Perla arrived at the shelter only to discover upon phoning back to her village that her maternal grandmother who had raised her had died in the last couple of days. The grandmother hadn’t been sick in the past, so the announcement of her death was a great shock to Perla. There was no effective way that Perla could return to the south for the funeral, which added even more to her grief. For several days she remained depressed and mute. Nothing could console her.

    Before leaving work one day, I asked Perla if she would like some of us to have a special service honoring her grandmother. She said that she would like that, so the following morning I showed up at the shelter early, bringing with me Carmen and Josefina, two of my Mexican friends who were pastoral workers. We invited Perla and the remaining two women staying at the shelter to join us for desayuno at a downtown restaurant. At the restaurant we kept everything light, just visiting and getting to know one another. From the restaurant, we made our way to the central plaza and the main church, where there was an attractive side chapel. Here we spent time together, praying prayers for the dead, sharing scripture, and spending time in silence. Then we invited Perla to the front of the chapel and tell us the story of her grandmother. When Perla had done this, each of us walked to the front to give Perla a blessing and to offer her words of condolence. What we hadn’t known was that people had come in to the chapel and had been sitting behind us. They became part of the service, too. Later, that day I could see Perla smiling, a burden had been lifted.

    The pastoral actions of providing modeling, storytelling in a safe place, and designing rituals and using symbols that are woven into the ordinary lives of immigrant people are simple to do and are not costly. What they require is awareness of the poignant moments when small gestures can bring healing and wholeness to individuals and groups who are at a place of vulnerability as they continue to be immersed in a new land far from their loved ones.

    CONCLUSION

    This paper has focused on the new Mexican immigrant who has come to the United States because of economic hardship. We began this paper with the stories of three immigrants and with information about some current laws, policies, and border security measures that cast the immigrant in the role of criminal. We went on to explore the issues of nativism, xenophobia, and racism as they feed into the overall insidious phenomenon of scapegoating. We then looked at some pastoral responses that church people could make to the plight of the new Mexican immigrant, including but certainly not limited to modeling, allowing a safe space for storytelling, and ritual and symbol. The methodology of see-discern-act was framed as a cycle that can lead the Christian to greater conversion. As we begin to be immersed in the stories of immigrants, and withdraw our preconceptions about him/her, we can begin to allow for a change of mind and heart in our stance toward him/her. A sign that the conversion process is complete is the pastoral action we have taken up on behalf of the immigrant.

    While my readers may not have the opportunity to be in direct contact with Mexican or other new immigrants, I would encourage you to become involved in advocacy and systemic change measures on behalf of immigrants. Here, our church has done an outstanding job in both its documents and its practical information, as well as its action at both the state and national levels.
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    SOURCES

    Book and Periodicals

    Chang, Grace, Disposable Domestics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press, 2000.

    Chavez, Leo R., Latino Threat. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2008

    Colman, Arthur D., Up from Scapegoating: Awakening Consciousness in Groups. Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications, 1995.

    Groody, Daniel G., Border of Death, Valley of Life: An Immigrant Journey of Heart and Spirit. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002.

    Kaufman,Stephen R., M.D., Guided by the Faith of Christ: Seeking to Stop Violence and Scapegoating. Cleveland, Ohio: Vegetarian Advocates Press, 2008.

    Rodriguez, Richard, “What a Wall Won’t Stop,” Viva Mercy Magazine,

    Savant, John J., “Why Would People Migrate?”, America Magazine, October 26, 2009.

    Schrag, Peter, “Unwanted: Immigration and Nativism in America”, Immigration Policy Center, Perspectives, September 2010. www.immigrationpolicy.org

    Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope, A Pastoral Letter Concerning Migration from the Catholic Bishops of Mexico and the United States. Washington, D.C.: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2003

    Websites

    www.justiceforimmigrants.org An official website of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, which features a range of informational and educational materials.

    www.immigrationpolicy.org An excellent series of policy papers called, Perspectives.

    www.reformimmigrationfortexas.org The Reform Immigration for Texas Alliance (RITA)
    A statewide network of community organizations with allies in the business, law enforcement, and religious sectors, dedicated to the support of immigration reform.

    www.splcenter.org Southern Poverty Law Center. One of their tasks is to document statistics and activities of hate groups in the United States.

    www.TXcatholic.org The Texas Catholic Conference, sponsored by the Catholic Bishops of Texas, keeps track of state legislation that impacts various issues, including immigration.

    ***All rights reserved by the Mexican American Catholic College



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              The Planets at 50 - Venus & Mars   
    Note:  Here is part 2 of the continuing story of "The Planets at 50".   This and blogs to follow are related to a set of lectures I gave in June (and am available to do so on again for your group).  I spent the month of June in Europe, highlighted by two presentations on the Isle of Man sponsored by the Astronomical Society on the topic of "50 Years of Planetary Exploration: What Have we Learned?" a presentation that can be given again.  The Isle was beautiful and our hosts wonderful and I had a great time telling this story to students and citizens.   This post is also associated with the similar story set to appear in the next issue of The Planetary Report.  The past 50 years have seen great discoveries but also fundamental revolutions in our understanding of how planets and solar systems work.   The posts today and over the next few months will tell that story.  

    Planets at 50: Part 1

    PART 2: 
    TO VENUS:  DAWN OF A NEW AGE

    The engineers were understandably nervous; they had tried this only 4 weeks earlier.  Missiles had an annoying predilection for disintegrating prematurely.  The twin of the metallic insect on the Florida launch pad had fallen into the Atlantic when tracking and guidance transcription errors (including a missing hyphen or overline) doomed the flight.  Mariner 2 (twin to that ill-fated Mariner 1; in the early days of the Space Age it was prudent to build two in case one was lost) began life as part of NASA's exploration charter but was quickly accelerated in response to the Soviet Union's failed attempt to reach Venus in 1961.


    Mariner 2: Launch and Mission
    Note how many bits of data were returned . . . 

    Nearby Venus was high on the list of targets, so similar in size and composition to Earth, yet a profound mystery.  We knew it was warmer than Earth but how much so remained uncertain.  Despite the high scientific interest and prestige value, Mariner's flight did not, as was also noted at the time, "capture the public's imagination."  The low interest may have been due to Venus' mystery shroud of white but more likely because of the lack of a camera on board.  The impenetrable clouds meant there were no observable surface features on which to hang a credible anthropomorphic concept like the "canals" that made Mars such a powerful stimulant to the imagination.  The clouds thus gave free rein to fantasy, leading to some lurid ideas, captured in paintings, of steaming jungles and large reptiles, bubbling oily wastes, or windblown craggy sand heaps.  In 1962 Venus just wasn't Mars.  Nonetheless, the flight of Mariner 2 counts as one of the seminal accomplishments of the Space Age, challenging engineers, smashing distance records, and ushering in a new age.


    The Venus that never was . . .
    Just one vision of a steamy hot Cretaceous style Venus from the late 1950s.

    Mariner 2 resembled nothing so much as a 16-foot-wide metallic dragonfly, basically a hexagon box with two solar panel wings, antenna, and instruments.  The Atlas bearing Mariner 1 veered off course and was destroyed, but the second Atlas soared nominally (drifting dangerously off-course only briefly) to start Mariner 2 on its 4-month 180 million mile cruise to the cloud-shrouded world on August 27.  The cruise had its share of tense moments, from eventual failure of one of the solar panels to a blown fuse, but engineers and scientists began to hope for success as the limping dragonfly swooped in toward the planet on December 14.


    A flight spare of the Mariner 1/2 spacecraft currently hanging in the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.  You might not notice this small part of history if you don't look up.

    That brightest of sky objects, the Evening and Morning Star familiar to sky watchers, had its first visitor.  There was joy in Mudville (also known as the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena) as coherent telemetry was received that day.  About 60 Mb of data were returned from the mission.  Thats right,60 Mb, but the readings proved Venus to be a hot dry place most unlike Earth, under a dense atmosphere 90 times as heavy as our own and surface temperatures of at least 800°F.  It would be 8 years before we had our first picture from the surface and another 22 years before we had a global map and could unravel the history of our nearby twin, all of which would show a fractured volcanic world not unfitting its hadean surface conditions.  No place to raise your kids, certainly, let alone establish a human colony.


    Venera 4 (1967), first to successfully probe the atmosphere of another world, though its instruments did not survived the descent to the hot crushing atmosphere at the surface of Venus.  Venera 7 would do that in 1970.

    Beyond the scientific breakthrough in our understanding of another celestial body, Mariner 2 showed simply that a long duration robotic flight into deep space could be done.  Long range communications and command and control protocols were proven for the first time.  Everything we have since accomplished in our explorations, from Venera 4 to Voyager, from  Mariner 4 to Curiosity, begins on December 14, 1962, 50 years ago this autumn.

    Part 2b:  Maybe Mars . . . 

    It was now undeniable that Venus was a most inhospitable place, but Mars still beaconed.  It had to wait 2 and 1/2 years for the next close approach to Earth and a viable spacecraft.  Like Mariner 2, the first Mars Mariner followed several failed Soviet attempts to reach Mars, beginning a long and continuing history of russian frustration at the Red planet.  Like Mariner 2, it also succeeded its own twin to Mars (for Mariner 3's protective launch shell failed to open one month before).  Mariner 4 began its pass over Mars on July 14, 1965, and this time there was a camera.

    The fierce orange glow of Mars in the night sky was difficult to ignore.  Its skies after all were clear and the white "icy" polar caps, rust-colored surface and the ethereal ever changing dusky "linear" markings fueled rich if poorly informed speculations.  Even so, the largest telescopes of the time, including the 200-inch Palomar, could not make out geologic features.  This was well before adaptive optics and space telescopes.  Nonetheless, it was possible that Mars was near enough to the Sun and Earth-like enough (including its curiously Earth-like 24.6-hour long day) to be or have once been warm and perhaps wet enough to support life.  This question was a source of intense speculation in the early 20th century and science fiction flourished on it, leading to Orson Well's "War of the Worlds" broadcast of 1938.  Although Mars was looking a little less friendly in 1964 as we began to tease out more data, we were not prepared for what we did find.  Yet the question of life there, both ancient and recent, remains unresolved to this day.  


    The best of Mariner 4 (first Mars image, left; best resolved image, right).
    Effective resolution is 3 to 5 km.

    A grand total of 635 kB worth of data were returned by Mariner 4, required more than week to transmit to Earth, such was the maturity of the instrumentation and deep space telecommunications in 1965.  Other instruments confirmed that the atmosphere was extremely thin, that Mars lacked a magnetic field, and cosmic rays bombarded the surface.  For many the Mariner 4 imaging results were key.  These were the first images of another world from deep space.  And they were discouraging.  The 22 grainy 6-bit images seemed to show only craters, when they showed anything at all.  Gone were canals and green "vegetation" and all the other fantasies of the first half of the 20th century.  Mars now seemed dry, hostile and barren.  Interesting conclusions to draw from modest images of less than 2% of a planet.

    Mariner 6 and 7 arrived in July-August 1969 just a week or so after the Apollo 11 lunar landing.  Together they increased mapping coverage to ~20% of the surface, but in a classic case of restricted perception imaging was planned without any understanding of the planets markings and missed all the interesting features that would make Mars interesting!  Most of what it showed only seemed to reinforce the dried-out Moon-like perception from Mariner 4, but also showed some odd surface "chaos" textures, the importance of which would not be understood until 1972.  Again, no canals . . . 


    Ode to a Lost Bird:  Launch of Mariner 8, May 9, 1971.  

    The first man-made object to orbit another planet (narrowly beating Mars 2), Mariner 9 arrived in November 1971 at Mars to map the entire planet in preparation for the Viking landers planned for later that decade.  This mission marks my first real interests in planetary missions, and I still have the newspaper clippings beginning with the failure of Mariner 8.  The Mariner 9 mission was hastily redesigned to complete both the global mapping and high-reolution - surface-changes tasks of the two birds.

    As the global dust storm that greeted the Soviet and American spacecraft abated, a remarkably complex planet of giant volcanoes and chasms, and, most provocatively, dry river valleys emerged.  Mariner 9 revealed a complex planet that had been geologically active and very wet indeed.  Mars was surprisingly Earth-like after all, or at least had been.  Hopes were rekindled.


    It takes an Orbiter.  To really get at a planet and unravel it, it helps to stay awhile and map it in its full glory, as this Mariner 9 mosaic of channeled areas on Mars demonstrates.  Cassini is paying so many dividends at Saturn for that very reason.

    Hopes were rekindled for the Viking landers, whose dramatic landings in 1976 produced only ambiguous results for biology but dramatically showed us a planet that had been very wet in its distant geological past.  There would be an 17 year gap between Viking's end and the next successful arrival, Mars Global Surveyor and Pathfinder/Sojourner in 1997.  These were followed by a more spacecraft, producing global maps and amazing vistas more astounding than any artist could imagine.


    Pollack?  or Mars?  If you guessed Mars you are correct.  Sometimes the Universe is just plain beautiful, but if you must know, these are layers a few meters thick near the polar region of Mars.

    Terrabytes of data returned from a slew of instruments bring us to today where we have meter-scale mapping from orbit, rovers traversing kilometers, layers of gypsum and other water bearing minerals.  Mars is now the most comprehensively mapped celestial body outside our own.  Despite this, the basic question of life on other worlds remains unanswered but the discoveries at Mars and in the Outer Solar System would radically alter our understanding of its probability.  

    With the successful landing of the MERs and Curiosity on Mars, we see the beginning of real surface exploration of other worlds.  We also saw something perhaps unexpected.  Ordinary citizens came along for the ride.  Millions watched on the WWW, but thousands came out into the street to watch live in Times Square, New York and dozens of places world wide as the vehicle landed.  True, much of that night and the fascination of the wheeled vehicle zipping around the alien landscape was the technological thrill ride of it all.  But it also speaks well of our nation and says that intelligence is not quite dead yet, and that we in this nation do support space exploration  We do want to know what is out there.  With the vast volumes of data yet unexamined (we have much work to do) we may yet begin to understand what happened there while life began here.

    Next Posts:
    Voyager - A Solar System Wide Open
    Milestones
    Modern Mars
    50 Years - What We've Learned (Parts 1-3)
    The Future


              International Levitations & Optical Illusions: Assorted Thoughts on Watching Germany Beat England & Argentina   

    It’s all so gorgeously disorienting. Pleasure comes from the most unexpected sources. Every team is pulling a fast one on us, or really, they’ve been there under our noses the whole time as we allowed ourselves to keep watching ghost versions of them, reflections of who we wanted them to be. I pride myself on not falling prey to stereotypes of national identify, and yet I’ve been as exposed as anyone for holding nonsensical notions. Right now, we can’t trust our eyes.  Or actually we can only trust our eyes, and nothing else. 
    After watching Germany’s last couple of games I have no idea what is real and what I’m creating out of some sort of heady liberation from my preconceived notions and my senses. All I know is we might only have another 90 minutes to watch it happen. So we need to keep our eyes peeled. They’re moving fast; they’ll dummy us all if we’re not careful. As for me, it’s clear I can’t trust myself. I am under various spells and being acted on by various forces. The first opiate: bandwagon fumes.  I’ve always been susceptible, it's the curse of the contrarian. So driven by my own resistance to what is popular that the harder I fight the harder I fall. The spring from my own resistance has a momentum of its own. Perspective is lost. 

    For example: sometimes I am convinced Mesut Ozil is standing still on the pitch. In the middle of play. As Stuart Pearce so adequately points out: “he takes up intelligent positions.” Not he finds space, gets into space, uses space well; with Ozil it’s all about where he seems to wind up. But the thing is-sometimes I don’t see him getting into those spaces. He’s just there. Perching, like a bird, the impish machinery of him planning his next spot. Yes, I think I’ll go with this. Like he’s out collecting worms. And the way he winds up to kick, hops high in the air and then twists his entire body to meet the ball: at some point, the boy is just going to take flight. Though I suppose I'm especially intrigued by Ozil’s hoaxes of stillness since I spent the first two weeks of the World Cup studying the movements of Clint Dempsey, a man who must look like he’s falling down while he’s sound asleep. 
    Oh, god. Do you know who Ozil is like? Ozil is like Edward from “Twilight” (I only saw the first one- I’m assuming he still does that vampire thing in all of them?) He’s in a tree. He’s in a classroom. He’s back in the tree. He’s to the left of the goal, sending Klose a perfect pass from nowhere, black kit disappearing under the stadium lights. 
    My confusion about what I’m seeing is only heightened by the presence of Chancellor Merkel. The invisibility of women- as pundits, fans, even just an audience to sell things to- in mainstream media during this WC has been dispiriting. It’s surreal to see an educated (and powerful) female fan who loves the game as much as any man in the stadium, and for whom football is not just an excuse to be looked at, a walking male fantasy wrapped in a flag. (Note: I’ve thought about writing about Larissa Riquelme, but what can you say? As a woman who loves football and is constantly struggling to be taken seriously, she is my worst fucking nightmare.) During the Argentina game, the camera cut to Merkel’s reaction on every goal: she controlled the vision, and the gaze of the whole stadium. And I’m forced to wonder if I’m looking through her vision when I look at Bastian Schweinsteiger, long the object of Herr Chancellor’s eye. 
    I found notes I had written after the Bayern/Lyon CL game in which I mention that Bayern Munich resembles a 19th century Bavarian Penal Colony team. It embarrassed me even when I wrote it and yet one must admit that the assorted mugs on that team require some sort of macabre, small-minded description. Have I lost my mind? When did Bastian Schweinsteiger become so, well, beautiful? Has he always moved like that? LIke some sort of half lizard half man half horse demon angel? He can not be real. I can’t believe that it was just German stereotyping that kept me from seeing him. Some of it is surely me. But I’m convinced some of it is him, too. 
    Because while some things are a matter of sight, there is nothing subjective about the pleasure of a new footballer becoming great in a big tournament. In many ways my ambivalence to-all-things-country leads me to prefer the quotidian comforts of club football, but for me this emergence is the truly supernatural part about cup competetion. Oh yes, here they come, these vague rhapsodies that fuel a thousand soccer blogs. Yet if we deny ourselves a dumb gush, what’s the point of all the slogging? I've written so much during the World Cup about the ways we use the power of our collective attention for destruction; let me enjoy a rare inverse moment.
    In another piece I wrote about the feeling I have when I’m watching a game intently, that the attention I’m giving it is the engine that causes it to exist. But that description isn’t quite right- it makes it seem like it’s all about me when it’s exactly the opposite; it’s about the giving away of the experience, not the holding close. When a player is as young and full of life as Germany and as improbable, that engine multiplies and a collective goodwill can form around them. 
    The whole world fuels a body and it becomes more than the sum of its parts and skills. Our attention becomes a form, an action, of international levitation, of faith and grace, and through this some of the most beautiful footballing performances have emerged. I mean- think of it- it’s just a body, one body, maybe two, receiving the currents of the world and transforming it into motion. If there is something more beautiful than that- well, is there?

              Rs 5.53 lakh counterfeit currency seized, 2 held   
    Two people were today arrested along with counterfeit currency with a face value of Rs 5.53 lakh at Narsinghgarh Town, police said. On a tip-off, Narsinghgarh-resident Swadesh Malviya and Sehore-native Pritam Verma were arrested from a colony when they had gone to deliver the fake notes. A stolen motorcycle sans number plate, a country-made pistol and a colour printer were seized from them, said Rajgarh Superintendent of Police Himani Khanna. The accused confessed to circulating counterfeit currency in Rajgarh, Sehore, Bhopal and areas bordering neighbouring Rajasthan. Police suspect that the culprits are associated with a bigger gang. Swadesh was also wanted in connection with duping people by executing fake registries and luring them to deposit money in fake loan companies. UNI XC-PS SB SHK 2116
              Translation studies beyond the postcolony   
    edited by Kobus Marais and Ilse Feinauer.. Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing 2017
               Cagebird by Karin Lowachee    
    Yuri Kirov is only a small child when his home colony is destroyed by the aliens and, after a confused evacuation, his family washes up at a barren, remote refugee camp. The kids run half wild in the camp, and eventually Yuri is recruited by a visiting "merchant" ship. Once he goes aboard, he discovers that the ship is manned by pirates.
              A New Way to Self-Publish Articles   
    So there’s this new web site called Associated Content (not to be confused with Associated Press) that allows people to post their articles and possibly sell them to people who are interested. I’ve decided to give it a try to see what happens. I posted an article about the Otway Sound Penguin Colony in Chile. […]
              Unusual Humpback Whale sighting from Patagonia reserve   
    Humpback Whale
    Humpback Whale

    Estancia la Esperanza reserve in Argentinian Patagonia recorded an unusual visitor last month, with repeated sightings of a Humpback Whale from the coast of the reserve.

    Although Southern Right Whales are a frequent sighting from the reserve in summer as they migrate past the Estancia on their way to Península Valdés to meet and breed, Humpback Whales are rarely seen from the reserve coast.

    This individual was seen several times, and exhibited interesting behaviour captured on camera by Fundación Patagonia Natural (FPN) staff: lobtailing, flippering, diving and the ‘peduncle throw’ behaviour unique to humpbacks (pictured right: a reverse breach where the whale’s tail and rear torso are propelled out of the water).

    Southern Sea Lion breeding season

    The waters off the coast of the Estancia are important for another large marine mammal: the Southern Sea Lion, which congregate in a large colony on the beach of the Estancia.

    FPN has reported that the first sea lions have come to the coast, and are about to begin their annual census. Last year, a total of 50 adults were counted over Summer and Autumn but no breeding was recorded.

    More information

    Estancia la Esperanza (meaning Ranch of Hopes) is a reserve protecting the terrestrial and marine species found on the coastal steppe habitat of Patagonia. In addition to monitoring the terrestrial wildlife of the reserve, ranger Adrián Rodriguez monitors the number of Southern Right Whales passing the reserve on their way to the Península Valdés breeding grounds and the Sea Lion colony.

    His salary is supported by World Land Trust’s Keepers of the Wild programme, which supports the reserves land purchase projects have secured by paying the salaries of rangers hired to monitor wildlife and protect the land from threats.

    Donate to Keepers of the Wild »


              Wildlife Watch in Patagonia   
    Southern Right Whale
    Bill and BBC team. Plus guanaco.

    Last week Tour Operator Pura Aventura invited WLT supporters to an evening in homage to the wildlife, landscapes and people of Patagonia. The night was a resounding success, with one lucky audience member walking away with tickets for a holiday in Chilean Patagonia.

    The event featured talks by conservationist and WLT Council member Bill Oddie, BBC producer Tuppence  Stone and travel writer Hugh Sinclair.

    Bill visited the Patagonian Coastal Steppe to film Penguins, Parrots & Whales with a team from the BBC while staying at La Esperanza Wildlife Refuge in 2005. His talk inflamed the audience’s wanderlust: enthralling with footage of an orca sneaking up to shore to snatch a seal pup, and entertaining with jokes about the unusually named birds of the region (tit-tyrants and leaftossers).

    To follow up on the inspirational evening, WLT checks in with the Keeper of the Wild, Adrián Rodriguez, who works for Fundación Patagonia Natural (FPN) monitoring the wildlife of La Esperanza Wildlife Refuge.

    Wildlife Watch

    Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis), declared a ‘National Natural Monument’ by Argentina in 1984, pass the Patagonian coast to mate and breed off Península Valdés. As the whale season begins, Adrián is stationed at Punta Flecha Observatory to conduct a count of whales on their way to the breeding grounds.

    This area is of vital importance to Southern Right Whale conservation, as the mothers choose to raise their calves within the sheltered bay of Golfo Nuevo in the vulnerable first few months of their lives. Monitoring the visiting population is an important part of assessing the condition of the breeding grounds.

    However, it is not just whales being monitored in this area. Once a week during Patagonian sea-lion breeding season, Adrián runs a survey of the South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) colony on the shore of La Esperanza Wildlife Refuge. He was also aided in a census of the Guanaco (Lama guanicoe) on the reserve by two volunteers staying in the Refuge.

    Andean Condor Success Story

    FPN are also celebrating the declaration of the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) as a Natural Monument of the Black River Province, protecting this iconic species which is present from the north to the south of Argentina.

    More information

    Keepers of the Wild badge

    Pura Aventura’s event showed some footage of Tuppence Stone’s BBC documentary Patagonia: Earth’s Secret Paradise, and for those who missed it, clips can be seen here

    To support the conservation work carried out by Ranger Adrian in La Esperanza Wildlife Refuge, donate to Keepers of the Wild.

    Donate to Keepers of the Wild »


              In Patagonia   
    Two young Guanacos.
    Estancia la Esperanza coastline.

    In August 2002 Bernard and Oonagh Segrave-Daly were the first guests to Estancia la Esperanza (Ranch of Hopes Wildlife Refuge). Formerly a farm on the coastal steppe of Patagonia, in 2000 the property was purchased for conservation with funds from World Land Trust. In early 2013, the couple made their seventh visit to Esperanza. The following excerpts from Bernard’s account of their latest trip illustrate just why this corner of Argentina is so very special.

    In the early morning sun, the scent of resinous pine from the scrubby plants is refreshing and stimulates memories of the same smell over our nine years of visiting this remote outpost.

    Immediately outside our guest house, a number of small, tailless, furry rodents scuttle to the safety of a prickly mound of undergrowth.  On our walk to the beach, we encounter a small tribe of Elegant Crested Tinamou (Eudromia elegans) and we are greeted by one of the four dogs of the Estancia and one of the tame Guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    By the shore we sit on the stone bank some 30 or more feet above the receding tide. Through our binoculars we watch several terns diving for their morning breakfast and every strike seems successful. The ever present grebes drift along the coast with the tides and a couple of passing cormorants add to the aquatic variety of seabirds that fly up and down the coast.

    The heads of South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens) bob up and down, curiously watching you watching them. Just one baby sea lion has been born this spring, but the colony has grown to just in excess of 300. Two years ago we counted twice and reached only 125 maximum.

    By early afternoon, while the sun blazes down, the wind direction has changed again. The very deep blue colour of the sea has disappeared and there are now white caps to the waves. As we look back over six previous visits we sense that we are seeing fewer birds and animals. We learn later that with the drought and lack of water on the Estancia there are perhaps only 4,000 Guanacos. So it is not our imagination playing tricks.

    Wild encounters

    Today, we went by vehicle to the very farthest end of the 7,000 hectare estate with José María Musmeci, the Director of Fundación Patagonia Natural, and another volunteer.

    Once out of the car, we began our trek crawling on our bellies across the huge stone bank to get a reasonably close view of the colony of sea lions. They were quite undisturbed by our presence.

    We then had a several minute close encounter with a one-and-a-half metre snake that was excavating a burrow for herself on an earth mound. We passed a prehistoric oyster bed with many thousands of shells of several inches in circumference.

    José María was leisurely telling us the story of rescuing a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) with a broken wing which was resident at the Estancia on our last visit. He thought the bird had nested near the southernmost border of the Estate, and as if on cue two vultures flew over and there was clearly recognition on both sides. After circling a couple of times they moved on. Clearly their lunch was more important than their old rescuer.

    The Estancia has invested in a camera which is triggered by any movement in front of it. So the joy of staff and volunteers was unbounded when at 6.15 pm some weeks ago a puma strolled into the frame and was pictured several times. For several nights there were further shots of both the male and the female puma out hunting, their eyes sparkling in the infra-red camera.

    Perfection of the sky

    There seems a special perfection of the sky last thing at night and first thing in the morning. The lack of pollution and dust in the stillness of the early morning air gives extra clarity to the herds of Guanacos and the first bird song. One morning the cleanness and coolness of the sea water, contrasting with the warm breeze of the very fresh clear air, made an early morning swim irresistible and wonderfully refreshing.

    Having one young male sea lion as a companion made the experience memorable. A southern lapwing screamed overhead to put the final touches to another stunning experience of the Estancia Esperanza.

    We were always taught ‘never say never’. After our 2011 visit we said it would be our final trip to Patagonia. But then we found ourselves yearning to return, and we couldn’t resist. Estancia la Esperanza really is a heavenly place and who knows? Perhaps we shall return again one day.

    More information

    More about WLT's Coastal Steppe Project, Patagonia »

    You can support conservation at Estancia la Esperanza by donating to WLT's Action Fund and specifying Patagonia in the comments box.

    Donate to the Action Fund »

    Celebrating Five Years at Ranch of Hopes (2005) »


              What you ought to know About Selecting a Retirement Present.   
    For example if you have somebody that likes to read books, you can consider the concept of purchasing a book as a retirement present.

    in this manner you'll be certain that the present will really please him and that it'll be truly helpful. Another idea will be to supply a travel voucher to a person that likes to travel. Another thing to go looking for is whether the present is notable or not. A signature frame can really provide just that. This may permit the person to remind of all the nice and not-so-pleasant moment he's been thru during his career. Bee populations in Northern America are in peril of extinction, this is right. The reason behind the precipitous decline in population is still unknown, but the worlds scientists are definitely worried since bees are central to maintaining both ecological balance and maintaining rural production. To gather the nectar and pollen it must survive, bees travel from plant to plant. As they travel, pollen is transferred between flowers, causing the plants to become fertilized and letting them produce fruits and seeds. Apples, peaches, oranges, cucumbers, squashes, and pumpkins, indeed just about all veggies and fruits, rely on bees for pollination. Wild honey bees can't be found in numerous parts of the North America. Known as Colony Collapse Disorder or Vanishing bees syndrome, the systematic community still doesn't know why bee populations are declining, but they are doing have some ideas. Similarly , the employment of insecticides continues to extend and this is also likely one of the factors in the bee decline. For example you may consider purchasing a present according to the pastimes and the interest of the person.
    Here's some more articles about Alps

              New Introduction to CARLOS BULOSAN, THE PHILIPPINES IS IN THE HEART (forthcoming from Ateneo University Press, 2017)   
    INTRODUCTION to Carlos Bulosan's THE PHILIPPINES IS IN THE HEART
     (Ateneo U Press, 2017

    by E. San Juan, Jr.


    The passage of Carlos Bulosan from colonial Philippines to the U.S. metropole marks an axis of multiple historic transitions.  He died at the height of the Cold War, 11 September 1956, the year of the independence of Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco. It was a year after the Bandung Conference of Asian and African leaders, birthplace of the “third world.” It was also the year when Martin Luther King initiated the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, the beginning of the stormy Civil Rights struggles in the United States that transformed the era before September 11, 2001.  In that decade, only about 70,000 Filipinos resided in the U.S., compared to four million today. 
    When Bulosan was born in the Philippines in 1911, two years after the Payne-Aldrich Act of 1909 defined the geopolitical role of the islands as a dependent, peripheral formation, the Philippines was a full-fledged colony of the U.S. empire. First recruited by the Hawaiian plantations and Alaskan canneries, Filipinos (chiefly men) were classified as colonial wards or “nationals,” not immigrants seduced by the American “Dream of Success.” This is a fact ignored by virtually all commentators on Bulosan’s writings, a basic error that leads to peremptorily assuming the neocolonial Philippines today as a fully sovereign nation-state. Without comprehending this asymmetrical relationship, all attempts to interpret and evaluate Filipino cultural expression in the United States, including Bulosan’s, remains flawed and deleterious in influence. It is complicit in the agenda of perpetuating US “Exceptionalism,” then articulated as“Manifest Destiny” under whose  banner over one million natives were killed. Thereafter, the insurrectos were  pacified and disciplined into docile subjects by the rifles and cannons of McKinley’s program of  “Benevolent Assimilation” (Miller 1982). 
    Bulosan arrived in Seattle in 1930, just after the worldwide collapse of finance-capitalism. It was also marked by the founding of the Communist Party of the Philippines whose leaders were all jailed the year after (Richardson 2011;  Saulo 1990). The onset of the “Great Depression” was heralded by the racist vigilante attacks on Filipino farmworkers in Watsonville, California, and Yakima Valley, Washington, in 1928 and 1930. Violence and xenophobia thus greeted Bulosan’s arrival in the promised land of liberty, democracy, and brotherhood. 

    Mapping the Barricades

    On the eve of Pearl Harbor, Bulosan summed up his years of experience as a labor organizer and nomadic journalist, in a letter to a friend: “Yes, I feel like a criminal running away from a crime I did not commit. And the crime is that I am a Filipino in America” (Feria 1960, 199). Rather than being perceived as part of the “yellow horde,” Filipino workers acquired the stigma of troublemakers when they led or participated in mass dissidence. Among these were the January 1920 and September 1924 strikes in Hawaii; in the latter, sixteen workers were killed and one of the organizers, Pablo Manlapit, was deported to the Philippines. In a letter to a friend dated December 7, 1935, Bulosan confessed that “I have become a communist” (Babb 1928-2005).  
    Objective conditions quickly catalyzed the agencies of change. In 1933 and 1934, thousands of Filipino workers in Salinas, Stockton, and Monterey counties formed the Filipino Labor Union and staged several damaging strikes. From the thirties to the forties, Filipinos belonging to the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA), Federated Agricultural Laborers Association, and the International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU) mounted nationwide actions against agribusiness and industrial corporations, protesting corruption, low wages, and degrading labor conditions. The image of the Filipino in the United States in the thirties up to the 1965 grape strike in Delano, Califonia (which led to the founding of the United Farmworkers Union), established the image of this southeast Asian ethnic group as a “disturber of the peace” (to use James Baldwin’s phrase).
    After his ordeal as itinerant field hand in Washington and Oregon, Bulosan joined his brothers Dionisio and Aurelio in Los Angeles. He became friends with Chris Mensalvas, a union organizer of the UCAPAWA. In 1935, Filipinos in the US confronted the threat of deportation by virtue of the Repatriation Act of 1935.  From 1934 to 1937, Bulosan was a publicist for the proletarian resistance. And as editor of The New Tide, a bimonthly worker’s magazine, he entered the circle of such artists as Richard Wright, William Saroyan, John Fante, Paul Robeson, and others.  The radical artist Sanora Babb and her sister Dorothy served as the “life-maintainers” of Bulosan as a patient in the Los Angeles County Hospital from 1936 to 1938, through the years of the Spanish Civil War and the rise of fascism in Europe.  The indefatigable Babb sisters sustained his efforts to educate himself by reading in the Los Angeles Public Library. He absorbed a provocatively intense constellation of ideas through the works of Theodore Dreiser, James Farrell, Pablo Neruda, Nazim Hikmet, John Steinbeck, Maxim Gorky, Agnes Smedley, Lillian Hellman,  Ernest Hemingway, Edgar Snow, and others. His apprenticehip in progressive thinking and dialogue (he reflected later on) “opened all my world of intellectual possibilities—and a grand dream of bettering society for the working man” (San Juan 1994, 256). His return to Seattle as editor of the ILWU 1952 Yearbook, preoccupied in defending the popular nationalist poet Amado V. Hernandez, who was indicted as a communist, and in denouncing the fascist brutalities under the Quirino regime, completed the itinerary of his radicalization (Bulosan 1995).

    Encounter and Discovery

    The defeat of the US and Filipino forces in Bataan and Corregidor catapulted the Philippines into the world’s public consciousness, especially the U.S. audience. The colony offered a space for the exile’s imagined return to native ground. Earlier, a veteran of the Hawaii strikes, Pedro Calosa, returned to Bulosan’s province, Pangasinan, and led the 1931 Tayug uprising vividly recounted in the first half of Bulosan’s America Is in the Heart (AIH). This is often forgotten since most commentators narrowly focus on the Depression episodes (see, for example, the selection in Paul Lauter’s The Heath Anthology of American Literature). During his convalescence from lung-and-kidney operations in the late thirties, Bulosan wrote stories based on Philippine folklore, later assembled in The Laughter of My Father (1944; hereafter The Laughter), a best-seller disseminated to American soldiers during World War II. The stories about Uncle Sator included here (first issued in 1978; hereafter PIH) served as an integral counterpoint to the comic role of the father, a donor/villain function in the morphology of Bulosan’s contrived simulations or adaptations (Propp 1958). 
    The outbreak of World War II provided the moralizing epilogue to the anti-picaresque chronicle of wandering Filipino laborers in Bulosan’s ethnobiography, America Is in the Heart (AIH). It began with a confession of ignorance, unawareness of “the vast social implications of the discrimination against Filipinos.” He surmised that most of his compatriots suffered from “a misconception generated by a confused personal reaction to dynamic social forces.” But for him, “my hunger of the truth had inevitably led me to take an historical attitude” (Bulosan 1946, 144). As part of this endeavor to historicize personal experience, Bulosan edited and collaborated on three more books after The Laughter: Chorus for America (1942), Letter from America (1942), and The Voice of Bataan (1943). Two years later, with Bulosan’s “Freedom from Want” manifesto exhibited in the Federal Building, San Francisco, in 1943, The Laughter was followed by  AIH in 1946. President Quezon offered Bulosan a job in the exiled Commonwealth government (where compatriots like Jose Garcia Villa and Arturo Rotor worked), but he politely declined. Meanwhile, he outlined at the end of AIH his vision encompassing the dying old world and the new world being born “with less sacrifice and agony on the living.”
    Antonio Gramsci (1971) once warned that in between the demise of the old and the emergence of the new, we are confronted with dreadful morbid symptoms. Bulosan wrestled with his monsters in his novel The Cry and the Dedication, written in the last five years of his life. He engaged the problem of change and sudden metamorphosis, of dying in order to be reborn, a traumatic ordeal which also pervades the stories here. Composed in the years after his sojourn in the Los Angeles County Hospital and his years with the ILWU at the height of the McCarthyist witchhunts of the Cold War, these stories form part of his project of regeneration. In January 1950, he wrote to Jose de Los Reyes: “What I am trying to do…is to utilize our common folklore, tradition, and history in line with my socialist thinking…We are pooling our knowledge together for a better understanding of man and his world; not to deify man, but to make him human, that we may see our faults and virtues in him. That is the responsibility of literature and the history of culture”(Feria 1960, 261). Within this ambience of ethico-political concerns, Bulosan articulated the aesthetic rationale of the folkloric renditions of The Laughter a year before his death. This was in response to formalist New Critics who dismissed it as a potboiler selling local color and foisting on an unsuspecting public “the oversimplified image of the Filipino as Peter Pan or as the lovable village idiot, everyman’s eccentric uncle” (Casper  1966, 70). Such a tendentious judgment testifies to the caustic, demystifying impact of  Bulosan’s quasi-Juvenalian, more exactly Menippean, satire.
    Following the wrongheaded fatuous view of Filipinos as immigrants obsessed with the American “Dream of Success,” a postmodern notion is fashionable nowadays to bracket Bulosan as a transnationalist, at best a cosmopolitan or planetary intellectual.  In effect, this diasporic recasting seeks to transcend boundaries and barriers, abandoning the alleged parochialism of his peasant origin and the provincial ethnic heritage so as to fashion some all-embracing, universally cogent work of art. To refute this illicit transmogrification, one may cite as a point of departure Bulosan’s overriding motivation. In a letter prior to his death, he reiterated the politico-economic motivation behind his poetry and fiction. In particular, he reaffirmed his conviction that The Laughter “is not humor; it is satire; it is indictment against an economic system that stifled the growth of the primitive, making him decadent overnight without passing through the various stages of growth and decay. The hidden bitterness in this book is so pronounced in another series of short stories, that the publishers refrained from publishing it for the time being….” (Feria 1960, 273). That time has elapsed, the censor is gone; in front of you, unveiled, is the astute bitterness of the stories that mainstream editors refused. These narratives somehow elude the shock of recognition that satire, with its techniques of burlesque, parody, lampoon, and travesty usually trigger in the empathizing sensibility.
    For the purpose of this brief introduction, I would like to delineate here the elements of a general framework within which the stories can be serviceably understood and appreciated in the context of Bulosan’s predicament and the contingencies of his transcultural milieu. 

    Generic Demarcations

              Northrop Frye, Robert Elliot, and other scholars have theorized the genre of satire as rooted in magic, ritual and the pragmatic articulation of diverse archaic modes of production and reproduction. Its instrumental effect is therapeutic, simultaneously conservative and subversive. Elliot believes that the power of satire, even the sophisticated modern type, inheres in the magical connotations of words and their semantic implications (1960, 282).  Frye categorizes irony and satire as “the mythos of winter”: “Satire is militant irony” which assumes “standards against which the grotesque and absurd are measured… Satire demands at least a token fantasy, a content which the reader recognizes as grotesque, and at least an implicit moral standard” (1957, 223-24).   Often, as in “The Lonesome Mermaid” and the two ghost stories, fantasy and morality coalesce felicitously. 
              The satirist usually strives to arouse contempt on deviations from received norms and traditional sacrosanct beliefs. His sarcastic innuendoes and scornful invectives are designed to register his censure and ridicule of common foibles, vices, and excesses due to human frailty or social anomalies. At times, the satirical protest acts to sublimate and refine indignation against the evils usually observed: cupidity, hypocrisy, avarice, fatuous complacency, gluttony, and so on. Such derisive and caustic rhetoric, no matter how bitter or acerbic, does not trigger outright offense because, as Jonathan Swift noted, “satire is a sort of glass wherein beholders do generally discover everybody’s face but their own” (Cuddon 1979, 602; see Hodgart 1969). This may refer to the genial Horatian style, not to the harsh Juvenalian attack on social syndromes and individual irrationalities. In periods of violent instability and change, the satiric mode becomes difficult to sustain unless exaggerated to the level of hyperbolic lampoon and cynical parody in the style of Petronius’ Satyricon
              Comic absurdities prevail over satiric invectives in Bulosan’s stories. Even in the violence-saturated incidents in “The Way of All Men” and “The Son of Uncle Sator,” the narrator focuses on the comic quality inhering in the mechanical gestures and movements of flat characters (following Henri Bergson’s definition of humor [1960, 49]) associated with the rigid conformism of conduct in hierarchical closed cultures. One encounters a Brechtian alienation-effect in the juxtaposition of illusory belief and discordant reality in scenarios that Bulosan sets up where the Father or Uncle Sator preaches about the virtues of a morality that directly contravene their own burlesqued sordid conduct. This is obvious in “The Wisdom of Uncle Sator,” “The Bandit and the Tax Collctor, “ or “The Homecoming of Uncle Manuel.”  Examples of caricatured speech and grotesque behavior abound in these stories, as well as in The Laughter , especially in the predictable, stereotypical reactions of the main characters. But Bulosan disrupts this pattern, as evinced in the ambivalent and erratic behavior of the central protagonists in “The Angel in Santo Domingo,” “A Servant in the House,” “The Great Lover,” and in the turn of events punctuated by the appearance of  musicians, those Dionysian figures of trumpeters and guitarists interspered among the quarelling fathers, uncles, cousins, etc.  In these occasions, fantasy, the distinctive mode of romance, eclipses the criticism of manners and morals.
              In the comic world of Bulosan’s imagination, the satirizing animus is tempered by the needs of the body and the material welfare of the collective. In “The Son of Uncle Sator,” the first-person narrator claims to “make commentaries on human affairs.” He describes his constituency as “the morally petrified tribe of brigands, thieves, jailbirds, gamblers, inebriates, imbeciles, louts, and liars” (1978, 72). Because of the “ageless naivete” of this tribe, their imbecility is neither tragic nor laughable; rather, it is an unpredictable, mixed world where night and day interpenetrate. This variegated domain is inhabited by hybrids, “ghostly humans” and “humanlike ghosts” (as the stranger observes in “Return of the Amorous Ghost”)—a twilight zone where one is surrounded by enigmatic, supernatural happenings reminiscent of folktales, as in “The Rooster’s Egg, ” “The Angel in Santo Domingo,” and the three ghost stories. It is a world of mercantile/feudal alienation, with farmers-artisans robbed of the value produced by their labor-power, totally fallen into a nihilistic realm of money/commodity-fetishism lorded over by corrupt police and bureaucrat-politicians,  embezzling compradors, gangster hirelings, and assorted criminal opportunists.
              The satirist’s strong libidinal predilection to indulge in romance/fantasy is curbed by Bulosan’s empiricist drive. Passionate carnal experience is paramount.  Gratification of the impetuous appetites supervenes over any particular folly or vice personified by individuals. This is vividly illustrated in the town festivities characterized by the ribald exuberance of drinking/eating, together with sly erotic games that animate every encounter of uncles and aunts, children and parents. The organic body of the folk comprised of carousing, pleasure-loving, sentimental individuals springs to life in the anonymizing revelry. We are initiated into the time/space of carnival that abolishes boundaries between private and public, performers and spectators, destroying the social hierarachies that underlie official culture. Entailed by this construction of a pastoral milieu, sometimes camouflaged by irony or parody, is the translation of the complex totalilty into intelligible elements accessible for problem-solving by the unlettered folk, a paradigm for proletarian art proposed by the codifier of ambiguities, William Empson (1950). A visionary utopian fable lies immanent in the crude naturalist surface of uncouth swindlers and vulgar outlaws. This accords with the essence of all art realized in the simplification of a dense heterogenous reality based on conventions. This induces an epiphany that reveals to us that lived reality is far more complex than any single view of it, just as the manifold of inter-subjective experience is richer than any theorizing of it (Berger 1972). Praxis/communal activity always trumps individualist theorizing founded on Cartesian intuition and egotist speculation.

    Incarnation Poetics

              Analyzing Rabelais’ universe of discourse and its intertextuality, the Russian Mikhail Bakhtin was the first scholar to theorize the carnivalesque motivation and thematics in art. This is a nuanced, historically substantiated rearticulation of Empson’s pastoral genre. Originating from the Roman festival of the saturnalia, the carnival world-outlook stages an inverted order that mockingly challenges the legitimacy of established authority. Its modus operandi is essentially debunking, suspicious, deconstructive. By canceling doctrinaire pieties, it demystifies the customary rules and hieratic norms that define outsiders and insiders, who is acceptable and who is not, thus leveling unequal strata and classes. For Julia Kristeva, the carnivalesque logic of the Bulosan narrative posits a homology between the body, dream, linguistic syntax and structures of desire; it plays with distances, relationships, analogies, non-exclusive oppositions and ambivalences, the structural dyads of carnival: “high and low, birth and agony, food and excrement, praise and curses, laughter and tears” (1986, 48-49).
              Carnival originally re-enacted traditional cults of fertility and rebirth. It celebrated bodily pleasures, foregrounding eating and excreting, taking away the repulsive quality from gluttony, lust, and other libidinal pleasures in the hope that this celebration of vital functions will renew the world. Carnival thus represents the popular force of transformation and renovation, forecasting the advent of a quasi-utopian realm of freedom, spontaneity, and abundance suggested here in scenes of mayhem, convulsive gatherings, and rowdy logomachia, as in the confounding mischief in “The Betrayal of Uncle Soyoc” and “The Betrayal of Uncle Roman.” In this dialogic cosmos, the idea of rupture is dramatized as a modality of revolutionary transformation occurring in the midst of crisis—the transition of the archaic tributary, patrimonial mode of production to a comprador/capitalist-bureaucratic one—a deeply chaotic, disaggregated process of socioeconomic evolution witnessed chiefly in the tortuous history of dependent/peripheral formations.
               Instead of simply illuminating Bulosan’s stories as specimens of satire or stylized theatrical humor, it woud be more instructive to articulate them as examples of carnivalesque discourse in Bakhtin’s dialogic paradigm. We are therefore not confined to simply discriminating between Juvenalian harangue and Horatian sermons. The series revolving around Uncle Sator and his brothers illustrates Bulosan’s use of the populist-anarchist predispositions in folk-culture. In “The Widom of Uncle Sator,” the contrast between the official worship of money (Uncle Sator representing the rentier/comprador mode of production) and the sensuous use-value of the fat hens and suckling pigs paid as fees to the father’s school of music, is sharply drawn: “And the accommodating parents obliged Father willingly, until all their animals and fowls were killed in our kitchen…Uncle Sator kept all the money, of course, because Father was interested only in his stomach. He thought a slaughtered pig was more immediate and important than money in his pocket” (1978, 62). In “The Homecoming of Uncle Manuel,” Uncle Sator himself indulges in culinary fantasies: Uncle Sator’s “mouth watered from describing the imaginary suckling pig, or carabao meat, or whatever it was in his mind. Father’s saliva was dripping down his shirt. His yellow tongue was hanging out of his black mouth, his red eyes popping like guavas” (1978, 92). The bacchanalia goes on until Uncle Manuel finds himself the victim of Uncle Sator’s swindling art, an absurd comic peripeteia. Such situations approximate the target of Menippean satire, namely,  those mental atttitudes (more precisely, ideologies) in which people are “handled in terms of their occupational approach to life as distinct from their social behavior” (Frye 1957, 309).

    Anticipating  Disneyland
              We are imperceptibly ushered into a capsized unmoored world, obliquely alluding to the era of U.S. violent pacification of the islands in rough synchrony with the emergence of turbulent worldwide Depression. With the family disintegrated, uncles and fathers all cheat one another, as though mirroring the antics of Commonwealth politicians squabbling over the Hare Hawes Cutting Act or the Tydings McDuffie Law.  Meanwhile, kindred actors engage in fraudulent gambling, banditry, extortions, blackmailing partners, and bribing their way through the feudal/mercantile jousting for colonial prerogatives. In “A Servant in the House,” while the merrymaking is going on, the servant cleverly plans his own racket. The official Establishment and its patrimonial guardians are travestied by the routine violation of laws and regulations—until panic and pandemonium break out and carnival jouissance takes over.
              Given the absence of limits or their precarious definition, ghosts and angels infiltrate the public realm of civil society. Magical powers and charismatic agents creep into the allegorical, farcical play. In “The Lonesome Mermaid” an,d “The Rooster’s Egg,” the temporal-spatial coordinates are dissolved, offering a glimpse of a parallel antithetical cosmos. Angela, the “Angel in Santo Domingo,” becomes a commodity clamed simultaneously by the priest, the landlord, Mayor, etc. Before she could be sold to a gambler, she disappears—proof that the spirit indeed trumps the letter. In “The Marriage of Cousin Pedro,” we encounter a town where mothers, not fathers, know who their children are. Patriarchy is dethroned, but not in order to put the matriarch in charge, contrary to the theorists of matriarchal/matrilineal ascendancy.  Juxtapositions of the sordid and sublime, the serious and grotesque, are designed to subvert the conventional standard of values and mores. It intends to shatter the obscurantist ceremonies of the priestly castes and empower the pariahs and outcasts. In “The Great Lover,” the polar opposites are cleverly if ambiguously aligned in “the night that lives within and without us.” Social conflict is conveyed through crude or subtle equivocations and thus reduced to futile, aleatory psychomachia: carnivalesque heteroglossia, in Bakhtin’s terminology.
    Uncanny Calculations

               We call attention to Bulosan’s elaboration of the role of the trickster/impersonator and its counterpart, the ghost/mermaid. The magic power of this uncanny protagonist proceeds to defy the antinomy of death and rebirth (for the trickster-artist archetype, see Jung 1969), exemplified by Silent Popo in “The Summer of Beautiful Music,” by Timbucto in “The Son of Uncle Sator,” and the stranger in”The Lonesome Mermaid.” Whenever we confront the incongruous and discrepant, the polarized qualities of the customary and the strange, the harmonious and dissonant, we face the absurd that triggers laughter and/or ironical self-reflection. This conjunction invokes the medieval species of laughter that Rabelais designated as the “social consciousness of all the people,” We experience the flow of time in the festival crowd and marketplace as members of a “continually growing and renewed people. This is why festive folk laughter presents an element of victory not only over supernatural awe over the sacred, over death; it also means the defeat of power, of earthly kings, of the earthly upper classes, of all that oppresses and restricts…Laughter  liberates not only from external censorship but first of all from the great interior censor…It liberates from the fear of the sacred, of prohibitions, of the past, of power. It unveils the material bodily principle in its true meaning. Laughter opened men’s eyes  on that which is new, on the future” (1968, 92, 94).
         The carnivalesque principle accentuating the body, laughter and physical action, is revolutionary par excellence. It is the dialectical method and structure of the folkloric artifices here and in The Laughter. Reconstituted from the mixed genealogy of folk tradition, it exists side by side with the culture it parodies and somehow contains it, hence its ambivalent status. It affords space for eccentricity, arbitrary but normative play, a counter-cultural machinery opposed to the bureaucratic, stratified ideological apparatus comprised of dominant-subordinate poles. But what stands out in the carnivalesque theatrical habitus is the body of the people “aware of its unity in time… It is conscious of its uninterrupted continuity in time, of its relative historic immortality…the uninterrupted continuity of their becoming and the ceaseless metamorphosis of death and renewal” (quoted in Clark and Holquist 1984, 303). The amorphous, perverse image of the carnivalesque body, for Bakhtin, is flesh as the site of becoming or metamorphosis evidenced by changes in its nature through eating, evacuation, sexual intercourse, etc. This ever-renewing corpus is symbolized by Uncle Sator’s “cavernous mouth” as he devours a chicken drumstick while he discusses his last will and testament with his nephew and the mother who prepared the meal (Bulosan 1990, 55). It is embodied in the buoyant and cyclical appearance of Uncle Sator, the father, Orphic musicians, ghosts, and other commedia dell arte personalities on this tropical stage.

    Anatomy of the Wandering Indio

               It is no surprise to find Bulosan’s high esteem of indigenous folklore consonant with Bakhtin’s conceptualization of the carnivalesque anatomy and its mutations. Other stories here demonstrate the discombobulating efficacy of popular music, the Orphic motif of the saturnalia, in “The Power of Music,” “The Summer of Beautiful Music,” etc.  Images, smells, noise concordant and dissonant all indiscriminately blend in a Menippean colloquy that relies more on analogy and a logic of relations rather than on substance and inference, as Kristeva (1986) elaborates this tropological complex in connection with the intertextual novelistic discourse of Dostoevky’s art.  
              Bulosan, of course, was not aware of his contemporary Bakhtin, though Bulosan had read Rabelais, Swift, and perhaps Juvenal, Horace, and so on. In 1941, three years before the publication of The Laughter, Bulosan paid homage to Walt Whitman”s “orphic celebration of the masses, his outlandish but healthy love for the body,” his despising “all unhealthy traditions: the repression of mind and body” (Feria 1960, 200). In 1950, as already cited earlier, Bulosan confessed his writerly urge “to utilize our common folklore, tradition and history in line with my socialist thinking” (Feria 1969, 261). In his 1951 essay “The Growth of Philippine Culture,” he identified the constant revitalization of native culture originally based on a communal economy by Filipino artists returning to “their social roots—the peasantry and the proletariat—and [who] began to weave the threads of their folklore with the national tradition” created by revolutionary heroes like Rizal, Bonifacio, Mabini, Isabelo de los Reyes, and others (1995, 122-23). People, art, nation were indivisible in the forging of Bulosan’s counterhegemonic aesthetics in the service of an ongoing national-democratic transformation during his lifetime and beyond.
              We might recall the origin of this insurgent aesthetics in the essay “How My Stories Were Written” (1995, 109-14). The carnivalesque body in Bulosan’s art first materialized in the vignette about Apo Lacay, the old man from the mountains surrounding the village of Mangusmana, a mythical figure like the sage Lao Tzu. The wisdom of this old storyteller derives from the communal practices of farming, hunting, and diverse craftwork in the political economy of a colonized formation. Its organic scaffold is the natural environment to which the exile will never return, except by remembrance, the reservoir of authentic experience (as Walter Benjamin construed it [1989]). After an unexplained hiatus, Bulosan returns to say goodbye before he departs for America. He tells Apo Lacay that he will serve as oral performer/transmitter of the old man’s tales, the source of the “wisdom of the heart” that guarantees the homecoming of the prodigal son and the body’s regeneration:  “ Then it seemed to me, watching him lost in thought, he had become a little boy again living all the tales he had told us about a vanished race, listening to the gorgeous laughter of men in the midst of abject poverty and tyranny. For that was the time of his childhood, in the age of great distress and calamity in the land, when the fury of an invading race [the United States occupation army] impaled their hearts in the tragic cross of slavery and ignorance.… But this man who had survived them all, surviving a full century of change and now living in the first murmurs of a twilight and the dawn of reason and progress, was the sole surviving witness of the cruelty and dehumanization of man by another man, but whose tales were taken for laughter and the foolish words of a lonely old man who had lived far beyond his time” (1983, 25-26; 1995, 113-14). Remembrance then becomes prophetic, heuristic, rejuvenating.
                After the old storyteller’s death, death as the authorizing seal of narrative truth, Bulosan meditates on the fusion of their utterances, origin dissolving in the reception and sharing of the stories with others everywhere: “And now, in America, writing many years later, I do not exactly know which were the words of the old man of the mountains and which are mine. But they are his tales, as well as mine, so I hope we have written stories that really belong to everyone in that valley beautiful beyond any telling of it” (1983, 26).  This resonates with the theme of the artist’s education and the ironic ethics found in “The Betrayal of Uncle Soyoc”: “Now as I listened to my two uncles, who had run the gamut of human confidences and secrets, who had divested themselves of all illusions and regarded honesty as a sure sign of weakness, I became a man among men without a childhood” (1978, 82). The naive adolescent narrator—Bulosan’s surrogate/double—matures, his spirit armed with the weapon of ironic laughter, convivially participating in life as “a great adventure,” apprehending “the progression of truth” in the midst of entanglements among “beautiful women and gentle men.” 

    Cognitive Resonance

              Ultimately, the burden of the Uncle Sator cycle of stories is the task of the carnivalesque satirist: the demystification of colonial and class domination. It is the destruction of the pastoral mirage of harmonious, self-reconciled village life albeit savagely pacified by generations of U.S. civilizing missionaries. If there is something comic in the situations drawn here, it involves in general the contradiction between the personal (the subugated colonial subaltern) and the universal (the axioms of individual dignity, rationality, life’s sanctity) that does not involve the reader/spectator in suffering or pity. No such involvement occurs because the narrator exercises some power of detachment from what is going on (Potts 1966, 154).  W. H. Auden believes that satire cannot deal with serious evil and suffering such as, for example, the genocidal killing of 1.4 million Filipinos resisting U.S. occupation between 1899 and 1913. Auden asserts that “in public life, the serious evils are so importunate that satire seems trivial and the only suitable kind of attack prophetic denunciation” (1960, 115). Eloquent criticism of racist violence may be found in Bulosan’s AIH, The Cry and the Dedication; in stories like “As Long as the Grass Shall Grow,” “I Would Remember,” in the poems “Waking in the 20th Century,” “Letter in Exile,” and in many personal letters to American friends and Filipino compatriots (Bulosan 1983).
             In the genre of carnivalesque discourse outlined here, these stories include prophetic excoriation of folly as one aspect of satire. Greed, apathy, lust and other symptoms of human depravity are historically linked to commodity-fetishism, the cash nexus, in effect the whole system of capitalist exploitation based on private ownership of social wealth and the elite monopoly of power. From this angle, this cycle of adventures with Uncle Sator and his ilk may be read as the allegory of the destruction of private property (and inherited privilege) represented by the patriarchal surrogate, Uncle Sator and his accessories; or its expropriation for distribution and enjoyment by everyone. At least, the boy dreams of depriving the Uncle of his ill-gotten wealth. 
              We confront this social wealth as the collective body’s members divided and shared by everyone. The scenes of gambling, town festivals, squabbles, and so on, represent the indispensable ceremony of saturnalia, the hours of liberation from toil and the celebration of the community’s liaison with Nature. Extrapolating from the example of Menippean satire, Rabelais, and European folklore, Bakhtin theorized the popular-democratic principle invested in serio-comic art, the unity-in-diversity of mixed genres and styles, as illustrated in Popular-Front art (see Denning 1997)—and in the coalescence of legend, fact, and invention found in The Laughter and in this collection.  

    What Is To Be Done?

               Although Bulosan is now a canonical icon of  multiethnic United States literature, it can be argued that he has not yet been given his due in the public sphere of Filipino intellectual life despite worldwide critical acclaim. This is surely a symptom of neocolonial subordination. In the process of gaining respectable status, however, his radical edge was blunted, his subversive qualities muted in the name of neoliberal multiculturalism. Given the marginalized position of the Filipino diaspora in the U.S., we need to recover the submerged, repressed strand in their history sedimented in Bulosan’s testimonial texts. This book is an attempt to excavate those oppositional, counterhegemonic impulses in his works by re-contextualizing them in our durable anticolonial tradition dating back from the 1896 revolution against Spain and U.S. occupation, the peasant insurrections up to the Huk rebellion, and renewed popular insurgencies during the Cold War up to the present conjuncture. Re-inscribed in its proper historical milieu and geopolitical force-field, Bulosan’s entire body of work acquires a profound contemporary resonance. This is so because Filipinos (in this post-9/11 racialized-fascist polity) have been stigmatized as possible terrorists, suspected of harboring seditious contraband. This evokes again in the collective memory the persecution of union leaders in the Hawaii plantations, California farms, and Seattle wharves during Bulosan’s lifetime, and the resurgent terrorism of the white-supremacist hubris to which they are permanently susceptible. 
              We are engaged today in an anti-postcolonial project of reading Bulosan against the grain, from a rigorous historical-materialist viewpoint affording resources for strategies of resistance and emancipation. A future task for critics and cultural activists anywhere is to figure out how these stories can help us grasp the complex vicissitudes of the Philippines as a contested neocolony of the US empire, even as the worsening crisis of the bankrupt global-capitalist hegemony and its terrorist drones explode into a planetary meltdown, overwhelming both its masters and its predatory caretakers. In the interregnum, let us accept the perennial challenge of this question: Can the awakened “wretched of the earth” in this new millennium still speak truth to power while laughing, and in the carnivalesque insurrection of the  multitudinous body dare overcome the legacy of over a hundred years of imperial barbarism?

    REFERENCES

    Auden, W. H. 1960.  “Notes on the Comic.”  In The Comic in Theory and Practice. Ed. John J. Enck, Elizabeth Forter, and Alvin Whitley.  New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.
    Babb, Sanora.  1928-2005.  Sanora Babb Papers 1928-2005.  Harry Ransom Humanities Center, University of Texas, Austin. Series V.
    Bakhtin, Mikhail.  1968.  Rabelais and His World. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
    Benjamin, Walter.  1989.  “The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nicolai Leskov.”  In Contemporary Critical Theory.  Ed. Dan Latimer.  New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 
    Bulosan, Carlos. 1983.  Bulosan: An Introduction with Selections.  Manila:     National Book Store.
    ——.  1995.   On Becoming Filipino: Selected Writings of Carlos Bulosan, ed.E. San Juan, Jr.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Casper, Leonard.  1966.  New Writing from the Philippines.  Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
    Denning, Michael.  1997.  The Cultural Front.  New York: Verso.
    Elliott, Robert C.  1960.  The Power of Satire.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Feria, Dolores, ed.  1960.  “The Sound of Falling Light—Letters in Exile.”  The Diliman Review (Jan-September):  185-278.
    Freud, Sigmund.  1963.  “Humor.”  In Character and Culture. New York: Collier Books.
    Frye, Northrop.  1957.  Anatomy of Criticism.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Gramsci, Antonio.  1971.  Selections from the Prison Notebooks.  New York: International Publishers.
    Hodgart, Matthew.  1969.  Satire.  New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
    Holquist, Michael and Katerina Clark.  1984.  Mikhail Bakhtin.  Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
    Kristeva, Julia.  1986.  The Kristeva Reader.  New York: Columbia University Press.
    Lauter, Paul, ed. 2006. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. 5th edition. Boston: Heath and Co.
    Miller, Stuart Creighton.  1982.  Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903.  New Haven: Yale University Press. 
    Potts, L.J.  1966.  Comedy.  New York: Capricorn Books.
    Propp, V.  1958.  Morphology of the Folktale.  Bloomington, IND: Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore and Linguistics.
    Richardson, Jim.  2011.  Komunista.  Quezon City: Ateneo University Press.
    San Juan, E.  1994.  “Carlos Bulosan.”  In The American Radical, ed. Mary Jo Buhle, Paul Buehl and Harvey Kaye, 253-59. New York: Routledge.
    ——. 1998.  “Filipinos.”  In Encyclopedia of the American Left, ed. Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas, 224-26.  New York: Oxford University Press.
    Saulo, Alfredo.  1990.  Communism in the Philippines: An Introduction.  Quezon City: Ateneo University Press.






    PRESIDENT RODRIGO DUTERTE’S KILLING FIELDS & PEOPLE’S WAR IN THE 

    PHILIPPINES

    Interview with E. San Juan, Jr. by Andy Piascik..


    1.) Who is President Rodrigo Duterte and who and what does he represent?

    For 22 years, Duterte was mayor of Davao City, the largest urban complex in Mindanao island, Philippines. TIME magazine dubbed him “the Punisher” for allegedly organizing the death-squads that eliminated drug dealers and petty criminals via “extra-judicial killings” (EJK)—no arrests or search warrants were needed, the suspects were liquidated on the spot. That’s the modus operandi today. If Davao City became the safest or most peaceful city in southeast Asia, it was also called “the murder capital” of the Phiippines.

    Drug addiction is rampant in the Philippines. Previous administrations either turned a blind eye or coddled druglords, often police and military officials, infecting poor communities and generations of unemployed and unschooled youth. My relatives in Manila and friends in the provinces have complained that their children have been corrupted by the drug culture in neighborhoods and schools, so that when Duterte ran for president last May, he got 16 million votes (39% of total votes cast), 6.6 million votes ahead of the closest rival, Mar Roxas, a grandson of Manuel Roxas, the first president of the Republic in 1946.  This implies that people want a govt leader who can rid the country of the drug menace.

    2.  News reports described Duterte’s victory as an upset, like Trump’s win over highly favored Hillary Clinton. It seems that voters simply want a change, regardless of the substance of the candidates’ platforms. Is that correct?

    While the U.S. set up the electoral system in the Philippines, the feudal/comprador classes manipulate it so that personalities, not ideology, and bribery determine the outcome. Democracy in the Philippines is actually the rule of the privileged minority of landlords, bureaucrat capitalists, and business partners of foreign mega-corporations (called compradors) over the majority.

    All presidential candidates promise change for the better. In the last two decades, the popular demand has been: get rid of corruption, drugs, rapes, wanton murders, etc. Over 75% of 130 million Filipinos are impoverished, sunk in palpable misery. Consequently, over 12 million have travelled to all continents to earn bare subsistence—about 5,000 OFWs (Overseas Filipino Workers) leave everyday for Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, North America, Europe, etc. 

    Scarce decent jobs, starvation wages for contractual labor, unaffordable housing, lack of adequate medical care and schooling—symptoms of terrible underdevelopment—have pushed millions out of the country, or driven them into the hills and forests to take up arms against an unjust, exploitative system whose military and police are trained and supplied by Washington-Pentagon, IMF-World Bank, and global capitalist powers. The country has been a basket-case in Asia since the Marcos dictatorship in the seventies, outstripped by smaller nation-states like Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, etc.

     Relatively unknown to the MetroManila political milieu, Duterte’s reputation as a scourge of druglords was glamorized to the point that he became a harbinger of change. His slogan was: “Change is coming.” The public responded to this propaganda. Although unlike Roxas and his group, among them the Aquino-Cojuangco clan and Makati (Manila’s Wall Street) corporate moguls, Duterte does not belong to the traditional elite dynasties, his campaign was supported by some of the biggest corporate stakeholders, such as the Floirendo agribusiness, and by billiionaire investors (Uy, Te, Alcantara, Villar) engaged in mining, public utilities, construction with huge government contracts, etc. 

    We cannot underestimate the Marcos family’s contribution, which added to the P375 million that Duterte allegedly spent.  This fact explains why Duterte allowed the controversial burial of the Marcos cadaver in the National Heroes’ Cemetery. Duterte’s father, & other relatives in Cebu, collaborated with the Marcos martial-law regime.

    Duterte thus belongs mainly to a hitherto excluded fraction of the comprador-bureaucrat capitalist class, with links to the patrimonial landlord families. He now serves as a  “populist” front of the parasitic oligarchy that has dominated the class-conflicted order of this dependency since the U.S. direcly ruled the country from 1899 to 1946 as a classic colony, and a pacified neocolony during the Cold War up to now. Duterte’s regime prolongs the moribund structure of colonial institutions and practices that feed off the labor of the peasantry, workers, middle stratum, women, Moros, and the Lumads (indigenous) communities—these last two are now mobilized to oppose this predatory status quo.


    2.) What is your assessment of Duterte’s intent of becoming more independent of the United States and the moves he’s made in that direction thus far?

    This was a burning topic before the US elections, when the Cold War was being revived. Duterte got the cue. His move to invoke his youthful experience with the nationalist movement during his student days was a smart one. Tactically, he beguiled the leaders of BAYAN (the major anti-imperialist legal opposition) and their parliamentary footsoldiers to join him against the lethargic Roxas-Noynoy Aquino fraction of the oligarchy. Obviously he needed symbols of radical change monopolized by BAYAN, which reinforced the outsider image.

    Part of his strategy is to firm up his base in the Mindanao-Visayas elite and consolidate his hold on the ideological State apparatus controlled by holdovers from the previous reactionary administrations. He has been doing this when Obama, the US State Dept., and the UN entered the scene and began scolding him for his murderous method of amplifying EJKs, his jettisoning of the Philippine Constitution’s Bill of Rights and various UN covenants guaranteeing the right to life and due process for all citizens. Karapatan (a human-rights monitoring NGO), church groups, and civil-society associations blasted Duterte for the “brazen impunity” shown by the orgy of police violence and State terrorism.

    Cognizant of those criticisms, Duterte offered to renew peace talks with the National Demorcratic Front Philippines (NDFP) and its military arm, the New People’s Army (NPA) which, up to now, is still stigmatized by the US State Dept. as terrorist. This broke the long stalemate in the peace talks during the Arroyo and NoyNoy Aquino regimes. Duterte made a token release of 18 political prisoners involved in the talks and promised to grant amnesty to 434 jailed dissenters. This was hailed by the local media as constructive and a promising sign of change-maker.

    At the same time, Duterte also made noises about meddlesome US military presence in Mindanao, the annual U.S.-Philippines “Balikatan” exercises, and the US intervention in the China Sea prior to his visit to China and Japan. This triggered heavy media coverage, projecting Duterte as a Latino anti-imperialist crusader like Fidel Castro or Chavez.

    4. For a while, there were rumors of a CIA plot to kill Duterte. When former president Fidel Ramos berated Duterte for his anti-US polemics and withdrew his support, was there a symptom of some crisis in the regime?

    No, it was a calculated publicity technique to divert attention away from the bloody police-vigilante blood bath. Duterte’s complaint was mere grumbling, blowhard gestures of the bully in the hood. His “pivot to China” may have calmed down the turbulent waters of the South China Sea, with the US fleet continuing to maneuver from its bases in Hawaii, Guam, and Okinawa. Obama dismissed Duterte as uncouth, ignorant of diplomatic niceties. Vietnam and Japan rolled out their red carpet to the cursing Leviathan of  what academics designated as “Hobbesian” Philippines.  Poor Hobbes, maybe Machiavelli’s Borgia would have been  the more appropriate analogy.

    Nothing to worry about for Washington and Pentagon.  The US military presence all over the islands, legitimized by the 1947 Mutual Assistance Agreement and the 1951 Philippines-US Mutual Defense Treaty, plus the recent Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) and the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, (EDCA), insure the continued stranglehold of Washington-Pentagon on Duterte’s military, police, and various security agencies.  With Trump’s condoning of Duterte’s “killing fields,” Duterte has proved himself a wily demagogue whose touted popularity, however, is fast eroding on the face of mammoth protests all over the islands, and in the Filipino diaspora around the world.

    5.) Are we likely to see a decrease in the U.S. military presence in the Philippines soon?

    Not at all. First of all, as I already mentioned, all the onerous treaties that subordinate the Philippine State security agencies are safe and stable. Even the Supreme Court and the trial courts follow US protocols, as laid down initially by two well-intentioned civilizing missionaries, Justice George Malcolm and anthropologist David Barrows.  Legal scholar Eric A. San Juan  has clearly documented this fact in a recent essay, “Cultural Jurisprudence” (Asian Pacific Law & Policy Journal, 2013). In short, we have been thoroughly Americanized according to the racialized, utilitarian bourgeoise standards of the industrialized metropole.

    Of course, the entire ideological state apparatus, including the military- police, court and prison system, was systematically crafted by the U.S. colonial administrators for surveillance and repression of those unruly natives, as proven by Prof. Alfred McCoy’s research, Policing America’s Empire. Incidentally, Prof McCoy has also documented the role of the pro-U.S. military in the People Power revolt against Marcos in 1986 and the subsequent coups against Corazon Aquino marked by the assassination of radical militants Rolando Olalia and Lean Alejandro.

    Duterte’s cabinet reflects the conjunctural alignment of class forces in society today. Vice-president Leni Robredo represents the Roxas-Aquino oligarchy which (except for Robredo, whose victory is now challenged by Ferdinand Marcos Jr., Duterte’s patron) lost the May elections.  Except for three progressive ministers, all the officials in Duterte’s Cabinet are pro-US, chiefly the Secretary of Defense General Delfin Lorenzana and the Foreign Affairs Secretary Alfredo Yasay. 

    More revealing of Duterte’s retrograde bent is the newly appointed Chief of Staff of the AFP (Armed Forces of the Philippines) Eduardo Ano, the notorious architect of summary killings and abductions of activists in the last decade. He is the prime suspect in the kidnapping of activist Jonas Burgos, among others. The party-list youth group KABATAAN called Duterte’s appointment of this blood-stained general a signal for more massacres of civilians, forced disappearances of critics, and military occupation of the countryside. This is in pursuit of US-inspired counterinsurgency schemes launched from the time of President Corazon Aquino and intensified by the Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo and Noynoy Aquino regimes.

    Like General Fidel Ramos, who succeded Corazon Aquino, all the military and police officials in the Philippines follow U.S.-ordained training, ideological indoctrination, and political goals. Their logistics, weaponry and operating procedures are transplanted wholesale from the Pentagon and US State Dept., following treaty regulations.  Military aid to the Philippines rose during the Carter and Reagan administrations in support of the beleaguered martial-law Marcos regime. From 2010 to 2015, the US military aid totalled $183.4 million, aside from other numerous training and diplomatic exchanges, for example, the active presence of CIA and FBI agents interrogating prisoners at Camp Crame police headquarters.

    Given the masssive archive of treaties, ideological control, customary habits, and various diplomatic constraints, only a radical systemic change can cut off U.S. stranglehold on this neocolony. At least, that’s a first step in changing people’s minds, dreams, and hopes.

    6.  Will President-elect Trump water down Obama’s “Asian pivot” in view of his isolationist impulse, instead of allowing Duterte to assert a more “independent” foreign policy?

    That remains to be seen. As of now, there is no real sign of a foreign invasion from China or anywhere else—it’s the U.S. that has re-invaded several times. There’s no sign of a brewing confrontation in the South China Sea today. The threat to the global capitalist system comes from the masses of oppressed workers and peasants, women, Lumads, and especially the formidable forces of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, which Duterte has to address by diplomatic means before long. From Marcos up to Noynoy Aquino, for over four decades now, the Moro people have resisted total subjugation and genocide. It would be foolish, if not suicidal, for Duterte to persist implementing a militaristic approach—unless the U.S. (via his generals) needs to dispose of surplus weapons following the imperatives of the profiteering military-industrial complex. 

    For all his braggadocio and macho exhibitionism, Duterte is unable to halt the attacks of the dwindling Abu Sayyaf group, the al-Qaeda-inspired gang of kidnap-for-ransom Moros in Basilan and Sulu.  Like drug addiction, the Abu Sayyaf is a symptom of a deep and widespread social and political cancer in society. Studies have shown that its followers have been paid and subsidized by local politicians, military officials, businessmen, and even by U.S. undercover agents. Only a radical transformation of class-race relations, of the hierarchy of power linked to property and economic opportunities, can resolve the centuries-long grievances of the BangsaMoro peoples.

    7. ) Will you address Duterte’s crackdown on drug dealing and drug use, the one thing about him people in the U.S. are likely to have heard about?

    This is probably the only issue that preoccupies the infotainment industry eager for high ratings/profits.  The international media  (e.g.,Telesur, Al-Jazeera, UK’s Guardian, CNN worldwide) does not allow a day to pass without headlining or commenting on the new “killing fields” in the Philippines. The New York Times, Dec. 7 issue, devoted a long elaborate video/print special to this topic, in English and in Filipino(in YOUTUBE), entitled  “They are Slaughtering Us Like Animals.” This equals in visual power the TIME report “The Killing Season: Inside Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s War on Drugs” (October 10) that provoked Duterte’s wrath. Harper’s, The Atlantic, The New Yorker, and social media have blanketed the atmosphere with Duterte’s EJK performance.

    Right now, however, reports of Russian meddling in the US elections have marginalized Duterte’s antics, overshadowing even the horrible war in Syria, Yemen and Afghanistan. We might have a reprieve on the carnage in that remote outpost of the Empire.

    The New York Times reporter Daniel Berehulak counted 54 victims of police raids in the 35 days he accompanied the guardians of law-and-order in the urban complex of MetroManila.

    Filipino addicts and small-time pushers inhabit impoverished squatter areas in suburban Caloocan, Pandacan, Tondo, outside the gated communities of the rich in Makati or Forbes Park.  As of now, the total victims of police and vigilante violence of Oplan Tokhang (the rubric for the drug war) has reached 5,800 suspects killed: 2000 by the police, the rest by vigilante or paramilitary groups.  According to the Philippine National Police (PNP) headquarters, there has been 35,600 arrests that netted 727,600 users and 56,500 pushers.  Duterte himself initially said he will kill another 30,000 enough to fill the waters of Manila Bay and to make funeral parlors thrive. This represents a new level of ruthlessness that has converted the country into “a macabre house of mourning.”

    Most of the victims are part of the vulnerable, marginalized sectors of society. Curtailing their basic rights to a life of dignity,  denying them due process and equal treatment under the law, will surely not solve addiction. Everyone recognizes that Duterte’s plan is an insane program of solving a perennial socio-economic malady. Scientific studies have shown that drug addiction springs from family and social conditions, contingent on variable historical factors. Only education in healthcare, a caring and mutually supportive social environment, as well as support from government and health agencies, can reduce the havoc wrought by this epidemic. Not by stifling human lives, no matter how damaged or dysfunctional. But as we’ve remarked, the hegemnic norms of a class-divided society does not allow this consensus to prevail.

    8. So there is another motive or underlying purpose behind this terrible war against drugs?

    Surely there is a larger political intent: dividing your enemy, splitting communities, demoralizing the angry citizenry.  To some degree the climate of fear and terror has sown animosities among members of the middle class, and incited antagonisms among the lumpen and ordinary citizens toward the relatively well-off and those who welcome authoritarian policies and security in exchange for liberties. Meanwhile, the police rides roughshod over everyone, and so far there is no sustained legislative or court opposition to the relentless executive coercive power behind this unconscionable outrage.

    Karapatan chairperson Tinay Palabay has acutely seen through the smokescreen of this drug campaign: the State’s program to pursue counterinsurgency under cover of a hitherto well-meaning campaign. The AFP has labelled national-democratic militants as drug suspects, such as the case of anti-mining activist Joselito Pasaporte of Compostela Valley, Davao.

    Under cover of the drug war, Oplan Bayanihan, the counter-insurgency low-intensity war of the AFP, proceeds  in the form of civic action-peace and development programs. During Duterte’s 100-days in office, Palabay’s group has documented 16 victims of political murder, 12 frustrated killings, two cases of torture, and nine victims of illegal arrest and detentions, mostly involving indigenous peoples in Sumilao, Bukidnon, and farmers massacred in Laur, Nueva Ecija.  Today, Dec. 12, the NDFP has documented 18 activists killed, 20 survived from attempted assassination, and 13,000 persons victimized by forced evacuations from their homes. Consider also 14,000 cases of schools, clinics, chapels and civilian infrastructure being used as military barracks in violation of peace agreements on respect for human rights signed by both the government and the revolutionary NDFP.

    Irked by Karapatan, Duterte has vowed to kill all human rights activists. His agents are already doing their best to sabotage and abort the peace talks.  If he dares to carry out this pompous threat, he might drastically shorten his own tenure and stimulate the opposite of what he wants: mass fury against tyrannical rule and police-state barbarism.

    9.) What is the state of the revolutionary armed struggle that has been going on in its modern form since 1969?

    As of last week, the revolutionary elan has peaked with huge nationwide mass demonstrations against Duterte’s decision to allow the burial of Marcos in the National Heroes Cemetery. This has politicized millenials and a whole generation otherwise ignorant of the horrendous suffering of the people during the Marcos dictatorship. It has mobilized anew the middle strata of students, professionals, workers, women, urban poor, as well as Lumads, Moros, and the peasantry who constitute the majority of the citizenry. The anti-Marcos-dictatorship resurgence has diminished Duterte’s popularity, exploding the myth of his supposed incorruptibility and pro-change posture. It’s more of the same, and even worse.

    It’s a mixed picture that needs to be viewed from a historical-dialectical perspective. While the size of the NPA has declined from about 25,000-30,000 fully armed guerillas in the 1980s to less than 15,000 today, its influence has increased several times. This is due to deteriorating socioeconomic conditions since the overthrow of the Marcos dictatorship. Thanks also to the immiseration of workers’ lives and the pain inflicted by the vicious rampage of the military and police in the countryside. Large areas in Mindanao, Luzon and the Visayas are under the sway of partisan units of the NPA. Meanwhile, the MILF continues to preserve and defend its liberated zones from AFP incursions. 

    Meanwhile, the character of people’s war has changed in its quality and direction.  The shift to political and diplomatic tactics within the strategy of protracted war (following Mao’s teaching) has made tremendous gains in organizing women, students, urban poor, and Lumads. 

    Various cultural and social formations engage in pedagogical and agitational campaigns to expose the chicanery and deception of the Duterte regime. Not a single perpetrator of human-rights violations has been arrested and punished, such as the soldiers guilty of the Lianga and Paquibato massares, the murders of personalities such as Romeo Capala, Fernando Baldomero, Fr. Fausto Tentorio, William Geertman, Leonardo Co, Juvy Capion, Rebelyn Pitao, Emerito Samarca, and hundreds more.  Meanwhile General Jovito Palparan, who murdered many activists, continue to enjoy army custody instead of regular civilian detention. The scandalous “culture of impunity” is flourishing in the killing fields of the tropical neocolony.

    Many disappeared activists (among them, Jonas Burgos, Sherlyn Cadapan, Karen Empeno, Luisa Dominado-Posa, and others) have not been accounted for by the State, while martial law victims and their famiies have not been idemnified. All these existing anomalies may explain the belief that given the corrupt bureaucracy and justice-system, the only feasible alternative is to join the armed struggle against the rotten, inhuman system. This is why the communist-led insurgency cannot be defeated, given its deep roots in the 1896 revolution against Spanish tyranny and the resistance against U.S. imperial aggression from 1899 up to the present.

    10.) What is your assessment of Duterte’s overture to the National Democratic Front of the Philippines and the Bangsamoro insurgency?

    As I noted earlier, Duterte’s overture was hailed as a positive step to solve a durable, national-democratic insurgency dating back to the sixties, when the Communist Party of the Philippines was re-organized and the NPA founded. The peace talks began with Corazon Aquino’s recognition of the role played by the underground resistance in overthrowing Marcos and installing her.  Similarly, Duterte implicitly recognized the political traction of the left-wing representatives in Congress in the last few years. While Duterte welcomed the unilateral ceasefire declaration of the NDFP, lately he declared that he would not grant amnesty nor release any more prisoners unless the NDFP stop fighting and submit to the government’s dictates. The severely punished prisoners are now pawns in Duterte’s gambit to coopt the subversives.  Duterte’s mandate has been changed to: One step forward, two steps backwad.

    Duterte allows his military and police to terrorize the citizenry.  No substantive reform of those decadent institutions has been carried out. Criminalization of political activities still continues with the AFP arresting Lumad teacher Amelia Pond and peace advocate John Maniquez, charging them with murder, illegal possession of firearms, etc.—the usual alibi of detaining activists which proved utterly barbaric in the case of the Morong 45 during Macapagal-Arroyo’s tenure. Rape, torture, robbery, threat of assassination, and warrantless arrest of innocent civilians remain the State’s formula for safeguarding peace and order in society.

    No tangible step has been made to seriously confront the Bangsamoro insurgency—unless Duterte’s attempt to cement his friendship with Nur Misuari, leader of the other Moro group, the Moro National Liberation Front, is a tactic to divide the enemy. That may be his Achilles’ heel.

    On this arena of diverse antagonisms, with fierce class war raging all over the country, Duterte finds himself in dire straits. Sooner or later, he will be compelled to either defy the pro-U.S. imperialist hierarchy of the AFP and the fascist PNP if he is sincere in challenging the status quo, or suppress a rebellion from within his ranks. He has to reckon also with the opposition of the more entrenched, diehard cabal of the Ayalas, Cojuanco-Aquino, the comprador owners of malls and export industries, as well as the traditional warlords and semifeudal dynasties that depend on U.S. moral and financial support. That will be the day when Duterte’s fate as “Punisher” will be decided.  Meanwhile, the struggle for national liberation and social justice continues, despite the trumped-up charges inficted on anyone denouncing Duterte and his friend, president-elect Donald Trump.—#

    ____________

    E, San Juan is professorial lecturer at Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Manila, and author of recent books US Imperialism and Revolution in the Philippines, In the Wake of Terror, Between Empire and Insurgency, and Working Through the Contradictions. He was previously a fellow of the W.B.Du Bois Institute, Harvard University, and the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, Austin; and emeritus professor of Ethnic Studies, Comparative Literature, and English.


    Andy Piascik writes for Z, Znet and many other publictions and websites. His novel In Motion was published earlier this year by Sunshine Publishing (www.sunshinepublishing.org)

              Foreword to E. San Juan, Carlos Bulosan: Revolutionary Filipino Writer in the U.S. (Peter Lang, 2017)   

    FOREWORD

    by Peter McLaren


              Filipinos living in the United States today, over four million, comprise the largest Asian group originating from one country, the Philippines. When the U.S. defeated Spain in 1898 and annexed the islands as its first imperial acquisition, it had to suppress the native army of the revolutionary Republic which had already defeated the Spanish rulers. The Filipino-American War lasted up to 1913, with 1.4 Filipinos sacrificed for McKinley’s “Benevolent Assimilation” policy. The Philippines was the first and only Asian colony of the United States, and then after 1946 virtually a neocolony up to now. Thus, when Filipinos arrived in 1906 in Hawaii, they were colonial wards, or “nationals,” not immigrants, who distinguished themselves in militant worker organizing and union strikes, a tradition of solidarity with multiethnic communities that endured up to the founding of the United Farmworkers Union in the 1960s. Agribusiness warned the public of those dangerous “Flips” prone to go amok.

    Carlos Bulosan, now a central figure in Asian American history, is studied for his classic quasi-autobiography, America Is in the Heart, published in 1946, the same year the Philippines was granted nominal independence after World War II. He grew up in a society dominated by feudal landlords and comprador bureaucrats that inculcated ideals of democracy and equality under American tutelage.  Landing in Seattle in 1930, at the height of the Depression, he experienced the racist violence that his compatriots were suffering from the canneries in Alaska and Seattle to the farms in Oregon and California.  This shock of recognition produced a Du-Boisean “double-consciousness” in the naive romantic sensibility of the peasant-worker initiated into a world of alienated labor and class-racial antagonisms. His education pursued a dialectical process of painful ordeals and agonizing reflections, a metanarrative fusing realistic judgment and moral distancing.  The young Bulosan shared the common experiences of multiethnic migrant workers and participated in vibrant leftwing circles of cultural activists (including Paul Robeson, John Fante, William Saroyan, Sanora Babb, among others) that sustained and encouraged him to memorialize their struggles in an impressive body of novels, poems, stories, essays, including the manifesto “If You Want to Know What We Are,” published in 1940 by the Philippine Writers League the last stanza of which reads:

    We are the vision and the star, the quietus of pain;
    we are the terminals of inquisition, the hiatuses
    of a new crusade; we are the subterranean subways
    of suffering; we are the will of dignities;
    we are the living testament of a flowering race.
    If you want to know what we are—WE ARE REVOLUTION!

    Summing up that episode of his life before the war, Bulosan confessed in a letter to a friend in April 1941: “I feel like a criminal running away from a crime I did not commit. And the crime is that I am a Filipino in America.” Recently, FBI files on Bulosan’s life from 1946 to 1956 (the year he died) were released, proving that he was under government surveillance as a suspected member of the U.S. Communist Party. Among the documents shared in 1951 between Philippine and US agencies was a confiscated letter signed by Bulosan to one of the Huk leaders. The news report singled out this statement: “I like to extend my congratulations to you through Amado [V. Hernandez, the nationalist poet-union leader, with whom San Juan collaborated in editing and translating his poems], whose presence in America cemented the progressive spirit of peoples on this continent and in that island, with the fond hope that I will be able to put all our efforts into a big book for the world.” The “big book” he referred to is the novel The Cry and the Dedication, clearly inspired by Luis Taruc’s autobiography, Born of the People..
    Bulosan was already a popular-democratic artist after the appearance of Chorus for America (1942), The Voice of Bataan (1943), and the widely circulated The Laughter of My Father (1944). His stories and poems appeared in prestigious magazines such as The New Yorker, Poetry, Saturday Review of Literature, Harper’s Bazaar, and Town and Country. Once adopted as a canonical author in the U.S. academy from the eighties on, Bulosan’s radical edge was blunted, his oppositional tendencies sanitized in the service of a model-minority myth. He was sacrificed to the assimilationist altar of “Americanism.” No one today is afraid of reading The Cry and the Dedication, or Bulosan’s powerful Popular Front testimonios praised by Michael Denning and Filipino progressive scholars. But in this neoliberal marketplace, Bulosan is dismissed as an obsolete “Marxist” without credibility, and so it is usless to retrieve or recuperate other aporetic texts devoid of relevance to a changed lifeworld of postcolonial intertextuality and hybrid cosmopolitanism. We are urged to move on from the end of ideology to the end of history, and enjoy the blessings of chic transnationalism.
    Given the resurgent anti-immigrant, white-supremacist wave under the Trump presidency, and the still subjugated character of the Filipino diaspora here and worldwide, we need to recover the submerged insurrectionary impulses in Bulosan’s discourse. San Juan’s book is such an endeavor. Continuing his first project in 1972 on surveying Bulosan’s extant limited oeuvre, this volume gathers four decades of striving to excavate those seditious strands in the texts by re-contextualizing them, first, in the anticolonial revolutionary movement of Filipinos from the 1896 revolution to the folk insurgencies of the thirties and the national-democratic rebellion of the fifties and sixties; and, second, in the popular-front movement during the Depression up to the McCarthy witchhunting hysteria during the Cold War and the post-9/11 racist terror. Such calibration of the writer’s trajectory may not resolve all the contradictions that reflect the colonial predicament, but it can reveal complex, hidden nuances susceptible to historicized intertextual elucidation. A recalculation of critical investments is in order. Re-situated in this geopolitical milieu, Bulosan’s entire body of work acquires a contemporary resonance that registers an unprecedented conjuncture from the 1999 killing of postal worker Joseph Ileto by an Aryan Nations member to the stigmatization of “undocumented” Filipinos as suspect terrorists after September 11, 2001, and their forced mass deportation.

         San Juan’s recent research in the Sanora Babb papers at the Harry Ransom Center, Austin, Texas, confirmed Bulosan’s leftist sympathies. It also clarified the nature of the crisis triggered by the sudden shift of life-experience from a family-centered rural setting to an anomic milieu of wandering sellers of alienated labor-power. Although Bulosan’s FBI files are bound to arouse new interest in his career, it should not detract from the fact that it was the young generation of Filipino activists in the Civil Rights struggles of the 1960-1970 decade who discovered his forgotten work. The May 1979 issue of AmerAsia Journal, edited by E. San Juan, Jr. and Russell Leong, was the first to collect his scattered texts, in response to the political mobilization of students and farmworkers in the Filipino-led 1965-70 Delano grape strike and the nationwide mobilization against the U.S.-supported Marcos dictatorship (1972-1986). Bulosan’s work energized an entire generation to re-connect with their parents’ homeland, revitalize their “roots,” and renew Bulosan’s dream of fulfilling the exile’s return in working for a just, more democratic and equal relation between the neocolonized Philippines and the United States. 

    We have entered a new millennium of globalized war and ecological meltdown under the reign of “disaster capitalism.” The election of Donald Trump signals a crisis of hegemony and legitimacy for the current transnationalist neoliberal order. The Trump phenomenon is not an idiosyncratic spectacle and set of conditions witnessed only in the United States. Similar conditions—attacks on elements of neoliberal capitalism, a triumphalist move towards economic nationalism, nativism, misogyny,a deepening racism, environmental catastrophe and virulent mobilizations against immigrants—are manifesting themselves worldwide in countries that define themselves as democracies.
    While some observers see Trump’s political rhetoric of “America First” as a sign that neoliberalism is dead, others see it as corporate fascism or more intense privatization following the logic of the capitalist mode of production. Citizens fail to grasp the inherently rapacious and predatory nature of neoliberal capitalism becase of the media and educational system that I have analyzed and criticized in my Pedagogy of Insurrection: From Resurrection to Revolution.
    In this time of danger, what we need is an anti-neoliberalism movement with a long-range plan for creating a viable alternative to capitalism. What we can’t do is sink into a mournful resignation that history will continue to move backwards as it seems to be doing in the present where we could soon be facing as a planetary community levels of biolence and destruction never before experienced in history.  Toward this effort, the scholarship of E. San Juan, Jr. has provided some of the most penetrating and provocative analyses of world-historical problems, as shown in his recent books, Working Through the Contradictions, In the Wake of Terror, and his path-breaking essay on “Peirce/Marx: Project for a Dialogue between Pragmatism and Marxism.”  
    With his substantial contribution to the humanities and cultural studies (discussed in the e-journal Kritika Kultura), I consider San Juan as one of the leading public intellectuals in the United States. His magisterial engagement with Bulosan is of the utmost importance today precisely because we believe that all human beings, like Bulosan and his compatriots, have the potential for critical-autonomous protagonistic agency. We have the potential to transform the world together. But we need to educate that potential critically and according to the politics of liberation grounded in a philosophy of praxis.  San Juan reminds us of those times when American workers were united across racial lines in socialist struggles for radical change, among them the leftwing Populist Movement of the 1890s, the industrial union movement of the 1930s, the Black workers movement and the strikes by auto workers in the 1970s. We should also look beyond the borders of the United States to establish solidarity with other peoples’ organizations fighting the perils of capitalism across racial, national, gender, and geographic lines. San Juan’s book is a timely contribution to a historical-materialist appreciation of the work of a writer who crossed those lines. combating officially promoted “humanitarian interventionism” profiting from the commodified labor of the millions whom Frantz Fanon called “the wretched of the earth.” 

    Reminiscent of James Joyce, Bulosan created the conscience of his community of proletarianized multitudes. His texts serve today as weapons in the struggle for liberation from the burden of an exploitative society of class warfare, and for the construction of a new just, convivial world in which (to quote Marx and Engels) “the development of each is the condition for the free development of all.”—##


              BANDIDO RAIDS FROM THE PHILIPPINE BOONDOCKS   
    ANTI-EMPIRE “BANDIDO” RAIDS FROM THE BOONDOCKS


    by E. SAN JUAN, Jr.,   

    Convert the island of Samar into “a howling wilderness.”  General Jacob Smith ordered his troops in revenge for the ambush of fifty-four soldiers by Filipino revolutionaries in September 1901. After the carnage, three bells from the Balangiga Church were looted as war trophies. Few in the U.S. know this. Nor would they have any clue about the 1913 massacre of thousands of Muslim women, men and children resisting General Pershing’s army in Mindanao where President Rodrigo Duterte today resides.

    Addressing this dire amnesia afflicting the public, Duterte began the task of invoking the accursed past. He assumed the role of oral tribune, with prophetic expletives. Like the guerillas of Generals Lukban and Malvar who retreated to the  mountains (called “boondocks” by American pursuers from the Tagalog “bundok,” mountain) and condemned as “bandidos,” Duterte seems to be performing the task of reclaiming the collective dignity of the heathens— eulogized by Rudyard Kipling, at the start of the Filipino-American War (1899-1913) in February 1899, as “the white men’s burden.” 

    Neocolonial Blues

    At least 1.4 million Filipinos died from the President McKinley’s scorched-earth policy. His armed missionaries were notorious for Vietnam-style “hamletting.” They also practised the “water-cure,” or “water-boarding,” torture now legitimized in a genocidal war of terror (Iraq, Afghanistan) that recalls the ruthless suppression of Native American tribes and dehumanization of African slaves in the westward march of the “civilizing Krag” to the Chinese market. 

    U.S.  “tutelage” served as a laboratory for crafting methods of surveillance, “brain-washing,” propaganda, and other modes of covert and overt pacification. Mass arrests of dissidents, torture and assassination of “bandits” protesting landlord abuses and bureaucratic corruption led to large-scale killing of peasants and workers in numerous Colorum and Sakdalista uprisings. Today the struggle at Standing Rock and Black-Lives-Matter are timely reminders of that “first Vietnam.” This pattern of racialized class/national oppression via elections and disciplinary pedagogy culminated in the Cold War apparatus devised by CIA agent Edward Lansdale and Magsaysay’s technocrats  to suppress the Huk rebellion. 

    Mournless Melancholia

    The Cold-War Leviathan continued to operate in the savage bloodletting during the Marcos dictatorship. The Marcos family were rescued by President Reagan. After Marcos’ death, the family and the despot’s cadaver were allowed by Fidel Ramos to return. Given the re-installment of the feudal-comprador elite due partly to the failure of progressive forces to educate and organize the masses, the Marcos family recovered institutional power. The reactionary Supreme Court justices and Duterte’s link to the Marcoses are a symptom of fierce internecine conflict within the oligarchic bloc. It fosters sectarian partisanship and opportunist fantasies. The controversy over Marcos’ burial cannot be fully assayed without factoring in this conjunctural crisis the role of patronage-clientelism syndrome and the U.S.-oriented bureaucratic-military apparatus of a decadent oligarchic elite.

    US Cold War Realpolitik defined Corazon Aquino’s “total war” against nationalists, Igorots, Lumads—all touted by Washington/World-Bank/IMF consensus as the
    price for enjoying individualist prerogatives, especially the right to gamble in the capitalist casino. U.S.-subsidized counterinsurgency schemes continue to prolong the moribund status quo plagued by seemingly durable disparity of wealth and power. This  monstrosity is being challenged by the communist and BangsaMoro insurgencies with whose leadership Duterte is trying to negotiate a peace deal.

    Duterte reacted to Obama’s scolding with a declaration to “separate” from US hegemony. Not a single mass-media article on Duterte’s intent to forge an independent foreign policy and solve corruption linked to narcopolitics, provides even an iota of historical background on the US record of colonial subjugation. This is not strange, given the long history of Filipino “miseducation” documented by Renato Constantino. The dismissal of the collective experience is due to the unconscionable glorification of America’s success in inducing the natives to speak English, worship the “American Way of Life,” and indulge in ersatz consumerism.

    What is scandalous is the complicity of the U.S. intelligentsia in sanctifying corporate barbarism. Every time the Filipino essence is tagged as violent, foolish, cunning, etc., the evidence cites the careers of iconic landlord-politician, bureaucrat, savvy merchant, or rich entrepreneur. Unequal groups dissolve into these select representative types: Quezon, Magsaysay, etc. What seems self-incriminatingly ironic is that after a century of massive analysis of the colony’s underdevelopment, we have to tolerate Stanley Karnow’s verdict that, really, the Filipinos and their character deficits are to blame for their poverty and backwardness, for not being smart beneficiaries of American “good works.” “F—ck you,” Duterte might respond.

    Hobbes/Machiavelli?

    An avalanche of media commentaries, disingenously claiming to be objective
    news reports, followed Duterte’s campaign to eradicate rampant drug
    addiction. No need to cite statistics about the criminality of
    narcopolitics blighting the nation, from slum-dwellers to Senators and
    moguls. Without any judicious assaying of reports of EJKs (extra-judicial killings), mainstream media concluded that Duterte’s policy—based on his macho vow to kill all drug-lords.—caused the death of innocent suspects. His method of solving this symptom of class-induced misery impressed the academics as Hobbesian, not Machiavellian. 

    What is certain is that the killing of Mayor Espinosa betrays the corruption of the police bureaucracy by narcopolitics. Its genealogy is tied to the return of dynastic politics and jueteng warlords. To be sure, Duterte has yet to clean his stables. Nonetheless, corporate publicity manipulates the politics of knowledge about criminality (witness the Delima case).The imperative to sensationalize and distort by selective framing  governs the style and content of profit-centered communication. Hence we get the fabled “collateral damage” bewailed by the bishops and local pundits associated with the defeated parties
    (epitomized by the photo of a woman cradling the body of her husband,
    blown up in Time and in The Atlantic). This irked the “thin-skinned” mayor whose lack of petty-bourgeois decorum became the target of unctuous leftist/rightist sermons.

    Logomachia

    What finally gave the casuistic game away is the piece in the November issue of The Atlantic entitled “Duterte’s Anti-Americanism.” The proof: Duterte’s suspending joint military exercises and deviating from U.S. foreign policy by initiating friendly cooperation with China in the disputed South China Sea—in short, promoting what will counter the repeated U.S. violations of Philippine sovereignty. Duterte is thus guilty of diverging from public opinion, meaning Filipino worship of the U.S. But there is not a whisper of the sustained US imperial exercise of power. This Atlantic polemic-cum-factoids concludes with a rebarbative quip: “Washington can tolerate a thin-skinned ally who bites the hand that feeds him through crass invective.” When compatriots in 1972-1986 protested with “Down with the US-Marcos dictatorship,” the media denounced their “anti-Americanism.”

    Cold War paranoia grips the Washington Establishment. The ruling elite are not worried about Duterte’s “murderous” and “authoritarian” ways (epithets applicable to U.S. drone warfare and police-killing of African-Americans) as they are disturbed by Duterte’s rapproachment with China. His pivot to China panicked Washington, belying the Time assertion that Duterte “can’t really stand up to China unless the US is backing him.” A blowback occurred in the boondocks; the thin-skinned “Punisher” of druglords triggered a “howling wilderness” that threatens to loosen the century-long stranglehold of global capitalism on the neocolony. #




              DUTERTE'S COOUNTER-HEGEMONIC PRAXIS AGAINST GLOBAL CAPITALISM   

    ‘LITTLE BROWN BROTHER’ S  LOGOMACHIA:
     Duterte’s Counter-Hegemonic Praxis

    Interviewing Dr. Kenneth Bauzon 

    by E. SAN JUAN, Jr.
    Emeritus Professor of Ethnic Studies & Comparative Literature; Professorial Lecturer, Polytechnic University of the Philippines


    “A howiing wilderness” was what General Jacob Smith ordered his troops to make of Samar, Philippines. He was taking revenge for the ambush of fifty-four soldiers by Filipino revolutionaries in September 1901. After the General's troops killed most of the island’s inhabitants, three bells from the Balangiga Church were looted as war trophies; two are still displayed at Warren Air Force Base, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Very few Americans know this. Nor would they have any clue about the 1913 massacre of thousands of Muslim women, men and children resisting General Pershing’s systematic destruction of their homes in Mindanao where President Rodrigo Duterte today resides. 

    Addressing this dire amnesia afflicting the public, both in the Philippines and abroad, newly-elected president Duterte began the task of evoking/invoking the accursed past. He assumed the role of oral tribune, with prophetic expletives. Like the Filipino guerillas of Generals Lukban and Malvar who retreated to the mountains (called “boondocks” by American pursuers from the Tagalog word “bundok,” mountain), Duterte seems to be coming down with the task of reclaiming the collective dignity of the heathens— eulogized by Rudyard Kipling, at the start of the war in February 1899, as “the white men’s burden.”

    Mark Twain: “Thirty Thousand Killed a Million”

    The Filipino-American War of 1899-1913 occupies only a paragraph, at most, in most US texbooks, a blip in the rise of the United States as an Asian Pacific Leviathan. Hobbes’ figure is more applicable to international rivalries than to predatory neoliberal capitalism today, or to the urban jungle of MetroManila.  At least 1.4 million Filipinos (verified by historian Luzviminda Francisco) died as a result of the scorched-earth policy of President McKinley.  His armed missionaries were notorious for Vietnam-style “hamletting.” They also practised the “water-cure,” also known as “water-boarding,” a form of torture now legitimized in a genocidal war of terror (Iraq, Afghanistan)  that recalls the ruthless suppression of Native American tribes and dehumanization of African slaves in the westward march of the “civilizing Krag” to the Pacific, to the Chinese market. Today the struggle at Standing Rock and Black-Lives-Matter are timely reminders. Stuart Creignton Miller’s 1982 book, “Benevolent Assimilation,” together with asides by Gabriel Kolko and Howard Zinn, recounted the vicissitudes of that bloody passage through Philippine boondocks and countryside.

    Not everyone acquiesced to Washington’s brutal annexation of the island-colony. Mark Twain exposed the hypocrisy of  Washington’s “Benevolent Assimilation” with searing diatribes, as though inventing the “conscience” of his generation. William James, William Dean Howells, W.E.B. DuBois and other public intellectuals denounced what turned out to be the “first Vietnam” (Bernard Fall’s rubric). 

    It was a learning experience for the conquerors. In Policing America’s Empire, Alfred McCoy discovered that America’s “tutelage” of the Filipino elite (involving oligarchic politicians of the Commonwealth period up to Marcos and Aquino) functioned as a laboratory for crafting methods of surveillance, ideological manipulation, propaganda, and other modes of covert and overt pacification. Censorship, mass arrests of suspected dissidents, torture and assasination of “bandits” protesting landlord abuses and bureaucratic corruption  in the first three decades of colonial rule led to large-scale killing of peasants and workers in numerous Colorum and Sakdalista uprisings. 

    Re-Visiting the Cold War/War of Terror

    This pattern of racialized class oppression via electoral politics and discipiinary pedagogy culminated in the Cold War apparatus devised by CIA agent Edward Lansdale and the technocrats of Magsasay to suppress the Huk rebellion in the two decades after formal granting of independence in 1946. The machinery continued to operate in the savage extrajudicial killings during the Marcos dictatorship up to Corazon Aquino’s “total war” against nationalists, progressive priests and nuns, Igorots, Lumads—all touted by Washington/Pentagon as the price for enjoying  democracy, free market, the right to gamble in the capitalist casino. This constitutes the rationale for U.S.-supported counterinsurgency schemes to shore up the decadent, if not moribund, status quo—a society plagued by profound and seemingly durable disparity of wealth and power—now impolitely challenged by Duterte.

    Not a single mass-media article on Duterte’s intent to forge an independent foreign policy and solve corruption linked to narcopolitics, provides even an iota of historical background on the US record of colonial subjugation of Filipino bodies and souls. This is not strange, given the long history of Filipino “miseducation” documented by Renato Constantino. Perhaps the neglect if not dismissal of the Filipino collective experience is due to the indiscriminate celebration of America’s success in making the natives speak English, imitate the American Way of Life shown in Hollywood movies, and indulge in mimicked consumerism. 

    What is scandalous is the complicity of the U.S. intelligentsia (with few exceptions) in regurgitating the “civilizing effect” of colonial exploitation. Every time the Filipino essence is described as violent, foolish, shrewd or cunning, the evidence displays the actions of a  landlord-politician, bureaucrat, savvy merchant, U.S.-educated professional, or rich entrepreneur. Unequal groups dissolve into these representative types: Quezon, Roxas, Magsaysay, Fidel Ramos, etc. What seems ironic if not parodic is that after a century of massive research and formulaic analysis of the colony’s underdevelopment, we arrive at Stanley Karnow’s verdict (amplified in In Our Image) that, really, the Filipinos and their character-syndromes are to blame for their poverty and backwardness, for not being smart beneficiaries of American “good works.” “F—ck you,” Duterte might uncouthly respond.

    Hobbes or Che Guevarra?

    An avalanche of media commentaries, disingenously purporting to be objective news reports, followed Duterte’s campaign to eradicate the endemic drug addiction rampant in the country. No need to cite statistics about the criminality of narcopolitics infecting the whole country, from poor slum-dweller to Senators and moguls; let’s get down to the basics. But the media, without any judicious assaying of hearsay, concluded that Duterte’s policy—his public pronouncement that bodies will float in Manila Bay, etc.—caused the killing of innocent civilians. The imperative to sensationalize and distort by selective framing (following, of course, corporate norms and biases) governs the style and content of quotidian media operations.

    Is Duterte guilty of the alleged EJK (extrajudicial killings)? No doubt, druglords and their police accomplices took advantage of the policy to silence their minions. This is the fabled “collateral damage” bewailed by the bishops and moralists. But Obama, UN and local pundits associated with the defeated parties seized on the cases of innocent victims (two or three are more than enough, demonstrated by the photo of a woman allegedly cradling the body of her husband, blown up in Time (October 10) and in The Atlantic, September issue, and social media) to teach Duterte a lesson on human rights, due process, and genteel diplomatic protocols. This irked the thin-skinned town mayor whose lack of etiquette, civility, and petty-bourgeois decorum became the target of unctuous sermons.

    Stigma for All Seasons: “Anti-Americanism”

    What finally gave the casuistic game away, in my view, is the piece in the November issue of The Atlantic by Jon Emont entitled “Duterte’s Anti-Americanism.” What does “anti-Americanism” mean—to be against McDonald burgers, Beyonce, I-phones, Saturday Night Live, Lady Gaga, Bloomingdale fashions, Wall Street, or Washington-Pentagon imperial browbeating of inferior nations/peoples-of-color? The article points to tell-tale symptoms: Duterte is suspending joint military exercises, separating from U.S. govt foreign policy (renewing friendly cooperation with China,”veering” toward Russia). 

    Above all, Duterte is guilty of diverging from public opinion, meaning the Filipino love for Americans. He rejects US “security guarantees,” ignores the $3 billion remittances of Filipinos (presumably, relatives of middle and upper classes), the $13 million given by the U.S. for relief of Yolanda typhoon victims in 2013. Three negative testimonies against Duterte’s “anti-American bluster” are used: 1) Asia Foundation official Steven Rood’s comment that since most Filipinos don’t care about foreign policy, “elites have considerable latitude,” that is, they can do whatever pleases them. 2)  Richard Javad Heydarian, affiliated with De La Salle University, is quoted—this professor is now a celebrity of the anti-Duterte cult—that Duterte “can get away with it”; and, finally, Gen Fidel Ramos who contends that the military top brass “like US troops”—West-Point-trained Ramos has expanded on his tirade against Duterte with the usual cliches of unruly client-state leaders who turn against their masters. 

    Like other anti-Duterte squibs, the article finally comes up with the psychological diagnosis of Duterte’s fixation on the case of the Davao 2002 bombing when a “supposed involvement of US officials” who spirited a CIA-affiliated American bomber confirmed the Davao mayor’s fondness for “stereotypes of superior meddling America.” The judgment seems anticllimatic. What calls attention will not be strange anymore: there is not a whisper of the tortuous history of US imperial exercise of power on the subalterns.
    This polemic-cum-factoids culminates in a faux-folksy, rebarbative quip: “Washington can tolerate a thin-skinned ally who bites the hand that feeds him through crass invective.”  The Washington Post (Nov 2) quickly intoned its approval by harping on Ramos’ defection as a sign of the local elite’s displeasure. With Washington halting the sale of rifles to the Philippine police because of Duterte’s human-rights abuses, the Post warns that $ 9 million military aid and $32 million funds for law-enforcement will be dropped by Congress if Duterte doesn’t stop his “anti-US rhetoric.” Trick or treat? Duterte should learn that actions have consequences, pontificated this sacred office of journalistic rectitude after the Halloween mayhem.

    On this recycled issue of “anti-Americanism,” the best riposte is by Michael Parenti, from his incisive book Inventing Reality: “The media dismiss conflicts that arise between the United States and popular forces in other countries as manifestations of the latter’s “anti-Americanism”….When thousands marched in the Philippines against the abominated US-supported Marcos regime, the New York Times reported, “Anti-Marcos and anti-American slogans and banners were in abundance, with the most common being “Down with the US-Marcos Dictatorship!” A week later, the Times again described Filipino protests against US support of the Marcos dictatorship as “anti-Americanism.” The Atlantic, the New York Times,and the Washington Post share an ideological-political genealogy with the Cold War paranoia currentlygripping the U.S. ruling-class Establishment.

    Predictably, the New York Times (Nov. 3 issue) confirmed the consensus that the US is not worried so much about the “authoritarian” or “murderous ways of imposing law and order” (Walden Bello’s labels; InterAksyon, Oct 29) as they are discombobulated by Duterte’s rapproachment with China. The calculus of U.S. regional hegemony was changed when Filipino fishermen returned to fish around the Scarborough Shoal. Duterte’s “bombastic one-man” show, his foul mouth, his “authoritarian” pragmatism, did not lead to total dependency on China nor diplomatic isolation. This pivot to China panicked Washington, belyig the Time expert Carl Thayer who pontificated that Duterte “can’t really stand up to China unless the US is backing him” (Sept 15, 2016). A blowback occurred in the boondocks; the thin-skinned “Punisher” and scourge of druglords triggered a “howling wilderness” that exploded the century-long stranglehold of global finance capitalism on the islands. No need to waste time on more psychoanalysis of Duterte’s motivation. What the next US president would surely do to restore its ascendancy in that region is undermine Duterte’s popular base, fund a strategy of destabilization via divide-and-rule (as in Chile, Yugoslavia, Ukraine), and incite its volatile pro-American constituency to beat pots and kettles in the streets of MetroManila. 

    If We Forget, Never Again

    This complex geopolitical situation entangling the United States and its former colony/neocolony, cries for deeper historical contextualization and empathy for the victims lacking in the Western media demonization of Duterte and his supporters, over 70% of a hundred million Filipinos in the Philippines and in the diaspora. Limitations of space forbid this, but we can supply cues and gudelines for this ongoing historical framing of the answers in the following quasi-dialogue. 

    We have posed key questions to political scientist Dr. Kenneth Bauzon of St. Joseph’s College, Brooklyn, NY, to fill the vacuum. A Filipino public intellectual, Dr. Bauzon is an acknowledged expert on international relations. HIs groundbreaking book, Liberalism and the Quest for Islamic Identity in the Philippines, has led him to be invited to speak at conferences worldwide, the last being a lecture on “The New Scramble for Africa” at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for African Studies, in Moscow. He has been interviewed by CNN and Radio Australia.  The interviewer, an emeritus professor of Ethnic Studies and Comparative Literature, was a fellow of W.E.B. Du Bois Institute, Harvard University, Fulbright lecturer of American Studies at Leuven University, Belgium, and currently professorial lecturer, Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Among his recent works are US Imperialism and Revolution in the Philippines (Palgrave) and Between Empire and Insurgency (University of the Philippines Press).
    __________

    ESJ:  As a scholar of international affairs, what is your view of this declaration of Pres Duterte on his "separation" from the US (chiefly, from foreign policy) in terms of the Asian pivot and Asian geopolitics in general?

    KB:  First of all, Duterte himself has clarified the statement as not representing any semblance of severance of diplomatic, economic, and military ties between the two countries. When he spoke of this during his recent visit to China, my guess is that he may have picked the wrong word to express what he may have been thinking and planning to do in Filipino: “Ihiwalay” which, literally, means “to separate”, which is the word that he actually uttered although what he may have really wanted to convey was more nuanced, e.g., to distinguish, to differentiate, to make note of the difference, or to re-direct. I would simply describe it as a re-orientation.

    As the constitutionally elected President of the Republic, Duterte has the prerogative to re-define and re-orient the country's foreign policy along the lines of his vision. What is emerging from his series of public statements is his desire to forge a foreign policy more independent from an over-bearing foreign power, more-self-determining, and distinguishable from that of preceding administration, viewed as more fawning to foreign interests.

    Given a historical vantage point, this is remarkable in itself regardless of whether Duterte succeeds or not. We have a sitting president wanting to do the above where none of his predecessors – actually, since the birth of the republic –- have ever contemplated, much less, put into action, what he has declared to do, at least in the foreign policy arena. This came as a surprise, of course, to many including myself, who have begun to offer him cautious benefit of the doubt.

    ESJ: A formidable ambition. What would be needed to accomplish that?

    KB:  For him to succeed, he has to define his parameters and to contend with, rather than ignore, some constraints. In the short-term, he needs to shore up his congressional base of support and to ensure that he gets the kind of legislative backing for his foreign policy objectives. 

    Further, he needs to consolidate his leadership in two organizations that fall directly under his authority both as President and as Commander-in-Chief: the civilian bureaucracy (which includes the civilian police force at various levels), and the military. I do not mean for him to become authoritarian or, for that matter, invoke an emergency or a crisis to justify some form of constitutional dictatorship.

    I believe the country is not in a situation wherein this is necessary despite some rumors of a coup. But if he feels that the epidemic of prohibited drugs is of such an extent that it is an imminent threat to the life of the nation similar to if not more so than when former President Ferdinand Marcos felt that the Marxist and the Bangsamoro insurgencies during the early 1970s were a threat to the Republic, then he (Duterte) may take some kind of emergency measures and assume extraordinary powers as the Chief Executive under the Constitution, which permits him to do so. 

    ESJ: Opponents (mainly from the pro-American Roxas-Aquino-Trillanes camp) are already calling him a "communist" dictator. What is your reading of his populist tendency?

    KB:  Right now, Duterte continues to ride high in popularity among ordinary citizens a hundred days or so into his presidency. This despite the fact that hundreds of innocents have died as collateral victims since he commenced his war on drugs. 

    It is hard to predict how long he can sustain this level of public support, but he can do this if, over the next year or two: 1) he continues to show significant rate of decline in the distribution and use of prohibited drugs; 2). he shows that he has a serious program to go after the big-name dealers, high-profile politicians, and certain elements within the police, military, and civilian bureaucracy; 3) he significantly reduces the number of collateral victims and provides avenues of redress for the victims’ families; and, d. he institutes a program of rehabilitation with the support and cooperation of various non-governmental organizations and the private business sector.

    ESJ: Let us return to the vow to "separate" from US vampiric embrace. What are some of the diplomatic or juridical steps needed?

    KB:  Duterte may commence a critical review of the existing treaties and agreements involving the country's military and economic relations with the US. On military matters, this review would have to include agreements and treaties that are relics of the Cold War including the Military Assistance Agreement of 1947 and the Mutual Defense Treaty of 1951 which provides, among others, for the so-called Joint US Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG), a Trojan Horse of sorts allowing the US a unidirectional prerogative to predetermine, influence, if not control, internal Philippine military decisions and virtually apart from executive knowledge and control, with regards to, among other issues, procurement, training, and strategies and from whose trainees could come potential coup leaders in collaboration with their quisling allies among the traditional elite politicians.

    We might add here the so-called Manila Declaration of 2011 signed between former Philippine Secretary of Foreign Affairs Alberto Del Rosario--a tried and true servant to US interests, and to Hillary Clinton, a neocon darling-- affirming this treaty but reinforcing the Philippines’ military dependence on and subordination to US military priorities; and, the more recent Enhanced Defence Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) of 2014, allowing for “rotation” rather than permanent basing of US forces, including use of Philippine military facilities and equipment, viewed by many as a circumvention of the constitutional prohibition of presence of foreign military forces on Philippine soil and a travesty of Philippine sovereignty. 

    ESJ: Would you say this move would also address the political, cultural and ideological subordination of the Philippines to US imperial geopolitics?


    KB:  These "treaties" serve, first, as means of neocolonial control over the Philippines and for the purpose of disciplining its population, and, second, as integral foundation to its series of military outposts in projecting military might in East Asia and Western Pacific, which includes Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan in Northeast Asia; Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in Southeast Asia; and Australia and New Zealand in the Southwestern Pacific as members of the tight three-party Cold War vintage military alliance called the ANZUS, all of which are intended, aside from affirming Anglo-Saxon supremacy in that part of the globe, to coral the vast natural resources, e.g., tin, manganese, ore, gold, copper, oil and rubber, contained within the East Asian and Western Pacific region; control and regulate the vital navigational arteries connecting two great oceans essential to maintaining trade under the neoliberal rules heavily tilted in its favor; and discipline the behavior of China and North Korea with a lot of help from the roving US Seventh Fleet, not to mention thousands of foot soldiers stationed in bases hosted in many of these allied countries that already maintain a host of surveillance and communications posts within their respective territories. 

    What Duterte is doing is not to radically alter the architecture of US imperial control in the region, for that would be unrealistic to expect; what he is doing is forging towards his vision of weaning the country from this dependent status.

    ESJ : Can you elaborate what moves he should initiate on the economic front?

    KB:  Duterte should organize a task force – again, consisting of nationalist-oriented citizens who share his economic vision – to help him comprehensively assess the nature, impact, and direction of economic relations with not only the US but also, more broadly, with the whole network of global neoliberal institutions that have served to entrap the Philippines into a perpetual cycle of poverty, calamity, mendicancy, and dependency. If Duterte wishes to accomplish his goal of “separation,” he should also realize that, if he wavers, there will not be another opportunity that would come along in a very long while as the one currently within his grasp. 

    The ability of the US to subvert and thwart self-determining efforts on the part of many countries in the Global South must not be underestimated. The US has a long and continuing track record of doing this. Commencing with a recognition of the bogus nature of the so-called special relationship between the US and the Philippines featuring the onerous parity rights agreement propagated during much of the 1950s and the 1960s, and of the debilitating effects of over a century's assimilation and internalization of the capitalist ethos, and belief in the presumed boundless benevolence of the US , he should consider redefining terms of investment and trade agreements. He must  repudiate the blind and relentless application and enforcement of neoliberal principles, e.g., privatization, trade liberalization, and  deregulation, all of which have accelerated the erosion of national sovereignty and patrimony in favor of foreign-based supranational decision-making bodies that almost without fail favor foreign-based corporate entities with a grant of, among others, unprecedented investors rights and intellectual property rights,

    Duterte also needs to critically examine the terms of membership with trading regimes, both global and regional, including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and the Trans-Pacific Economic Partnership (TPP) as well as with global financial institutions, e.g., the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). He could judge where the country has benefited, and where it is being debilitated, such as the odious debts incurred during the Marcos dictatorship. He should not only repudiate these debts but also the conditionalities that encumber the nation's economic self-determination. 

    Duterte should assert the prerogative to re-impose protectionist laws and regulations, long-abandoned especially since the country joined the WTO, in order to safeguard public health, conserve the environment, protect and develop the competitiveness of small and local producers and farmers, including adoption of safeguards and measures to clamp down on the dumping into the local market of cheap, subsidized products from the industrialized countries, e.g., genetically modified grains and food commodities, and provide assistance to infant industries and protect these from foreign competition. He should reconsider reviving the import substitution growth strategy adopted by nationalist-oriented regimes during the 1950s and early 1960s. 

    ESJ: Well, after the CIA-Lansdale-directed Magsaysay and the repression of the Recto-Tanada-led nationalist movement, we got Marcos and authoritarian rule. Do you see the State functioning otherwise?

    KB:  That Filipino-first strategy was quashed by the US-endorsed free market fundamentalism, accompanied by a spate of coups, assassinations,and relentless doze of propaganda praising the virtues of the US as beacon of democracy. Duterte must understand that market fundamentalism promises only illusory development to the client states like the Philippines that have only gone deeper and deeper into an endless cycle of poverty, inequality, and violence. 

    Duterte should realize, further, that to break this vicious cycle, the essential role of the state, properly oriented along national democratic lines, must be affirmed so as to properly direct it into providing public services, ensuring fair and just working conditions, implementing agrarian reform, and restoring the damaged environment. 

     All the above-suggestions would be in line with and in support of a remarkable and bold statement, declared to a group of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) upon Duterte's arrival in Japan last October, that he would like to see the current generation of OFWs now dispersed in all four corners of the globe to be the last. He would like to see the country develop in such a way as to provide employment to the citizens with decent living wages or income and break the cycle of the Philippines as a labor-exporting country at the service of transnational companies based largely in affluent regions of the globe, e.g., North American, Western Europe, the Middle East, and Northeast Asia.
               

    ESJ:  What is your comment on the US and Europe's focus on the so-called "extra-judicial killings" by the PNP which, inflated grossly, obfuscates the lethal impact of narcopolitics that have ruined Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Afghanistan and other "failed" states?

    KB: The issue of extra-judicial killings (EJK) has been on my mind for a long time. I myself reflected on this issue in an OpEd in the Manila Chronicle on military-enabled vigilante killings in Mindanao in the 1980s. 

    No one brought up on the concept of respect for the lives and dignity of others, adherence to common rules of human decency and principles of fairness, acceptance of the rule of law and due process, and the sovereignty of nations to determine and shape their own future, would ever condone or accept EJK) as a means of dispensing justice or restoring order or national security.  This problem was – and remains – a feature of elite-led electoral politics. 

    Then as now, extra-judicial killing was and is accepted as a “normal” tool by rival local and provincial warlords wanting to maintain their lordship over a particular town, province or region, reflecting the semi-feudal/semi-capitalist conditions that the country was and is in. It also reflects the utter failure of the US-imposed experiment in formal-legalism in which US colonial authorities wanted to convert the colony as a showcase of liberal democracy in Asia but one anchored on the system of accumulation and super-imposed on the country’s semi-feudal condition. 

    At the time, US colonial authorities relied on the cooperation of local elites as transmission belt of colonial power and authority. They even  allowed these local elites to form their own private armed groups, and even cultivated the practice of arming, training, and managing vigilante groups or death squads in counter-insurgency campaigns. Now, reliance on vigilante groups or death squads not only by the military and the police but also by civilian politicians, has not diminished. It remains endemic. The ideological uses of these groups become more manifest when they are employed for disciplining society, for extracting compliance, and for counter-insurgency purposes. More broadly, they are an essential tool for maintaining the country’s semi-feudal/semi-capitalist status quo wherein the country itself maintains its client status, a semi-colony, under the guardianship of the US.     

    ESJ:  Practically all media propaganda about EJK ascribed to Duterte lacks a historical context or perspective. Crude empiricism (litany of victims' personalities, sensational framing, the numbers game) has been deployed to demonize Duterte. US "imperial humanitarianism" is frothing to neutralize the Filipino devil. What is your diagnosis?

    KB:  The drug problem in the Philippines is largely domestic in nature but with international dimensions. Much of the suppliers are foreign-based, along with much of the raw materials and equipment used in processing and refining. The Philippines, thus, has been and remains largely a drug-consuming country. 

    While the production is largely in the hands of invisible but powerful drug lords, with foreign nationalities, distribution and consumption are essentially by and among Filipinos. Thus, the overwhelming victims are Filipinos with their lives destroyed, families broken, and the social fabric torn apart. The rate of addiction among the civilian population has been spiking, with periods of acceleration and decline reflecting both the flow of supply and the intensity – or lack thereof – of official efforts to fight this menace. 

    Although there are obvious differences, the nature of the local drug problem resembles that which China faced on the eve of the Opium Wars in the late 1830s, eliciting an edict from the Chinese imperial authorities banning opium imports from foreign traders angering, in turn, British traders and their colonial protectors who claimed simply that the ban was in violation of free trade. With the British Empire as the greatest drug pusher at that time, its invocation of free trade, as a strategic step, was over and above the health and welfare of the Chinese people. British merchants profited at the expense of the well-being of the Chinese people while the British Empire was able to gain a foothold in the Chinese mainland and project its power  (from Hong Kong) throughout East Asia and the Pacific. Drugs, human rights violations and predatory colonialism (as in Afghanistan and Colombia) have always been intertwined.

    ESJ: So this hysteria about Duterte as "serial killer" (as one French newspaper stigmatized him) merits the vulgar expletives. Fine, but these elites have always dictated the norms of "civilized" governance since the rise of the Spanish, then British and French empires, up to American predominance. Would you expect a logical improbable behavior, given the nature of the beast?

    KB:  These criticisms are hollow and lacking in credibility.  At best, they could be strategic in nature, intended, consciously or unconsciously, to impress upon him the superiority of Western-oriented legal principles and standards of human rights, and contrast these with the presumed barbarism and absence of due process in the former colonial ward, compounded by what they see as Duterte's unrefined manners and foul language. 

    The US, for example, has not much to show for after four decades or so of its so-called war on drugs. Aside from filling private prisons with low-level, non-violent offenders redefined in the court system as felons, this so-called war is nowhere close to being won. Worse, during the illegal war against the sovereign state of Nicaragua in the 1980s, the Reagan Administration, through the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), facilitated the sale and distribution of heroin in major US cities, particularly in poor black neighborhoods, to facilitate fund-raising for the terrorist group called the Contras. 

    The US government had no compunction about destroying the lives of minority youths so long as funds were found to underwrite the Contra war and satisfy Reagan's obsession to overthrow the Sandinista government in Nicaragua even if this meant destroying Nicaragua's social and economic infrastructure. A World Court decision in 1986 condemned that US policy as terrorism and the US as a terrorist sponsoring state, and proceeded to award Nicaragua the amount of $17 billion, a decision ignored by the US to this day. 

    ESJ: What about the European critics who seem to mimick the US self-righteous chiding of their neocolonial wards?

    ANTONIO GRAMSCI’S THEORY OF THE ‘NATIONAL-POPULAR’ 

    AS A STRATEGY FOR SOCIALIST REVOLUTION

    by E. SAN JUAN, Jr.


     Though in substance, yet in form, the struggle of the proletariat with the bourgeoisie is at first a national struggle. The proletariat of each country must, of course, first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie… The workingmen have no country. We cannot take from them what they have no got. Since the proletariat must first of all acquire political supremacy, must rise to be the leading class of the nation, must constitute itself as the nation, it is so far itself national, though not in the bourgeois sense of the word.

    —KARL MARX & FRIEDRICH ENGELS, “Manifesto of the Communist Party” (1848) (1971, 101,109)

    Recent political events mark the beginning of a phase in which insurrection has become the sole means for the masses to express their political will.

    —ANTONIO GRAMSCI, letter dated Feb. 1925 (1971, lxxviii)

    Gramsci has been pronounced “dead” so many times that one suspects the announcement to be unwittingly premature and question-begging (Day 2005). Of all the Western Marxists, Gramsci is exceptional in being the subject of an immensely burgeoning archive of scholarly studies and the object of furious worldwide political debates (Rosengarten 1994). Except for the somewhat opportunist inflection of “subaltern” by the Derridean Gayatri Spivak and the trendy fashion of reinterpreting “hegemony” as pluralist consensus, Gramsci’s thought seems useless for postmodernists, including Establishment postcolonialists. Stuart Hall and the Birmingham School successfully popularized Gramsci as an innovative cultural theorist and founded the academic discipline of mainstream Cultural Studies. It was Gramsci’s resurrection in advanced capitalist formations, the birth of what David Harris (1992) calls “gramscianism.” This followed the Eurocommunist view of Gramsci’s “revolution against Capital”—to quote his famous article of 1917—in which the Italian road to socialism (classless society, socialization of crucial productive means) would be won not through revolutionary violence but through cultural reform—through education and moral/ethical persuasion. Communist parties will thus gain hegemony, that is, domination by consent, peacefully or legally. 
    Communism or socialism will win without replacing the prevailing “common sense.” Presented as ideals to be aspired for, and naturalized as “common sense,” the belief system of bourgeois society does not require armies or police; only a finely tuned art, schools and mass media, ideological apparatuses that would do the job. Maurice Finnochiaro views the Italian road as the conquest of social institutions whose “control would yield the desired economic and political changes”—a view that eclectically mixes the influences of Croce, Mosca, Machiavelli and Hegel on Gramsci primarily as diverse patterns of thinking (1995, 304). From this prophylactic stance, Gramsci is seen as a precocious neoliberal avant la lettre, committed to “rational persuasion,” political realism, methodological fallibilism, liberal democracy, and pluralism. Something is surely wrong with this picture.
    Clearly, history—or, better yet, neoliberal historicism exacted a vengeance on Gramsci’s historicist “good sense.” While reborn as a theoretician of the superstructures, civil society, rule by consent, and non-economistic “open Marxism,” Gramsci became irrelevant to socialist revolution as they were occurring in the “third world.” He had nothing to say to peoples struggling against finance-capitalist imperialism, old-style colonialism that ruled by brute force, or neocolonial rule masquerading as latter-day “mission civilizatrice,” humanitarian intervention. For postcolonial studies, in particular, the obsession with Eurocentrism (the fallacious subsumption of capitalism into an abstract Western modernity) in the case of Edward Said, as Neil Lazarus (2002; see also San Juan 2007) has shown, led soon to the speechless subalterns of Spivak and the sly mimics of Homi Bhabha. Meanwhile, the logocentric discourse of poststructuralism wrought its dire effects on the critique of the nation/nationalism launched by Bhabha and the Australian “high priests” of the discipline, Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin, before and after the fall the of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of “actually existing socialism.” With nations and nation-states abolished or rendered defunct by the “New World Order” and later by triumphalist neoliberal globalization, we are on the way to the heady disjunctures of Arjun Appadurai and the nomadic multitudes of Hardt and Negri’s Empire. Until September 11, 2001 exploded over this academic scenario and overtook our missionary enlighteners/mentors who had attended Gramsci’s redundant burials.
    We owe it to Benita Parry’s appraisal of the historical-political contexts surrounding the disciplinary formation of postcolonial studies that we can begin to appreciate Gramsci’s relevance to “third world” social transformations. Parry’s argument on the centrality of Marxist principles (internationalism, permanent revolution) in liberation theory actualized in anticolonial revolutions, is salutary. The erasure of socialism and an anti-capitalist modernity in postcolonial discourse coincides with the refusal of a national-democratic stage in anti-colonial revolutions led by a historic bloc of anticapitalist forces. What kind of nation-state do postcolonialists have in mind? Certainly not the Italian nation of 1861 that witnessed the colonization/annexation of the South by the subjugation of the insurgent peasant masses, and produced the “Southern question” that Gramsci considered decisive in carrying out a socialist revolution in the twentieth century (Verdicchio 1992). Postcolonialists erase the ugly fact of neocolonized nation-states (the Philippines, Haiti, Colombia, etc.) resistant to their fantasy of a world-system of hybrid social formations equal in power and wealth, all inhabited by transnational consumer-citizens.
    The asymmetry of uneven and combined development distinguishes the structure of nation-states born in the shadow of finance-capitalist imperialism. Archaic, feudal, and modern sectors coexist in these societies. The Althusserian idiom of Bhabha is revealing when he problematizes the “ambivalent temporalities of the nation space.” Bhabha puzzles himself over the “disjunctive representation of the social, in this double-time of the nation” which is hidden by homogeneity, literacy and anonymity. Nation as narration, for Bhabha, testifies to the “teleology of progress tipping over into the ‘timeless’ discourse of irrationality,” which in turn leads to “the archaic body of the despotic or totalitarian mass” (177). In short, nationalism is fascism tout court. Based on the experience of racial nationalist violence in Europe (Nazi racist nationalism, in particular), Bhabha sees only the “archaic ambivalence” undermining the progressive contemporaneity of existing nation-states. Ultimately, the culprit is “that progressive metaphor of modern social cohesion—the many as one—“ and so, Marxist theories of culture and community, of nations, defined as holistic, expressive social totalities should be repudiated. Unity, solidarity, the multitude envisaged by Gramsci as “national-popular” collective will (Jessop 1982) are all anathema, contaminated by bourgeois universalism and other archaic irrationalities.
    Following Partha Chatterjee, Bhabha believes national sovereignty is impossible, given “the contingency and arbitrary signs and symbols that signify the effective life of the national culture.” Hypostatizing the dynamic process of signification—of making meaning and sense— in everyday life, Bhabha thus creates for his discourse the untenable modernity of the unified nation, of national belonging. For her part, Spivak rejects anticolonial revolutions as hopelessly controlled and manipulated by a native bourgeoisie. The colonized subaltern is made not only speechless but immune to experience. Parry’s comment applies a Gramscian optic to this subalternist self-erasure: “[I]t dismisses the experiential transformation of the ‘subalterns’ through their participation, and disregards situations where an organic relationship was forged between masses and leaders sharing the same class interests and revolutionary goals—there is after all no essential and invariable correlation between objective class position and ideological belief or political stance” (2002, 144). In short, history as a dialectic of subject-object is denied by academic postcolonialists.
    With the formalization of canonical postcolonial studies as an academic discipline, a reconciliatory attitude seems to have emerged. Stuart Hall’s inflection of this fetishism of ambivalence or difference is only symptomatic: anti-imperialist opposition, for Hall, must be conceived iin terms of “transculturation” or cultural translation “destined to trouble the here/there cultural binaries for ever” (1996, 247). This postmodernist bias against binarism, telos and hierarchy, as we have seen, returns us to the question of agency and the role of the subaltern in a revolutionary disruption of the colonial predicament. But, as Parry notes, this impulse to find a middle ground between domination and oppression, to describe colonialism as “generically ambivalent,” the site of dialogue and cultural assimilation, is both historically mendacious and “morally vacant” (2002, 144). This applies to the tendentious genealogy of nation/nationalism offered by Ashcroft, Griffith and Tiffin (1998; see my critique in San Juan 2001). In effect, the nation (and its attendant set of beliefs called “nationalism”) is a foul ideological invention, a dangerous myth of exclusivism, homogeneity, and naturalness. It refuses internal heterogeneities and differences. It informs the violence of the nation-state (such as the Stalinist Soviet Union, as well as European imperialism as “an extension of the ideology of a ‘national’ formation) against those who are different, thus making the cause of national liberation for oppressed colonies suspect if not hopelessly tainted. Throughout their account, however, Ashcroft, Griffith and Tiffin are silent on the capitalist foundation of these nation-states, much less of U.S. chauvinism and Eurocentric white supremacy. They mix capitalism, socialism and other alternatives, thus inventing a utopian fiction of plurality and multiculturalism that exists neither here nor there, except of course in a homogenizing global capitalism which supposedly nullifies boundaries and identities.
    Postcolonialists cannot face the truth of sustained colonial legacies and their insidious resonance in everyday lives. As to the notion of the “subaltern,” Ashcroft et al cannot but invoke Gramsci’s terminology but not the political project that motivates it. They elide the whole issue of hegemony (consent armored by coercion) and replace Gramsci’s framework with the entirely disparate paradigm of the Indian historians’ Subaltern Group (with which Spivak is affiliated). This Group’s primary preocupation is the criticism of elites and elite culture in India whose anti-British nationalism worsened the oppression of the landless peasantry. Consequently, they criticize Marxist class analysis which to them ignore the “politics of the people,” and by implication Gramsci’s notion of the popular as a transcendence of economic-corporatist position, and a national-popular culture as a crystallization of the diverse interests/sectors constituting the nation (Gramsci 1985, 203-212). Their concern with power and authority, with governability (a variant of Foucault’s governmentality), displaces the question of sovereignty vis-à-vis the occupying colonial power. While Gramsci envisioned the “national popular” as a process of lay intellectuals expanding and elaborating a secular “humanism” attuned to the grassroots, for the Subaltern Studies Group, an implacable fissure exists between the nation represented by the native elite and the people, specifically the peasantry. Gramsci is accused of essentialism, though it is unclear how the Indian historians can be credible when they themselves postulate a rigid distinction between the elite and the subaltern, subject-positions which are constituted by converging and diverging lines of differences. Again, difference becomes fetishized or reified when Spivak claims to establish a fixed incommensurability between elite and subaltern, even canceling the at least relational category of dominant/subordinate groups in structural-functionalist sociology. Since the categories of nation and class are rejected, subalternity becomes mystified or trivialized as all or any kind of subordination removed from any revolutionary socialist telos.
    The habitual imposition of a monolithic grid of differance in postcolonial methodology sets it apart from a historical-materialist analysis such as that subtending Gramsci’s “Notes on Italian History” (1934-35) in Prison Notebooks. It accords with a nihilistic and even cynical skepticism toward any emancipatory project of overthrowing capitalist social relations of production. For those desiring to change the impoverished and exploited condition of what is now called the global “South,” it is better to forego Establishment postcolonial studies and go straight to Gramsci’s Prison Notebooks. The twin issues of the peasantry and national sovereignty constitute the blind spot that defines the limit of postcolonial critique.
    In Quest of Gramsci
    “A new way of being Gramscian”—to quote Pasolini’s (1982) slogan—is to apply his dialectical-materialist (not homological) approach to the task of popular democratic mobilization against finance capital in specific national settings. I am not interested in deriving axiomatic truths or formulas from Gramsci’s texts. Nor am I interested in ascertaining which text represents the ‘real’ Gramsci among the multiple Gramscis now available (Holub 1992), including the ‘rightist’ Gramsci quoted by neoconservatives. My task here is circumscribed: to see how we can deploy or adapt certain modes of analysis initiated first in Gramsci’s historical studies. I would locate Gramsci’s usefulness today in the application of precisely the speculative tools he devised earlier in his vocation as a radical activist. One key concept is the “national-popular” and its resonance with the conceptual archive of alliances, anti-corporativism, blocs, ensembles, etc. Following Richard Bellamy’s contention that Gramsci’s most seminal ideas were formed in his analysis of Italian social history, I would argue that Gramsci’s dialectical analysis of historical process, especially the stratified divisions of epochal and conjunctural sequences, would prove most useful in elucidating what is involved in the theory of combined and uneven development first formulated by Lenin and Trotsky and explored by activists in the Marxist tradition. Gramsci is, as Derek Boothman (1995, liii) aptly puts it, “the theorist of the historical bloc” engaged in a concrete analysis of relations/articulations of social forces in a given country at specific conjunctures or periods for the purpose of calibrating at which exact point human agency can produce the most decisive transformative effects.
    The “Southern Question” epitomized for Gramsci the problem of uneven, disarticulated, non-synchronous development carried out by the bourgeois liberal State. Before Gramsci became a socialist around 1913, he was a Sardinian nationalist, alienated as he was by the industrial North’s subjugation of the predominantly rural South. Even when Gramsci became an active socialist intent on constructing a proletarian-led State within the fabric of civil society, he never stopped insisting on the need to concentrate on the specificity of the Italian situation, its “particular, national characteristics,” compelling the party to assume “a specific function, a particular responsibility in Italian life” (1994, 4). The premise here is the forced unification of Italy by the Northern bourgeoisie’s subjugation of the Southern peasantry and the unresolved issue of landed property. What this implies is an active program to counter the transformist politics of the liberal State which maintained the fragmented social reality of Italy characterized by divergent regional traditions, polarized classes and economic disparities. The material inequalities were reflected, and in turn sustained by, the ideological/cultural incompatibilities between a popular culture of the quasi-feudal, rural areas and the elite culture of the caste of cosmopolitan intellectuals. To mobilize the masses, a whole program of education and organization of the entire populace was needed, a pedagogical mobilization led by a political party of the proletariat and its organic intellectuals. New values and ideals were needed to generate a critical consciousness—“unitary” and “coherent” thinking, as he put it—of the social situation, together with the ethico-moral imperative for organized collective action.
    Gramsci had in mind a national-democratic liberation project based on the protagonism or participatory mobilization of the people that would constitute the nation. What was needed is a mass movement to emancipate the proletariat, together with the peasantry, and the establishment of a communist society, the precondition for the full liberation of the individual. This fundamental Marxist belief Gramsci enunciated in his articles of 1914 and 1916, “An Active and Functional Neutrality,” and “Socialism and Culture.” It was specifically in the 1917 article “The Revolution Against Capital” that Gramsci expressed for the first time his distinctive Marxist conviction that without organized political will and social consciousness of the people, even the most favorable objective conditions of crisis will not lead to revolutionary change. A highly disciplined political party, “homogeneous, compact and self-aware,” (1971, 185) was needed to lead by universalizing the demands of the proletariat. This is not voluntarism. Change requires the right structural situation, but the opportunities it offers have to be seized and worked on by the masses who can develop the capacity to know, analyze, and exploit the potential offered by ongoing historical situations/events. Economic statistics do not mechanically determine politics; it was necessary for people “to understand […] and to assess them, and to control them with their will, until this collective will becomes the driving force of the economy, the force which shapes reality itself” (1994, 40). In colonial and peripheral societies, historically sedimented divisions of class, race, religion, nationality, and so on present more formidable obstacles to mass mobilization. The appeal of national self-determination in such colonial formations as India in the 1920s-1930s led Gramsci to conceptualize the “national-popular” movement as a powerful agent of revolutionary change (Bocock 1986). The centrality of organic intellectuals and the pedagogical strategy of mobilizing the masses is immediately relevant to peripheral societies (such as the Philippines) where bureaucratic and authoritarian institutions support and are reproduced by patronage, clientelist politics, reinforced by police-military coercion and para-military gangsterism and warlordism.
    We owe it to David Forgac’s review of its historical context that Gramsci’s concept of the “national popular” has been foregrounded into a site of controversy and revaluation. While textually faithful in his reconstruction of its genealogy, Forgac’s renovation is qualified by the British/European political and ideological milieu of the eighties—the rise of neoconservatism in the UK, North America and the industrialized nation-states. Like Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe (against the background of the Althusser/Poulantzas/Foucault orbit of dissonance), Forgac’s chief concern lies in using Gramsci’s idea to transcend economistic Marxism and assert that there is no necessary correlation or link between class and ideology. Forgacs is correct in appraising Gramsci’s concept as integral, fusing the political and cultural, but at the expense of the economic—a term misconstrued as a separate, independent sphere usually isolated to the “base” in the misleading couplet “base-superstructure.” Removing “popular-national” from the underlying historically specific relations of production in any given society, Forgacs concludes:
     It recognizes the specificity of national conditions and traditions. It valorizes civil society as a key site of struggle. It emphasizes the role of ideological reorganization and struggle. It identifies struggles common to more than one social class, fraction or group which can be strategically linked together. It recognizes that different social elements can, and do, act in terms not only of economic or ideological self-interest but also in terms of shared interests. (1993, 219; compare Hall 1981)
    In effect, Forgacs has re-inscribed Gramsci’s idea in the process of “passive revolution,” transformism, at the same time as he marginalizes the role of the state. By detaching the “national-popular” from its Gramscian framework of socialist transformation, its link with the abolition of private property and class inequality, in short, an expansive proletarian hegemony, Forgacs confuses himself and others in wondering how a class alliance can contain a collective will, and how such an alliance can become reorganized by bourgeois hegemony. Of course, once a national-popular alliance no longer operates as a method or guide for socialist transformation, it will be a tool for the Thatcherite-Reaganite apparatus to resolve the capitalist crisis at the expense of the majority. In fact, the logical mistake is to use the term “alliance” for a group that has no will, no purposive direction. Once a collective will is defined as non-class (in the functionalist sense) since it has transcended narrow corporatist class interests, then it is impossible to fashion a collective will lacking goals that are defined as simultaneously national and popular. Nation and people (both the discourses and institutional practices associated with these terms) are class-stratified and acquire coherence by articulation into a hegemonized nation-people. Hegemoy is not only ethico-political but also economic, given “its basis in the decisive function exercised by the leading group in the decisive core of economic activity” (Boothman 1995, li). Why this is so from Gramsci’s perspective, can be explained by his own singular understanding of “collective will.”
    Beyond Hermeneutics
    Two earlier texts may illuminate the political condition of possibility for the theory of the “national-popular” will. The first is the 1916 article “Socialism and Culture.” Here Gramsci defines culture as a creation of humans as products of history, not natural evolution. Culture is “the organization, the disciplining of one’s inner self; the mastery of one’s personality; the attainment of a higher awareness, through which we can come to understand our value and place within history, our proper function in life, our rights and duties.” This inventory and ordering of the layers/aspects of one’s self becomes the staging-ground of class consciousness. Change occurs gradually, through “intelligent reflection” of a few, then of a whole class. “Which means that every revolution has been preceded by a long process of intense critical activity, of new cultural insight and the spread of ideas through groups of men initially resistant to them, wrapped up in the process of solving their own immediate economic and political problems, and lacking any bonds of solidarity with others in the same position.” Revolutionary change comes about through critical reflection and enlargement of one’s awareness via solidarity or collective mobilization of the people constituted as nationwide directing agency (Jones 2006).
    The formation of a socialist collective will thus results from “a critique of capitalist civilization.” Gramsci emphasizes the growth of a collective will through critique, through the discovery of the self as an inventory of traces inscribed by history. Gramsci focuses on the objective or goal pursued through discipline and order: “Discovery of the self as it measures itself against others, as it differentiates itself from others and, having once created an objective for itself, comes to judge facts and events not only for what they signify in themselves, but also according to whether or not they bring that objective nearer. To know oneself means to be oneself, to be master of oneself, to assert one’s own identity, to emerge from chaos and become an agent of order, but of one’s own order, one’s own disciplined dedication to an ideal. And one cannot achieve this without knowing others, knowing their history, the succession of efforts they have made to be what they are, to create the civilization they have created, and which we are seeking to replace with our own” (compare Mao’s idea in Buci-Glucksmann 1980, 348-49). The labor of acquiring self-knowledge is key to grasping the nation/people as a site of constituting oneself as an agent of change. The dialectical interface of nation/people found in self-understanding—a form of cognitive appropriation of the world—leads to the integral state, thus abolishing the liberal distinction between civil society and state: “State = political society + civil society, in other words hegemony protected by the armour of coercion” (1971, 263; Williams 1980). Learning has an ultimate emancipatory drive: “If it is true that history is a chain of efforts man has made to free himself from privileges, prejudice and idolatry, then there is no reason why the proletariat, as it seeks to add one more link to that chain, should not know how and why and by whom it has been preceded, and how useful that knowledge can prove” (1994, 11-12).
    The second text for elucidation is the 1917 article, “The Revolution Against Capital.” Here Gramsci spells out the versatile diagnostic power of historical materialism, “the real, undying Marxist thought” purged of positivist, naturalist incrustations. This Marxism upholds, as the most important factor in history “not crude, economic facts but rather men themselves, and the societies they create, as they learn to live with one another and understand one another; as, out of these contacts (civilization), they forge a social, collective will.” Giovanni Battista Vico’s discovery of truth (verum/factum) as historical creation informs Gramsci’s historicism. This collective will understands and controls facts, becoming “the driving force of the economy, the force which shapes reality itself, so that objective reality becomes a living, breathing force, like a current of molten lava, which can be channeled wherever and however the will directs” (1994, 40). Knowledge, will, and practice/action all coalesce in the collective transformation of social life in a determinate historical milieu.
    In Russia, Gramsci holds that the “popular collective will” was forged by socialist propaganda. It emerged slowly, fusing a vast range of class experiences, “in the normal course of events,” in which humans are organized “first externally, into corporations and leagues; then internally, in their thought, in their will, in an endless continuity and multiplicity of external stimuli.” Amid the turmoil and chaos of class struggles, the Russian people experienced “in thought” the entire history of capitalist society going through crisis, determined to establish the necessary pre-condition for the collectivism that Marx considered a requirement for the transition to socialism. For Gramsci, “The revolutionaries will themselves create the conditions needed to realize their ideal fully and completely” (1994, 42). But this creation is not ex nihilo but a creative harnessing/cultivation of potentials in the given changing situation. The transition to socialism in Russia, bypassing the stage of industrial capitalism, is not a voluntarist accomplishment but rather a dialectical leap of political action—the war of maneuver succeeding a long complex process of ideological-political struggles—demanded by the conditions, both subjective and objective, in which the Russian revolutionaries found themselves. The national-popular collective will actualized in the actions of Lenin and the Bolsheviks responded not only to the readiness of the masses to change the system but also to their knowledge of “the experiences of other proletariats”—in short, to a solidarity with international revolutionary movements.
    Beyond being a united front tactic, the project of a national-popular ensemble is the project of the proletarian party constructing hegemony—moral-intellectual leadership—as it confronts “the problems of national life.” Gramsci’s collective will arising from historically determined “popular forces” is premised on “the great mass of peasant farmers” bursting “into political life” (1971, 132). This event will materialize through a Jacobinist strategy: when the working class overcomes its “narrow economic-corporative” outlook and incorporates the interests of the peasantry and urban artisans into its own program and praxis. In the “Notes on the Southern Problem,” Gramsci predicates the capacity of the proletariat to govern as a class on its success in shedding “every residue of corporatism, every syndicalist prejudice or incrustation” (1995, 27). While this may be described as an educative, universalizing and expansive alliance, the strategy does not abandon class—does not break the connection between ideology and class, as Forgacs, Laclau and Mouffe (1985) insist. Rather, the class ideology used to dominate the peasantry and other intermediate strata is thoroughly analyzed (as witness the meticulous anatomy of traditional, pettybourgeois intellectuals, their ethos and world-views). Gramsci thus asserts that aside from getting rid of inherited prejudices and sectarian egoism, they have to take one more step forward: they have to think like workers who are members of a class that aims to lead peasants and middle classes into a collective project of releasing human potential for the benefit of all; “members of a class which can win and build socialism only if it is helped and followed by the large majority of these social strata” (1995, 28)—the majority—whose subsumption by bourgeois leadership serves as the chief obstacle to socialist reconstruction. This process of a generating directed consensus through organic intellectuals who will synthesize the cultural traditions of the whole people is a process not only of education but of organization for class war. This raises questions regarding the purpose of a national-popular alliance and the the goal of constructing a national-popular will?
    Again, Gramsci directs our attention to the shifting balance (equilibrium/disequilibrium) of political forces. Given the situation of the South as “a social disintegration,” and the peasants inability “to give a centralized expression to their aspirations and needs,” Gramsci notes, the landlords and their intellectuals (Croce, for example) dominate the political and ideological field. Likewise, the proletariat as a class “lacks in organizing elements,” just as it lacks its own stratum of intellectuals with a left tendency “oriented toward the revolutionary proletariat.” With the mediation of intellectuals as organizers, the proletarian party will facilitate the alliance between peasant masses and the workers prepared to “destroy the Southern agrarian bloc.” The party needs to organize the masses of poor peasants “into autonomous and independent formations” free from the stranglehold of the “intellectual bloc that is the flexible but very resistant armature of the agrarian bloc” (1995, 47). Thus the people, not the bourgeoisie nor the Church and its cosmopolitan intelligentsia, will proceed to constitute the nation by releasing the productive forces needed for a more humane civilizational project, a new social order.
    While the educational-pedagogical task seems a pre-requisite, Gramsci does not envision an ideological-moral reform as an end in itself, a continuous “war of position” regardless of changed circumstances. Nor does it have anything to do with the numerical weakness of the proletariat nor of the fascist monopoly of military reserves and logistics. Rather, the problem Gramsci faced then was historically dictated by the deleterious moral-intellectual leadership of the fascist bloc enabled by the continuing political and economic subordination of the peasantry and the failure of the workers and their party in mobilizing them. For Gramsci, one of the ways (specific to Italy but not to all social formations) in building a counter-hegemonic bloc is the cultivation of organic intellectuals that can help shape a genuinely democratic national unity (the Italian nation as a legal, formal entity had no real cultural unity rooted in the people’s lives) on the basis of a unified struggle with the popular forces (peasantry, middle elements). 
     Before applying Gramsci’s theory of the national-popular strategy to the Philippines as a model neocolonial formation, I want to summarize its fundamental elements:
     1) A national life and field of action is needed for the proletariat to settle first with its bourgeoisie, as Marx and Engels stipulated in the Manifesto, and a synthesizing historical program based on commonalty of experiences will be used to unify, activate and lead the majority of the population;
     2) For socialist revolutionaries to defeat the capitalist bloc, the party of the proletariat needs to move beyond sectarianism, that is, beyond corporatist/syndicalist tendencies and win the consent of the peasantry and middle elements by including their interests/demands in a common program/platform of action through concessions/compromises without abandoning their humanist, secular principles and the goal of a classless society;
     3) To build such an alliance or historic bloc of subaltern masses under the leadership of the party of the working class, organic intellectuals are needed for organizing the nation-people, and to supervise the inculcation of discipline in thinking and action; these tasks aim to generate a collective will informed by a knowledge of the totality of social relations that is its condition of effectivity;
     4) The field of political mobilization involves civil society and the state institutions, without any predetermined approach (whether through frontal assault in a war of maneuver, or normal political-legal actions in a war of position); the tactics of mass actions will depend on the concrete situation and the alignment and balance of political forces in any specific conjuncture.
     5) The national-popular has a socialist orientation based on internationalist solidarity, aimed at utilizing the scientific and progressive achievements of all of humanity to improve the material and spiritual well-being of all communities and national formations.
    Historical Triangulation
    I will now summarize briefly the political history of the Philippines and sketch the most crucial problems of neocolonial development in the epoch of globalized capitalism and the U.S.-led “war on terror” gripping the whole planet. This exercise is intended simply to illustrate the usefulness of Gramsci’s thesis on the imperative of a “national-popular” will applied to a colonial/neocolonial formation. While Italy and the Philippines belong to sharply disparate temporal and spatial regions and scales, with incommensurable singularities, one can discern rough similarities. The principal difference, of course, is that the Philippines were colonized by theocratic feudal Spain for three hundred years and by the industrialized capitalist United States for nearly a century. U.S. colonial rule preserved the feudal infrastructure, heightened ethnic divisions (principally between Christian and Muslim), and deepened class inequality by supporting a comprador-merchant class and an army of bureaucratic intelligentsia. After forcibly subjugating the revolutionary forces of the first Philippine Republic, it used a transformist “passive revolution” to win the subaltern intelligentsia and thus incorporate the peasantry into a colonial order and eventually a neocolonial setup. It suppressed the birth of a Filipino national-popular will.
    The parameters of revolutionary socialist change in the Philippines are clearly drawn by the legacy of its colonial history, first by Spain and then by the United States. This resulted in the continuing fragmentation of the country in terms of class, language, and religion with deadly consequences (instanced by the undefeatable Moro separatist struggle). Spain used the Philippines primarily as a trading post for the galleon trade with China, using natural and human resources it found, until primitive mercantilism took over in the nineteenth century. The Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed in the Philippines as a result of tribal conflicts which the Spanish civil authority resolved by mainly by force and partly by concessions to the local chieftains. Unable to occupy the Muslim territories with its limited resources and personnel, the Spanish colonial administration used this conflict to heighten insecurity and legitimize their authority. They relied mainly on the friars of the religious orders to extract tribute from the Christianized inhabitants who were reduced to serfhood or abject slavery. The encomienda system generated a stratum of Spanish landlords who, together with the Catholic Church, maintained a tributary system in which only a few selected natives functioned as petty administrators and bureaucrats. So Spanish hegemony was tenuous, obtained mainly through the disciplinary regime of religious practices and institutions. When the children of Chinese and Filipino creoles or mestizos succeeded in acquiring formal education in schools administered by the religious orders, and also in Europe, they absorbed liberal ideas that formed the basis for the nationalist movement which began in the 1870s and ripened in the 1898 revolution. But this consciousness of Filipino nationality was confined mainly to the artisans and professions led by the ilustrado gentry class. It was not shared by the peasantry who were mobilized in terms of kinship or traditional loyalty to their village elders; or in terms of affiliation with millenary, chiliastic sects. In time, because of the organizing efforts of the Propagandists (reformist intellectuals, ilustrados, from the classes of rich farmers, artisans and petty traders) with their ideals of Enlightenment rationalism and autonomy, and the recruitment of the petty landlords-merchants, a hegemonic social bloc of anticolonialists emerged: the Malolos Republic led by General Emilio Aguinaldo. This signaled the emergence of a Filipino national-popular intelligence and sensibility.
    A sense of Filipino nationhood founded by the cosmopolitanized pettybourgeoisie with allies in the merchant and small landlord class was aborted when the United States suppressed the young Republic in the 1899-1903 Filipino-American War. The formal republican institutions built on the ruins of Spanish theocracy collapsed when the ilustrado leadership surrendered to the U.S. colonial authority. While the Spaniards used violence armored by Christian evangelization, the United States occupied the islands with brutal force armored by diplomatic propaganda, the promise of “Benevolent Assimilation” and eventual independence. Using scorched earth-tactics, torture and mass imprisonment, the U.S. killed 1.4 million Filipinos, ten percent of the population. Unable to defeat the Moros (Filipino Muslims) despite a series of massacres, the U.S. deployed a combination of diplomatic chicanery, subterfuge and “bribery” to pacify them. Up to the present, U.S. Special Forces are still battling the Moros (Muslims living in the Philippines) in the form of the “Abu Sayyaf” terrorist bandit group, a proxy for the massive and more formidable Moro insurgency forces of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and disaffected sections of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) (San Juan 2007) who refused to cooperate with the current U.S.-subservient administration.
     One can summarize the fifty years of direct U.S. colonial rule as an illustration of hegemony won through initially through military power and stabilized through the twin methods of bureaucratic coercion and cooptation. When the Philippines was granted formal-nominal independence in 1946, the U.S. had set in place an Americanized privileged minority, an oligarchy of landlords, bureaucrat-capitalists, and compradors that would fulfill U.S. economic needs and global foreign policy. Consensus on elite democracy and the formal trappings of representative government was obtained through decades of violence, cooptation, moral persuasion, and a whole range of pedagogical-disciplinary methods, with the active collaboration of the religious institutions (both Catholic and Protestant). Hence the Philippines today is a nation, basically agricultural and dependent on foreign investments (lately, on remittance of Overseas Filipino Workers [OFW]), devoid of the full exercise of its sovereignty (the U.S. has veto power over its military and foreign policy). Its political system is characterized by the presence of formalistic liberal-democratic institutions administered by a tiny group of oligarchic families, reinforced by the Church, and a vast military-police apparatus chiefly dependent on U.S. aid (economic, military, political) rationalized by the U.S.-led “war on terror” (on U.S. support of “low-intensity conflict” see Agee 2003). There is no national-popular will, only a subalternized elite whose ascendancy and survival depend on direct or mediated (via World Bank-IMF) U.S. military and political patronage.
    The Southern Colonial Question
     Gramsci of course did not directly engage with the process of Western colonization of a “third world” country. However, even though there are considerable differences, one can consider the Philippines as analogous to the Italian “southern region” vis-à-vis the U.S. industrial metropolis. The current metaphorical use of “North” (industrialized nations; center) and “South” (underdeveloped regions; periphery) in International Relations is clearly indebted to Gramsci’s geographical-economic polarity. To be sure, Gramsci’s categorization of the North-South binary is less economic than sociopolitical and cultural, in contrast to the orthodox Marxist definition of a nation historically predicated on the existence of a market and a commodity exchange system. 
    Contrary to orthodox Marxism (Rosenthal and Yudin 1967, 304), which considered the capitalist national market as the basis for nationhood, the sense of a Filipino nation was born in armed struggle against Spanish theocratic rule and later against U.S. military aggression. No full-blown commodity market existed in a feudal-theocratic mercantilist order. However, the emergent national identity was cancelled outright when Filipinos were excluded in the 1898 Treaty of Paris when Spain ceded the islands to the U.S. for twenty million dollars. Laws were immediately promulgated to criminalize anticolonial dissent: the 1901 Sedition Law and 1902 Brigandage Act punished anyone advocating separation from the U.S. The 1903 Reconcentration Act relocated entire rural communities into towns to deny refuge to rebels; the Flag Law, which prohibited displays of the revolutionary flag of the Filipino Republic, was enacted in 1907, the same year when the last revolutionary Filipino general, Macario Sakay, was hanged in public. Nationalist discourse and symbols were proscribed, thus destroying the material practices sustaining the collective spirit of resistance and will to independence. This period of pacification (1898-1935) involved a variable if shrewd application of force and consent, violence and persuasion, guided over-all by a transformist, “passive revolution” strategy administered from Washington.
    U.S. colonialism thus applied “transformism” by supplementing coercive tactics with a long-range strategy of ethnocentric, opportunistic extraction of consent from the new subjects (Pomeroy 1970). After Filipino guerilla resistance waned in the first decade of the 20th century, the U.S. established the Philippine Assembly as an auxiliary law-making body under the U.S.-dominated Philippine Commission appointed by the U.S. President to manage the colony. It was one way of implementing the slogan of “Benevolent Assimilation” of the natives proclaimed by President William McKinley in the midst of the violent pacification of the islands under the aegis of the white-supremacist slogan of “Manifest Destiny.” This assembly served to coopt the native elite (elected by at most three percent of the population) and defuse the popular agitation for “immediate independence,” a submerged, repressed tendency in the majority of colonial subjects. 
    A neocolony was born from the destruction of the insurgent nation and the systematic deepening of divisions among the people (Schirmer 1987). The principal instruments for winning consent were the school system of universal public education and the enforcement of English as the official medium of instruction, government communication, and mass media. Among progressive intellectuals, Renato Constantino (1978; see also Martin 2001) was the first to stress the crucial role of the pedagogical apparatus and the modes of the production and transmission of knowledge, specifically through the English language, in enforcing the allegiance/conformity of the majority of citizens whose national imaginary has been captured and detained. Thus, Americanization of the Filipino through education and cultural domination may be viewed as a kind of “passive revolution” aimed chiefly to defuse nationalist impulses in the peasantry and working class, and re-channel the energies of the middle strata of intellectuals-professionals to serve the interests of U.S. policy in Asia especially in a time when Japan was rising as an imperial power and revolutionary ferment in China and other countries was dangerous looming in the horizon. Future independence was promised to pacify the nationalist intellectuals while recruitment to the Hawaii plantations gave temporary relief to unmitigated misery in the countryside.
    In the process of revolutionizing the political and cultural institutions “from above,” the U.S. colonial regime also cultivated its own bureaucratic intelligentsia. Politics imitated the prevailing patronage system binding landlord and tenant. Filipino ilustrados serving the defeated Republic—the educated gentry—were enticed to join the colonial administration as teachers, policemen, clerks, technical help in the bureaucracy; as judges and municipal legislators. One example of a traditional intellectual who participated in this negotiated compromise was Trinidad Pardo de Tavera. In 1901, Tavera wrote to General Arthur MacArthur, the chief administrator of the military occupation: “After peace is established, all our efforts will be directed to Americanizing ourselves, to cause a knowledge of the English language to be extended and generalized in the Philippines, in order that through its agency the American spirit may take possession of us, and that we may so adopt its principles, its political customs, and its peculiar civilization that our redemption may be complete and radical” (quoted in Constantino 1978, 67). This stratum of neocolonized intellectuals cemented the tie between the oligarchic elite and the colonial rulers, performing a necessary role in disintegrating the popular memory of past revolutionary struggle and alienating this elite from the everyday lives of the masses. 
    When the Philippine Commonwealth was established in 1935, the Filipino intellectuals who came from the peasantry and working class gathered around the U.S.-sponsored President Manuel Quezon and his program of “social justice.” This populist rhetoric re-channeled nationalist impulses toward legal ameliorative schemes won as concessions from Washington. The social bloc of landlords-bureaucrats-compradors funded cultural programs with a sentimental patronizing attitude toward the native or aboriginal populace. While writers in the vernacular gravitated toward more activist left-leaning circles on the fringes of the Communist Party of the Philippines (formed in August 1930), the writers using English remained “cosmopolitan,” as can be gleaned from this reflection of a progressive-minded critic, Salvador P. Lopez (written during the Japanese occupation circa 1942-44): “For culture is fluid, volatile, impossible to confine in an air-tight compartment; and nothing is truer than that real culture is universal, the exclusive property of no particular nation but of all nations that have intelligence to harness it to their own uses” (1945, 61). Cosmopolitanism Filipino-style lurked astutely behind this left-wing nationalist figure who eloquently voiced proletarian sentiments in the 1930s and 1940s against European fascism and Japanese militarism.
    Uneven and Combined Development
    Unlike Italy, then, the Philippines was distinguished as an undeveloped rural-agricultural economy without any heavy industry, under U.S. intellectual-moral control and “tutelage.” Utilitarian and pragmatic norms permeated the social habitus of the middle strata. This hegemony flourished due to the acquiescence of the oligarchic bloc of landlords, comprador merchants, and bureaucratic technocrats, complemented by overt and covert tactics of violence and bribery unleashed on the unruly sections of landless peasants, workers, and artisans. Challenged by numerous peasant insurrections, US hegemony continues under the façade of nominal independence. 
    Filipino cacique, or elite democracy is built on the parasitic dependency of the local clients on U.S. milit
              FILIPINIZING CULTURAL STUDIES   

    SPECULATIVE THESES TOWARD FILIPINIZING CULTURAL STUDIES

    By E. San Juan, Jr.
    Director, PHILIPPINE STUDIES CENTER, Washington DC, USA


          The election of Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte was believed to signal, at first glance, a much needed change in neocolonial traditional politics in the Philippines. His brutal campaign to rid the country of endemic drug addiction (implicating “drug lords” in prison as well as generals, mayors, bureaucrats and corrupt legislators) was initially greeted with approval, including by leftwing organizations like BAYAN. His announced desire to make peace with the Communist Party of the Philippines and its New People’s Army (branded as terrorist by the U.S. State Department) has run aground, with his failure to release hundreds of political prisoners and his kowtowing to Washington’s behest and the U.S.-supplied and advised Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Populist aura has quickly mutated into oligarchic terrorism, with the National Police killing hundreds of suspected drug-pushers and the AFP rampaging in killing community leaders of indigenous communities (Lumad) right in his Mindanao backyard. This conjunctural phenomenon offers an ideal case-history for scholars interested in analyzing a postcolonial formation, especially given the smoldering geopolitical controversy over the rights in exploring the resources of the South China Sea after the recent Hague Court decision in favor of the Philippines’ claims (San Juan 2015).

    But orthodox Cultural Studies of EuroAmerican vintage has become problematic with its poststructuralist penchant for aporia, radical skepticism, and end-of-ideology resignation to the diktat of the neoliberal marketplace. We need to find an alternative weapon of critical appraisal and judgment. Filipino followers of Derrida, Foucault, Zizek and Agamben can only decry the Hobbesian world of Duterte, betraying ignorance of Hobbes’ own affirmation of the natural right to rebellion against tyranny. Meanwhile, the oligarchic Establishment is maneuvering for a coup d’etat either via impeachment or
    popular discontent, waiting for Washington to give the signal. All the archaic institutions are still in place, functioning to maintain the status quo ante Duterte. This is the occasion for public intellectuals to intervene with a historically specific diagnosis of the local and international roots of Duterte’s pettybourgeois Caesarism, a parody of the Marcos dictatorship of 1972-86, with Duterte himself allowing the burial of the embalmed Marcos in the Libingan ng mga Bayani against widespread public protest. Contradictions abound, making this crisis of the solitary U.S. neocolony in Asia a perfect example of the perverse mutation of postcolonial hybridity. Can Filipino critical sensibility rise up to the occasion to vindicate the long, durable tradition of revolutionary resistance against imperial terrorism and white-racial supremacist barbarism? The speculations below are designed to stimulate dialogue on the convergence of the disciplines, the dialectic of audience and author, and exchanges between master-narrators and the Others of Fanon’s “wretched of the earth” party in the contested domain of an ideal public sphere, wherever it may be discovered or set up.

    Prologue to Interrogation

    “Cultural Studies” (CS) originating from UK and North America focuses on the complex relations of “power” and “knowledge” (knowledge-production) at a specific historical conjuncture (Seventies and Eighties). Its axioms include the rejection of Enlightenment modernity/progress, metanarratives (paradigms; world-views), premised on the rational subject. Symptomatic of the alienation of Western intellectuals from technocratic market-society during the Cold War, CS reflects the crisis of finance/ monopoly capitalism in its imperialist stage. It seeks to transcend reified systems by way of privileging the differend,differance (Lyotard; Derrida), diffuse power (Foucault; Deleuze), life-world or everyday life (Habermas; de Certeau) inspired by Nietzsche, Heidegger, Freud, and Saussure.

    Orthodox CS identifies modernity with capitalism, hence its postmodernist temper. Despite acknowledging the historicity of the discipline, postmodernist academics (Geertz, Grossberg, Clifford) give primacy to “the flow of social discourse”
    and the “essentially contestable” genealogy of culture. Engaged with the singularity of events centering on love, sentiments, conscience, and the existential or ethical moment in order to “bring us in touch with strangers,” with Others, postmodern CS seeks to interrogate the foundational aims of linguistics (Jackobson), psychoanalysis (Freud), philosophy (Kant, Hegel) and political economy (Marx) by substituting the ambivalence, contingency, and hybridity of “lived experience” for labor/social praxis as the focus of investigation. Focused on what escapes language and thought, CS has fallen into the dualism it ritualistically condemns, complete with the mystique of a neoliberal individualism enabled by presumably value-free, normative “free market” absolutism.

    Anti-foundationalism and anti-metanarratives distinguish orthodox CS today. Rejecting classical reason, CS refuses any grounding in political or social action as a perversion of knowledge for the ends of power. Valuing negative critique as an antidote to ideology, CS leads up to a fetishism of the Void, the deconstructive “Sublime” as a substitute for a thoroughgoing critique of the authority of received values and institutions. By various ruses of irony, uncanny cynicism and “sly mimicry,” It ends up apologizing for the status quo. Anti-authoritarianism is trivialized in careerist anecdotes, and CS becomes reduced to conferences and publicity about fantasies of revolutionary social movements.
    Submerged and eventually displaced, the critical dimension of CS drawn from Western Marxism (Gramsci, Althusser, Lukacs) has disappeared in the neoconservative tide that began with Reagan/Thatcher in the Eighties. This neoconservatism continues to this day under the slogan of the “global war on terrorism.” Meanwhile, attention to racism, gender, sexism and other non-class contradictions, particularly in the colonized and peripheral formations, sharpened with the Civil Rights struggles in the US, the youth revolt, and the worldwide opposition to the Vietnam war and the current if precarious hegemony of the Global North.

    From Orthodoxy to Heterodoxy

    Mainstream CS today still focuses on consumption, audience response, Deleuzian desire, affects, irony, avoidance of the critique of ideology, the culture industry, and unequal division of social labor. However, some versions of CS invokes Simone de Beauvoir, Fanon, CLR James, W.E.B.Du Bois, Rosa Luxemburg, Paulo Freire and other “third world” activists in an effort to renew its original vocation of contributing to fundamental social change. Its Foucaultian notion of “specific intellectuals” addressing a “conjunctural constituency” may call attention to the need to address state violence and hegemonic apparatuses of public control and repression.

    Like any global trend, CS can be “filipinized” by the creative application of its original radical critique to our conditions. Various forms of CS, as mediated by “subalternists” and other “third world” conduits, have influenced such historians concerned with the marginalized Others (peasants, women, religious and ethnic communities, etc.). But except for the Latin American “theology of liberation” as a form of CS, they have all wrongly assumed that the Philippines is no longer a neocolonial, dependent formation, replete with diverse contradictions centering on the oligarchic- comprador domination of the majority of the people (workers, peasants, OFWs, Moros and other indigenous groups). The question of a singular Filipino modernity—genuine national sovereignty, autonomous individuals free from Spanish or American tutelage, a bourgeois public sphere—has been conflated and transmogrified by insidious postmodern mystifications legitimized by the illusory promise of emancipation by avid consumption epitomized in megamalls, Internet/Facebook celebrity culture, and a predatory commodifying consumerist ethos.

         The examples of what I consider the inventors of Filipino cultural studies—Jose Rizal (in “The Indolence of Filipinos” and “The Philippines a Century Hence”), Isabelo de los Reyes (folklore and ethnic studies), counteless vernacular novelists, poets, and playwrights; and memoir-writers (Mabini, veterans of 1896 and the Huk uprising)— applied criticial principles derived from Europe to the specific political and socioeconomic situations in the colony/neocolony. In the process, the power/knowledge
    complex acquired concrete elaboration in terms of how “everyday life”—culture as ordinary habits or patterns (Raymond Williams)--cannot escape its over-determination by the historical institutions and practices imposed by the colonial powers and mediated by regional/local ruling bloc. Time and space offer intelligible meanings by way of the contradictions between the colonial/neocolonial hegemonic institutions and the acceptance/resistance of the colonized natives. Such meanings can be found in the narratives of individuals/collectives in which the notion of subjectivity defined by various levels of contradictions (Filipino versus American, patriarchal power versus women, “civilized” versus indigenous,etc.) can be discerned embedded in the totality of social relations at specific historical moments. I am thinking of a “knowable community” with institutions and habitus, structure of power relations, not just a “structure of feeling” constituted by heterogeneous experiences

    In Philippine CS, the question of language assumes primacy because intellectual discourse and exchanges cannot sidetrack the problem of communicating to the larger public. Democratizing the means of communication is apart of the process of overthrowing the oligarchic elite and the reproduction of class and gender inequality. Such a public needs to be developed by the pedagogical program of a developing CS curriculum. The prevalence of English as an elite marker/imprimatur of privileged status will prevent this public sphere from emerging. Linked to this is the position of popular culture which has always radicalized CS by eliminating the divide between the elite/ canonical culture and the proletarian/mass culture. Control of the means of communication needs to be addressed as well as the participation of a wider public in dialogues and exchanges.

    CS, if it aspires to actualize its critical potential and transformative, needs to always address the major and minor contradictions of each society within a globalizing planet. The neoliberal market ideology that pervades everyday life/consciousness militates against the growth of a critical sensibility and the development of the faculties/ powers of the species, hence CS needs to focus its analytic instruments on the commodification of the life-world and everyday life by the oligopolistic capitalist order. In
    the Philippines, the unprecedented diaspora of domestics and overseas contract workers (OFWs) constitute the prime specimen for study and critique. This involves not only the symbolic violence of language use but also the material violence of hunger, disease, State torture and extrajudicial killings.

    Problematizing Knowledge-Production

    In a critique mainly focused on the aborted promise of CS in the Global North, it is neither strategic nor propitious to describe in detail what the adaptation--or indigenization, if you like--of a Eurocentric CS paradigm would look like attuned to the needs and demands of neocolonized subjects in the Global South. Parts of that description may be found in my previous works (San Juan 1996, 2000, 2008). It would certainly require a longer, sustained mapping of the sociopolitical terrain of six decades after the 1946 formal independence. A political economy of group consensus and habits of belief such as, for example, the inventory of contradictions drawn up by social scientist Kenneth Bauzon (1991) would be useful to calculate the scale and degree of continued Filipino mimicry of inhumane models to perpetuate inequity and underdevelopment.

    My task here is circumscribed: to indicate in broaf strokes the limitations and inadequacies of that paradigm for subjugated or dependent constituencies of the Empire. It is foolhardy to undertake this task until we have cleared up crucial theoretical hurdles. The first is the problem of naming the subaltern agency. Obviously the identification of "Filipino" and "Filipino nation" remains contentious, unsettled, intractable. At best we can only handle the "interpretants" (both denoted and connoted items) of those signifiers provisionally, given not only the existence of heterogeneous components of that ethnic signified "Filipino" but also the fact that the whole ethos (moral, aesthetic, evaluative) of Filipino culture, not to speak of its cognitive and existential aspects, remains suspended in the undecided battlefields of the national- democratic revolution. Mutating modes of inclusion and exclusion of group actors prevail. We can only stipulate our parameters of discourse in the light of what has been
    accomplished so far in liberating ourselves, neocolonized subjects, from imperialist political, sociocultural, economic strangleholds.

    For now, suffice it to remark on the need to adhere to the axiom of historical specificity (Korsch 1971) and a measure of philosophical rigor in defining such parameters. Above all, the question of ideology and the political economy of knowledge- production cannot be ignored. We cannot escape both the rules of our own communities and that of the totalizing diplomatic-technological state apparatuses of empire that modifies, coopts and sublimates those rules. The dialectical laws of motion of interlocked asymmetrical nation-states cannot be dismissed as simply reactive or aprioristic. In this light, Virgilio Enriquez's project of inventing sikolohiyang Pilipino during the nationalist resurgence of the 1960s and early 1970s may be symptomatically read as a culmination of all previous decolonizing initiatives (from Rizal and the Propagandistas to Recto, Constantino, and Sison) to articulate a program and world- view for the masses struggling for social justice, popular democracy, and genuine independence. It was institutionally predictable but also serendipituous.

    An analogous clarification can be offered for the roles that Filipino historians adopted before, during, and after the Marcos dictatorship. While inspired by Indian subalternist historians (laboring under the aegis of Foucaultian/post-structuralist thought) to de-center what was perceived as bourgeois-oriented chronicles such as those by Teodoro Agoncillo and Renato Constantino, Rafael Ileto (1998) succeeded to some extent in assaying the value of popular culture (the pasyon, etc.) and other marginal practices in the construction of a “non-linear” narrative of Filipino events before and after the 1896 revolution. It is doubtful whether Agoncillo or Constantino really pursued a linear, one-directional bias. Nevertheless, the revisionist method is not an original “native” discovery. Even before the late-twentieth century diaspora, the Filipino intelligentsia has been open-minded, highly susceptible to global influences. Subalternist historiography is the product of a long record of countering the positivist, Comte-Rankean version of historicism, from the British social-history tradition (Samuel 1981) to the French Annales school and its evolutionist/functionalist offshoot in the
    Alfred McCoy-Ben Kerkvliet interventions in re-writing Philippine history in a more sophisticated way than Stanley Karnow's apologetic product, In Our Image (1989). Meanwhile, the Marcos Establishment historian Zeus Salazar tried to retool Enriquez's sikolohiya by purging it of its liberatory impulse and anchoring a populist version of the past in an evolving Filipino idiom via his pantayong pananaw scheme. It may be premature to judge the reformist efficacy of this effort in renewing or rehabilitating the fields of local historiography and moribund anthropology. Salazar’s disciples seem resigned to the neoliberal dispensation of the post-Marcos order, ensconced in the academic commerce of fabricating idiosyncratic terminology for archaic ideas.

    We Versus They?

    The problem of thematizing local knowledge offers both theoretical and political conundrums. Ramon Guillermo (2003) has provided us a useful inventory of Salazar's heroic effort, together with proposals for improving its method and scope. But both Salazar and Guillermo have so far sidestepped the fundamental issue (which transcends the old emic/etic binary) of how the notion of rationality--communicative action, in another framework--central to the intellectual metier of a global community of scientific inquirers to understand and appraise cultures can be surpassed or transcended. This issue has been elaborated in the volume Rationality (Wilson 1970)— just to cite one compilation--in which a survey of the conflicting arguments prompted Alasdair MacIntyre's observation that "the understanding of a people in terms of their own concepts and beliefs does in fact tend to preclude understanding them in any other terms" (1970, 130).

    MacIntyre does not fully endorse the functionalist view that institutions must be grasped not in terms of what they mean for the agents, but in terms of what necessary needs and purposes they serve; however, he does not fully agree with Peter Winch's untenable belief that communities can only be properly understood and judged in terms of their own internally generated norms and beliefs--a proposition that pantayong pananaw advocates seem to favor, despite earnest denials (see Sta. Maria 2000). But even assuming that isolated communities in a capitalist-gobalized world is possible,
    long after Max Weber took time off from “value-free” pursuits to distinguish explanation from interpretation, proponents of the primacy of hermeneutic understanding still need the benefit of analytic explanation if they want to avoid circularity and self-serving solipsism. After all, why bother understanding Others? Oppositional American thinkers such as Marcus Raskin, Noam Chomsky, Edward Herman, Susan Buck-Morss and others have begun to engage with the antinomies of knowledge-production faced earlier by the British in the context of the challenges of the postmodern era (Raskin 1987), an engagement coopted by the debates on terrorism, Islamophobia, and other alibis of Empire.

    My own position strives to be a dialectical-materialist stance that privileges historical specificity and counterhegemonic imperatives on the question of adapting ideas originating from other sources (San Juan 2007). In my view, language is only one of the criteria for hypothesizing the nation as "imagined community,” to use Benedict Anderson’s formula. However, the quest becomes more problematic when the language at issue, "Filipino," is still a matter disputed by other participants of the polity such as the Cebuanos, the various Moro groups, and by the English-speaking intelligentsia and bureaucracy. More seriously, it is not possible to conceive of the notions of "pantayo" and "pangkami" without the whole dynamic network of differences first outlined by Saussure but complicated by the wide-ranging semiotic principles explored by C.S. Peirce, Lev Vygotsky, Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, and Roman Jakobson, far beyond the findings of Whorf, Sapir, Humboldt, Frobenius, etc. The linguistic symbol, as Jakobson reminds us, is not only a vehicle of the sedimented past (icons) or the present (indices) but also of the future. He quotes Peirce's speculation premised on the triadic theory of the sign: "The being of a symbol consists in the real fact that something surely will be experienced if certain conditions be satisfied....The value of a symbol is that it serves to make thought and conduct rational and enables us to predict the
    future" (1987,427).


    Language is, to be sure, only one signifier of national identity, not an absolute qualifier, whose correlation with other practices and collective actions needs delicate orchestration (Yinger 1976, 200-02). Earlier (San Juan 2008), I registered my discomfort with the logocentric tendency in Enriquez's otherwise conscientious indigenization
    attempt. In the total program of liberating the majority of Filipinos (workers, peasants, women) from market exploitation and alien oppression, a nationalist ideology as such should prioritize the act of foregrounding democratic national rights and collective welfare. Hence we need an internationalist worldview such as that provided by Marxism (articulated, of course, to our specific conditions) with its universalistic, critical position grounded on a "concrete universal," with all the richness of the particular social- formation in the Philippines, in creating a sense of Filipino nationhood (Lowy 2000). 

    Filipinizing CS thus requires not merely linguistic readjustment but, more importantly, reconceiving the sense of rationality, justice, equality and democratic participation that cannot be hermetically encapsulated within the bounds of a single Filipino language-in- the-making. My firm conviction is that no indigenization project will fully succeed unless it includes a program of systematic decolonization, particularly an uncompromising indictment of U.S.  colonialism/neocolonialism in its totality, together with its complicit transnational allies. Neither postcolonial hybridity, modernizing technocratic pragmatism, nor transnational flexibility will do; we need dialectical cunning and a bricoleur’s resourcefulness in taking advantage of what our forebears--Rizal, Recto, Agoncillo, Constantino, Hernandez, and others--have already won for us. After all, the enemy can also speak in Filipino and even dance the tinikling and sing "Dahil sa Iyo" in more seductive, innovative, postmodernist ways. We need to combine specifics and universals in both strategic and tactical ways that precisely cannot be learned at this time from orthodox CS and its postcolonial. transnationalist variations.

    Unconcluding Postscript

    To recap: Conceived as a reaction to capitalist high culture in the late twentieth century, CS initially challenged Cold War norms and Western hegemony. It promised a democratic, even radical, renaissance of thought and sensibility inside and outside the academy. Its early practitioners drew heavily from the Marxist and socialist traditions. But when it became institutionalized in the Eighties and Nineties, CS distanced itself rapidly from mass political struggles in the metropoles and the “third world.” It reverted to ethical individualism, aestheticism, Nietzschean performative displays, and the
    fetishism of differences/hybridity, becoming in the process a defensive ideology for predatory finance capitalism and technocratic globalization. If we want CS to be meaningful to the majority of Filipinos, it needs to address the urgent realities of our society and contribute to the democratic and egalitarian ideals of our history.

    In the Philippines and other subordinated formations, CS can be regenerated by renewing its anticolonial, popular and democratic inspiration and re-engaging in a radical, transformative critique of oligopolistic corporate power, the political economy of global finance capital and its commodified/commodifying culture. It can challenge US imperialism and its subalterns in its current modality of warring against “terrorism”or extremism (codewords for anti-imperialists) by returning to, first, the primacy of social labor; second, the complex historical articulations of the mode of production and social relations; and, third, the importance of the materialist critique of norms, assumptions and premises underlying existing inequalities, injustices, and oppressions.

    To Filipinize CS is to reconfigure the modality and thrust of Western CS in order to address the persistent and urgent problems of the exploitation of Filipino labor worldwide, the la